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Electronic Newsletter of the ECPR-SG on Extremism & Democracy

December 2013 Volume 14 Number 4


e-Extreme

Volume 14, No. 4, December 2013

Electronic Newsletter of the ECPR-SG on Extremism and Democracy

Managing Editor Mark Pitchford King’s College London, UK Email: m.pitchford@tees.ac.uk

Book Reviews Editor Janet Dack Teesside University, UK Email: j.dack@tees.ac.uk

The e-Extreme is the newsletter of the ECPR Standing Group on Extremism and Democracy and is published quarterly. For any enquiries about the newsletter and book reviews please go to the Standing Group’s website: www.extremism-and-democracy.com Copyright © 2013 by the ECPR Standing Group on Extremism and Democracy All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, electronic, photocopying, or otherwise, without permission in writing from the ECPR Standing Group on Extremism and Democracy.

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Table of Contents

Standing Group Announcements ………………………………………………………….4 Conference Report ………………………………..………………….….………………...… 6 Book Review ………………………………………………….….………………….............. 8 Publications Alert ……………………………………………………………………….….. 11

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Standing Group Announcements

Change of convenorship of Standing Group and editorship of newsletter At the end of this year, the Standing Group’s two convenors, David Art and Elisabeth Carter, will be standing down. After seven enjoyable years at the helm, they both feel it is time for some new blood and for some new ideas. A new team of convenors will take over from 1st January 2014. This team is made up of: Sarah L. de Lange (University of Amsterdam), Andrea L. P. Pirro (University of Siena), Matthijs Rooduijn (University of Amsterdam), and Stijn van Kessel (Loughborough University and University of Düsseldorf). Mark Pitchford will also be standing down as managing editor of e-Extreme at the end of this year. The editorship of the newsletter will pass to the new convenors of the Standing Group. Janet Dack is staying on as Book Reviews editor. The change in convenorship comes at a particular point in time, as the Standing Group turns 15 this year! For the past fifteen years, it has served as a point of reference for scholars and practitioners dealing with extremism and democracy. During this period, the scope of research in the field has swiftly expanded and has come to include populist parties and leaders, far right and left organisations, and lone wolf terrorism. In the same vein, the geographical breadth of research in the field has assumed a truly transnational character, now covering the post-communist countries and the Americas. Most importantly, however, more and more attention is being devoted to the impact of extremist movements and parties on the workings of democracy. On the one hand, the new convenors seek to uphold the Standing Group’s role of ‘umbrella organisation’ and do justice to the legacy of Roger Eatwell and Cas Mudde (founders of the Standing Group) as well as that of David Art and Elisabeth Carter. On the other hand, the new convenors endeavour to launch a number of new initiatives (e.g. conferences and workshops) and hope to develop new modes of participation. To promote interaction between the Standing Group members, other parties interested in extremism and democracy, and the convenors, a Facebook group (www.facebook.com/groups/188622364661873) has been created to discuss relevant political developments or pertinent deadlines. Membership to this group is obviously not a prerequisite for active participation in the Standing Group, as other means for contributing remain available (e.g. newsletter and website). However, we sincerely hope that many of you will join the group and contribute to it by posting messages and links. The next gathering of the Standing Group is scheduled for the 8th ECPR General Conference in Glasgow (3-6 September 2014), during which a lunch meeting will be organised. The Standing Group has also endorsed a section at the General Conference, entitled “Political Radicalism in Times of Crisis” (S047). Members are kindly invited to apply for the panels that belong to the section by sending their paper proposals directly to the panel organisers.

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Forthcoming conferences and workshops As ever, please visit our website for details of forthcoming conferences and workshops: www.extremism-and-democracy.com . If you would like to advertise an event you are organizing or know about, then please also get in touch by emailing us at info@extremism-and-democracy.com . Similarly, if you would like to write a report on a conference or workshop that you have organized for inclusion in our newsletter, please get in touch.

Book reviews We are always looking for people to review books of interest to our members. So if you would like to review a particular book please get in touch with our book review editor, Janet Dack, at J.Dack@teesside.ac.uk . Likewise, if you would like your own book reviewed in e-Extreme, do contact Janet.

Book series in Extremism and Democracy The Standing Group has close links with the Routledge Book Series in Extremism and Democracy. This series has two strands aimed at different audiences: the ‘Routledge Studies in Extremism and Democracy’ targeted at students and teachers, and the ‘Routledge Research in Extremism and Democracy’ aimed at a more specialist readership. Please contact Roger or Matthew via the Standing Group website if you would like to discuss ideas or suggestions for titles.

Member database by research interest Remember that our website contains a database that enables members to browse and search for other members by research interests, as well as by name. If you would like to update your own details, please just email us at info@extremism-and-democracy.com. Please also encourage colleagues and PhD students to join the Standing Group.

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Conference Report

The Mainstreaming of the Extreme Right in Europe University of Bath 20 September 2013

A symposium on ‘the mainstreaming of the extreme right in Europe took place at the University of Bath on 20 September. This was organized by Aurelien Mondon, Anna Bull and Nick Startin, all based in the department of Politics, Languages and International Studies. The symposium proved to be a lively and thought provoking day which raised some interesting discussion around this highly salient and emotive theme. The day’s proceedings were begun by outgoing Dean of the Faculty Roger Eatwell, whose excellent keynote speech placed the debate about the mainstreaming of the extreme right into historical context. Following this opening keynote, a theoretical panel entitled ‘The mainstreaming of the extreme right in context’ presented three very thought provoking papers. Aurelien Mondon (University of Bath) focused on the mainstreaming of particular extreme right strategies such as populism and neo-racism, now commonly used by moderate politicians. Markus Wagner (University of Vienna) followed with a paper that used quantitative data from the Comparative Manifesto Project to argue that extreme right parties did increase their niche focus on liberal-authoritarian issues in the 1990s. Finally, Aristotle Kallis (Lancaster University) brought the morning’s proceedings to a close with a lively paper that focused on shifting societal perceptions with regard to issues traditionally associated with the extreme right. The paper argued that the success of radical right parties, as sharp critics of mainstream discourses of ‘multi-culturalism’ and liberal values, has played a significant part in the mainstreaming debate. After lunch two panels explored a case-study approach with the aim of teasing out some of the issues raised in the morning session. The first panel focused on Southern Europe and consisted of two very discursive and thought-provoking papers. Anna Bull and Eva Garau (University of Cagliari) re-assessed the political and electoral fortunes of the Lega Nord in the light of the recent literature on niche parties. They also provided fascinating insight into the tensions between the Lega Nord and the Berlusconi government in the recent past. This presentation was followed by a very impassioned paper delivered by Daphne Halikiopoulou (University of Reading) and co-authored with Sofia Vasilopoulou (University of York), which looked at the electoral rise and impact of Golden Dawn in Greece in light of the crisis in the Eurozone and the implications for the future of liberal democracy in Greece. The second afternoon panel focused on Northern Europe. Anders Widfeldt (University of Aberdeen) discussed the situation in Scandinavia and demonstrated how parties such as the Danish People’s party and the True Finns have become increasingly legitimised in this region. Finally, Nick Startin (University of Bath) spoke about 'Europe' as an issue for the radical right in France and the UK and argued that the French Front National has increasingly exploited its pro-sovereignty, anti-EU stance in order to enhance its electoral potential. This he suggested that this contrasts to the British National Party’s less

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nuanced and more ideologically driven approach which, in the face of with rivalry from UKIP for the competing electoral space, has contributed to the former’s electoral decline. The symposium ended with an animated round-table discussion chaired by Aurelien Mondon which prÊcised the various themes raised during the day. The three organisers were spurred by the day’s proceedings to set up a research network on politics outside the mainstream and are in discussion with publishers about an edited volume on this theme. Abstracts of the papers presented at this event can be accessed at:

www.bath.ac.uk/polis/documents/mainstreaming-the-extreme-right-abstracts.pdf

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Book Review Daniel O. Prosterman (2013), Defining Democracy: Electoral Reform and the Struggle for Power in New York City , Oxford: Oxford University Press. 288 pp. ISBN 978-0-19-537773-6 (hbk).

Reviewed by Steven Woodbridge

Kingston University, UK

This book is a very interesting and suitably detailed exploration of a radical change in how local democracy operated in New York between 1936 and 1945. During the course of the study, the author makes important points both about attitudes towards American Communism and perceptions of fascism at the local municipal level in this period, topics still ripe for further research by scholars. Moreover, Prosterman succeeds admirably in his stated aim of connecting ‘local political struggles with broader historical processes’ (p. 6). In November 1936, by a margin of about two to one, the citizens of New York made a very bold decision to replace a corrupt board of city aldermen with a city council elected via a form of proportional representation (PR). Instead of sticking with a traditional ‘firstpast-the-post’ electoral system (sometimes also called ‘winner-takes-all’ by its critics), the citizens of the city put in place a new system, based on what we would now call the ‘single transferable vote’ (STV), a form of PR that gave better opportunities to candidates from a much wider spectrum of political organizations in New York City. In turn, this led to a much more diverse range of representatives having a direct say in how the city was run, including more women, more African-Americans, and more third-party politicians, something that had never been seen on this scale before in New York’s history. It was also a development which clearly threatened the traditional and decadeslong single-party dominance of the Democrats in the city, and by implication, the wider political establishment in New York, seriously undermining the authority of both the Democratic and Republican parties in the city. Tellingly, the two main parties quickly decided to try and put an end to this ‘experiment’, and began to campaign ferociously against PR. In particular, after seeking to get the adoption of the new local electoral system in the city repealed, and repeatedly failing to do so, the two main parties resorted more and more to scare tactics and populist rhetoric about what they claimed was the dire threat of extremism. The election of two Communists (in 1943 and 1945) allowed both the main parties to play the ‘anti-Red’ card and portray PR as a subversive ‘unAmerican’ system that could allow extremists of all kinds to enter mainstream politics and infiltrate civil society, including Communists and possibly fascists. In fact, little distinction was made by many mainstream politicians in New York between Communist Left and fascist Right. Both creeds were portrayed as alien and highly dangerous to American politics and to the very survival of local democracy. A variation on this was that the mainstream parties also began to turn their fire on each other over the issue. Republicans began to blame the Democratic Party for using

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‘fascist’ tactics to force liberals from office, supposedly enabling ‘Communists’ and other radicals to exploit PR and take advantage of this. Similarly, Democrats began to hint that Republicans were somehow in league with elements of the extreme right and were manipulating PR to deliberately create problems for the Democratic Party. A further development was that the Democrats began to characterize PR more broadly as an undemocratic threat to American freedom and individual liberty, and likened PR to the various foreign and external threats to American national security: ‘As war began to wage in Europe, opponents portrayed the system as fascist, raising the possibility that totalitarianism could spread like a cancer to invade America’ (p. 6). Over time, as attention shifted away from immediate concerns about the threat of fascism, and general fears about Communism grew more explicit during the course of the Second World War, the new PR system ‘became a flashpoint for a citywide debate over Americanism, democracy and security’ (p. 140). Given all these pressures, it is surprising that the new system was able to last as long as it actually did (it was finally repealed in New York shortly after the end of the Second World War, when anti-Communism reached new peaks and the ‘Cold War’ was taking firm root). According to Prosterman, the logistics of the new PR system during its relatively brief existence were messy, with dozens of candidates in competition with one another. Moreover, the Democratic-controlled Board of Elections ‘withheld funding for counting machines’, forcing canvassers to re-check ballots manually, and meaning some voting result totals took weeks to be confirmed (p. 4). However, despite the counting delays and the associated high costs, and the use of markedly strong scare tactics to try to influence the public’s general perceptions of PR, the new system reshaped democracy in America’s largest city, making possible the representation of numerous third-party organizations in City Hall, including the Communist Party, and giving voters in New York a real taste of an ‘alternative’ form of democracy, albeit temporarily. Although the main focus of Defining Democracy is on the events in New York over the course of about nine years, what also comes across more generally from this study is that New York was not a unique example, and historians have tended to overlook the extent to which there were various democratic experiments in the history of America. While the two-party framework remained the dominant paradigm in the twentieth century, the example of PR’s use in New York can help to remind us that there was also some diversity and experimentation in representation in the USA. As Prosterman notes, the histories of democracy in America have often looked at the struggles for the expansion of voting rights, but there is also a need to consider the importance of how democratic systems are ‘structured’ in connection to their electoral outcomes. While the book is not a specialist investigation into the nature of Communism and fascism in America, readers can still pick up some valuable insights into American perceptions of both creeds, especially at the local municipal level, and how both left and right-wing extremists were seen as products of the same anti-democratic trends developing elsewhere in the world, and now allegedly threatening American security and national and local traditions. There are also some interesting points offered by the author about the degree to which ‘fascism’ as a word and concept was employed in the ideological battleground both for and against PR, and also in local debates in New York about what was actually meant by democracy. The threat of Mussolini and Hitler was often utilised by the opponents of PR in particular, who argued that PR had inevitably led to the emergence of both dictators, and that PR in general, far from being democratic

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and a healthy development in American city politics, would ultimately destroy democracy and the freedoms of ordinary citizens, bringing about the victory of a kind of ‘Red fascism’. Based on a notably wide range of primary and secondary material, including municipal archives, national and local newspapers, oral histories, and other very useful bibliographic sources, Prosterman offers a fascinating investigation of the fortunes of a quite radical experiment in American local municipal democracy in the 1930s and 1940s. In addition, he makes a strong case for the early emergence in New York City between 1936 and 1945 of the basic elements of a wider anti-Communist discourse, one that would come to dominate America’s national politics in the early years of the Cold War.

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Publications Alert

Achilov, D. & Shaykhutdinov, R. (2013) State Regulation of Religion and Radicalism in the Post-Communist Muslim Republics. Problems of Post-Communism, 60, 17-33. Anderson, C. J. & Just, A. (2013) Legitimacy from above: The Partisan Foundations of Support for the Political System in Democracies. European Political Science Review, 5, 335-362. Awan, I. & Blakemore, B. (eds) (2013) Extremism, Counter-terrorism and Policing.

Farnham: Ashgate.

Awan, I., Blakemore, B. & Simpson, K. (2013) Muslim Communities’ Attitudes towards and Recruitment into the British Police Service. International Journal of Law, Crime and Justice, 1-17. Aydinli, E. (2013) The Reform-security Dilemma in Democratic Transitions: the Turkish Experience as Model? Democratization, 20, 1144-1164. Bernhard, P. (2013) Borrowing from Mussolini: Nazi Germany's Colonial Aspirations in the Shadow of Italian Expansionism. Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, 41, 617-643. Bilewicz, M., Winiewski, M., Kofta, M. & Wojcik, A. (2013) Harmful Ideas, The Structure and Consequences of Anti-Semitic Beliefs in Poland. Political Psychology, 34, 821839. Bochel, C. (2013) Petitions Systems: Contributing to Representative Democracy? Parliamentary Affairs, 66, 798-815. Bolleyer, N. & Bytzek, E. (2013) Origins of Party Formation and New Party Success in advanced Democracies. European Journal of Political Research, 52, 773-796. Cammaerts, B. (2013) The Mediation of Insurrectionary Symbolic Damage: The 2010 U.K. Student Protests. International Journal of Press-Politics, 18, 525-548. Cohen-Almagor, R. (2012) In Internet’s Way: Radical, Terrorist Islamists on the Free Highway. International Journal of Cyber Warfare and Terrorism, 2(3), 39-58. Colombo, M. & Richardson, J.E. (2013) Continuity and Change in Populist Anti-immigrant Discourse in Italy: An analysis of Lega leaflets, Journal of Language and Politics, 12(2), 180-202. De Cesaris, V. (2013) The Catholic Church and Italian Fascism at the Breaking Point: A Cultural Perspective. Telos, 151-169. Duckitt, J. & Bizumic, B. (2013) Multidimensionality of Right-Wing Authoritarian Attitudes: Authoritarianism-Conservatism-Traditionalism. Political Psychology, 34, 841-862. Feldman, D. (2013) Conceiving Difference: Religion, Race and the Jews in Britain, c.17501900. History Workshop Journal, 160-186. Ferrero, M. (2013) The Cult of Martyrs. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 57, 881-904. Funk, C. L., Smith, K. B., Alford, J. R., Hibbing, M. V., Eaton, N. R., Krueger, R. F., Eaves, L. J. & Hibbing, J. R. (2013) Genetic and Environmental Transmission of Political Orientations. Political Psychology, 34, 805-819. Garau, S. (2013) Anticipating Norwegian Fascism: The Radicalization of Urban Right-Wing Nationalism in Inter-war Norway. European History Quarterly, 43, 681-706. Gaudenzi, B. (2013) Press Advertising and Fascist dictates: Showcasing the Female Consumer in Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany. Journalism Studies, 14, 663-680. Heinelt, H. (2013) Introduction: The Role Perception and Behaviour of Municipal

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Councillors in the Changing Context of Local Democracy. Local Government Studies, 39, 633-639. Hutcheson, D. S. (2013) Party cartels beyond Western Europe: Evidence from Russia. Party Politics, 19, 907-924. Israel, G. (2013) The Expulsion of Jewish Professors from University Science Departments during Fascism. Telos, 97-115. Iyengar, S., Jackman, S., Messing, S., Valentino, N., Aalberg, T., Duch, R., Hahn, K. S., Soroka, S., Harell, A. & Kobayashi, T. (2013) Do Attitudes about Immigration

predict Willingness to admit Individual Immigrants? A Cross-national Test of the Person-positivity Bias. Public Opinion Quarterly, 77, 641-665.

Jarvis, L. & Lister, M. (2013) Disconnected Citizenship? The Impacts of Anti-terrorism Policy on Citizenship in the UK. Political Studies, 61, 656-675. Joly, L. (2013) The Genesis of Vichy's Jewish Statute of October 1940. Holocaust and Genocide Studies, 27, 276-298. Judge, D. (2013) Recall of MPs in the UK: If I Were You I Wouldn’t Start from Here. Parliamentary Affairs, 66, 732-751. Kitschelt, H. & Kselman, D. M. (2013) Economic Development, Democratic Experience, and Political Parties' Linkage Strategies. Comparative Political Studies, 46, 14531484. Lacroix, J. (2013) A Democracy Without a People? The "Rights of Man' in French Contemporary Political Thought. Political Studies, 61, 676-690. Lupu, N. & Riedl, R. B. (2013) Political Parties and Uncertainty in Developing Democracies. Comparative Political Studies, 46, 1339-1365. Macklin, G. (2013) 'Onward Blackshirts!' Music and the British Union of Fascists. Patterns of Prejudice, 47, 430-457. Massetti, E. & Schakel, A. H. (2013) Ideology matters: Why decentralisation has a differentiated effect on regionalist parties' fortunes in Western democracies. European Journal of Political Research, 52, 797-821. McBride, C. (2013) Democratic Participation, Engagement and Freedom. British Journal of Politics & International Relations, 15, 493-508. McLaughlin, N. & Trilupaityte, S. (2013) The International Circulation of Attacks and the Reputational Consequences of Local Context: George Soros's Difficult Reputation in Russia, Post-Soviet Lithuania and the United States. Cultural Sociology, 7, 431446. Michels, T. (2013) Two Faces of Labor Anticommunism. Journal of the Historical Society, 13, 149-155. Millan, M. (2013) The Institutionalisation of Squadrismo: Disciplining Paramilitary Violence in the Italian Fascist Dictatorship. Contemporary European History, 22, 551-573. Neviaski, A. (2013) Nazi Infiltration in the French Foreign Legion. Historia, 62-66. Obydenkova, A. & Libman, A. (2013) National autocratization and the survival of subnational democracy: Evidence from Russia's parliamentary elections of 2011. Acta Politica, 48, 459-489. Onraet, E., van Hiel, A. & Cornelis, I. (2013) Threat and Right-Wing Attitudes: A CrossNational Approach. Political Psychology, 34, 791-803. Passarelli, G. (2013) Extreme right parties in Western Europe: The Case of the Italian Northern League. Journal of Modern Italian Studies, 18, 53-71. Pavan, I. (2013) Fascism, Anti-Semitism, and Racism: An Ongoing Debate. Telos, 45-62. Pedroza, L. (2013) Policy framing and denizen enfranchisement in Portugal: why some

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migrant voters are more equal than others. Citizenship Studies, 17, 852-872. Persson, M., Esaiasson, P. & Gilljam, M. (2013) The effects of direct voting and deliberation on legitimacy beliefs: an experimental study of small group decisionmaking. European Political Science Review, 5, 381-399. Pirro, A.L.P. (2013) Populist Radical Right Parties in Central and Eastern Europe: The Different Context and Issues of the Prophets of the Patria, Government and Opposition. Prazmowska, A. (2013) The Polish Underground Resistance During the Second World War: A Study in Political Disunity During Occupation. European History Quarterly, 43, 464-488. Quaranta, M. (2013) The impact of institutional decentralization on protest in Western Europe. International Political Science Review, 34, 502-518. Railton, N. (2013) Escaping from Sodom: A Christian Jew Encounters German Antisemitism. Journal of Ecclesiastical History, 64, 787-826. Reed, R. (2013) Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Anyone Who Gets in the Way: Lessons from a Comparative Analysis of US Militias and Ulster Loyalists. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 36, 756-776. Reichardt, S. (2013) Violence and Community: A Micro-Study on Nazi Storm Troopers. Central European History, 46, 275-297. Roodhouse, M. (2013) 'Fish-and-Chip Intelligence': Henry Durant and the British Institute of Public Opinion, 1936-63. Twentieth Century British History, 24, 224-248. Rooduijn, M. (2013) The Nucleus of Populism: In Search of the Lowest Common Denominator, Government and Opposition. Rose, P. L. (2013) Renan versus Gobineau: Semitism and Antisemitism, Ancient Races and Modern Liberal Nations. History of European Ideas, 39, 528-540. Sandler, W. (2013) Deutsche Heimat in Afrika: Colonial Revisionism and the Construction of Germanness through Photography. Journal of Womens History, 25, 37-61. Schonwalder, K. & Bloemraad, I. (2013) Extending urban democracy? the immigrant presence in European electoral politics. European Political Science, 12, 448-454. Seidler, M. (2013) The Beauty and the Beast: Jean-Paul Sartre and the Baader-Meinhof Gang. Terrorism and Political Violence, 25, 597-605. Shaffer, R. (2013) The soundtrack of neo-fascism: youth and music in the National Front. Patterns of Prejudice, 47, 458-482. Shephard, M. & Patrikios, S. (2013) Making Democracy Work by Early Formal Engagement? A Comparative Exploration of Youth Parliaments in the EU. Parliamentary Affairs, 66, 752-771. Simi, P., Bubolz, B. F. & Hardman, A. (2013) Military Experience, Identity Discrepancies, and Far Right Terrorism: An Exploratory Analysis. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 36, 654-671. Smets, L., Knack, S. & Molenaers, N. (2013) Political ideology, quality at entry and the success of economic reform programs. Review of International Organizations, 8, 447-476. Spies, D. (2013) Explaining working-class support for extreme right parties: A party competition approach. Acta Politica, 48, 296-325. Stoetzler, M. & Achinger, C. (2013) German modernity, barbarous Slavs and profit-seeking Jews: the cultural racism of nationalist liberals. Nations and Nationalism, 19, 739760. Stone, D. (2013) Contesting Democracy: Political Ideas in Twentieth-Century Europe.

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Contemporary European History, 22, 675-686. te Velde, H. (2013) The Religious Side of Democracy: Early Socialism, Twenty-firstcentury Populism and the Sacralization of Politics, in J. Augusteijn, P. G. C.

Dassen & M. J. Janse (eds), Political Religion Beyond Totalitarianism: The Sacralization of Politics in the Age of Democracy, Palgrave Connect, 33-52. Thomas, K. R. (2013) Wild Analysis in Politics. Political Psychology, 34, 927-934.

Varley, K. (2013) Vichy and the Complexities of Collaborating with Fascist Italy: French Policy and Perceptions between June 1940 and March 1942. Modern & Contemporary France, 21, 317-333. Vergolina, J. R. (2013) "Methods of Barbarism" or Western Tradition? Britain South Africa and the Evolution of Escalatory Violence as Policy. Journal of Military History, 77, 1303-1327. Vielhaber, D. (2013) The Stasi-Meinhof Complex? Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 36, 533546. Villar, J. L. (2013) Catholicism Versus Laicism: Culture Wars and the Making of Catholic National Identity in Spain, 1898-1931. European History Quarterly, 43, 657-680. Webb, P. (2013) Who is willing to participate? Dissatisfied democrats, stealth democrats and populists in the United Kingdom. European Journal of Political Research, 52, 747-772. Wodak, R., Mral, B. & KhosraviNik, M. (eds) (2013) Right Wing Populism in Europe: Politics and Discourse. London: Bloomsbury Academic. Woodford, C. (2013) From Nora to the BNP: Implication of Cavell's Critique of Rawls. British Journal of Politics & International Relations, 15, 586-608.

Please tell us of any recent publications of interest to Standing Group members so that we may include them in the ‘publications alert’ section of our newsletter.

ECPR Standing Group on Extremism and Democracy Convenors: David Art (David.Art@tufts.edu); Elisabeth Carter (e.carter@keele.ac.uk)

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