European Youth Poll: Mass Surveillance

Page 1

Full results of the

European Youth Poll on Mass Surveillance For more information please contact Jacob D端ringer Project Manager at the EYP International Office j.dueringer@eyp.org +49-30-28095146


2131 Participants

• From

43 European Countries • Aged

1616-27

• Poll Conducted Between: September 11th — 23rd, 2013

This is a project of the European Youth Parliament. The results do not represent the official views of the organisation.


Fight against Terrorism does not Justify Mass Surveillance, Many Young People Say.

Executive Summary

The recently disclosed mass surveillance programmes of the NSA and other intelligence services are crossing a line. That is at least the opinion of 62.3% of participants in the recent European Youth Poll. Still, differences in opinions exist between countries: In Sweden and Germany, less than a fourth of all participants think surveillance is justified by the fight against terrorism, while in Russia and Ukraine, more than half of all participants speak out in favour of surveillance. 59% of all participants also think they have to restrain their communication over the Internet, because it is being watched. The young respondents from all over Europe were not happy with the role of their governments: Only 9.5% think their government is doing enough to reveal the extent of the mass surveillance programmes. A majority of 58.8% think the European Union should stop exchanging transaction and flight data with the United States as a result of the disclosures, while 70% believe their country should offer asylum to whistleblowers like Edward Snowden. The Poll, which was conducted online by the European Youth Parliament in co-operation with the Stiftung Mercator foundation and with the help of other youth organisations, was taken by 2131 people aged between 16 and 27 from 43 European countries. The Poll was open between September 11th and 23rd, 2013. The European Youth Parliament (EYP) is a non-partisan and independent educational organisation active since 1987. Today it is one of the largest European platforms for political debate, intercultural encounters, political educational work and the exchange of ideas among young people in Europe. The EYP consists of a network of 36 European associations in which thousands of young people are active in a voluntary capacity. The European Youth Polls are conducted four times a year. They are open to all young people in Europe, but the results are not scientifically representative and do not represent the opinions of the European Youth Parliament. In 2012, 15863 young people participated.


"Mass surveillance programmes targeting the entire population are justified in the fight against terrorism." 100,0%

"I agree" (36,9%)

"I disagree" (62,3%)

90,0%

80,0%

70,0%

60,0%

50,0%

40,0%

"I somewhat disagree" 30,0%

20,0%

"I somewhat agree"

"I strongly disagree"

10,0%

"I strongly agree" 0,0%

A clear majority of over 60% of all participants does not think mass surveillance programmes are justified to fight terrorism. Looking at the results for individual countries, there is however a clear divide, with young people from mainly Eastern European countries being more in favour of mass surveillance programmes than those from Western Europe.


"Mass surveillance programmes targeting the entire population are justified in the fight against terrorism." 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Russia Ukraine

Czech Serbia Republic

Turkey

Spain Romania Poland

All

Portugal Greece

France Finland Austria Germany Sweden

Answers: “I strongly agree” or “I somewhat agree” (only countries with more than 50 participants).


"I feel like I have to restrain my communication over the Internet because it is being watched." 100,00%

90,00%

"I agree" (59,1%)

"I disagree" (39,8%)

80,00%

70,00%

60,00%

50,00%

"I somewhat agree"

40,00%

30,00%

"I somewhat disagree"

20,00%

"I strongly agree" 10,00%

0,00%

"I strongly disagree"

One argument commonly brought forward against mass surveillance is that it leads people to restrain their communication as it might be watched. In our survey, almost 60% of all participants have the feeling their online communication is being watched and that they therefore have to restrain their communication over the web. Still, 40% do not think they have to restrain their communication. Especially Russian, Finnish, Polish and Czech participants disagree with the statement.


"I feel like I have to restrain my communication over the Internet because it is being watched." 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Greece Germany Austria Portugal Sweden Turkey Romania Serbia

Spain

Ukraine

All

France

Answers: “I strongly agree” or “I somewhat agree” (only countries with more than 50 participants).

Poland Finland Russia

Czech Republic


"As a reaction to the mass surveillance disclosures, the European Union should stop sharing financial transaction and flight data with the United States." 100,00% 90,00%

"I agree" (58,1%)

"I disagree" (34,4%)

80,00% 70,00% 60,00%

"I somewhat agree" 50,00% 40,00% 30,00% 20,00% 10,00% 0,00%

"I somewhat disagree" "I strongly agree" "I strongly disagree"

A majority of participants (58%) think that in the course of the recent disclosures sharing financial transactions and flight data should no longer be shared with the United States.


"As a reaction to the mass surveillance disclosures, the European Union should stop sharing financial transaction and flight data with the United States." 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Turkey

Spain Germany Serbia

Austria

Russia

All

Ukraine Sweden

Czech France Portugal Greece Finland Romania Poland Republic

Answers: “I strongly agree” or “I somewhat agree” (only countries with more than 50 participants).


"The European Union should slow down the negotiations on the proposed EUEU-US free trade agreement as a reaction to the disclosures." 100,00%

"I agree" (48,5 %)

"I disagree" (43,5%)

90,00% 80,00% 70,00% 60,00% 50,00% 40,00%

"I somewhat agree" "I somewhat disagree"

30,00% 20,00% 10,00% 0,00%

"I strongly agree"

"I strongly disagree"

Some European politicians have suggested an even stronger backlash against the United States, namely by slowing down the negotiations on the proposed free trade agreement. Participants of our Poll are split on this question. Such a move seems very popular among participants from France, but less so among Czechs, Polish and Romanians taking the Poll.


"The European Union should slow down the negotiations on the proposed EUEU-US free trade agreement as a reaction to the disclosures." 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% France

Greece Austria Germany Turkey Sweden Ukraine Serbia

All

Portugal Russia

Spain

Answers: “I strongly agree” or “I somewhat agree” (only countries with more than 50 participants).

Finland Romania Poland

Czech Republic


"My My government is doing enough to reveal the extent of the mass surveillance programmes to the public." 100,00%

"I agree" (9,5%)

"I disagree" (84,3%)

90,00%

80,00%

"I somewhat disagree" 70,00%

60,00%

50,00%

40,00%

30,00%

20,00%

"I strongly disagree"

10,00%

"I somewhat agree" 0,00%

"I strongly agree"

Of all questions in this European Youth Poll, the clearest majority across all countries believes their governments are not doing enough to reveal the extent of the mass surveillance programmes to the public. The only country that is represented with over 20% approval for the statement is Russia.


"My My government is doing enough to reveal the extent of the mass surveillance programmes to the public." 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Russia Finland Sweden

All

Turkey

France Germany Serbia Ukraine Greece Austria

Czech Poland Republic

Answers: “I strongly agree” or “I somewhat agree” (only countries with more than 50 participants).

Spain Portugal Romania


"When a newspaper or other media outlet publishes sensitive security information obtained through a leak, governments should have the right to intervene." 100,00%

90,00%

"I agree" (42,44%)

"I disagree" (55,16%)

80,00%

70,00%

60,00%

50,00%

"I somewhat disagree" 40,00%

30,00%

"I somewhat agree"

20,00%

"I strongly disagree" 10,00%

0,00%

"I strongly agree"

Besides the mass surveillance programmes, the public debate has also centred around the media publishing secret information and whether governments have the right to intervene and stop this from happening. In our survey, a slim majority spoke out against government interventions. There is a big difference between individual countries, with young people from Ukraine, Russia or Poland being much more acceptant of interventions, whereas participants from Austria, Germany and Sweden are rather critical.


"When a newspaper or other media outlet publishes sensitive security information obtained through a leak, governments should have the right to intervene. 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Ukraine Russia

Poland

Czech Serbia Romania Greece Portugal Republic

All

Turkey

France

Spain

Answers: “I strongly agree” or “I somewhat agree” (only countries with more than 50 participants).

Finland Sweden Germany Austria


"Who Who should be responsible for ensuring my data is kept safe?" 90,00% 80,00% 70,00% 60,00%

"International companies" (56,67%)

"My national government" (78,59%)

"International bodies" (56,81%)

"Myself" (61,13%)

In the debate about who should be responsible for keeping our data safe, more than 60% of young people believe they carry some responsibility themselves. This is only topped by almost 80% who see their national government in charge.

50,00% 40,00% 30,00% 20,00% 10,00% 0,00%

Answers: “My national government” or “International bodies such as the EU, the UN or the Council of Europe” or “Internet companies like Apple, Google, Facebook and Internet providers” or “Myself” (only countries with more than 50 participants).


Who should be responsible for ensuring my data is kept safe?" International companies 0,00%

50,00%

100,00%

My national government 0,00%

50,00%

100,00%

International bodies 0,00%

50,00%

100,00%

Myself 0,00%

Russia

Greece

Greece

CZ

Poland

Germany

Finland

France

CZ

Poland

Germany

Finland

Portugal

France

Spain

Germany

Romania

Spain

Portugal

Austria

Ukraine

Austria

Austria

Romania

Turkey

Finland

Poland

Ukraine

Finland

All

France

Poland

Spain

Portugal

All

All

All

Sweden

Serbia

Greece

Germany

Serbia

Romania

Portugal

Greece

Romania

Turkey

Russia

Serbia

Ukraine

Ukraine

Spain

Austria

CZ

Sweden

Turkey

Sweden

Turkey

Czech…

France

Russia

Russia

50,00%

100,00%

Serbia Sweden

Answers: “My national government” or “International bodies such as the EU, the UN or the Council of Europe” or “Internet companies like Apple, Google, Facebook and Internet providers” or “Myself” (only countries with more than 50 participants).


"My country should offer asylum to whistleblowers like Edward Snowden." 100,00%

90,00%

80,00%

"I agree" (70,05%)

"I disagree" (17,98%)

70,00%

60,00%

"I somewhat agree" 50,00%

40,00%

30,00%

"I strongly agree"

20,00%

10,00%

"I somewhat disagree" "I strongly disagree"

0,00%

Whistleblower Edward Snowden is currently granted asylum in Russia. About two thirds of Russian participants and 70% counting all participants favour this move. Young participants from Austria, Sweden, Germany and France would be even more enthusiastic to grant asylum to whistleblowers.


"My country should offer asylum to whistleblowers like Edward Snowden." 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Austria Sweden Germany France

All

Turkey

Finland Greece

Russia

Serbia Portugal

Spain

Answers: “I strongly agree” or “I somewhat agree” (only countries with more than 50 participants).

Ukraine Romania Czech Poland Republic


"Regarding the current overall state of European integration, I think‌." 100,00%

90,00%

80,00%

70,00%

"More integration" (54,5%, -0,5) 0,5)

"Less integration" (21,88%, +1,23) +1,23)

"Integration as today" (15,9% +1)

60,00%

50,00%

40,00%

30,00%

20,00%

10,00%

0,00%

"...there should be more integration (more decisions on the European level)"

"...there should be less integration (more decisions on the national level)"

...integration should stay as it is today

We ask this question about European integration in each European Youth Polls. This time, the results have hardly changed compared to our last Poll in June. Young participants from France, Spain and Germany continue to be strong supporters of more integration, whereas those from Sweden, Finland and the Czech Republic are more sceptical.


"Regarding the current overall state of European integration, I think there should be more integration." 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

Answers: “I strongly agree” or “I somewhat agree” (only countries with more than 50 participants).


"Generally, the EU should be enlarged through the accession of more countries." 100,00%

90,00%

80,00%

70,00%

"I agree" (51,7%, -0,2) 0,2)

"I disagree" (40,9%, +1,2) +1,2)

60,00%

50,00%

40,00%

"I somewhat agree" "I somewhat disagree"

30,00%

20,00%

"I strongly agree" 10,00%

0,00%

"I strongly disagree"

There is very little movement also on the question of accession. Countries currently outside the EU such as Ukraine, Serbia and Turkey remain to be strong supporters of further enlargements, Finnish and especially French young participants are mainly against it.


"Generally, the EU should be enlarged through the accession of more countries." 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

Answers: “I strongly agree” or “I somewhat agree” (only countries with more than 50 participants).


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