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E-PORTFOLIO BMY 3101 DR WAN ZUHAINIS BY NURAISYAH BT TALIB


INTRODUCTION TO MICROBIAL WORLD…


• Microorganisms are part of our environment and important to animal , plant and human.Basically normal microbiota is the microorganisms that reside on or inside organisms.It is not harm and in some cases actually benefit the host.Microbiology has an impact on medicine ,agriculture ,food science ,ecology,genetics,biochemistry,immunology and many other fields. • Microorganisms as a cells : • Cell is the fundamental unit of all living matter.It is single entity isolated from each other by a cell membrane(cell wall).The cell membrane is the barrier that separates the inside of the cell from outside.


MICROBIAL TAXONOMY…


•Taxonomy : the science of classification of living organisms. •Taxa(taxon) – Greek word : orderly arrangement or group. • Diversity of living m/o • Classify/arrange into groups based on mutual similarities • Provides a common reference for identifying organisms already classified. •Classification-History : 1866 – Ernst Haeckel : proposed kingdom protista.  1937 – Edouard Chatton : introduced the term Prokaryote  1968 – R.G.E Murray : proposed The Kingdom Prokaryotae.  1969 – Robert Whittaker : founded the five Kingdom


MICROSCOPY…


TEM MICROSCOPE

LIGHT MICROSCOPE

SEM MICROSCOPE


INTRODUCTION TO PROKARYOTES…


-Prokaryotes : organisms that lack a cell nucleus or any other membrane-bound organelles. -Most are unicellular,but a few such as myxobacteria have multicellular stages in their life cycles. -There are 3 basics shape : – Coccus – Bacillus – Spiral

-Arrangement : – Cocci : diplo--- , staphylo---, strepto--– Bacilli : diplo--- and strepto--– Spiral : vibrio--- , spirilum, spirochetes


CELL WALL & MEMBRANE STRUCTURE OF PROKARYOTE…


There are 4 structures external to the cell wall , which is glycocalyx,flagella,axial filaments ,fimbriae and pili.Glycocalyx is a substances that surround cell.It is made inside the cell and excreted to the cell surfaces.Cell surface layers : capsules (dinstinct and gelatinous) & slime layer ( disorganized and loosely attached).There are 4 types of flagella that is monotrichous,lophotrichous,amphitrichous and peritrichous.Chemotaxis,tumbles and swarm are the example of the types of motality of the prokaryotes.Axial filaments is the bundle of fibrils that arise at the ends of the cell beneath the outer sheath.It is spiral around the cell.Fimbriae can occur at the poles of the bacterial cell and can be evenly distributed over the entire surface of the cell.Pili are longer than fimbriae.Pili joint bacterial cells in preparation for the transfer of DNA from one cell to another.Sometimes are also called sex pili.


INTRACELLULAR STRUCTURES OF PROKARYOTES…


• Basically there are 6 intracellular structures that is : plasma membrane,cytoplasm,the nuclear area,ribosomes,inclusions and endospores.There are two process of the movement of materials across membrane.First , passive process that involved simple diffusion,facilitated diffusion and osmosis.Second , active process.It is energy dependent system that involved active transport and group translocation. • There are numerous inclusion bodies, or granules, in the bacterial cytoplasm. These bodies are never enclosed by a membrane and serve as storage vessels. Type of inclusions include metachromatic granules,polysaccharide granules,lipid inclusions,sulfur granules,carboxysomes,magnetosomes and gas vacuoles.


EUKARYOTIC MICROBIAL STRUCTURE & FUNCTIONS…


FUNGI‌ •

What I have learned from this topic is the characteristics of fungi which is no chlorophyll,rigid cell wall. I also able to describe the beneficial and harmful effects of fungi.Also able to describe the roles of the fungi in the environment.


ALGAE…


• Basically , I understand more about algae because Dr Wan asked to do mind map of algae.While I’m doing this mind map , it helps me a lot to remember all characteristics that actually hard to remember.By doing mind map it can organized all information that we got and it will compile all the information in one page.


PROTOZOA…


• What I have learned is protozoa different from prokaryotes.It is relatively large and eukaryotic nature.It is different from algae that do not have chlorophyll.Besides that protozoa different from yeast and fungi.It is unicellular,eukaryotic animal-like protists.Some are pathogenic.


VIRUSES,VIROID & PRIONS…


STERILIZATION & DISINFECTANTS…


MICROBIAL GENETICS…


• In this topic ,we leraned about genetics.So ,genetics is the study of how genes carry information,how their information is expressed and basically genetics is the study of heredity.Under this topics there are three subtopics , which is regulation of gene expression,mutation and genetic transfer and recombination.In this topics I have learned the processof translation and transcription in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Mutation is any inheritable change in the base sequence of DNA.There are 2 types of mutation which is base substitutions and frameshift mutation.Types of mutagens are base analogues,chemical mutagen,radiation,and intercalating agents.


ANTIMICROBIAL CHEMOTHERAPY…

Disk-diffusion test.


• For this topics ,I able to define antimicrobial chemotherapy ,identify the type of antimicrobial agents and describe the modes of action of antimicrobial agents.There are 3 test that I have learned to guide chemotherapy that is disk-diffusion test or Kirby-Baur test,the E-test and Broth dilution test.


MICROBIAL GROWTH & METABOLISM… • Growth are referring to the number of cells ,not the size.There are 2 requirements for growth which is physical and chemical requirements.Physical requirements include light ,temperature, pH , water activity and osmotic pressure.Chemical requirements include electron donor (carbon,nitrogen,sulphur,phosphorus) and electron acceptor and micronutrients(vitamins and amino acid). • Metabolism is the sum of all chemical reactioms within the cell.Metabolism is the sum of catabolism and anabolism.This subtopics also include enzymes.Enzymes is catalysts that lower the activation energy without changing itself.There are 2 aspects of energy production that I have learned which is concept of oxidationreduction and mechanism of ATP generation. • Cellular respiration is the process use to convert the E in the chemical bonds of nutrients to ATP E.There are 3 types that is aerobic respiration,anaerobic respiration and fermentation.


APPLICATIONS TOOLS


MY THOUGHTS

ALHAMDULILLAH 


Eportfolio Nuraisyah BT Talib