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EYE SPY INTELLIGENCE MAGAZINE


EYE SPY INTELLIGENCE MAGAZINE

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EYE SPY INTELLIGENCE MAGAZINE


F E A T U R E S

○ of○Intelligence ○ ○ ○and○Espionage ○ ○as○seen○by Eye○Spy○Intelligence ○ ○ ○Magazine ○○ 4 ○ ○The○World ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Shoot to Kill: 2012 Olympic Games Operation Ghost Stories SVR Spy Ring 76 30 ○ ○Ellamy ○○ ○ ○SEALs○Kill○Osama ○ ○bin-Laden ○ ○ 78○ ○ ○ ○ ○MI6○Operation US Navy 32○ ○ ○ ○ ○and○Photography ○○○ ○-○Pretty○Woman ○ ○Trap○ 80○ ○ ○Surveillance 35○ ○ ○ ○ CIA ○ ○Spy ○Pigeon○Controversy ○ ○ ○ 82○ ○ ○Origins ○ of○American ○ ○Intelligence ○○○ 39○ ○ ○ WWII ○ ○Review ○○ ○ Warfare ○ ○ Going ○ ○Underground ○ ○ ○ 84○ ○ ○ ○ ○Eye ○Spy Product 42○ ○Cyber ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○Exports ○○ World of Intel and Counter Terrorism 46 87○ ○ ○ ○FBI○and○Forbidden ○ ○Service: ○ ○Maritime ○ ○Spies○ ○ ○of○Spies○ 90○ ○ ○Silent 48○ ○ ○ ○ ○The○Language ○CIA○Spycatcher ○ ○ ○Interview ○ ○ 92○ ○ ○ ○ ○The○Real○Codebreakers ○○○ 54○ ○Spy○Wars: ○ Tito’s ○ ○Secret○Tunnels ○ ○ 94○ ○ ○ ○ ○MI5 ○Operation ○ ○Seagram ○○ 57○ ○ ○ ○Inside ○ ○ ○1919○ ○ ○ ○Collection ○ ○ 96○ ○ ○ ○ ○MI6 ○Headquarters 58○ ○ ○ ○ ○Intelligence ○ ○Holy○Grail○- Invisibility ○○○ 59○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○9/11○ 98○ ○ ○ Spies ○ ○ ○Couriers ○ ○and○Counter-Terrorism ○○○○ ○ ○ ○Review ○ and ○ ○Digest○ 103 60○ ○ ○Intelligence ○ ○Assassins, ○ ○ ○Coffee○& ○Poison○Powder ○○ ○ ○the CIA’s ○ ○Dream○Factory ○ ○ 105 62○ ○ ○Inside ○ ○ ○ NSA○ Field ○ ○Station○ Teufelsburg ○○○ ○ Platform: ○ ○ ○Attack○in○Benghazi ○ ○ 106 64○ ○Perfect ○ ○Images○ of○9/11○ 109 ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○UnderCover ○ ○ ○Books○ 67○ ○ ○ ○ ○Unseen ○ ○in Moscow ○ ○ 114 ○ ○ ○ ○ ○Echoes ○ ○of ○Oklahoma ○○ 71○ ○ ○ ○MI6○Spy○Games EYE SPY INTELLIGENCE MAGAZINE

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THE WORLD OF INTELLIGENCE AND ESPIONAGE AS SEEN BY EYE SPY INTELLIGENCE MAGAZINE Mark Birdsall, Editor

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YE SPY INTELLIGENCE MAGAZINE is the world’s only independent publication dedicated to espionage and intelligence. First published in May 2001, the title is available in print and electronic format and has a worldwide readership of over 100,000 people. Often described as the bridge between officialdom and the public, Eye Spy is extremely popular with those who work in and with intelligence. Indeed, it is subscribed to by hundreds of official intelligence agencies, government training academies, military forces, leading technology firms, police services, defence contractors, cyber organisations, security colleges and major international political ‘think tanks’ throughout the world. However, its non-political - visual editorial and easy-reading style ‘demystifies’ the intelligence subject, making it equally as popular with people from all walks of life. It is a constant provider of a certain type and quality of information that is not found in any other publication. Readers are assured they will always find something of interest within its 84+ full colour pages; whether it’s the inside story of a lengthy government surveillance operation, an interview with a CIA polygraph examiner, MI6’s role behind the assassination of Rasputin, or the tradecraft used by those who ply their trade in the world’s second oldest profession, Eye Spy has become somewhat of a ‘must have’ publication for people interested in intelligence.

Reporting and Commentary

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ye Spy collects, dissects, publishes and provides commentary on all aspects of intelligence, including espionage, tradecraft, technology, operations etc. All the world’s major happenings are reported upon. That’s not to say we don’t take a step back in time to look at famous case files, examine the real tradecraft, important and defining moments, the history of the services, from their directors to buildings, crests and the figures synonymous with the ‘espionage wheel’. 6

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If it’s necessary to draw parallels with events from the past, special features and intelligence sidebars accompany articles. There is a certain ‘timelessness’ about espionage events: from America’s Aldrich Ames and Robert Hanssen, to the gentry and shadowy Cambridge spy ring in the UK which damaged British Intelligence. Counter-espionage agencies like Britain’s MI5 or America’s FBI still use such classic case files to teach today’s students the secrets of espionage, dirty tricks and more importantly, the signs which can identify people betraying their country, or who are on the precipice of joining an enemy or adversary. It’s one reason why Eye Spy insists on retaining and improving its links with men and women who have spent decades in the industry, from photographic interpreters to training officers at some of the most secretive spy schools in the world. It helps us understand the often elaborate nature of a case file or event.

Aldrich Ames

Understanding How Intelligence Works

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he public may learn of a breaking story via the television, radio, print press or Internet, but Eye Spy readers are content in the knowledge that they can view certain information that is simply not reported upon, or not fully understood by the media. Having an awareness of how the intelligence world works is a powerful tool for any individual. It’s not all ‘silver screen’, and ‘gadgetry’, though many real-life happenings could be drawn from the imagination of some of the world’s best scriptwriters.

FBI headquarters, Washington DC EYE SPY INTELLIGENCE MAGAZINE

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Strange Days

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Georgi Markov

n recent times, the public has been intimate with major news stories that are typical of an industry that rarely hangs its dirty washing out in public. Take for example the bizarre death of former KGB officer Alexsander Litvinenko in London. Poisoned by Polonium-210 - a radioactive isotope used to help detonate nuclear bombs, Litvinenko’s death was part of a wider conspiracy involving front companies, clandestine death lists, political and military manoeuvring etc. His assassination is most certainly connected to intelligence factions, industrial giants, the Russian mafia, and the settling of old Kremlin scores. But all are ultimately connected to the intelligence world, proof if ever needed of the enormity, diversity and darker side of the subject. As for the manner of Litvinenko’s death, the KGB are past masters at this kind of skulduggery. Who can forget the demise of Georgi Markov - the Bulgarian dissident killed by a poison dart filled with ricin and fired from an umbrella in London in 1978? And in 2004, someone in the Russian security services posted a letter to a known

Fidel Castro in the former East Germany - the CIA created over 100 schemes to kill the Cuban leader

Thames House, headquarters of MI5 8

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The media may learn of an antiterrorist operation - Eye Spy reveals how it was planned, achieved or hopefully dismantled

Chechen terrorist. Inside the envelope flap the glue was painted with a substance lethal on skin contact. The recipient duly opened the package and died shortly after. But it’s not just the Russians who use such deadly tradecraft. The CIA schemed for years to create all manner of plots to assassinate Cuban leader Fidel Castro - including lacing his shoes with deadly Thallium. And a few years ago, Richard Tomlinson, a renegade MI6 officer revealed he was aware of an MI6 operation to kill Yugoslavian leader Slobodan Milosevic. In this case the alleged plot involved blinding Milosevic’s driver causing the vehicle to spin out of control. As one former MI6 agent and Eye Spy consultant constantly reminds us - “intelligence can be a dirty business.” What may seem like a simple murder, a case of spying, the loss of a secret component or the demise of a regime or government minister, is often just the leading edge of a much wider event.

Behind Closed Doors

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t’s never easy trying to peak behind the doors of the world’s leading intelligence services, but the magazine’s editorial staff, consultants, contacts, analysts and sources do have access to places that are often beyond the reach of journalists. Indeed, a quick glance at our consultancy board and authors who write for the magazine, gives you some indication of the calibre and

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profession of the people who regularly provide material and qualified guidance. There are others whom we can’t name. Eye Spy consultants also feature on television, radio and in the world’s press. They are often called upon by documentary and film makers for comment and advice on a scene or news clip. Having first-hand knowledge of the role of an air marshal or an anti-terrorist officer in New York, for example, helps our writers create a factbased feature, or understand the mechanism of an intelligence operation. Some of our consultants still perform government analysis and have decades of experience dealing with intelligence agencies, committees and official bodies. Other consultants and editors have participated directly in special operations, from gathering intelligence in Afghanistan, to training operatives in espionage and surveillance tradecraft.

Elements of the World of Intelligence

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ome people believe the word ‘intelligence’ is simply a generic term for information. This is not strictly true for it has evolved into something that is considered far more important. The subject of intelligence is multifaceted and enormous, it can be complex or simple. And because of this Eye Spy is different, in that each issue is singularly unique. Unlike many topics and subjects, intelligence and the stories it generates are never the same. Espionage is but one element of intelligence, though many esteemed commentators consider it an integral part of the subject and they are correct.

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In truth, there are hundreds of elements, and all are deemed highly important by the hundreds of thousands of men and women who work in the business. However, espionage is one subject that is particularly popular with readers, a fact not overlooked by our editorial board and the magazine regularly features the latest spy stories.

Spy - an Emotive Word

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nformation collection comes from a multitude of sources: HUMINT for example. Human Intelligence is considered vital in that it is often gleaned from first-hand sources, or as a Headquarters of Britain’s SIS (MI6) result of direct espionage. The word ‘spy’ is an emotive term that the media often uses to call anyone working in the intelligence industry: an analyst, case officer, photographic interpreter, secretary and even a telephonist etc. In reality, the word should only be used for those employed at the ‘leading edge’ of information collection, and even then, it depends on your point of view. An MI6 officer collecting intelligence in Russia is most certainly not referred to as a spy by his superiors at Britain’s Foreign Office, but his actions and role are not welcomed in Moscow. To Russia’s counterespionage or counter-intelligence officers, he is a threat. But it’s easy to understand how everyone directly associated with an intelligence agency ends up being called a spy. To be called a ‘spy’, one must really be convicted in a court of law.

Intelligence Collection

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oreign-based intelligence officers often work within the confines of a diplomatic mission - are attached to a foreign embassy or legitimate company and have carefully managed lifestyles and prepared backgrounds known as Legends. Diplomatic immunity assured, such officers rarely conduct espionage directly. The role of a case or field officer is covered extensively in Eye Spy (tradecraft). So too is the recruitment of people, whether they are on the official payroll or not. Case officers will have a tour of duty and rarely outstay their welcome. Selection is important as in some cases they will need to speak and understand the foreign tongue, be familiar with local customs and traditions etc. Case officers will use other people to gather

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British Embassy, Moscow. Note the radome at the top of the building

intelligence - these are known in the trade as agents. Within many of their respected embassies, organisations such as MI6, CIA, FSB and the Mossad, for example, have operational Field Stations. Often manned by a handful of officers, these important offices cement relations between various ‘gogs’ in the espionage wheel and are charged solely with gathering intelligence, liaison and other duties. They are also opportunists.

The ‘Product’

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his takes us into a rather murky area of the intelligence world. Using agents, couriers, proxies, assets and informants, a case officer will use all his or her prowess to perform a particular task. Eventually information is sourced, secured, sent for processing, distributed accordingly, disseminated, analysed, ‘boxed’ and ultimately used or stored for reference. What’s produced is known as the ‘product’. Depending on the type of case officer, some operatives will

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simply monitor foreign press (in all its forms), attend trade fairs and military exhibitions, liaise or contribute to missions. This intelligence is usually described as ‘open source’, in that it is freely available. Others work in far more dangerous areas that inevitably means tradecraft must be used. Sometimes case or field officers are attached to legitimate businesses or work elsewhere in an effort to obtain intelligence, but operate without the protection of an embassy. These people are known as NOCs (non-official cover) and often dubbed ‘persons of interest’ by counter-intelligence officers and will be monitored and surveilled. Performing espionage at this level requires a steely resolve and it’s not for the faint-hearted. This type of tradecraft is regularly featured in Eye Spy. Intelligence gathering is often complicated, thrilling, manpower-intensive and very expensive. The ‘product’ is the lifeblood of diplomatic and military machines. If it’s wrong, the results can prove disastrous. An example of poor product is the US and UK intelligence assessments on Iraq’s ‘weapons of mass destruction’ (those working in the intelligence services connected to this topic believe they were poorly treated and manipulated by their political masters). Politics, foreign and domestic affairs, industry, the armed forces and intelligence must collide at some point, and in the UK and USA, for example, special advisory or “oversight committees” exist to make sure the product is not used incorrectly - at least that’s the theory.

FBI counter-espionage photographs of SVR spies Richard Murphy (left) and agent controller Christopher Metsos in Queens, New York City. In 2010 around a dozen Russian spies were identified and ordered out of the United States after Moscow agreed to exchange them for four US intelligence contact men EYE SPY INTELLIGENCE MAGAZINE

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However, intelligence work is also driven by events occurring worldwide. Within a year or so Iran, for example, could have the capability to produce a nuclear bomb. That has implications not just for Middle East nations, but for everyone. How so? Many intelligence agencies, including MI6, CIA and NSA, have been charged with trying to obtain valid intelligence on Tehran’s nuclear programme. It’s a dreadfully difficult task in that closed borders exist and Westerners are not welcome. Even the world’s atomic bodies have found the Iranian government loathe to provide information. With this in mind, MI6 and others are feverishly working to gather intelligence, trying to determine the day when Iran announces to the world it has a bomb. Ultimately many analysts fear it could be used against Israel, or that certain parts of the programme may be delivered to known terrorists - and that affects the safety and security of everyone. Assessing the implications of such a situation can only be achieved by obtaining accurate intelligence - this is called Intelligence Estimate or Appreciation. It is the appraisal of all available intelligence relating to a specific requirement or a potential hostile action or development. Diplomatic measures to stop the project have been put in place, but a secondary plan involving a tactical military strike has also been enabled. Analysts, (both political and intelligence)

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AMERICA 9/11 AND LONDON 7/7 The ‘Product’ was undoubtedly there, it was simply misread and not nearly enough of the jigsaw was pieced together to see the bigger picture EYE SPY INTELLIGENCE MAGAZINE


military strategists and key advisors must also assess the global implications for these two scenarios. This type of intelligence operation is both time consuming and menacingly dark. The wider public seem oblivious to Mohammad Atta the precarious 9/11 terror leader nature of this single issue. But there are hundreds, if not thousands of events taking place at this moment in time which need to be monitored. All of these are assigned levels of sensitivity. If deemed important, they will be raised higher on the ‘intelligence chart’ and more resources assigned to the case. Others may fall off the graph, then radar, and one day may come back to haunt those persons making crucial decisions - as was the case when al-Qaida hijackers attacked the USA on 9/11 or London in 2005. The ‘product’ was undoubtedly there, it was simply misread and not nearly enough of the jigsaw was pieced together to see the bigger picture. Since then, there has been a huge recruitment drive by dozens of services; agencies have been overhauled, budgets increased and laws changed to accommodate a very fluid situation. It’s one area Eye Spy examines constantly.

Technology

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Eye Spy’s tradecraft features reveal the secrets of the recruiters, informants and case officers

A case officer may be monitored even before they have started their mission

he Cold War saw two powerful sides pull away from total world destruction at the very last moment. The USSR and NATO played a dangerous game of ‘cat and mouse’. For years - the Soviet Union and NATO opted to match each others nuclear warheads, warplanes, ships and manpower. Mutual assured destruction (MAD) was the doctrine often cited by analysts. Both sides had the ability to destroy each other, the only problem was they would destroy themselves in trying. MAD is based on the theory of deterrence weaponry essential to threaten yet to invoke a stalemate.

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Intelligence officers can’t just board airliners and request information occasionally they must resort to other methods - including espionage

Because the USSR was shielded behind a lengthy closed border dubbed the ‘Iron Curtain’, electronic intelligence involving reconnaissance aeroplanes, ships, submarines, and later satellites, came to the fore. A whole new industry grew from the Cold War that still exists today, one that is both helping and hindering today’s intelligence gatherers. Aircraft such as the U-2 spy plane and SR-71 were engaged in aerial games over the skies of Russia, and on a number of occasions shoot downs did occur leading to global tension. The Cold War also prompted the development of a new range of tools for spies to gather intelligence. But anyone caught plying their trade in foreign lands were jailed and occasionally executed. Sometimes they were lucky - and exchanged at pre-arranged locations for other spies. The city of Berlin, divided both militarily and politically, was often the point of contact and retains its rightful place in spylore. Lockheed U-2

Andrew Parker head of Britain’s Security Service - better known as MI5 16

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A whole new industry grew from the Cold War that still exists today, one that is both helping and hindering today’s intelligence gatherers...

Today’s spy satellites, unlike their predecessors, have longer operational lifespans and are packed with even more high-end technology. Easily capable of reading the print off a newspaper, some systems track vehicles hundreds of miles, monitor terrorist training camps and follow rogue vessels across oceans. It’s no longer essential, nor necessary to send spy planes like the U-2 into near space across enemy territory to gather intelligence on a weapons convoy or take photos of a new military site; satellites can be manoeuvred and controlled at will - and even the public has the ability to view once top secret sites on the Internet with certain software. What has not changed is the analysis of While old spy tradecraft is still used, a great deal of data is being gathered electronically by agencies such of Britain’s GCHQ (left)

the information, and the way in which the product is used. Gathering electronic information may have become easier, but it has also led to better counter-measures. Counter-intelligence directorates work overtime to stop an adversary obtaining such data. It is still a game EYE SPY INTELLIGENCE MAGAZINE

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of cat and mouse - but played out with far more players on a much bigger field that now includes the Internet. The massive technical revolution in information gathering methods has brought about a drastic change in the way intelligence is collected. Huge radomes ‘talking’ to advanced satellites act like ‘giant nets’ catching signals, pictures and telephone calls from across the globe. Diplomatic and military information may be scrambled, but eventually it will be deciphered. With today’s 21st century computers such tasks can be performed incredibly quickly and from anywhere on the planet.

General Keith Alexander has led the NSA since 2005

Two decades ago the Internet and cell phones emerged as ‘must have’ products. They are great providers of information. For the intelligence community they pose a problem. So rapid has been the advance of this type of technology, that it has become increasingly difficult for any NSA - ‘the Agency that never sleeps’ headquarters of the world’s biggest collector of electronic intelligence (ELINT) - America’s National Security Agency

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government to keep a secret for long. Another major problem surrounding these instruments is that they can be used by anyone - including foreign spy rings, terrorists, organised crime gangs etc. With this in mind, some countries have dedicated agencies to intercept communications and monitor e-mails. One major programme run jointly by the UK’s GCHQ (Government Communications Headquarters) and America’s NSA (National Security Agency), is ECHELON. It’s a global network of special facilities and satellites with the capability of intercepting e-mails, phone calls, faxes etc. One intelligence analyst said - “if it’s spoken or written - we know.” RAF Menwith Hill - NSA’s biggest spy base is situated in North Yorkshire, UK

That may be rather simplistic and perhaps an exaggeration, but without ECHELON, terrorist organisations and rogue nations intent on supporting the activity of groups like al-Qaida, could act with impunity. In the UK, MI5 is finding it difficult to track ‘terrorist chatter’ because new forms of Internet communications are available, thus it supports a new programme what’s known in the intelligence world as ‘Black Box’. This will require providers to store messages for up to a year and allow access to the address of both sender and recipient, though not necessarily the e-mail content. Of course there are those who object to such a systems, but there are numerous safeguards in place to monitor only suspicious ‘traffic’. It’s just one of hundreds of topics covered in Eye Spy.

Cyber Warfare

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ithout question the biggest challenge to the intelligence world, both in respect of espionage and security, can be found in the world of cyber. Because computers operate systems used for managing anything from air traffic control to nuclear power stations and submarines, the need to protect cyberspace is crucial. Similarly, computers are used to store huge amounts of data. On a government level, much of this is classified secret or at the very least private and sensitive.

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In recent years the number of cyber attacks against government organisations or hi-end defence and technology firms have increased substantially. No longer do spy agencies or crime organisations have to despatch personnel to the ends of the Earth to steal data, much of it can be sourced at the touch of a button. Of equal importance is the trustworthiness of staff. One only has to look at the case of US Army analyst Bradley Manning to recognise the importance of keeping data secure. Whilst in Iraq, Manning uploaded the equivalent of 500,000 pages of information, thousands of US Government cables and much more. He then gave the material to a third party that duly uploaded the information on to the Internet for all to examine. Control of vital infrastructure is another major concern, this as terrorist hackers try and destabilise systems which control water, communication, transport and other vital systems. And if one believes this is impossible, events in 2011 in Iran are evidence enough this can be achieved. A joint US-Israeli intelligence effort to slow down Iran’s nuclear programme was enabled in the form of the Stuxnet virus. Cyber hackers backed by China’s intelligence services are now actively ‘attacking’ computer systems across the world in an effort to obtain information. Other countries too are engaged in this activity. Little wonder then that the US has established a powerful near stand-alone intelligence service known as Cyber Command. And interestingly, America has also threatened to respond militarily to cyber attacks. Worldwide it is virtually impossible to count the number of cyber attacks that occur daily, but one estimate suggests 100,000. Many countries now have intelligence cyber units dedicated to counter-measures and protection, but they too have the ability to source data. It is another form of espionage. Eye Spy has an experienced cyber editorial team that produces first class features on all the major events associated with cyber and its various elements.

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Reasons for Intelligence

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ith so many people having access to cell phones and the Internet, it’s not unreasonable to think that the old traits of a spy would soon be a thing of the past. Not so, but a new type of electronic spy and tradecraft has emerged. Because signals are sent electronically, they can be intercepted and with many new forms of communication, it’s not surprising that this area of intelligence has rapidly developed. SIGINT (signal intelligence) and COMINT (communications intelligence) are as vital to an intelligence service as HUMINT. By acquiring intelligence on an adversary, at the very least, it gives military and political planners an edge or insight into what is taking place thousands of miles away. Understanding the intelligence machine and the role it plays is indispensable for all who want to know how the 21st century will unfold. For any intelligence officer charged with the collection and evaluation of information about foreign army strengths, terrorist activity, motives and plans, having good intelligence, and not necessarily huge amounts of it, is useful. These

ESPIONAGE It is still a game of cat and mouse - but played out with far more players on a bigger field.

An MI6 communications device contained within a rock-like object was discovered by Russian Intelligence in a Moscow Park EYE SPY INTELLIGENCE MAGAZINE

officers are the first line of defence in many arenas, often supported by a network of colleagues. Examination of the ‘product’ allows analysts to make decisions, in turn providing guidance to policy makers. The features in Eye Spy are often created by assessing what transpired before an operation occurred, or the mechanism employed to achieve a specific result, be it the culmination of an anti-terrorist operation, or the discovery of an MI6 communications device 21


MI6 headquarters Vauxhall Cross is affectionately called ‘Legoland’

Sir John Sawers Chief of MI6 perhaps the world’s most famous intelligence service

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CIA headquarters, Langley, Virginia

LIAISONS Britain’s MI6 has a close relationship with America’s CIA

buried inside a rock in a Moscow park. Our writers, all experienced in the field of intelligence, lift the important climatic information from reports. And while it is not always possible to predict happenings or military conflict, Eye Spy did report on al-Qaida’s plans to carry out a huge destructive attack on the West - a full 16 weeks prior to 9/11.

Spy Tradecraft

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hroughout its publication journey, Eye Spy has endeavoured to provide its readers with the most important and interesting news related to intelligence and espionage. And this brings us to the often hazardous work of the men and women working at the ‘leading edge’ of intelligence collection - often described as ‘Spy Tradecraft’ - the ‘tricks of the trade’. A number of our writers have worked in this fascinating area - and it’s a subject that interests so many people. In itself, tradecraft contains hundreds of special elements from disguises to identity theft. Tradecraft is used by agencies to gather information, often associated with espionage, deception and disinformation. It is truly cloak and dagger. Whether it is using a dead letter drop, performing a brush pass, creating codes, surveillance, the bugging of a suspected terrorist safehouse, or the passing of highly secret components from an aviation project, Eye Spy typically provides a deep insight into how this is carried out. Government agencies such as MI6, or to give it its proper title - Secret Intelligence Service (SIS), have dedicated training schools that teach employees the tradecraft necessary to carry out covert operations, or ‘turn’ adversaries into informants and assets. MI6 - and its US counterpart - the Central Intelligence Agency, are masters of the art, though officials are obviously reluctant to discuss such matters in public. Eye Spy consistently runs dedicated series on such tradecraft, including a number of DIY projects. Fascinating stuff, indeed, the magazine’s

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tradecraft series has become very popular in that readers can discover some of the interesting methods used by the world’s leading operatives, though our respect for national security is always a top priority. From discovering techniques to install covert cameras in a target building, to the skills necessary to communicate using facial or body signs, performing surveillance, master disguise techniques, infiltrating a spy ring, remaining safe overseas, avoiding the loss of your identity, to operating in hostile environments etc. - readers will soon learn the trade secrets used by the world’s greatest spies and agencies. By digesting the contents of our hugely popular tradecraft features, you will soon learn many of the real tricks of the trade.

Counter Intelligence

Eye Spy provides a deep insight into the world of surveillance

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f course even experienced operatives can make mistakes. Counter-intelligence and foreign spies conspire to make things difficult for those attempting to gather intelligence. Countermeasures are an integral part of the work of domestic national agencies such as MI5 (Security Service) and the FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation). In recent times, a greater emphasis has been placed on disabling the very real threat of terrorism, rather than attempting to catch spies, though this is still of paramount importance. Indeed, 85% of MI5’s operational budget is now spent on monitoring and investigating terrorism - a huge menace for everyone. Eye Spy regularly features the work of MI5 and its partners - all determined to tackle terrorism. It’s a fascinating area because operatives are still required to use tradecraft in all its forms to uncover plots, infiltrate groups, thwart operations and monitor evolving threats. Since its inception, Eye Spy has produced an array of detailed features covering a multitude of terrorist attacks and failed operations. However, much attention is given to the tradecraft and the extraordinary manner in which intelligence analysts, anti-terrorist detectives and security services combine to piece together the data. Using our first-class sources, Eye Spy has gained a reputation for accurate reporting and analysis.

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Special Operations and Intelligence

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ye Spy has unique access to information from many participants of special operations. Contrary to popular belief, many officers who work in the intelligence services, do not carry firearms and in Britain, have no power of arrest either. MI5 may secure intelligence on a terrorist plot or a person committing espionage, but the Security Service work with organisations such as New Scotland Yard’s Counter Terrorism Command (CTC), to conduct raids or make arrests. In the United States and some other countries, agency personnel, for example those working for the FBI, are often seen at the ‘end game’ of an operation, and are permitted to carry weapons. The world of intelligence, by necessity, does liaise and cooperate with specialist police and military units, often in counter-terrorist work. Occasionally intelligence officers will be assigned to a specially created task force for a specific purpose. In 2011, the US created a multi-faceted unit that combined Special Forces troops with CIA

Right: SAS soldier Rusty Firmin outside the Iranian Embassy, London

A US Navy SEAL. Though a naval command, SEALs often participate in land/airborne operations such as that which resulted in the death of Osama bin-Laden EYE SPY INTELLIGENCE MAGAZINE

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Emblem of Germany’s GSG-9

Their task was to capture the world’s most prolific terrorist in the person of Osama binLaden. In a most complex raid on his safehouse in Abbottabad, Pakistan, the task force identified the al-Qaida leader and shot him dead. All major countries have special dedicated military units which often find themselves SAS soldiers storm the Iranian Embassy performing intelligence-led operations. In London - all the hostages were freed Britain, and besides CTC, MI5 and MI6 can call upon the Special Air Service (SAS). An example of such cooperation was the ending of the Iranian Embassy siege in 1980. It is not unusual to see US Navy Seals or Delta Forces working closely with the CIA, or Germany’s GSG-9 with its intelligence service. Eye Spy regularly covers the activities and operations of the greatest Special Forces and their liaisons with the world of intelligence.

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The mansion house tower at Bletchley Park contained an MI6 communication room used to contact and receive intelligence from British agents operating in occupied Europe

Codebreaking

Bletchley Park

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reating codes as a means of forwarding information secretly and securely dates back thousands of years. Codebreaking is vital in respect of decoding ciphers - secret codes. During times of conflict this form of communication is much more prevalent and utilised by the intelligence world. Understanding a message, be it written, electronic or even verbal sent by an adversary is extremely useful, if not vital. An example of its importance can be found in World War Two. Millions of lives were saved as Allied codebreakers managed to capture, break and understand Germany’s Enigma code, thus shortening the conflict by many months. Britain’s wartime centre for codebreaking was established at Bletchley in Buckinghamshire. Bletchley Park, also known as Station X because it was MI6’s tenth communication facility, was home to some of the world’s greatest codebreakers, and today the site thrives as a splendid museum and learning centre. Its

EYE SPY INTELLIGENCE MAGAZINE

Inside the MI6 communication room Bletchley Park 27


Memorial to the codebreakers of Bletchley Park dedicated by HM Queen Elizabeth

thousands of staff were recently honoured by HM Queen Elizabeth and an impressive memorial unveiled. France’s Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte was an avid user of codes. And it was one of his commanders who created ‘night writing’ - using embossed dots so troops could read messages without light - this evolved into Braille. In the world of espionage communication is crucial. However, a code may take many forms. For example, a chalk mark on a bench may indicate a package is ready to collect; a light shining through a certain window a warning not to call etc. The complexity of a code is limited only by the imagination of an agency or individual. Eye Spy regularly features reports, articles and news items surrounding the fascinating world of codes and covert communication. Indeed, the magazine has a regularly column ‘Letter From Fort Meade’ which reports upon topics relevant and connected to codes. Creating codes is an international pursuit, and is seen as an integral element of espionage and intelligence.

Spies in the Sky

I Enigma machine Phantom Ray UAV

f codes are one of the oldest elements of intelligence, then one of the most recent additions to a spy’s ‘armoury’ are UAVs unmanned aerial vehicles. Used extensively today by armed forces in various roles, including counter-terrorism, UAVs or RPVs (remotely piloted vehicles) as they were first designated, also operate to secure intelligence. UAVs come in various sizes and utilise different types of technology. Some have the ability to operate at night, whilst others have the potential to remain airborne for many hours. Some UAVs are controlled by operators thousands of miles away using satellites to communicate.

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Many perform surveillance and reconnaissance missions over terrain deemed too dangerous to infiltrate. The CIA is a notable user of armed Predator UAVs. In the last few years the Agency has performed many secret missions resulting in the deaths of senior terrorists; identifying their safehouses and the pipelines used for transporting weaponry and explosives. Other types are used to monitor pirates off the Horn of Africa, track drug convoys in Mexico, surveil illegal people trafficking etc. Ultimately UAVs are an asset to those whose task it is to collect intelligence. Eye Spy presents regular features on these remarkable ‘sky spies’.

Predator UAV EYE SPY INTELLIGENCE MAGAZINE

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THE WORLD OF INTERNATIONAL INTELLIGENCE Reports, Features, Case Files, Assassins and Intrigue

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ecause of its wide appeal to readers from across the world, Eye Spy is a recipient of hundreds of stories, case files, and rare intelligence snippets, many from esteemed authors, writers and journalists. From authentic secret intelligence-led UK-USA Special Forces operations in Afghanistan, to new information on the Rudolf Hess mystery, MI6’s role in the building of the secret spy tunnel in communist controlled East Berlin, to female spies in the war of independence, the features are both educational and fascinating. This ‘mix’ has been described by former MI5 and MI6 legal director David Bickford as “thoroughly informative” making Eye Spy “excellent reading.” In over twelve years of continuous publication, Eye Spy has covered every major intelligence event, published many world exclusive news stories, revealed some of the secret tradecraft used by operatives, discovered hundreds of buildings associated with the greatest spy stories and services of the world, published fascinating case histories, photographic essays, special espionage cases, infiltration, surveillance, bugging, service histories, interviews etc. We also have a dedicated book release section - UnderCover where readers can review the latest releases, and a tradecraft area where new equipment is tested and reviewed. Is it is magazine for “spies”? - No - but it is a firm favourite with those who work in the intelligence world. Eye Spy is a magazine totally devoted to and about the lives of the people who ply their trade in intelligence and security services, Special Forces units, anti-terrorism, police forensic and cyber agencies etc. For those who work in the industry it is essential reading, but Eye Spy is for everyone and anybody remotely interested in this fascinating and secretive subject. Do join us for a revealing insight into the world of intelligence and espionage - it may just change your opinion of world events - and what takes place behind closed doors...

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OPERATION

GHOST STORIES

FBI RELEASE SVR SURVEILLANCE FOOTAGE Bureau officials release dozens of photographs, documents and several covert film clips showing undercover surveillance of SVR spies in America

THE SPY NETWORK PLAYERS

Anna Chapman

Cynthia Murphy

Donald Heathfield

Juan Lazaro

Michael Zottoli

Richard Murphy - SVR spy “under surveillance”

COUNTER ESPIONAGE FOOTAGE REVEALS EXTENTOF EVIDENCE 32

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PHOTOGRAPHS/FILM CLIPS COURTESY: FBI

‘OBJECTIVE WAS HILLARY CLINTON’ Freedom of Information Act request has resulted in the FBI releasing dramatic film footage showing many of the exposed 2010 SVR sleeper agents, or ‘illegals’ in action. The material, which includes numerous redacted intelligence documents would have been released anyway, but with so much interest from journalists and the public alike, Bureau chiefs decided to hasten the process. And the reason why officials decided to strike when they did are beginning to emerge. Eye Spy sources say at least one of the spies had started a process whereby they intended to befriend a most significant politician - US Secretary of State - Hillary Clinton.

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From operatives performing brushpasses to the use of dead letter drops, the evidence secured by the FBI is utterly convincing, and reason no doubt why the suspects didn’t object more forcefully when ejected from the United States in the summer of 2010. And this is despite some of the spies having lived in the country for the best part of a decade. Working under the code-name of Operation Ghost Stories, the FBI surveillance operatives were far more imaginative than their Russian counterparts, and seemingly fully aware that they had problems with communication. With this

Mikhail Semenko

Patricia Mills

Richard Murphy

Regarded as the network’s ‘spymaster’, Christopher Metsos is photographed enroute to a meeting

Tracey Foley

Vicky Pelaez

Greetings comrade... Anna Chapman is courted by an undercover FBI man. In the third frame she removes her SVR programmed laptop

Richard Murphy (facing) and Metsos meet in Queens, New York EYE SPY INTELLIGENCE MAGAZINE

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CIA’S OBL DESK OUTFLANK TERROR CHIEF

HIDING IN PLAIN US Navy SEALs Kill Osama Bin-Laden n the early hours of 1 May 2011, four Black Hawk helicopters carrying US-Navy SEALs (Naval Special Warfare Development Group [Navy SEAL Team Six]) and specialist officers from the CIA landed in a high-walled compound just yards from a major military barracks in Abbottabad about 40 miles north-east of Islamabad, Pakistan. Their target was America’s most wanted - Osama bin-Laden.

I

This was not the first occasion the OBL Desk had the opportunity to capture or kill binLaden. And prior to 9/11, in Afghanistan, the Agency requested permission to strike - this after the al-Qaida leader was monitored escorting associates in Afghanistan. President Clinton dithered as Langley chiefs warned the window of opportunity to attack was narrowing. In the end the White House asked the Agency to step down as those bin-Laden

accompanied were believed attached to a ‘friendly nation’. A US Navy cruise missile even had the ground coordinates inserted and was ready to go. So it was somewhat ironic that in the summer of 2010, the US Navy, albeit a ‘ground’ element, was instructed to train for a very special mission. And this time the CIA was defiant - OBL had been found and the CIA was not going to miss another chance to capture him. Eye Spy understands a meeting took place in Washington last August between White House officials and D/CIA Leon Panetta. Mr Panetta described how for years the SEALs have been active across the region in their pursuit of binLaden. Indeed, many SEAL operatives have died trying to do so. In 2005, for example, Operation Red Wing (a SEAL search and

D/CIA Leon Panetta a “huge success”

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The scene that greeted special US Navy SEAL teams as they sought to capture the world’s most wanted man - the city of Abbottabad at night EYE SPY INTELLIGENCE MAGAZINE

© BK2006

COURTESY: CIA

The operation was the end game of a near 10year hunt for the man held responsible for the killing of 3,000 civilians on 11 September 2001. It was one that began at exactly 8.46am on that fateful day as al-Qaida terrorists led by Mohammed Atta crashed American Airlines Flight 11 into the north tower of the iconic World Trade Center.

For the CIA, and especially those members of the OBL Desk who were charged with bringing bin-Laden to book, it was a special moment a major success - a time to reflect on so many near misses or flawed intelligence. It was also a time to remember all those who perished in a nightmare scenario that still consumes and haunts so many Americans.


© UPSTATENYER

WTC issues smoke after Osama bin-Laden’s terror group attacks America

COURTESY: US NAVY

SIGHT Admiral Gary Roughead Chief of Naval Operations

capture mission) saw many commandos die in Kunar Province as their helicopters were downed by heavy AQ and Taliban fire. They were very close to capturing Taliban chief Mullah Omar - who could have provided details of the whereabouts of OBL. GHOSTS AND FLAWED INTEL The Agency had for years followed phantom reports of OBL. Some were probably authen-

tic, but most were spurious and had been provided for by persons simply seeking cash rewards. This time it was different. On learning of the CIA intelligence, President Obama green-lighted a most dangerous mission. From that day forth, there followed top secret meetings between US intel people and a few of the Agency’s associates in other US intel services. And though it seems inconceivable that such an operation could have been conducted without the cooperation of Pakistan officials and ISI elements, this appears to have been the case. We understand the ISI was told only as the US SEALs were arriving at the compound. Designated a Beyond Top Secret operation any leak of intelligence would have found its way to some elements in the ISI that are Taliban friendly. Even the faintest hint that OBL had been located, would have seen him tipped-off.

The target house within a 12-18ft-walled compound had been under NSA and NRO satellite surveillance for the best part of eight months. Of that there is absolutely no doubt. Valued at around $1 million the house within was a relatively new build and strangely had no telephone lines - an indication the occupants were using cell or satellite phones. It didn’t take the NSA and GCHQ in the UK that long to discover it also had no Internet connection - at least not from a land-line. However, as DOD sources state, the building had been under observation since last July, and there are methods available to the NSA to

US NAVY SEALS Osama bin-Laden’s hideaway in Abbottabad - just yards from a military academy

COURTESY US NAVY

A near faultless operation and culmination of eight months total surveillance

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COUNTER TERRORISM

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CHINA ARREST AIDE TO SENIOR STATE SECURITY OFFICIAL SUSPECTED OF SPYING FOR THE CIA...

President Obama’s inner circle greet Chinese premier Hu Jintao at the White House in 2011. There are now rumours circulating in Beijing that Jintao’s phone was bugged ○

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suspected CIA spy and secretary to one of the most powerful and influential figures in China has been arrested on espionage charges. Though details of the case are patchy, it is believed the man was detained between January and March 2012. The incident seems connected to recent turmoil within China’s Politburo and the death of Briton Neil Heywood. It is further complicated because US-Sino relations are at a very low ebb, thus Beijing and Washington kept quiet about the spy affair.

© VMENKOV

If the man, said to be aged 38, was indeed an agent for the CIA, his exposure is a bitter blow for Langley. Initial reports stated the alleged spy, who at time of publication has not been named, worked in the office of Qiu Jin, deputy minister of the country’s powerful Ministry of State Security. The MSS controls China’s spy agencies and a report stated that the

Ministry of State Security building in Xiongchu - the MSS control most of China’s spying activities and counter-intelligence work EYE SPY INTELLIGENCE MAGAZINE

© PETE SOUZA WHTE HOUSE MEDIA

CIA

‘Pretty Woman Trap’

official was a desk clerk involved with information flow from various intelligence elements, including foreign intelligence collection. However, one source said the aide, who also worked with economic, political and strategic intelligence, was attached to the office of vice minister Lu Zhongwell, 59, who was reportedly arrested. Just how damaging the espionage has been can be calculated by one official who said, “the destruction has been massive.” Indeed, MI6 contact man Neil intelligence watchers are Heywood already describing the case as China’s “worst security breach in decades.”

Langley’s Far East Section turn tables on Chinese spies 37


Police chief Wang Lijun sought US protection he was being investigated by staff in the office of the suspected CIA agent Despite this, a number of reports have emerged in the Chinese press that the agent had been fully trained by the CIA - this after he received a blackmail threat from a third party presumably those involved in the honey-trap.

© THOMAS FANGHAENEL

Speculation abounds how he was first recruited. One official noted he may have been approached whilst in the USA as a student, another suggested he was lured into a CIA ‘honey-trap’. A journalist for Hong Kong’s Oriental Daily believes he was “coerced” by a CIA female agent in a Hong Kong flat. Here he was photographed by other agents in a compromising position. The newspaper feature described this action as - ‘the pretty woman trap’.

WIRETAPS AND ASSASSINATION Beijing has been rocked by recent political scandals, including assassinations that have captivated the imagination of the Chinese public, and this latest affair has resulted in the suspension of a vice minister who has been questioned by counter-espionage officers. Eye Spy has been told the incident could be connected to events surrounding the strange murder of MI6 intelligence contact man Neil Heywood in Chongqing in November 2011

© DILMA ROUSSEFF

Another question raised by journalists concerns just how long the agent had been in place. This could be partly answered by the fact he had reportedly been paid over half a million dollars - suggestive of a lengthy period. However, if the intelligence was of such high quality, the agent could in theory have received significant sums in a relatively short period of time. Eye Spy understands the agent may have been operational since early 2011.

In recent years the FBI and Pentagon has engaged its counter-espionage forces to confront several Chinese spy networks, bogus contract companies and individuals operating in the United States. One report emanating from Hong Kong says the agent may well have compromised a number of Chinese spies.

Telephone lines in President Hu Jintao’s office were tapped

The magnificent ‘Great Hall of the People’ in Tiananmen Square in the country’s capital Beijing. The building hosts Parliament and the Communist Party of China 38

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Senior Politburo man Bo Xilai authorised wiretaps. His wife, Gu KaiLai, is implicated in murder of UK intelligence contact man Neil Heywood

© REMY STEINEGGER WORLD ECONOMIC FORUM 2009

(see Eye Spy 79). Police official Wang Lijun investigated the Briton’s death (poison was forced into his mouth) and it soon transpired that the affair also involved other very senior Chinese officials, including Politburo man Bo Xilai. Lijun sought asylum in the US Consulate after leaks emerged stating Xilai’s wife, Gu KaiLai had allegedly ordered Heywood killed. The affair was further complicated because of Wang Lijun’s involvement in the bugging of political rivals on behalf of Bo Xilai himself. Some of the wiretaps are said to have been used on telephones in party leader and President Hu Jintao’s office and possibly those of Prime Minister Wen Jiabao. Eye Spy understands that the man who led the investigation into these extraordinary happenings was Qiu Jin.

Premier Wen Jiabao

Qiu convinced Wang to leave the US Consulate on his own accord, and flew back with him to Beijing in February this year. 610 OFFICE Another senior official who has appeared in recent Hong Kong reports is Zhou Yongkang.

EYE SPY INTELLIGENCE MAGAZINE

A former chief of the Ministry of Public Security, he headed the ultra secretive and menacing outfit known as the 610 Office - a position he was stripped of in May. Described as China’s most “powerful security official,” Yongkang was under pressure after it was learned he had strong connections to Bo Xilai. 610 Office was established in 1999 to monitor the Falun Gong spiritual movement which is banned in China but has a global Chinese national following both inside and outside the country. The 610 Office has intelligence and security threads and many FG members have been arrested and imprisoned. Another recent event that could be connected to the spy case is the departure of MSS official Gao Yichen, 61. As a deputy director he had responsibility for maintaining stability in the 610 Office. Yichen suddenly left in March 2012 as news of the Bo Xilai affair and the death of Heywood started to emerge. UK

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INTELLIGENCE ANALYSIS

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WWII CODE

CONTROVERSY secret message discovered in a canister on the detached leg of a pigeon dating back to WWII, continues to puzzle codebreakers around the world. Discovered by Anne and David Martin 30 years ago behind a fireplace at their home in Surrey - the couple decided to send it to Colin Hill, curator of the ‘Pigeons at War’ exhibition at Bletchley Park - the UK’s codebreaking museum.

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Trustees here invited people to try and solve the mystery and even today’s codebreakers at GCHQ got involved. GCHQ responded to Mr Martin saying its analysts had thus far been unable to crack the code. Mr Hill said the centre has more than 30 messages delivered by pigeon carriers, but none match the code in which this one was

A mystery code found on a wartime pigeon continues to baffle and confuse codebreakers written. “The message must be highly top secret,” he said. However, despite the attention of some of the world’s greatest codebreakers, the message remained secure... that is until now. The paper shows a series of 27 word and number messages. It is believed to have been despatched by operatives from Normandy around the time of the D-Day landings in

Secret message seems inextricably linked to D-Day and Montgomery

US troops move towards the beaches at Normandy EYE SPY INTELLIGENCE MAGAZINE

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© SWNS/SWNS.com

Anne and David Martin pose with the remains of the pigeon. The discovery of a mystery code has caused much debate and speculation within the professional and amateur codebreaking community

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the region. Stot was killed a few weeks after the message was sent. Gord Young, 70, a member of the Canadian team said they had been able to “unravel most, but not all of the code.” He felt annoyed after reading reports the message was impossible to read, but insists it was “breakable.” According to Canadian media, Gord, who lives in Ontario, took just 17 minutes to

break most of the code. The secret communication essentially warned that the Germans were preparing a large scale counter attack using tanks in Normandy. THE MESSAGE PURPORTEDLY READS: ‘Artillery observer at ‘K’ sector, Normandy. Requested headquarters supplement report. Panzar attack - blitz. West Artillery Observer Tracking Attack.

The pigeon lofts at Bletchley Park and part of the museum’s brilliant ‘spy pigeon display’ EYE SPY INTELLIGENCE MAGAZINE

© EYE SPY INTELLIGENCE MAGAZINE

© EYE SPY INTELLIGENCE MAGAZINE

1944. Now a Canadian team claim to have cracked the code, though their findings have been disputed. A researcher at the Lakefield Heritage Research said the message is one written in short form code and was intended for Bomber Command which is identified as XO2. It was sent by 27-year-old Sergeant W. Stot, a paratrooper from the Lancashire Fusiliers who was part of a reconnaissance team measuring German military strength in


© SWNS/SWNS.com

Code Destination REIGATE General Montgomery’s HQ?

The skeletal foot of the spy pigeon and plastic canister which contained the code

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ome experts believe the pigeon’s destination was General Sir Bernard Montgomery’s headquarters in Reigate Hill, Surrey, hence its discovery in the county. The Martins live close to the site, which is about 20 miles from London and from where military courier pigeons were flown.

exhausted, rested and simply dropped into the chimney. Here it became trapped and died.

Analysts believe the bird - on its return from France - was

As for some of the military personnel stationed here, a number were involved with maintaining equipment used by the codebreaking centre at Bletchley Park.

Also of interest, Winston Churchill was a frequent visitor to Reigate Priory and is said to have written some of his most famous speeches from this location.

During WWII, Britain used an astonishing 250,000 pigeons in the war effort. For more information on this important location: LINKS: www.reigatehistory.co.uk/ churchill

‘Lt Knows extra guns are here. Know where local dispatch station is. Determined where Jerry’s headquarters front posts. Right battery headquarters right here. ‘Found headquarters infantry right here. Final note, confirming, found Jerry’s whereabouts. Go over field notes. Counter measures against Panzers not working.

AOAKN

N L X K G W A O T A L K X G H

H V P D J H W Y Y M E M R B Q R G G

K L D T S

F Q I R W

R Q X S R P A B U Z

K F N K R H

D P P K H T

F N F J G O V F CMPN O N O I D J O F

W N W B M

J R Z C Q

Y I D M I A H J R A K E T P Z

D P Z E E

C X H Q H

F N K T Q

AOAKN 27 1 5 2 5 / 6

The coded message

COURTESY: CIA

Pigeon fitted with spy camera

Panzer IV was the only German tank to remain in production throughout WWII

© ROBERT DOUGLAS EYE SPY INTELLIGENCE MAGAZINE

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GOING UNDERGROUND QUICK SALE

Cyber Weapons of every description - and on the horizon... a few of the home-made variety he cyber underground has risen to a level that now concerns the world’s intelligence community. We are witnessing what could be described as the build-up of an underground ‘arms trade’. Cyber professionals have expressed genuine fear of the creation of advanced cyber weapons. These weapons are for sale everywhere in the world by cyber arms dealers in an online black-market. Most are within the price range of even the smallest country or organisation as well as the average individual. One cyber security intelligence CTO said: “We see a trend towards commercialisation of malicious code. Motivated by financial gain, hackers are honing their skills and becoming more ambitious, targeting the growing numbers of

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Internet users and stealing personal details and financial information, as well as compromising intellectual property.” A recent investigation found malicious software with a threat rating of 3.8* was found for sale online at a cost of just $9.95 (£6-7.00). Information technology trend analysis firm Gartner predicts that by 2015 at least one of the G20 nations will become the victim of dramatic online sabotage that will disrupt and damage critical infrastructure components. This view is supported by General Keith Alexander, head of US Cyber Command. “We believe that state actors have developed cyber weapons to cripple infrastructure targets in ways tantamount to kinetic assaults,” said

US DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CYBER CRIME CENTER

General Keith Alexander Alexander. “Some of these weapons could potentially destroy hardware as well as data and software.”

COURTESY: USAF

So, perhaps the most lucrative business opportunity with minimal risk in the 21st century is that of a cyber arms dealer! What an opportunity.

Student teaching at the Defense Cyber Investigations Training Academy

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By Kevin Coleman EYE SPY INTELLIGENCE MAGAZINE


NAVY CYBER DEFENSE OPERATIONS COMMAND

It is impossible to know the true size of the current cyber weapons market, but given there were over 21 million new strains of malware released in 2010, the number has to be fairly large. There are literally dozens of people already operating in the shadows of the Internet. The cyber arms dealers range from individuals to moderately sized organisations. They operate internationally and regularly sell malware and botnet services as well as control programmes through web sites, online auctions sites and blogs. Bots that can be used to steal passwords, spyware, distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks are now available for sale. One cyber arms dealer even had a sale on DDoS attacks. They offered to launch a 24-hour DDoS attack against a web site of your choosing for as little as $599. At the same time the site’s competitor sent out the message: ‘We offer DDoS service! - removal of sites, your competitors and enemies outcommissioning sites by the overload of server! Prices from $100 24 hours and higher.’ You must admit this sounds like a great deal!

COURTESY: US NAVY

SIZE OF THE CYBER THREAT AND MARKET

Personnel monitor, analyse, detect and respond to unauthorised activity within US Navy information systems and computer networks. NCDOC is responsible for around the clock protection of the Navy’s computer networks, with more than 700,000 users worldwide

The graphic (below left) shows an equally menacing advertisement from another web site. One could be forgiven thinking it reads like a highly targeted shopping list. The capabilities of cyber weapons in general continue to increase and DDoS attack capacity is now different. Over the past few years DDoS attacks with a malicious traffic capacity in the 100 giga-byte per second (Gbps) up from approximately 40 Gbps in 2009 has been seen multiple times.

critical infrastructures. Cyber intelligence analysts believe rogue nation states, terrorists and others may use cyber weapons whenever they see fit due to the difficulty of attribution and the measure of plausible deniability this new class of weapon provides. Stuxnet should have been a wake-up call for governments and militaries around the world. Some answered but many did not. Those that didn’t are playing with fire.

For some time now Russia has been trying to persuade various United Nations institutions to push for the adoption of cyber arms control treaties. The old saying - ‘It does no good to close the barn door after the horses have bolted’ comes to mind. Given the number of organisations, nations and terrorist groups involved in cyber weapons development added to the number of cyber weapons already available at a click of a mouse, it is impossible to establish cyber arms controls. Even if it was possible, it would be unenforceable due to the difficulty detecting cyber weapons development.

USAF Chief Information Officer Lt. General William T. Lord addresses modern cyberspace threats and the impact of social networking at the Air Force Association Cyber Futures Symposium and Convention in April EYE SPY INTELLIGENCE MAGAZINE

COURTESY: USAF

Technologically sophisticated nations have a distinct disadvantage over others due to their heavy reliance on the Internet within their

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cyber threats, weapons of mass destruction, and the release of sensitive data by sources such as WikiLeaks. There are few who doubt the strategic implications of cyber weapons given their ability to deceive, deny, and disrupt the computerised equipment and systems adversary. It is beyond the point in time when we should have stopped treating the proliferation of cyber weapons - and the all too common attacks on electronic equipment and systems as ‘business-as-usual’. INTEL: The Technolytics Institute has repeatedly warned that the rapid and global proliferation of cyber weapons cannot be controlled.

James R. Clapper ODNI

‘HOME BREW’ CYBER WEAPONS

INTEL: Recent research/survey found that chances are high that even though cyber attacks on web applications have increased over the last few years and are have become a big concern organisations are still not spending much on web application security.

have not even thought of yet. One point raised at conferences and intel briefings is whether or not a home-brew cyber weapon can be built without the developer really understanding its true capabilities and spread uncontrollably across the Internet? I believe it is a real possibility that we all must plan for.

Cyber arms dealers and underground cyber weapons developers care little about who buys their products and even less about how they are used. Many believe another wake-up call is just over the horizon and is arguably the scariest scenario. Military and commercial cyber weapons’ programmes are all well and good, but what about the home-made ones? I would be willing to bet that US black ops cyber teams have contracted with programmers who are at this moment cooking up home brewed new and innovative cyber weapons with capabilities we ○

INTEL: In a recently issued cyber intelligence advisory, Spy-Ops stated that government and private sector funding is not keeping up with the growing threat from acts of cyber terrorism.

Ronald Burgess DIA Director

INTEL: Open Source Cyber Intelligence Report HYPERLINKS

Earlier this year US Army Lt. General Ronald Burgess, the Director of the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), and James R. Clapper, Director of National Intelligence (ODNI) in their testimony before the Senate Armed Services Committee acknowledged dangers ranging from terrorism, ○

“http://iscsp.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/ cyber-weapons-proliferation-and-deterrence.pdf” http://iscsp.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/ cyber-weapons-proliferation-and-deterrence.pdf ○

FBI DISMANTLE CYBER CELL Arrests in international cyber operation

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he FBI has disrupted an international cyber fraud operation by seizing the servers that had infected as many as two million computers with malicious software. The gang deployed Botnets - networks of virus-infected computers controlled remotely by an attacker. They can be used to steal funds, hijack identities, and commit other crimes. The botnet in this case involved the potent Coreflood virus, a keylogging programme that allows cyber thieves to steal personal and financial information by recording unsuspecting users’ every keystroke. The FBI began its Coreflood investigation in April 2009 when a Connecticut-based company realised that hundreds of computers on its networks had been infected. Before the Bureau had time to shut down the Coreflood operation, cyber thieves made

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numerous fraudulent wire transfers, costing companies hundreds of thousands of dollars. “Botnets and the cyber criminals who deploy them jeopardize the economic security of the United States and the dependability of the nation’s information infrastructure,” said Shawn Henry (left), executive assistant director of the FBI’s Criminal, Cyber, Response, and Services Branch. “These actions to mitigate the threat posed by the Coreflood botnet are the first of their kind in the United States,” Henry noted. “They also reflect our commitment to being creative and proactive in making the Internet more secure.” Thirteen people have been charged with various offences including wire fraud, bank fraud, and illegal interception of electronic communications.

THE COREFLOOD VIRUS The COREFLOOD VIRUS infects only Microsoft Windows-based computers. Generally, most users will not be able to tell if their computers are infected. It is therefore important to take the following steps: 1 Make sure your Microsoft Windows Automatic Updates are turned on; 2 Run anti-virus programs and ensure that they are up to date; 3 Run a security firewall on your computer; and 4 Check your online banking and credit history to make sure you have not been compromised. If you have been compromised, contact your financial institution. EYE SPY INTELLIGENCE MAGAZINE


THE WORLD OF CYBER

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The World of Counter-Terrorism Most terror groups publicly announce they are fighting for a cause and therefore acts of bloody violence, hijacking, kidnapping, robbery or criminality can be justified. From anarchists, to militias, right and left wing groups, resistance movements, revolutionaries and even single person or issue terrorists, the catch all “umbrella of terrorism” is full of quests, explanations and reasons for motivation. This “catch all” phrase remains as relevant today as ever. And just as important, what actions really constitute terrorism and how does one differentiate an insurgency from a terrorist quest?

Prepared by the Editorial Board of Eye Spy Intelligence Magazine

C O N T A C T C R E A T I O N INSURGENCY 48

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m and Intelligence PART

2 INSIDE INTEL

The Vietnam War spawned a staggering number of domestic US terrorist attacks, and led to the creation of a secret CIA operation code-named MH/CHAOS

SURPRISING STATISTICS between Jan 1968 and July 1970... 4,568 bomb attacks occurred on US soil, a further 35,000 bomb threats were made. In the ten years following 9/11 120,000 people have been arrested for terrorist offences and 35,000 have been convicted any Americans will be surprised at the following statistics sourced from 1 January 1968 to 9 July 1970 - an eighteen month period of student unrest and political upheaval in relation to the Vietnam War. Between these dates 4,568 domestic bombings occurred on US soil; a further 1,506 bomb attempts and incidents were also made/reported. More incredibly, more than 35,000 bomb threats were recorded by the security services. Analysis showed over 50% could be attributed to student campuses. Hardly surprising therefore that to counter this danger the CIA launched Operation MHCHAOS, described as a secret domestic spying programme intended to examine possible foreign influences on the student anti-war movement. Today, of course, even making a bomb threat would generate a major investigation and lead to a stiff jail sentence for anyone convicted, and it is likely all this data would fall into the domestic terrorism category.

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One nation that has recently adopted tough new laws on all forms of terrorism, is EYE SPY INTELLIGENCE MAGAZINE

Argentina. This now includes a wide range of monetary and political issues. On 22 December 2011, the country passed counterterrorism legislation that human rights activists believe is a “catch all” for anyone opposed to government policy. Officials also said the penalties for those falling foul of the new laws will be “twice as severe” with the doubling of the minimum and maximum jail sentences permitted. Intelligence commentators acknowledge Argentina is still coming to terms with its shadowy past, especially that period in time when a dictatorship ruled the country. Between 1976 and 1983, government-sponsored units were created to torture, kidnap and assassinate over 13,000 political opponents. Many more people simply disappeared. And whilst focusing on statistics, it is worth reproducing the data collected by the Associated Press (AP) to coincide with last year’s 10th anniversary of 9/11. In a massive international project, AP researchers found that between 11 September 2001 to 11 September 2011, a staggering 120,000 people were arrested and 35,000 convicted of terrorism offences.

FORMATIONS AND OBJECTIVES errorist groups come in all forms and sizes. Their sophistication varies immensely from individuals making menacing phone calls like the antiwar US students of the Nixon period, to the sending of letter bombs or performing complex plots such as 9/11.

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There are a number of high profile intelligence and security services which monitor, study, analyse and categorise such outfits. Surveillance data secured from HUMINT (human intelligence) and ELINT (electronic intelligence) gathering never ends. Other global concerns such as Interpol, NATO and the Russian Federation all have dedicated counterterrorist analysis wings. Groups designated “terrorist” are given what essentially adds up to a threat number - a classification that defines their menace, objectives, capabilities and probable longevity. The intelligence system used to create this classification also covers senior figures, finance, weapons and explosive procurement and the group’s past and future capabilities:

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A Z to

The Lang When terrorists bombed London in 2005, some intelligence commentators used the words ‘Clean Skins’ to describe the men who had avoided the ‘Police Radar’ and were basically ‘Unknowns’. Eye Spy presents words and expressions used in the intelligence world... some well known and others forgotten or rarely spoken today

n 1899, the word Spy was defined by the Hague Convention as: “One who, acting clandestinely, or on false pretences, obtains, or seeks to obtain, information in the zone of operations of a belligerent, with the intention of communicating it to the hostile party.” And probably from that date forth those who worked in this shadowy industry started to use terminology that had an association with a specific task, though not always.

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W Walk-in

The language of spies and the intelligence services constantly evolves and new words are always added. Most people are familiar with common phrases such as Mole - a hostile spy who burrows into an intelligence agency to report to his handler. Slightly more clandestine, but equally as well known, the Honeytrap - an operation performed to compromise a person sexually. Other phrases are less well known and some even refer to equipment. For example Tiger in the Tank is spy talk for a linear amplifier, and Stroller is an agent working with a communication set.

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UAV - ‘Little Friend’

Hunting Pack

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uage of

SPIES

Officers and agents working for different agencies and in foreign countries, all use the language of spies to basically conceal and codename tasks. And though the objective may be the same, occasionally the wording is different, and this even applies to friendly countries such as Britain and America whose intelligence services operate closely.

Eye Spy has accumulated hundreds of phrases and words from the intelligence world and intends to publish the entire ‘dictionary’ at a later date, but here is a quick A-Z of a few interesting terms and their meaning.

Not surprisingly, there is even a word that MI6 and the CIA use to describe each other cousins. However, while MI5 and MI6 use the word Target to identity a person under surveillance, the CIA and FBI often use Rabbit.

A: AGENT OF INFLUENCE An agent or officer who rather than perform espionage, will try and affect opinion to open discussion or insert disinformation.

Library of Intrigue

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PART 1 P PLUMBING - American intelligence term for the preparation of major operations including reconnaissance of a building EYE SPY INTELLIGENCE MAGAZINE

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THE WORLD OF INTELLIGENCE AND GOVERNMENT

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EXCLUSIVE INSIGHTS AND INTERVIEWS

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The former D-Notice Secretary talks exclusively to Eye Spy about his forthcoming book ‘Secrecy and the Media: The Official History of the United Kingdom’s D-Notice System’

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EXCLUSIVE INTERVIEW

© CENTRE FOR SECURITY STUDIES

SPY WARS

The Nosenko Case - one of the great unsolved mysteries of the Cold War

Tennent Bagley, former head of the CIA’s Soviet Counterintelligence Desk, and author of the controversial book - Spy Wars - talks exclusively to Eye Spy about his work in Langley and why he believes the KGB ‘planted’ an agent inside the CIA who broke American secret codes

ecember 1961 was a time of great tension; the Cold War raging and Khrushchev rattling sabres over Berlin. It was also when a KGB officer named Anatoly Golitsyn defected to the CIA and gave startling indications of KGB successes in recruiting Western officials. Only a few months afterwards, there arrived on temporary mission in the West yet another KGB officer, Yuri Nosenko, volunteering his services to CIA in Geneva.

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Coming from inside the KGB’s directorate that worked against foreign intelligence inside the USSR, Nosenko brought quite different, and more comforting versions of certain operations that Golitsyn had partially exposed. Nosenko was unwilling to defect or to meet CIA inside the USSR, but agreed to make contact whenever he travelled to the Anatoly Golitsyn West.

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I was Nosenko’s initial contact in Geneva and later, in Langley as head of CIA’s worldwide operations against Soviet intelligence, supervised all contact with him until early 1967. We detected strange circumstances around Nosenko, and his reports seemed to be intentionally hiding the existence of KGB moles in CIA and among American code clerks, so I took a position against my own apparently important agent. In a long interrogation my views gained confirmation - though no confession. But after my departure on assignment abroad, CIA found it expedient to whitewash Nosenko of all doubts, take him into its fold as a counsellor on counterintelligence matters, and to discredit me and others who had distrusted him. Nosenko continues to live in the United States to this day, enjoying the trust of the American intelligence community. * While the KGB doubtless had more contact with Oswald than Nosenko reported, there is no reason to suspect the truth of his basic message - that the KGB had nothing to do with the assassination. The Soviet leadership is known to have been anxious to convey this message to the United States because a direr conclusion might even be a cause for war.

COURTESY: CIA

A BRIEF OVERVIEW BY TENNENT BAGLEY

A year and a half later Nosenko came out again, this time having changed his mind and defecting outright. This was just weeks after the assassination of President John F. Kennedy by Lee Harvey Oswald, who had earlier defected to and spent three years in the Soviet Union. Nosenko claimed astonishing direct knowledge of Oswald’s sojourn there, and could report with authority that the KGB had taken no interest in Oswald, much less had it had any hand in his later act.*

Yuri Nosenko - the KGB defector who Bagley maintains was a plant to deflect CIA attention away from other more important matters - including the assassination of United States President John F. Kennedy EYE SPY INTELLIGENCE MAGAZINE


Tennent Bagley and Eye Spy editor Mark Birdsall

President John F. Kennedy

After the collapse of the Soviet Union, during the brief window of opportunity that opened in the 1990s (and has since closed), I established contact with former KGB adversaries (who were fully aware of my long work against them) and in friendly conversations got confirmation that Nosenko had been planted by the KGB to hide the facts 1) that moles in CIA had permitted the KGB to detect great CIA’s spies like Popov and Penkovsky, and 2) that the KGB had recruited American code clerks who had permitted the Soviet Union to break American ciphers - gaining a war-winning capability. So I decided to write Spy Wars, in the hope of 1) persuading American authorities to look into these findings, 2) correcting history, and 3), exposing the dangerous treason of stillundiscovered moles.

“...Nosenko failed to tell us [CIA] that his closest associates happened to be KGB specialists in deception”

I N S I D E LANGLEY EYE SPY: The extensive detail you provide on the Yuri Nosenko defection case shows that the CIA leadership and some officers in the Soviet Branch were likely wrong in clearing him, yet your book, Spy Wars, was cleared for publication. Do you think this is an indication that opinions have changed at CIA regarding Nosenko? THB: It’s not criticism that CIA tries to avoid when clearing its veterans’ writings for publication. They’re looking - and rightly - for any inadvertent disclosure of their sources or methods or personnel. When the Agency cleared my manuscript they did find a few, so of course I deleted them. But that didn’t significantly reduce or dilute what I had to say. But to answer the other part of your question, no, there’s no sign that opinions have changed there. Nosenko evidently continues to enjoy CIA’s full confidence. EYE SPY: You make clear there were two factions at CIA: those who believed Nosenko was a bona-fide asset, and others, like yourself, who strongly believed he and other KGB personnel who “defected” during this same period were plants and part of a large deception plan.

Hired assassin? Lee Harvey Oswald EYE SPY INTELLIGENCE MAGAZINE

© EYE SPY INTELLIGENCE MAGAZINE

COURTESY: WHITE HOUSE MEDIA

© TALISMAN INTELLIGENCE LIBRARY

THB: Those who believed Nosenko was genuine were those who knew least about how the case unfolded on the scene, and that includes people who had studied the files. It

still astonishes me to see them defending Nosenko’s good faith while entirely ignoring or distorting - the truly significant facts. I’ve listed some of those facts in the form of “Twenty Questions” - matters like Nosenko’s false claim to have held the KGB job where he got the most important information he gave CIA about Soviet spies. Or why he failed to tell us that his closest associates happened to be KGB specialists in deception. My publisher, Yale University Press, put those twenty questions onto its web site: http:// yalepress.yale.edu;yupbooks.) Not one of these questions has ever been addressed, much less answered, by any defender of Nosenko. EYE SPY: What role did senior executives at CIA play in deciding who was bona-fide and whom was not? Why would upper level managers ignore so many strong indications of false defections? You stated that some of them wanted Nosenko cleared. What were their reasons? THB: Upper level managers had little time or inclination to delve into the details of the cases - and they wanted Nosenko cleared. That’s easy to understand. If they were to conclude that the KGB had planted Nosenko on them, they’d have had to ask why. They’d have to deal with what Nosenko was hiding that the KGB had broken American ciphers and had moles inside CIA. That would bring troubles down on their heads. Remember when they discovered a later mole, Aldrich Ames, in their midst; that didn’t win them any praise but instead waves of public outrage and ridicule. That sort of unpleasantness could be avoided if Nosenko were judged to be bona-fide. So upper level managers were understandably receptive to any explanations - even faulty and distorted ones - that might clear Nosenko and rid them of what CIA Director Richard Helms called this “incubus,” this “bone in the throat.”

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COUNTER SURVEILLANCE

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INSIDE TITO’S

SECRET TUNNELS

OF PLJESEVICA MOUNTAIN EYE SPY WORLD EXCLUSIVE

Pljesevica Mountain looks like any other in the Balkans, but within its very core a subterranean military complex that once provided Tito’s Yugoslavia with a key defense capability. It now serves as a NATO communications base. Photographer and author Simon Belcher journeys inside and provides Eye Spy with an exclusive insight into one of the great secrets of the Cold War EYE SPY INTELLIGENCE MAGAZINE

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NAVY

AIR FORCE

ARMY Cyber

Underwater Censors

INTELLIGENCE MODEL CUSTOMER Space

RAW DATA/ INFORMATION

RAW DATA/ INFORMATION

Electronic Intercepts

Aircraft

UK MI6 USA CIA

HUMINT

INTELLIGENCE

X

Open Source ACTIVE MEASURES

PASSIVE MEASURES

DISINFORMATION

PERSONAL SECURITY

DATA BASE

DECEPTION

PAST PERFORMANCE

EXPERIENCE

COUNTER INTELLIGENCE

PHYSICAL SECURITY

Agents

PERSONNEL

Maritime

TRAINING

FACTOR

INFORMATION

INTANGIBLE FACTORS

Media Liaisons

Allies

Defectors

Intelligence model shown is used by MI6 and CIA. Foreign policy, military and political decisions are often made on the premise of intelligence. Factor ‘X’ cannot be qualified. Often it is a question of being in the right or wrong place at a given time.

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The US intelligence community (USIC) had a great deal of intelligence about the 9/11 attackers. However, the vast and complex structure of the USIC meant that information held by agencies, directorates and even individuals was fragmented. Following the attack, measures were introduced to ensure intelligence could be streamed, pooled, accessed, shared and examined via a new organ - the Office of the Director National of National Intelligence - ODNI

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CAPITOL BUILDING BOMBER 17-year sentence for model aeroplane bomb plotter

In early 2011, US Intelligence discovered his support of the terror group and desire to kill American troopers in Iraq and Afghanistan. During one conversation with an agent, Ferdaus said he wanted to build cell phones that could be modified and used to detonate explosives. His use of model aircraft followed months of planning and visits to

he al-Qaida terrorist who plotted to fly a model aeroplane packed with explosives into the Capitol Building and attack the Pentagon, has been jailed for 17 years - this after a plea bargain resulted in four other charges being dropped.

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US national Rezwan Ferdaus, 27, was caught after an undercover FBI sting operation in which agents posed as al-Qaida operatives.

ext year the official inquest into the strange death of former KGB officer Alexsander Litvinenko opens. Litvinenko, 43, died after drinking green tea during a meeting with two Russian associates at the Millennium Hotel in London in

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November 2006. New Scotland Yard forensic specialists discovered his beverage had been laced with Polonium-210. The affair caused a major rift between Russia and Britain, and to this day, intelligence relations are poor. A pre-inquest review was recently held in the city in which Hugh Davies, counsel to the inquest, referenced the “possible culpability of the Russian state.” However, he

MI5 officers and NSY detectives search the Litvinenkos house in London

also mentioned British Intelligence in the same context. “One - the possible culpability of the British state, in carrying out by itself or its agents the poisoning, or two, failing to take reasonable steps to protect Mr Litvinenko from a real and immediate risk to his life.”

© LITVINENKO JUSTICE FOUNDATION

INTERESTED PARTIES MI6 and FSB May Appear at Litvinenko Inquest Alexsander Litvinenko

Most intelligence watchers acknowledge Litvinenko was deliberately targeted. Police have named one man at that meeting Andrei Lugovoi - as a “person of interest.” He denies any involvement. Another interesting possibility is that both MI6 and the FSB may become ‘interested parties’, in that information held by both organisations on the affair might be examined. The FSB, at time of publication, has yet to respond to the offer. This would almost certainly involve the questioning of witnesses and analysis of recorded documentation and conclusions held by the intelligence community.

Police at the Millennium Hotel where Litvinenko met with two Russian intel associates

© AT MEDIA/SNAPPERJACK OF LONDON

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By July 2012, he had rented a storage unit and expanded his plans which included a ground assault with his associates on the Pentagon. His arms ‘wish list’ included grenades, automatic weapons, a silencer and around 20lbs of explosives.

Rezwan Ferdaus

POLONIUM-210•ARAFAT•MOSSAD French and Swiss research teams will soon discover if Palestinian leader was assassinated with radioactive isotope - Polonium-210 rench investigators are to exhume the remains of former Palestinian leader Yassar Arafat, it has been confirmed. This follows months of negotiations with various parties, including his widow Suha, after a Swiss research laboratory, claimed it had discovered traces of Polonium-210 on some of Arafat’s private belongings and clothes.

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of Radiation Physics, though a date has not been decided upon. After falling ill Arafat was flown to a military hospital in Paris. A few days later he was pronounced dead, the most likely cause being a stroke.

The autopsy will probably be performed by Switzerland’s Institute

There has also been speculation that the Polonium-210 traces were

© LITVINENKO JUSTICE FOUNDATION

Marina Litvinenko should also be considered is whether MI6 should be invited to either apply or be designated.” In recent months there has been a suggestion of British involvement perhaps inspired by the opening of the inquest. An even more bizarre theory also surfaced - that Litvinenko actually poisoned himself deliberately or accidentally. Marina says these are “distasteful” and “not a shred of evidence exists” to support these scenarios.

© AT MEDIA/SNAPPERJACK OF LONDON

Yassar Arafat’s tomb in Ramallah

Suha is but one of many people who believes her husband, who died in 2004, was deliberately targeted by assassins using the radioactive isotope.

Davies acknowledged the various theories which abound regarding Litvinenko’s death. Therefore the scope of the inquest could involve numerous parties, including Litvinenko’s friend, London-based billionaire Boris Berezovsky; Chechen groups and even the criminal community. Litvinenko’s widow, Marina, is optimistic, but says that even if the Russian state is not included, the FSB could be. As for British Intelligence Marina said: “What

© EFFI SCHWEIZER

the Capitol Building in Washington, but Ferdaus didn’t realise he was already being surveilled.

Intelligence-related files have been submitted by some UK agencies, but media speculation is rife that certain reports have yet to be handed over.

introduced on the clothing more recently. Israeli chemical expert Dr Ely Karmon said: “Because of the half-life of the substance, the polonium is much more fresh... someone planted it later.” Arafat’s remains are housed in a mausoleum in the central West Bank city of Ramallah.

BRITONS TARGETED MI6 WARNS OF INCREASING INSTABILITY IN EGYPT n al-Qaida terror unit in Egypt were arrested just days before carrying out an operation to kill dozens of British tourists in the popular resort of Sharm el-Sheikh. The proposed attack is but one of many conceived by the group’s supporters - this following an ‘appeal’ by its leader Ayman al-Zawahiri - to abduct and kill Westerners around the world.

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and discovered a massive arsenal including various firearms and rocket-propelled grenades.

Eye Spy learned that following the incident, an MI6 signal from its Middle East Desk suggested that the Foreign Office raise the threat level for Britons intending to holiday or travel to certain locations in the region. This duly happened after Egyptian police said the terrorists Egyptian intelligence were tipped-off had planned to “replicate events in by members of the public who had Mumbai.” The Foreign Office become suspicious of the comings warned: “There is a high risk of terrorism throughout Egypt and the and goings at a house. CounterSinai.” terrorist police raided the building

Naama Bay, Sharm el-Sheikh © MARC RYCKAERT MJJR

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a glimpse of the

CIA’s Dream Factory

Dragonfly Insectothopter Developed by CIA’s Office of Research and Development in the 1970s, this micro Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) was the first flight of an insect-sized aerial vehicle (Insectothopter). It was an initiative to explore the concept of intelligence collection by miniaturised platforms.

Bodyworn Surveillance Equipment

Escape and Evasion Map Printed on silk, which is durable, this map doesn’t rustle and can be folded up very compactly to be more easily concealed. It also is printed with waterproof dyes so the colours would not run if the map got wet.

An intelligence officer’s clothing, accessories, and behaviour must be as unremarkable as possible their lives (and others’) may depend on it. This is a responsibility that operational artisans, technicians, and engineers of the Office of Technical Readiness (OTR) take seriously. America’s intelligence officers can safely collect intelligence in hostile environments because they know that quality and craftsmanship have been “built in” to their appearances, leaving no traces to alert the enemy.

Stereoscope and Case The stereoscope was used during World War II. This tool helped allied photo interpreters, who analysed images of enemy territory taken by aeroplanemounted cameras, to view the film in 3-Dimension.

“Belly Buster” Hand-Crank Audio Drill

Letter Removal Device Special devices were used in World War II to take letters from their envelopes without opening the seals. The pincer-like device was inserted into the unsealed gap at the top of an envelope flap. One could then wind the letter around the pincers and extract the letter from within.

CIA used the “Belly Buster” drill during the late 1950s and early 1960s. It would drill holes into masonry for implanting audio devices. After assembly, the base of the drill was held firmly against the stomach while the handle was cranked manually. This kit came with several drill bits and accessories.

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Studies in Intelligence Volume 1, Number 1 Sherman Kent created the publication Studies in Intelligence in 1955. Kent – the most renowned analyst in American intelligence history – served as a CIA officer from 1950 to 1967. Kent envisioned a journal devoted to intelligence theory, doctrine, and techniques. Studies in Intelligence was born from this vision. The quarterly journal is still published today; unclassified issues are published on the CIA’s Web site.

Robot Fish “Charlie” CIA’s Office of Advanced Technologies and Programmes developed the Unmanned Underwater Vehicle (UUV) fish to study aquatic robot technology. The UUV fish contains a pressure hull, ballast system, and communications system in the body and a propulsion system in the tail. It is controlled by a wireless line-of-sight radio handset.

One-Time Pads One-time pads (OTP) are used to encode/ decode agent communications. They are issued in matching sets of two: one for the encoder and one for the decoder, and no two pages are alike. Each sheet contains a random key in the form of five-digit groups. Once a sheet has been used to encode a message, it is torn off the pad and destroyed. If used as designed, encryption by OTP is virtually unbreakable.

Microdot Camera The secret transfer of documents became very difficult during the Cold War. Agents relied on the microdot camera to photograph and reduce whole pages of information onto a single tiny piece of film. This piece of film could be embedded into the text of a letter as small as a period at the end of this sentence. Microdots were also hidden in other things such as rings, hollow coins, or other mailed items. The recipient would read the microdot with the aid of a special viewer, often cleverly concealed as well.

Pigeon Camera CIA’s Office of Research and Development developed a camera small and light enough to be carried by a pigeon. It would be released, and on its return home the bird would fly over a target. Being a common species, its role as an intelligence collection platform was concealed in the activities of thousands of other birds. Pigeon imagery was taken within hundreds of feet of the target so it was much more detailed than other collection platforms.

Minox Camera

Tobacco Pouch Camera A miniature 35mm film camera manufactured in Switzerland is concealed in this modified tobacco pouch. A spring-wound mechanism advances the film between exposures.

“Silver Dollar” Hollow Container This coin may appear to be an Eisenhower silver dollar, but it is really a concealment device. It was used to hide messages or film so they could be sent secretly. Because it looks like ordinary pocket change, it is almost undetectable. EYE SPY INTELLIGENCE MAGAZINE

Walter Zapp, a Latvian engineer, developed a portable camera that would fit easily into the palm of the hand and yet take high quality, spontaneous pictures. The Minox subminiature camera, in its various models, was the world’s most widely used spy camera. When it first became available, the camera was considered a marvel of technology; it was originally made from steel in Riga from 1937-1944.

“Dead” Drop Spike This device is a spike that one could push into the ground. It is hollow in the middle and could contain messages, documents, or film.

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‘TRANSFER OF REMAINS CEREMONY’ - ANDREWS AFB

MI6 WARNING IGNORED? White House, State Department and CIA deflect criticism over US Consulate attack in Benghazi, but was vital intelligence ignored?

he brutal execution of US Ambassador Christopher Stevens and deaths of three other American staffers (former US Navy SEALs - Glen Doherty and Tyrone Wood and computer specialist Sean Smith) at the country’s Libyan consulate in September, has resulted in a public war of words between diplomatic, government and intelligence figures. Initial word from Washington was that

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the event happened because of the release of an amateur anti-Islam film produced in the United States. However, it was fairly evident to intelligence and military analysts that the attack was pre-planned, calculated and those participants had one objective - to assassinate Mr Stevens and give America a ‘bloody nose’. There never was a film demonstration. There had been little sign of trouble in the city that day, unlike mass protests seen elsewhere

US Ambassador Christopher Stevens

Benghazi was the focal point of the uprising against Colonel Gaddafi

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in other countries. Indeed, at 8.30pm on 11 September, Stevens had just bade farewell to a Turkish diplomat. About an hour later dozens of heavily armed men started to attack the compound. Mortars, rocket-propelled grenades and heavy weapons were all in evidence. Buildings were set alight and the hunt for the ambassador began. About a mile away in a building occupied by the CIA, officers there, including a security detail, reported the attack. EYE SPY INTELLIGENCE MAGAZINE

COURTESY: DEPTARTMENT OF STATE

THE PERFECT PLATFORM


9/11 anniversary and al-Qaida influence on fighting factions provided ‘perfect platform’ for attack on US consulate Whilst Stevens hid, there was confusion within the CIA annex. The team offered to go to the consulate, but were reportedly told to “stand down.” Nevertheless, former US Navy SEAL, Tyrone Woods and his colleagues did go to ambassador Stevens assistance. When they arrived at the consulate just before 10.00pm, the men came under heavy fire. Mr Stevens was nowhere to be found, but they did recover the body of Sean Smith a computer expert. In addition, Woods and his colleagues managed to evacuate other staffers back to the CIA building.

A Libyan Army tank destroyed in Benghazi during the uprising against Gaddafi. Since the dictator was deposed, numerous fighting factions remain, including many supportive of al-Qaida. Weapons have since been handed in, but MI6 officers warned that heavily armed groups continue to operate with near impunity. Prior to the removal of Gaddafi, both the CIA and MI6 notified London and Washington that Benghazi was an al-Qaida base. Inset: US Navy SEAL Tyrone Woods COURTESY: DEPTARTMENT OF STATE

And then the CIA building came under heavy fire. The fighting would rage for four more hours during which time the CIA security detail again contacted their superiors and requested immediate support. An hour’s journey away, the US did have a crack Special Forces Delta team which could have afforded assistance. Also less than 1,500 miles away, US warplanes were at Sigonella Naval Air Station in Sicily, Italy, but other forces were much closer.

© GLEN DOHERTY MEMORIAL FOUNDATION

Perhaps more damning, it later emerged the US had a specialist army counter-terrorist team at Sigonella. In the confusion, and for reasons unbeknown to anyone, they were not called upon. Former US Navy SEAL Glen Doherty died trying to protect Ambassador Stevens. Pictured far right is Sean Smith - a computer expert who also perished Above: President Obama and Secretary of State Hillary Clinton honour the four Americans killed by a hostile mob infiltrated by al-Qaida terrorists The ‘Transfer of Remains Ceremony’ was held at Andrews AFB. Sadly the affair was politicised by various politicians who seemed unsure if the incident was one of terrorism... EYE SPY INTELLIGENCE MAGAZINE

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SPIES

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Š JAY GOLDBERG

UNSEEN

5TH ANNIVERSARY

IMAGES OF

To mark the 5th anniversary of the devastating terrorist attacks on New York and Washington DC, Eye Spy was provided with dozens of previously unpublished photographs taken by New York Police detective Jay Goldberg just hours after the incident which left thousands of civilians dead. We are grateful to Jay who was on duty that fateful day in Manhattan and was one of the first police officers at the scene. In a later edition Jay provides a unique perspective of how the emergency services reacted and the thoughts of those who were there on that shocking day...

9/11 WORLD EXCLUSIVE

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SPECIAL OPERATIONS

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' LAW ENFORCEMENT PICTURE LIBRARY/STEVE MCMANUS

COLD WAR ESPIONAGE REVISITED

Moscow accuses Britain’s MI6 of under-the-counter spy games An MI6 undercover operation was exposed after Russian intelligence officials monitored an agent contact area. In 2004, the FSB reportedly placed a Moscow-based UK diplomat under surveillance after receiving intelligence that the official - a former Durham University graduate was an agent. The surveillance according to FSB officials - led them to a Moscow street and a most remarkable discovery... EYE SPY INTELLIGENCE MAGAZINE

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FSB COMPROMISE MI6 INTELLIGENC

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ithout warning, Russian state television station Rossiya, broadcast a documentary about the spy games which apparently came as a surprise to British Prime Minister Tony Blair. He said he only became aware of the affair after switching on his television and flicking through the Teletext pages. Mr Blair said: “I’m afraid you are going to get the old stock-in-trade ‘we never comment on security matters’... except when we want to, obviously. I think the less said about that, the better. ” Central to the Rossiya claims was a light brown plastic ‘rock’ about 15 inches long. The object was hollow and inside the watertight box, a communications system for transTony Blair mitting and receiving signals. The device was powered by several long-life lithium batteries. Moscow claims it was placed in the park in September 2005 by an “MI6 officer already under surveillance.”

The incident comes at a time when both nations have increased intelligencegathering levels to that once witnessed in the Cold War. The Federal Security Bureau (FSB) learned of the operation last summer, but decided to gather as much information as possible in an effort to limit UK denials. Television schedules gave no hint of the broadcast and the story has captured the imagination of people throughout the world. However, for the supposed MI6 officers named by Moscow, the incident is worrying - but not so dangerous like that of a fourth man - a Russian national who has been accused of “involvement in activities against the state.” A subtle phrase used to mean ‘spy’. He has already confessed to espionage. FSB sources say he was recruited by MI6 while attending a British university though that has not been confirmed. Weeks prior to the broadcast, it is understood that senior British diplomats in Moscow and London were invited to meetings with officials from the FSB. They were questioned about their knowledge of “certain activities” taking place just off a city street next to a park. The UK diplomats were apparently puzzled and baffled by the line of questioning. A diplomat, described by

Nikolay Patrushev - head of the FSB is said to be “delighted” that the MI6 espionage has been “compromised” by his service

the Foreign Office as third secretary at the British Embassy in Moscow, was asked that MI6 “desist its operation.” The FSB claim he too is in the employ of MI6.

Sergei Ignatchenko

The UK dismissed the allegations, but Sergei Ignatchenko, chairman of the FSB’s media centre, explained what happened next: “They [MI6] began to deny it and claimed that they weren’t working against us at all.” That message was related to Moscow and a decision was then made to expose the affair. “It

‘Here we see how he comes close to the rock, holding the device in his hands. You can see how he tries to retrieve information. It looks like something goes wrong with the process because first he walks to one side and then he changes direction and walks to another side but still the information doesn’t come. Then he goes closer to the trees as if pretending that he wants to relieve himself. By using these false movements he comes close to the rock and kicks it.’ - Russian TV commentator

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CE OPERATION “According to our experts’ assessments, this device costs several tens of millions of pounds [to develop]. You could only create this technological wonder in laboratory conditions...”

The device contained at least five long-life lithium batteries suggesting the operation was of some duration

X-ray of the alleged MI6 spying device retrieved by the FSB - five lithium batteries are visible

was only then that we decided to go public,” said Ignatchenko. “We consider this a breach of our agreements. In essence we were deceived.” Those ‘agreements’ referred to by Mr Ignatchenko, supposedly centre upon a ‘gentlemen’s agreement’ reached by Moscow and London in 1994 that neither country will participate in espionage activities against each other. However, one year ago President Putin publicly ordered his intelligence services to “get more active abroad.” MI5 also

EYE SPY INTELLIGENCE MAGAZINE

Russia’s media has published the names and photographs of the four alleged MI6 officers

warned that Russian intelligence gathering is on the increase in the UK and a number of suspects are under surveillance. It is believed Moscow has around 40 SVR officers operating in the UK.

The Russians also claim that one of the MI6 officers had been authorising payments to Russian non-governmental organisations (NGOs), including civil rights groups. During the documentary,

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SPECIAL INTELLIGENCE FORCES

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PHOTOGRAPHY TRADECRAFT

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Š HALA/SNAPPERJACK OF LONDON

SHOOT TO KILL Good morning! Residents opened their curtains to this sight. Sadly, it is a necessity against the possibility of an airborne attack

LONDON 2012 OLYMPIC GAMES SECURITY The extraordinary security operation to protect the London Olympic Games is evidenced in these photographs showing Army deployment of a surface-to-air missile battery in the city. Already the Royal Navy has warships on the River Thames, and the RAF has moved several powerful Typhoon fighters to RAF Northolt on the outskirts of London. Some 40,000 people will work in various areas of security, including hundreds of surveillance operatives to monitor suspicious behaviour. Several elite snipers will operate in the city. MI5 has advised senior government officials that there is a possibility al-Qaida or Irish dissidents may strike. Analysts note the event will be watched by billions of people around the world, affording a major propaganda opportunity.

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© SNAPPERJACK OF LONDON Senior officers from all three UK armed forces, New Scotland Yard, MI5, MOD and Home Office discuss the deployment of the missile system at Blackheath.

Fig. 1

Fig. 2

Fig. 3 © RAF/ROYAL NAVY/CROWN COPYRIGHT

© HALA/SNAPPERJACK OF LONDON

Figs. 1 and 2. Scenes from HMS Ocean which is docked in Greenwich. The ship is carrying Lynx helicopters which will be used to deploy Special Forces and Counter Terrorist Command officers in an emergency. Fig. 3. The RAF also have a major airborne presence at the Games. These Typhoon fighters have been relocated to RAF Northolt. In early May, a major exercise was hosted by the base code-named Olympic Guardian

A somewhat surreal image at Blackheath. Against the backdrop of London’s financial district (Canary Wharf) and a passing red bus, an Army Rapier missile battery is deployed. The Ministry of Defence has confirmed it has authorised the shooting down of any rogue aircraft that presents a danger to the Olympic Games and the city as a whole EYE SPY INTELLIGENCE MAGAZINE

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MI6 NIGHT GAMES Criticism over a failed MI6 operation to secure a secret communication channel to Libyan rebels is unjustified. This is the opinion of many senior intelligence analysts who recognise that nothing supersedes the importance of obtaining human intelligence (HUMINT) and an avenue to talk...

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n the early hours of 5 March 2011, an urgent government inspired memo was sent to the editors of a number of newspapers and television channels, including Eye Spy. An incident was being widely reported in the Middle East that detailed the detention of several British Special Forces (SF) soldiers and a ‘diplomat’ in eastern Libya. The advisory urged caution when disclosing the identity of the group. However, within hours it transpired that a top secret UK intelligence operation had been exposed; furthermore, the diplomat was in

fact a senior MI6 officer with much experience in Libyan matters, and with an apparent contact on the ground. Indeed, Eye Spy understands that at least two MI6 men were attached to the group. THE INCREMENT This dangerous ‘back-channel’ operation was green-lighted by Downing Street in an effort to cement a proper liaison with officials in the anti-Gaddafi movement. The MI6 officer was part of a SF unit that combined both SAS (Special Air Service) and SBS (Special Boat Service) personnel. When these units are

drawn together and either head-up or support an MI6 operation, they usually form what is known in British Intelligence as ‘The Increment’. MI6 Station Chiefs have access to The Increment only in the event of ‘extraordinary circumstances’ or when national security is threatened. Other elements involved in the creation of such a unit may involve the Joint Support Group (JSG), Joint Special Forces Aviation Wing (JSFAW), and the Strategic Reconnaissance Regiment (SRR).

MOST DANGEROUS: MI6 Chief Sir John Sawers was called upon to use the Service’s worldwide network to make contact with central figures opposed to Colonel Gaddafi 80

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The team were secreted into the desert during the dead of night by way of at least one Chinook helicopter flying from Malta. Reports from Libya state two helicopters were involved. Their destination was a sprawling illuminated desert farm complex near the rebel held city of Benghazi. Indeed, the site called ‘Farmco’ covers nearly 40,000 acres. Eye Spy understands that MI6 did have a contact man on the ground who had alerted a local rebel commander about the flight. He was supposedly called ‘Tom Smith’, a Welsh man, though there has been a great deal of speculation this is but a pseudonym. He was listed on a Foreign Office web link and reportedly played a role in the rescue and coordination of Britons wanting to leave Libya. However, in the heart of the desert, other forces notified by farm hands observed the SAS-MI6 group land and were angry about their presence. Not wishing to make a tense situation worse, the group decided to cooper-

© LA.MONCLOA.ES

MI6 Station Chiefs have access to The Increment only in the event of ‘extraordinary circumstances’ or when national security is threatened

Happier times... Colonel Muammar Gaddafi and Spain’s President Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero ate with the rebels and laid down their arms. From inside the helicopter, a large quantity of explosives, ammunition, maps, fake identity papers and passports were allegedly seized. Eye Spy believes tracking devices were recovered from various objects. TIME-LINE AND TELEPHONE INTERCEPTION It seems clear that Tom was MI6’s ground contact at the Farmco plant, owned by the Al-

Khadra Farm Company, about 18 miles southwest of Benghazi. Some reports state Tom, who had worked for about five months as an administrator at the company, intended to use a secure room to support the mission. Though the operation had started well in Malta, Tom’s night-time activities had caught the eye of at least one colleague. At 3.00am a farm guard watched him drive out of the complex; minutes later the sound of a helicopter could be heard. A short while later the Special

Eye Spy examines the British Intelligence precursor mission to

OPERATION ELLAMY

CALCULATED RISK: Britain’s Foreign Secretary William Hague assembled senior intel and military officials and decided to launch a night-time operation that Downing Street considered “absolutely essential”... EYE SPY INTELLIGENCE MAGAZINE

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o w T t r Pa

SURVEILLANCE PHOTOGRAPHS © SURVEILLANCE TRADECRAFT

P H O T O G R A P H Y

DIGITAL SLR CAMERAS SELECTING CORRECT EXPOSURE Being able to select correct exposure settings on a camera used in surveillance work can seem daunting. However, in this feature Peter Jenkins, one of the world’s most respected surveillance trainers demystifies the subject and provides a step-by-step guide to understanding exposure and various topics associated with this most important photographic element... HOW A DIGITAL CAMERA WORKS digital camera is a light proof box with a light sensor called a Charge Coupled Device (CCD) at one end and instead of film, a lens at the other, which focuses light onto the sensor to produce a ‘correct exposure’. A correct exposure is where the camera reads the amount of light available and selects the ideal shutter speed and respective aperture size. Some areas of the picture may be in shade, another parts in bright light, thus the camera’s meter calculates an average to obtain a correct exposure. There are three factors that control the amount of light that enters the camera and hits the sensor:

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• The diameter of the lens, wider is better but expensive • The length of time the shutter is held open (shutter speed)

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WITH PETER JENKINS Shutter speed is measured in fractions of a second, such as: 1/15 1/30 1/60 1/125 1/250 1/500 1/1000 It is very important especially when filming in low light; moving subjects and shooting with telephoto lenses. A shutter speed of 1/125th or 1/250th is a good number to use for most shots but we will look at this in-depth a little later.

• The diameter of the aperture within the lens, which we call ‘aperture’

1/250th

Different combinations of these factors create various effects to the image, which are very important. In any mode (apart from the manual setting) the camera will always compute what it considers to be a correct exposure. The correct exposure is a combination of shutter speed and aperture setting

1/100th

Initial pressure on the shutter button focuses the lens and also takes a light reading; the camera calculates what it considers to be the best aperture and best shutter speed to use. Both are related because as you alter the shutter speed, the aperture is also affected. The slower the shutter speed, the smaller the aperture. The faster the shutter speed, the wider the aperture.

APERTURE

Shutter speed is the amount of time the shutter is held open to allow sufficient light to fall on the sensor before closing again.

As stated, the aperture is the size of the hole that allows light to reach the sensor and is controlled by a moving diaphragm inside the lens. The size

1/60th

1/20th

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© EYE SPY

of the aperture can be altered and is given a numerical value which represents the size. These values are called ‘f’ numbers or ‘f stops’ and follow in sequence: f:2

2.8

4

5.6

8

11

16

“Photography, whether one likes it or not, is a crucial element of surveillance work...”

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f16

f8

f4

EXPOSURE MODES

f2 Many cameras have different exposure modes. Its respective manual should explain what modes are available, such as: f2 being the widest aperture, letting in lots of light and f22 the smallest, letting in less light. The series as a whole is arranged so that each f number lets in twice as much light as the previous number.

• Automatic • Programme • Shutter Priority • Aperture Priority • Manual • Shortcut Modes • Automatic Exposure Most SLR cameras have an automatic mode and it is usually identified by a green symbol on the mode dial. In this mode, all that is needed to take a picture is to point the camera, which takes a meter reading and automatically sets the cameras aperture setting and shutter speed to obtain a correct exposure (the flash will pop up if required). This is a good setting for the novice but not always ideal in surveillance photography where more control over the camera is required.

WHY IS APERTURE SO IMPORTANT TO THE SURVEILLANCE PHOTOGRAPHER?

PROGRAMME MODE: In this mode, the camera takes an exposure reading and suggests the best settings to use. Turning the control dial can manually alter the shutter speed and the camera selects the correct aperture to match. This mode is used to give you more control over which

EYE SPY INTELLIGENCE MAGAZINE

shutter speed or aperture to use in order to obtain certain effects. Let’s imagine you’ve just taken a meter reading and your camera suggests an exposure of 1/125sec at f8. To achieve the same exposure but with a faster shutter speed (to capture movement), you turn the control dial to use any of the following aperture and shutter speed combinations: 2.8 4 5.6 8 1/1000 1/500 1/250 1/125

11 1/60

16 1/30

The combination you choose depends on what type of effect you are trying to achieve.

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wide aperture such as f1.4 or f2.8 will allow plenty of light in and this is needed in a low light situation which is common in surveillance photography, especially in the early morning or in the evening. In addition, a larger aperture will allow you to use faster shutter speeds, which is extremely important with a telephoto lens. Whether you use a small or large aperture also has a strange effect on the image which we call ‘depth of field’ and is described next. Essentially, in surveillance, a wider aperture is best (or ‘fast’ lens) but they can be expensive.

Exposure control on a typical Nikon camera

Camera shutter speed and aperture data highlighted in red box

SHUTTER PRIORITY: When in this mode, you manually set the shutter speed and the camera automatically sets the aperture. Your choice of shutter speed affects how moving subjects will appear in the picture. Slow shutter speeds such as 1/15 or 1/30 of a second, will blur moving subjects. Fast shutter speeds such as 1/250, 1/ 500 or 1/1000 of a second can be used to freeze the action of a moving subject. Fast shutter speeds are required when using telephoto lenses to prevent camera shake.

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ORIGINS EYE SPY SECRET HISTORY

OF AMERICAN INTELLIGENCE The United States Intelligence Community is recognised as the world’s biggest employer of intelligence and security personnel. With over a dozen premier agencies and numerous other ‘service organisations’, it is a complex and impressive organ that functions in every corner of the world. Though some of its agencies are regarded as ‘youthful’ in terms of the date of their creation, the actual origins of American Intelligence are hundreds of years old...

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merica has carried out foreign intelligence activities for well two centuries. Recognising the need for foreign intelligence and foreign alliances, the Second Continental Congress created the COMMITTEE OF CORRESPONDENCE by a resolution on 29 November 1775:

“The necessity of procuring good intelligence is apparent and need not be further urged... All that remains for me to add is, that you keep the whole matter as secret as possible. For upon secrecy, success depends in most enterprises of the kind, and for want of it, they are generally defeated, however well planned and promising a favourable issue.” George Washington 26 July 1777 84

RESOLVED, That a committee of five would be appointed for the sole purpose of corresponding with our friends in Great Britain, and other parts of the world, and that they lay their correspondence before Congress when directed; RESOLVED, That this Congress will make provision to defray all such expenses as they may arise by carrying on such correspondence, and for the payment of such agents as the said Committee may send on this service. SECRET CORRESPONDENCE

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he committee was soon renamed the COMMITTEE OF SECRET CORRESPONDENCE. Its members were Benjamin Franklin of Pennsylvania, Benjamin Harrison of Virginia, and Thomas Johnson of

Maryland. This was effectively America’s first foreign intelligence directorate. The committee employed secret agents abroad, conducted covert operations, devised codes and ciphers, funded propaganda activities, authorised the opening of private mail, acquired foreign publications for use in analysis, established a courier system, and developed a maritime capability apart from that of the Navy. On 17 April 1777, the Committee of Secret Correspondence was renamed the COMMITTEE OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS, but kept with its intelligence function. Matters of diplomacy were conducted by other committees or by the Congress as a whole.

tion relative to foreign affairs” was shifted to the new body, whose secretary was empowered to correspond “with all other persons from whom he may expect to receive useful information.” THE SECRET COMMITTEE

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ven before setting up the Committee of Secret Correspondence, the Second Continental Congress had created a SECRET COMMITTEE by a resolution on 18 September 1775. This committee was given wide powers and large sums of money to obtain military supplies in secret, and was charged with distributing the supplies and selling gunpowder to privateers chartered by the Continental Congress. The committee also

With the creation of a Department of Foreign Affairs - the forerunner of the Department of State - on 10 January 1781, correspondence “for the purpose of obtaining the most extensive and useful informa-

Robert Morris of the Secret Committee was nicknamed “The Financier” because of his financial support of the American Revolution EYE SPY INTELLIGENCE MAGAZINE


civilian espionage act, and military law did not provide punishment severe enough to afford a deterrent, in the judgment of Patriot leaders. DEATH TO SPIES

O The “Secret Corresponders” L-R Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Johnson, Benjamin Harrison took over and administered on a uniform basis the secret contracts for arms and gunpowder previously negotiated by certain members of the Congress without the formal sanction of that body. The committee kept its transactions secret, and destroyed many of its records to assure the confidentiality of its work. The Secret Committee employed agents overseas, often in cooperation with the Committee of Secret Correspondence. It also gathered intelligence about Tory secret ammunition stores and arranged to seize them. The Secret Committee sent missions to plunder British supplies in the southern colonies. It arranged the purchase of military stores through intermediaries so as to conceal the fact that the Continental Congress was the true purchaser. The Secret Committee used foreign flags to protect its vessels from the British fleet. Those appointed to the committee included some of the most influential members

n 7 November 1775, the Continental Congress added the death penalty for espionage to the Articles of War, but the clause was not applied retroactively, and Church remained in jail. On 21 August 1776, the committee’s report was considered by the Continental Congress, which enacted the first espionage act:

Adams, Sherman, Livingston, Jefferson, Franklin - The Committee appointed to prepare the Declaration of Independence of the Congress: Benjamin Franklin, Robert Morris, Robert Livingston, John Dickinson, Thomas Willing, Thomas McKean, John Langdon, and Samuel Ward. THE COMMITTEE ON SPIES

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n 5 June 1776, the Congress appointed John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, Edward Rutledge, James Wilson, and Robert Livingston “to consider what

is proper to be done with persons giving intelligence to the enemy or supplying them with provisions.” The same committee was charged with revising the Articles of War in regard to espionage directed against the patriot forces. The problem was an urgent one. Dr Benjamin Church, chief physician of the Continental Army, had already been seized and imprisoned as a British agent, but there was no

RESOLVED, That all persons not members of, nor owing allegiance to, any of the United States of America, as described in a resolution to the Congress of the 29th of June last, who shall be found lurking as spies in or about the fortification or encampments of the armies of the United States, or of any of them, shall suffer death, according to the law and usage of nations, by sentence of a court martial, or such ether punishment as such court martial may direct. It was resolved further that the act “be printed at the end of the rules and articles of war.” On 27 February 27 1778, the Continental Congress broadened the law to include any “inhabitants of these states” whose intelligence activities aided the enemy in capturing or killing Patriots.

THE AMERICAN COMMITTEE ON SPIES 5 JUNE 1776: John Adams, James Wilson, Edward Rutledge, Robert Livingston and Thomas Jefferson EYE SPY INTELLIGENCE MAGAZINE

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EQUIPMENT MANUFACTURERS SHOULD CONTACT EYE SPY BEFORE FORWARDING SAMPLES FOR REVIEW

EYE SPY E ye Spy’s COVERT BLACK reviewed in issue 43 is ideal for the professional, but didn’t necessarily meet the needs of all our readers, some who wanted a more affordable system. Thanks to the efforts of colleagues who spent a considerable time sourcing camera products for an ideal combination set, we believe we have found something quite special. Lower costs occasionally equates to inferior quality, but this is not the case with COVERT BLACK ECONOMY -a recording system that still provides quality colour film footage and audio. As with our more expensive set, this button camera recorder comes complete with a high quality display, has audio capability and importantly, is easy to use. There is however, one main difference - the price.

The quality of the camera is outstanding. With 380 horizontal TV lines it performs well in low light and works in either PAL or NTSC formats. Its small size makes it the perfect combination for body worn applications. Like Covert Black, the unit requires

PRODUCT REVIEW Affordable - Superb Results no additional power source as the camera and audio is powered directly from the MP4 device. The camera is lightweight and low in profile. Because it is a modular camera it can be also be used in a purse, bag, backpack, tie, hat etc. Nevertheless, we still recommend it should be worn in the sternum area. Of added advantage, it has just one tough but very slender lead that plugs directly into the recorder. Many surveillance operatives wrongly assume that a hat or eyeglass camera provides the best viewpoint. While a head mount does allow the user added movement of the camera, we have seen results that include too much sky and ceilings in the top half of the frame. Similarly, the footage can be jerky or blurred in replay. It is also a little difficult to hide the wire from the head to the recorder. The camera’s 80 degree field of vision is quite adequate. Correctly fastened in the button hole it is totally invisible.

COVERT BLACK Quality Button Camera with Digital M MP4 DIGITAL VIDEO RECORDER (DVR)

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he DVR is small enough to fit into a standard sized cigarette packet and has a built-in screen to check the footage as it is being collected. The unit also comes with a set of high quality earphones to monitor the audio during playback and can be used as a standard MP4 player. It has an excellent time display allowing frames or footage to be accurately detailed - ideal for data used in legal cases. The unit has 512 MB internal memory and will hold approximately four hours of video. An optional 1GB SD card enables you can record an additional eight hours. To playback, simply plug the supplied USB cable into a computer. The computer

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automatically finds and detects the camera and files can be accessed. Files can be played on any media such as Windows Media Player or Real Player.

SUMMARY: The system is easy to operate and conceal and produces highquality imagery and audio. The camera is excellent and matched by the DVR. Uploading the footage takes seconds, and more importantly, programmes are available that compress large files allowing the user to store hours of film on a single CD, for example. In terms of performance and quality, Covert Black Economy is great value.

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Quality metal carry case

Lead for playback on television or record to video

Lead to PC for playback editing

Professional ear phones for discreet listening

One set of buttons

Multi-function DVR recorder with in-built screen providing power to camera and audio

ECONOMY MP4 Recorder COVERT BLACK VERSUS THE ECONOMY SYSTEM

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overt Black Economy comes with one set of matching buttons in dark blue. Covert Black has four sets of interchangeable buttons and screws (the screw heads allows for concealment in wall panels). The Covert Black set has slightly better image quality - 450 horizontal lines against CBE’s 380. You can use a 4GB SD card with Covert Black, though it only takes a few seconds to insert an empty card. Two distinct advantages of the economy set are its superb hard sided carry case and stronger primary lead. As with other systems, Covert Black Economy is not rainproof so care must be taken when operating outdoors. However, with a little imagination protective housings can be built. Assembly time to operation is just two minutes.

EYE SPY INTELLIGENCE MAGAZINE

Camera and audio recorder

Specifications: Video signal system: PAL/NTSC Photo-image sensor: 1/3 CMOS COLOUR Low Illumination: 2.0lux Horizontal Resolution: 380TV Lines S/N ratio: Min.48dB Video output: 1.0-/75ohms Backlight: Auto Operating Temp: -10/+50 Power Supply: DC 8V Lens: 3.6 mm MP4 Player Specifications Supports multi-language display, supports WMA/WAV/ADPCM/PCM audio format Standard USB2.0 interface, with builtin SD/MMC card slot, 512MB memory flash Support folder management function and view function Supports ASF format, ADPCM stereo sound, or convert to ASF format by transfer tools JPEG format Set up function: time / calendar, language, game, storage/check memory, game/auto power off 2.5" TFT OLED 260K colour 16k, pixels support: TV OUT /IN Built-in Mic / speaker; Built-in 2300 lithium battery Built-in Microphone Video form: ASF shade is broadcast: 6 hours Picture browsing: support EXIF2.1 Power Supply: 3.7V lithium battery Playing time: 8 hours Dimensions: 60(H)*90(W)*17.5(D)mm

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FORBIDDEN EXPORTS MICROCHIPS, MISSILE GUIDANCE AND TRAFFIC LIGHTS

Š ISS TRAINING LTD

By Paul Beaumomt

FBI counter-intelligence arm investigates alleged Russian front company exporting highly sensitive electronic equipment to the FSB and Russian armed forces...

ARC ELECTRONICS INC. rom around October 2008 to 2012, employees of a company based in Houston, Texas, along with others, procured high-end electronics and exported them to customers overseas. Unfortunately the FBI said the paperwork was not as it should be, having been deliberately penned to mislead any authority that might care to inspect it. After all, how could one write the destination address of Russian Intelligence as the recipient?

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Apart from tough rules regulating exports worldwide, the United States has other EYE SPY INTELLIGENCE MAGAZINE

statutes it can call upon: The International Emergency Economic Powers Act, The Arms Export Control Act and so on. Two firms at the centre of the FBI investigation shared a principal officer, Alexander Fishenko aged 46. He was born in the former Soviet satellite of Kazakhstan and became a US citizen in 2003. According to court records he said he had no military background, but has since admitted he did work for a Soviet intelligence unit in the 1980s. The FBI accuse Fishenko of operating as an unregistered Russian Government agent - something which Moscow denies.

The companies have been named as Arc Electronics Inc. of which Fishenko was co-owner and president, and Moscowbased procurement company Apex System, LLC. Sergey Klinov was its CEO and Fishenko a Alexander principal, having founded Fishenko the company in 1998. Alexander Posobilov was director of procurement for Arc Electronics. He was arrested at

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INTELLIGENCE AND SECURITY

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In the last edition of Eye Spy we took a candid look at Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and how they are changing the Surveillance Rule Book. Now a new technology loosely connected to UAVs is about to change the Spying Game... EYE SPY INTELLIGENCE MAGAZINE

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SECRET

SILENT SERVICE

SUBMARINES, TECHNOLOGY AND ESPIONAGE Paul Beaumont provides insight into two recent submarine spy cases, and the incredible importance of securing naval intelligence secrets...

MI5 AND FBI ENGAGE SIMILAR STING OPERATIONS aintaining security aboard submarines is of paramount importance to any navy. Perhaps more vital is that the whereabouts of the boat’s technology and weaponry remain secret. Historically, the West and East, especially during the Cold War battled to glean intelligence on submarines. Today powerful maritime nations such as the

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United States, Russia and Britain have been joined by China - a nation with a reputation for espionage and duplicating technology. Knowing where a submarine is at any stage of its mission is a bonus for an adversary. Thus espionage cases involving mariners and submariners are always big news. The Royal Navy is not immune to espionage. On 3 September 1971, a Ministry of Defence (MOD) signal form marked SECRET was generated by the Vice Chief Naval Staff. It was an advisory notifying a number of parties that a naval officer of Sub-Lieutenant rank had been acting on behalf of the Soviets and had already passed on documents to Moscow. It later transpired that a number were of the highest security gradings. In the late 1990s, Chief Petty Officer Steven Hayden sold Gulf War data to The Sun

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Edward Devenney - jalied EYE SPY INTELLIGENCE MAGAZINE


SPY CATCHING

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Letter from

Fort Meade by David Hamer

...being an irregularly occasional, or an occasionally irregular, communication from the American cryptological community: particularly those things associated with the National Cryptologic Museum [NCM] and its parent, the National Security Agency [NSA]

n a somewhat irregular basis the National Security Agency and its companion organisation, the Central Security Service [NSA/CSS], declassifies and releases documents into the public domain. The following list gives an example of those releases that relate to many of the world-shaking, historical events that have occurred during the last century. In accordance with Executive Order 12958 dated 17 April 1995, which deals with classified national security information, NSA reviews for declassification all permanently classified documents that are 25 years or older. When a document is declassified it is transferred to the US National Archives and Records Administration [NARA] located in College Park, MD where it becomes available for study by historians of intelligence and other researchers in related fields of interest.

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Recent releases include documents dealing with the following incidents: • • • • • • • •

Gulf of Tonkin The attack on the USS Liberty VENONA Korean War Cuban Missile Crisis Unidentified Flying Objects (UFOs) John F. Kennedy Assassination Truman Memorandum 24 October 1952

Lockheed U-2 spy plane reconnaissance photograph of soviet missile sites on Cuba

The NARA index contains nearly 5,000 entries and lists approximately 1.3M pages of documents, formerly classified and now released into the public domain. Released material covers a period beginning with WWI. However, a significant number of formerly classified documents are available for the asking, or at least for the downloading in electronic format, from the NSA website at http://www.nsa.gov/ - select Public Info/ Declassification Initiatives and then choose the particular topic of interest. Each of the above categories contains several subheadings that contain hyperlinks to PDF, HTML, GIF, WAV, PostScript and other appropriate media files.

VENONA

THE REAL COD 94

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VENONA he US Army’s Signal Intelligence Service, the precursor to the National Security Agency, began a secret programme in February 1943 later codenamed VENONA. The mission of was to examine and exploit Soviet diplomatic communications but after the programme began, the message traffic included espionage efforts as well.

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VENONA Intelligence documents noting Julius Rosenberg’s code name - Liberal

Although it took almost two years before American cryptologists were able to break the KGB encryption, the information gained through these transactions provided US leadership insight into Soviet intentions and treasonous activities of government employees until the programme was cancelled in 1980.

COURTESY FBI

The VENONA files are most famous for exposing Julius (code named LIBERAL) and Ethel Rosenberg (below) and help give indisputable evidence of their involvement with the Soviet spy ring.

THE CODEBREAKERS he National Cryptologic Museum [NCM] recently received from worldrenowned author and cryptology expert Dr David Kahn his large library collection comprising a wide spectrum of printed works on cryptology and

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Dr David Kahn: Expert in codes; cryptography; political military and communications intelligence; author of books, articles and publications on ciphers and American intelligence

DEBREAKERS EYE SPY INTELLIGENCE MAGAZINE

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MI5

OPERATION SEAGRAM THE TIGERTIGER & GLASGOW AIRPORT ATTACKS

As the trial of suspected al-Qaida operatives begins, MI5 consider the theory that not everyone involved in the London and Glasgow bomb plots have been identified

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he trial of two men who worked as doctors in the United Kingdom has begun in London. Bilal Abdulla, 29, and Mohammed Asha, 28, appeared at Woolwich Crown Court on 9 October, charged with the attempted murder of hundreds of party-goers at the TigerTiger nightclub on 29 June 2007. The following day they drove a jeep packed with gas cylinders at speed into the passenger area of Glasgow International Airport. The driver of that vehicle, Kafeel Ahmed, 28, died a month later after suffering extensive burns. The suspected al-Qaida terrorist sleeper cell had driven to London in two specially prepared Mercedes cars which they believe would ‘blend-in’ with other luxury vehicles in the capital. The plotters also believed the Mercedes brand would attract little attention if left unattended in the West End. The boots (trunk) of the vehicles were large enough to conceal large gas cylinders, petrol canisters, explosives and 900 large nails.

Police cordon-off Neuk Crescent home to the bombers in Houston 96

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© SNAPPERJACK OF LONDON

The bombers made good their escape from the area around TigerTiger on two London rickshaws

Left: Dr Asha was arrested on the MI6 in a huge counter-terrorist operation involving over a dozen surveillance vehicles. Below: An off-duty police officer pours water on Kafeel Ahmed who moments earlier had crashed his vehicle into the airport terminal. Left: Kafeel Ahmed died four weeks after he crashed the Jeep into the doors of Glasgow Airport passenger terminal

© KEVIN PATTERSON PHOTOGRAPHY EYE SPY INTELLIGENCE MAGAZINE

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AN UNNERVING ILLUSION THA esearchers at the University of California at Berkeley, whose work is funded primarily by the Pentagon, have engineered materials that can control the direction of light. The technology could lead to systems for rendering anything from people to large objects, such as aircraft or ships, invisible to the eye. Its application in the world of espionage and intelligence gathering are obvious. In 2006, John Pendry of Imperial College London and David Smith of Duke University in North Carolina used microwaves to achieve similar results, yet according to academics, achieving this effect using light is a significant advance.

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Lead scientist on the light project Xiang Zhang told The London Times: “In the case of invisibility cloaks or shields, the material would need to curve light waves completely around the object like a flowing river around a rock.” HOLY GRAIL OF ILLUSION ARTISTS The search for ‘adaptive camouflage’ as some researchers refer to invisibility, has a long history. In 1897, science fiction writer and author of The Invisible Man, H G Wells, introduced the idea, then fictional, of a scientific route to invisibility through bleach and mysterious rays. Some would say today’s more modern experiments with visual stealth have their roots in a 1943 US Navy project code-named Yehudi. The purpose of this programme, which was highly secret at the time and came to light only in the 1980s, was to give Navy patrol aircraft a better chance of

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sinking enemy submarines. During 1942, German U-boats were a constant menace off the eastern seaboard of the United States and across the Atlantic. Hundreds of merchant vessels were sunk. Though torpedo firing aircraft were sent to sink the U-boats, they were often spotted long before they arrived and the submarines simply dived to safety. The Yehudi team needed a way to make the aircraft harder to see, and camouflage paint alone wouldn’t do the job. Regardless of what colour was used, the aeroplane could be seen against the sky. Scientists believed the only way to make them less visible was to actually make the aircraft brighter by fitting them with dozens of lights. At the time, this seemed illogical to some military commanders. Nevertheless, engineers fitted a TBM-3D Avenger torpedo-bomber with 10 sealed-beam lights installed along the wing’s leading edges and the rim of the engine cowling. When the intensity of the lights was adjusted to match the sky, the Avenger blended into the background. Tests revealed that the Yehudi system lowered the visual acquisition range from 12 miles to two miles.

The dream of ‘invisibility’ has probably moved a step closer after US scientists announce they have crafted a material that can bend visible light around objects... EYE SPY INTELLIGENCE MAGAZINE


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Lead scientist on the Pentagon sponsored project - Xiang Zhang EYE SPY INTELLIGENCE MAGAZINE

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SECRET INTELLIGENCE UNITS

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ESPIONAGE CASE FILES AND REPORTS

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TRADECRAFT

COURIERS

A look at how couriers ply their trade in the world of terrorism

AND COUNTER-TERRORISM

Carlos the Jackal

In Eye Spy 49 we examined part of the role played out by intelligence operatives described as ‘couriers’. From static couriers serving in a corner shop and distributing or receiving messages, to experienced pilots delivering arms deep behind enemy lines, the role of an ‘intelligence courier’ is multifaceted and diverse.

The same can be said about those who ply their trade on behalf of terrorists.... rom gun-running in Ireland to persons delivering passports used by the hijackers of Flight 93 on 9/11, couriers are an integral part of a terrorist cell, albeit sometimes working on the periphery. They often try and mimic their counterparts in the world of espionage, though these operatives are rarely missed when things go wrong - are eliminated immediately if suspected of a security breach - and easily replaced. Terrorist couriers are treated with no less disdain by the security services than full-blown members of a cell - they are all equally as dangerous. Couriers act and perform their ‘duty’ out of

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loyalty to a friend, family member, gang, gang leader, political party, cult or religion - sometimes they are blackmailed. Others run errands for the money or the thrill of it: are ‘employed’ and treat their work as a job. From shifting large loads of weapons or drugs to raise finance, to hand-delivering a message a few yards across a busy street, these operatives perform a multitude of tasks.

suspicion, doubt, and causes conflict and rethinking of pre-set plans - mistakes occur and terrorists start to take chances. The intelligence world treat couriers as ‘links in a chain’ - break a link and the chain will snap. At least that’s part of the theory. The British are particularly good at this sort of deception. If nothing else, it can disrupt a terror cell and cause it to self-implode.

This type of courier faces enormous dangers not just from government counter-terrorism forces, but often from the very people who ‘employ’ them. And it’s not unheard of to find erroneous messages about the courier being delivered to members of a suspected terror cell - by the intelligence services. This induces

Professional couriers are rare - but far more likely to be respected by their colleagues. Some even enjoy notoriety - more so when they are in the employ of a significant and wanted criminal or terrorist. Take for example Maria Nydia Romero de Tobon, an attractive 37-year-old

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DARK ARTS OF THE INTELLIGENCE WORLD

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© TALISMAN INTELLIGENCE LIBRARY FOR EYE SPY

All Our Yesterdays A batch of intelligence files released by MI5 via Britain’s National Archives, shows just how complex, bizarre and dangerous the world of intelligence can really be...

Assassins, Coffee and Poison Powders onths before the Allies finally defeated Germany, a secret operation was discussed in Berlin to cause massive disruption in Europe in the event of Hitler’s demise. Like Britain’s Special Operations Executive (SOE) and America’s Office of Strategic Services (OSS), Germany too had created an underground unit that would use all manner of devious devices and subterfuge to carry out operations while the country reorganised itself.

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The scale of the subversion would have been relatively small, but the implications for some people could have been significant. In March 1945, two months before the war ended in Europe, MI5 interviewed a number of captured German agents in France, including a woman. They had been flown to France from Stuttgart in a captured American Flying Fortress. After the unit parachuted into Ayon near St Quentin, the group were quickly seized and taken to an MI5 station for interrogation. British Intelligence learned the Nazi operation

was multi-faceted and involved assassinating specific targets using various methods including poison. It also had a rather sophisticated sub-plot line. Many spies and agents had been equipped with suicide drugs usually ampoules of hydrocyanic acid. The disruption agents spoke of a special aspirin made by the Bayer company. An MI5 debriefing document revealed death would take place ten minutes or so after swallowing. Asked how the agent intended to get the target to take the drug, this would be done by “persuasion” and after offering a special

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SECRET HISTORY

when in berlin visit....

NSA FIELD STATION

TEUFELSBERG The Devil’s Mountain - campaign to keep and restore iconic Cold War monument

nce recognised as one of the most important National Security Agency outposts in the Cold War era, Field Station Berlin Teufelsberg (translates to ‘Devil’s Mountain’), Germany, is in danger of disappearing altogether. The defunct base has long been earmarked for redevelopment, but the German Government’s decision to dismantle it has been met with furious opposition. Those who served at the facility are naturally against the move and efforts are underway on both sides of the Atlantic to turn the site into a monument that commemorates the friendship and steadfast support of the Western Allies who

The move to flatten what remains of the field station, has been likened to the fate which befell another most memorable and very important building (though much tinier in size). In December 2000, developers removed the world famous Berlin watchtower known as Checkpoint Charlie. For years this simple structure was recognised as a symbol of freedom and democracy. It truly was one of the original icons of the Cold War that divided more than the city of Berlin - it was a crossing point - a barrier between East and West. It was surreptitiously removed so as to attract a

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made German reunification possible. Historians and intel watchers alike believe it would be appropriate to save the site simply for its significance.

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minimum amount of attention. The city’s residents tried to save the tower, but failed, because authorities deemed it was not a historic landmark. It was dismantled to make way for offices and shops, but nothing of note has ever been built at this site, and the original proposals for development have been shelved. Historians and most Germans now recognise that Berlin’s decision was wrong, and campaigners in Germany and North America are determined that this does not happen to Teufelsberg.

that rises about 250ft above the Brandenburg plain. The site, contained within Berlin’s Grunewald Forest has a curious history. It was built by the Allies after the Second World War from the rubble of Berlin as the city was reborn. One estimate for the amount of debris used to construct the hill is about 12 million cubic metres, or put in more simplistic terms from an astonishing 400,000 destroyed or damaged buildings. It is higher than the tallest natural hill (Kreuzberg) in the greater Berlin area.

NSA Field Station Berlin was an ELINT and SIGINT (Electronic and Signals intelligence) complex positioned high on an artificial hill

Teufelsberg’s artificial hill and origin does not in itself make it unique, as there are many similar man-made rubble mounds in Germany

(Schuttberg for example). You can also find such hills in and around other war-torn cities of Europe. Teufelsberg’s real significance lies with what’s actually sat atop and buried beneath it: below, the shell of a Nazi militarytechnical college designed by Adolf Hitler’s chief Third Reich minister and architect Albert Speer. Construction started on the Wehrtechnische Fakultat in 1937, but because of the war and lack of funding it was never completed. It was simply used to store munitions. After the war, the Allies tried using explosives to demolish the school, but it was so sturdy that covering it with debris turned out to be the easier option. And above, a

The former field station is now in a poor state of repair - seemingly abandoned by the City Council of Berlin who seem oblivious to its international significance. Teufelsberg played a significant role in ending the Cold War and ultimately in the reunification of the two German nations...

© PARKIN

© MICHAEL GRUBE - www.geschichtsspuren.de

The NSA Teufelsberg Berlin Field Station pictured around 1968. Part of the facility was also staffed by British intelligence officers from GCHQ and the RAF

One estimate for the amount of debris used to construct the hill is about 12 million cubic metres, or put in more simplistic terms - from an astonishing 400,000 destroyed or damaged buildings

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INTEL BOOKS •REVIEWS •RELEASES •DEBATE

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ALL PRICES INCLUDE POSTAGE (AIR) AND PACKING THE INTELLIGENCERS: British Military Intelligence from the Middle Ages to 1929 Brigadier Brian Parritt Pen & Sword

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ilitary intelligence about the enemy is a fundamental part of any war or battle, knowledge of the enemy’s strength, dispositions and intentions are essential for success. This book claims that for 250 years the British Army resolutely failed to prepare for war by refusing to establish a nucleus of soldiers in peace and trained to obtain intelligence in war.

Queen Elizabeth I and Spymaster Sir Francis Walsingham How The End Begins: The Road to a Nuclear World War III Ron Rosenbaum Simon & Schuster Ltd ach chapter of the How the World Ends deconstructs the dangers we face. Rosenbaum begins by showing all the ways the post-Cold War order that tried to impose a set of rules of averting a nuclear mistake has fallen apart. He describes the journey of one Bruce Blair, once a missile launcher, whose experience inside the nuclear establishment left him alarmed about its vulnerabilities. He also looks at nuclear war from the Russian side, using the architect of that nation’s early warning system as a focus. He describes all the ways international incidents we have seen - Georgia, the Israeli raid on Syria, the Iranian moves - are evidence that some governments have shown a willingness to move closer to the brink of a conflict involving nuclear weapons.

E BOOK RELEASES Although there were ‘Scoutmasters’ and secret spy organisations such as that operated by Sir Francis Walsingham in the 15th Century, in no major conflict from the Civil War of 1642, including the Peninsula, the Crimea, Burma, Egypt and South Africa and in the multitude of small wars that gained Britain an empire, was there any staff branch or unit specifically preestablished to gain intelligence or frustrate the enemy from obtaining intelligence.

THE SECRET CAPTURE: U-110 and the Enigma Story Stephen W. Roskill Naval Institute Press

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ong after the war’s end, official World War II records listed the German submarine U-110 as sunk on 9 May 1941 by a British convoy: a deliberate deception that hid the actual capture of a submarine that contained a working Enigma machine, codebooks, charts, and ciphers. As the official British historian of the naval war, Stephen Roskill did not reveal the secret in his authorised account.

The story of British military endeavour over 250 years is a remarkable one of individual bravery, achievement and success. We read of the Scoutmaster whose role was to gather intelligence on the King’s enemies and of Walsingham’s secret organisation at the time of Elizabeth I.

When this book was first published in 1959, the author set the record straight about the sinking but continued to hold back details of Ultra. Now, a new introduction puts the capture of U-110 into context and makes clear its vital importance to the code-breaking programme of the Allies in World War II.

and provides the most authoritative history of how the Enigma machine became a key instrument of the war effort. Hardback 184pp

Roskill’s work is based on both documentary and eyewitness evidence

Available from Eye Spy Ref: ES/1418 UK £32.99 USA $32.95 ROW £34.99

HMS Bulldog played a part in the capture of U-110

The rest of the book looks at the broader nuclear issues facing the world in the 21st century: What is deterrence? Who can claim to have it? How many nuclear weapons can we live with? Is zero really possible? In other words: Can we undream the nightmare? Hardback 320pp Available from Eye Spy Ref: ES/1420 UK £24.99 USA $39.99 ROW £25.99

During the long years of war against France culminating in the Napoleonic Wars, spymasters developed on an ad hoc basis. In the nineteenth century, despite the power and reach of Empire, no central intelligence organisation existed. Enterprising young officers worked wonders but failures such as those in the Boer War cost Britain dearly. It took the reverses in the Great War to create an Intelligence Corps. But even that was disbanded post-war. Hardback 224pp Available from Eye Spy Ref: ES/1419 UK £22.99 USA $39.99 ROW £24.99

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WILD BILL DONOVAN: The Spymaster Who Created the OSS and Modern American Espionage Douglas Waller Free Press

frank account of sexual adventuring that went with it. So, this is how the dogs of war behave when they are let off the leash? Hardback 384pp Available from Eye Spy Ref: ES/1423 UK £22.99 USA $38.00 ROW £25.99

e was one of America’s most exciting and secretive generals the man Franklin Roosevelt made his top spy in World War II. A mythical figure whose legacy is still intensely debated, ‘Wild Bill’ Donovan was director of the Office of Strategic Services (the country’s first national intelligence agency) and the father of today’s CIA.

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Donovan introduced America to the dark arts of covert warfare on a scale it had never seen before. Now, veteran journalist William Donovan Douglas Waller has mined government and private archives throughout the United States and England, drawn on thousands of pages of recently declassified documents, and interviewed scores of Donovan’s relatives, friends, and associates to produce a riveting biography of one of the most powerful men in modern espionage. Hardback 480pp

STORM FRONT Rowland White Bantam Press n early 1970, the Commanding Officer of 22 SAS flew into the strategically critical Sultanate of Oman on a covert intelligence mission. A Communist rebellion in the South threatened not only the stability of the Arabian Peninsula but more importantly the vital oil routes through the Persian Gulf. Within six months, the Regiment arrived in theatre to lead a fierce, secret war against the rebels.

I duplicitous, philandering and vain antihero who was boastful and brave, reckless and calculating, ruthless and mercenary... but patriotic. Or was he? Based on recently declassified files and meticulous research, Snow reveals for the first time the truth about an extraordinary man. Hardback 272pp Available from Eye Spy Ref: ES/1422 UK £22.50 USA $38.00 ROW £25.00 ROGUE MALE: Death and Seduction in World War II With Mister Major Geoff Roger Field, Geoffrey Gordon-Creed Coronet he untold story of one of the most lethal and successful soldiers of the Second World War - a highly decorated hero as well as a self-confessed rogue. In the tank war in the desert of North Africa, Major Geoff, as he came to be known, quickly showed himself a soldier of superb athleticism, unwavering will to win and almost superhuman instincts when it came to survival and outwitting the enemy. Almost incredibly he won the Military Cross on his very first day in action.

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At dawn on 19 July 1972, a force of nearly 300 heavily armed, well-trained guerrillas attacked the little fishing port of Mirbat without warning. Between them and glory stood a team of just nine SAS men and a British air fighter force. The scene was set for an epic encounter; a modern day Rorke’s Drift. Their heroism would become SAS legend. The book draws from extensive interviews with participants from the SAS, the RAF and the Sultan’s Armed Forces, most of whom have never spoken about their involvement before. Hardback 364pp

This is an honest account of winning the war not by fair play but by being more ruthless than your enemy. But maybe what is even more extraordinary than his soldiering - its predatory ruthlessness and amorality - is the

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now is the codename assigned to Arthur Owens, one of the most remarkable British spies of the Second World War. This typical Welsh underfed type became the first of the great double-cross agents who were to play a major part in Britain’s victory over the Germans. When the stakes could not have been higher, MI5 sought to build a double-cross system based on the shifting loyalties of a

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Using recently opened Michael Collins archives, this book reveals for the first time how intelligence and intelligence agencies shaped AngloIrish relations during this formative period. The book casts light on characters long kept in the shadows IRA gunrunners, Bolshevik agitators, Nazi saboteurs, British double agents. It shows what happened when Irish revolutionaries stopped fighting, formed governments and started sharing information with London - while doing everything possible to hide this from the Irish public. It also fills in a missing chapter in the history of the British intelligence community, tracing its evolution from amateurish beginnings, through a painful adolescence, to the sophisticated apparatus that is largely still with us today. Large Paperback 540pp Available from Eye Spy Ref: ES/1425 UK £22.99 USA $38.99 ROW £25.99 A COVERT AFFAIR: Julia Child and Paul Child in the OSS Jennet Conant Simon & Schuster

Available from Eye Spy Ref: ES/1421 UK £35.00 USA $37.50 ROW £38.00 SNOW: The Double Life of a World War II Spy Nigel West and Madoc Roberts Biteback

imperial decline and world war, while worrying about being stabbed in the back by its Irish neighbour.

Available from Eye Spy Ref: ES/1424 UK £22.99 USA $45.00 ROW £24.99 BRITISH SPIES AND IRISH REBELS: British Intelligence and Ireland, 1916-1945 Paul McMahon Boydell Press he struggle between British intelligence agencies and Irish revolutionaries has lasted for centuries - and still goes on. But it was at its most intense during the first half of the twentieth century. Ireland experienced a bloody rebellion, bitter partition and a stuttering march towards independence. Britain grappled with

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estselling author Jennet Conant brings us a stunning account of Julia and Paul Child’s experiences as members of the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) in the Far East during World War II and the tumultuous years when they were caught up in the McCarthy Red spy hunt in the 1950s and behaved with bravery and honour. It is the fascinating portrait of a group of idealistic men and women who were recruited by the citizen spy service, slapped into uniform, and dispatched to wage political warfare in remote outposts in Ceylon, India, and China.

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A Covert Affair chronicles their friendship with a brilliant and eccentric array of OSS agents, including Jane Foster, a wealthy, free-spirited artist, and Elizabeth MacDonald, an adventurous young reporter. Relying on recently unclassified OSS and FBI documents, as well as previously unpublished letters and diaries, Conant vividly depicts a dangerous time in American history, when those who served their country suddenly found themselves called to account for their unpopular opinions and personal relationships. Hardback 416pp Available from Eye Spy Ref: ES/1426 UK £32.99 USA $34.00 ROW £35.00 The eager, inexperienced 6 foot 2 inch Julia springs to life in these pages, a gangly golf-playing California girl who had never been farther abroad than Tijuana. Single and thirty years old when she joined the staff of Colonel William Donovan, Julia volunteered to be part of the OSS’s ambitious mission to develop a secret intelligence network across Southeast Asia. Her first post took her to the mountaintop idyll of Kandy, the headquarters of Admiral Lord Louis Mountbatten, the supreme commander of combined operations.

© MDC ARCHIVES

Julia Child pictured at a book signing in 1989

THE COMPANY WE KEEP: Husband and Wife True-Life Spy Story Robert Baer, Dayna Baer Crown Publishing Group

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obert Baer was known inside the CIA as perhaps the best operative working the Middle East. Over several decades he served everywhere from Iraq to New Delhi and racked up such an impressive list of accomplishments that he was eventually awarded the Career Intelligence Medal. Dayna Williamson thought of herself as just an ordinary California girl admittedly one born into a comfortable lifestyle. But she was always looking to get closer to the edge. When she joined the CIA, she was initially tasked with Agency background checks, but the attractive Berkeley graduate quickly distinguished herself as someone who could thrive in the field, and she was eventually assigned to ‘Protective Operations’ training where she learned to handle weapons and explosives and conduct high-speed escape and evasion.

A trip deep down the intelligence rabbit hole - one that shows how the ‘game’ actually works, including the compromises it asks of those who play by its rules - and a portrait of two people trying to regain a normal life, The Company We Keep is a masterly depiction of the real world of shadows. Hardback 320 pages. £16.99 Available from Eye Spy Ref: ES/1427 UK £19.99 USA $40.00 ROW £25.00 OPERATION FORTITUDE: The True Story of the Key Spy Operation of WWII That Saved D-Day Joshua Levine Collins

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peration Fortitude was the ingenious web of deception spun by the Allies to mislead the Nazis as to how and where the D-Day landings were to be mounted. Described by double agent Kim Philby as “one of the most creative intelligence operations of all time.” The story of how this web was woven is one of intrigue, personal drama, ground-breaking techniques, internal

resistance, and good fortune. It is a tale of double agents, black radio broadcasts, phantom armies, ‘Ultra’ decrypts, and dummy parachute drops. Agent Garbo These diverse tactics were intended to come together to create a single narrative so compelling that it would convince Adolf Hitler of its authenticity. The success of D-Day - the beginning of the end of WWII - was made possible by the efforts of men and women who were not present on the Normandy beaches. Using first hand sources from a wide range of archives, government documents, letters and memos Operation Fortitude builds a picture of what wartime Britain was like, as well as the immense pressure these men and women were working under and insure D-Day succeeded. Hardback 320pp Available from Eye Spy Ref: ES/1428 UK £19.99 USA $38.00 ROW £25.00

EYE SPY INTELLIGENCE MAGAZINE

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The Spy Book John Westin, McNeil & Richards

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Two young soldiers are on a mission to capture Osama bin-Laden. The men soon find they are the hunted and must make it back to safety through hostile lands. Perilous at every turn, the troops even have to look after a young frightened woman as they journey home...

Fresh from Afghanistan, James Bond has been recruited to a new agency. Conceived in the post-9/11 world, it operates independent of MI5, MI6 and the MOD, its very existence deniable. Its aim: to protect the Realm, by any means necessary. A call alerts Bond from dinner with a beautiful woman. GCHQ has decrypted an electronic whisper...

Follow Me Home Patrick Bishop, Hodder & Stoughton

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Carte Blanche (James Bond) Jeffery Deaver, Hodder & Stoughton

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Mare Nostrum - genuine, probing, thought-provoking historical fiction that explores the maniacal drive of greed and the intoxicant of power that motivates men to employ extreme measures towards their own ideological end. Mixed with an undercurrent of current events it will leave you wondering if today’s fiction will be tomorrow’s headlines.

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Three baby boys are born during a snowstorm. Two are identical twins. The twins are separated in a mix up at the hospital. Both wind up with the first name of Jacob and the same initial for their last name. One grows up with his natural parents and becomes the owner of a deli. The other ends up in the military and becomes a mercenary...

Mare Nostrum E. S. Hoover, Createspace

Double Trouble on Corned Beef Row James W. Battee, Createspace

ALSO OF NOTE: NOVELS LACED WITH ESPIONAGE, INTELLIGENCE AND INTRIGUE

Humorous novel about spying, the Soviet Union, and a professor and co-ed at the University of Virginia. An American professor and the beguiling graduate student he’s having an affair with didn’t destroy the Soviet Union. They simply put the last nail in the coffin...

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CLOSE AND PERSONAL PROTECTION

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ECHOES OF OKLA When intelligence sees nothin NORWAY TERRORIST ATTACK

Anders Behring Breivik, a terrorist responsible for the murder of over 77 civilians in Norway, surprisingly avoided the radar of Europe’s security services; this despite him being a well-travelled operator with threads to a number of ultra right-wing extremist groups. It’s also believed that Breivik’s name was placed on an intelligence watch list back in March, after trying to secure chemicals from Poland... t around 3.25pm local time, on 22 July 2011, an unoccupied SUV exploded at the base of offices used by Norway’s Prime Minister Jens Stoltenberg in the government and media district of Oslo. The resultant blast ripped through windows and offices in an area covering hundreds of yards. Within minutes press coverage started. Obviously there was much suspicion placed on al-Qaida, especially since the country has been a prime target for the terrorist group’s ‘Northern Project’.

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The focus of media reporting and the rush to secure terrorist experts to explain what was happening led to a myriad of inaccurate reports; but for at least two hours the blame was firmly placed in the court of al-Qaida. And there are many reasons for this. Firstly Aynan al-Zawahiri, AQ’s new number ‘one’ since the death of Osama bin-Laden, has threatened a major response. The use of a car bomb had similarities to recent incidents in New York (Times Square) and London (TigerTiger club). The explosion was close to government offices and the ‘R-4’ building which houses the oil and energy ministry: also close-by, one

of the country’s main newspapers. The fact that some media in Norway had published cartoons depicting the Prophet Mohammed was thought relevant here. And the oil ministry was seen as a potential target because of Norway’s strong support of NATO operations against Colonel Gaddafi’s oil-rich Libya. There were lots of reasons to suspect al-Qaida. Norwegian Intelligence has secured much evidence of several European al-Qaida cells operating in Germany, France, Holland, Belgium and Britain. Indeed, some of those previously arrested in connection with attacks and plots are known to have links to a terror cell planted in Norway itself. And just days before events in Oslo, Norway had indicted Mullah Krekar, an Iraqi-born cleric and founder of the notorious al-Qaida franchise Ansar alIslam. He had openly made threats if Norway went ahead and deported him back to Iraq where he faces serious charges of terrorist involvement. Indeed, Eye Spy has learned from its Norwegian sources, that Krekar had been detained in an underground prison cell not too far away from the bomb blast.

Smoke billows from the government and media quarter of Oslo, a few minutes after Anders Behring Breivik detonated a huge car bomb © N. ANDERSON 116

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© INGAR SOREN/PST

AHOMA ng “Not even the STASI could have prevented this attack...” PST Director-General Janne Kristiansen At around 5.00pm, Norwegian media sources started to receive reports of another major incident on the nearby island of Utoeya in Buskerud, about one hour’s drive from Oslo. The tiny inland isle was hosting a Youth Organisation (AUF) gathering of around 700 young people, many with political aspirations. It was being run by Stoltenberg’s ruling Labour Party. And

An injured victim receives attention from city residents and police

of course, it would later transpire that Anders Breivik, 32, who had detonated the bomb in Oslo, had made his way to Utoeya, donned a police uniform, and then started to kill young men and women in cold blood. For reasons that will eventually become apparent, it took the police over 60 minutes to react to the situation and reach the island. By then Breivik had murdered nearly 70 people, many shot with the particularly nasty hollow point bullet more popularly known as the ‘dum dum’ bullet. By 6.00pm the incidents were being linked. And at the same time a number of Islamic extremist groups were announcing they were responsible. However, when it became clear the shooter had been arrested, and described as a “six foot blond Norwegian-looking man,” suddenly the word was he must by an Islamic convert and an agent recruited by AQ.

PLANNING AND A SHOCKING AGENDA nders Breivik is the type of terrorist the world’s security services fear most. Furthermore, his home base is within one of the most open societies in the world. And these factors worked against Norway, which today has lost much of its innocence, despite the prime minister saying freedoms will not be challenged by terrorism. In early 2009, Breivik, who was writing ‘The Manifesto’ (see sidebar), sought to introduce a physical and pro-active element to his secret war with the government. It was no longer good enough to object to Oslo’s policies on

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Chillingly cold, calculated and most dangerous - the lone wolf terrorist all security services fear EYE SPY INTELLIGENCE MAGAZINE

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