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Electronic Newsletter of the ECPR Standing Group on Extremism and Democracy

e-Extreme

June 2013 Volume 14 Number 2


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Volume 14, No. 2, June 2013

Managing Editor Mark Pitchford Teesside University, UK Email: m.pitchford@tees.ac.uk

Book Reviews Editor Janet Dack Teesside University, UK Email: j.dack@tees.ac.uk

The e-Extreme is the newsletter of the ECPR Standing Group on Extremism and Democracy and is published quarterly. For any enquiries about the newsletter, please contact the managing editor, Mark Pitchford. For inquiries regarding book reviews please contact the book reviews editor, Janet Dack. Copyright Š 2013 by the ECPR Standing Group on Extremism and Democracy All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, electronic, photocopying, or otherwise, without permission in writing from the ECPR Standing Group on Extremism and Democracy.

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Table of Contents

Standing Group Announcements …………………………………………………………

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Conference Reports ………………………………..……………….…….…………………

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Book Reviews ………………………………………………….….……………………........

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Publications Alert ………………………………………………………………………….…

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Standing Group Announcements

Forthcoming conferences and workshops Please do visit our website for details of forthcoming conferences, workshops and symposia: www.extremism-and-democracy.com. There are upcoming events at Northampton, Teesside and the ECPR’s General Conference at Bordeaux. Member database by research interest Also, remember that the website contains a database which enables members to browse and search for other members by research interests, as well as by name. If you would like to update your own details, please just email us at info@extremism-and-democracy.com. Please also encourage colleagues and PhD students to join the Standing Group. Book Reviewers The book review section is one of the highlights of e-Extreme. We know that producing book reviews can seem like a chore in our busy lives, so we are grateful to those who have done so. However, we are always open to new reviewers, so if anyone is happy to produce reviews and has not yet done so, please make our book reviews editor, Janet Dack, aware at J.Dack@teesside.ac.uk Keep us informed! Please keep us informed of any upcoming conferences or workshops you are organizing, and of any publication or funding opportunities that would be of interest to Standing Group members. We will post all details on our website. Similarly, if you would like to write a report on a conference or workshop that you have organized and have this included in our newsletter, please do let us know. Please also tell us of any recent publications of interest to Standing Group members so that we may include them in the ‘publications alert’ section of our newsletter, and please get in touch if you would like to see a particular book (including your own) reviewed in e-Extreme, or if you would like to review a specific book yourself. Finally, if you would like to get involved in the production of the newsletter, the development of our website, or any of the other activities of the Standing Group then please do contact us. Mark Pitchford is especially keen to hear colleagues’ views about revamping the newsletter, so any ideas and comments are very welcome. We are always very keen to involve more members in the running of the Standing Group! Email us at: info@extremismand-democracy.com

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Book series in Extremism and Democracy As you might know, the Standing Group has close links with the Routledge Book Series in Extremism and Democracy. Originally founded by Roger Eatwell and Cas Mudde, this series has two strands aimed at different audiences. The ‘Routledge Studies in Extremism and Democracy’ is targeted at students and teachers, while the ‘Routledge Research in Extremism and Democracy’ is aimed at a more specialist readership. Matthew Goodwin recently replaced the estimable Cas. Please contact Roger or Matthew via the Standing Group website if you would like to discuss ideas or suggestions for titles. New Online Resources Daniel Köhler of EXIT-Germany has drawn our attention to two new online resources that will be useful for colleagues. The first is www.istramo.com, the website of the Institute for the Study of Radical Movements (ISRM). The ISRM is part of the Centre for Democratic Culture in Berlin, and brings together the knowledge of EXIT-Germany, one of the oldest and most successful Deradicalization and Disengagement Programs in the world, and Arbeitsstelle Islamismus und Ultranationalismus, the leading practical non-governmental organization working about and against Islamism in Germany. The ISRM aims to bring together practical experience and empirical data from several non-governmental organisations in the field of deradicalization with high quality research. The second is www.journal-exit.de, the Journal of Deradicalization, Extremism and Democratic Culture (JEX). Although JEX is German-language focused, it will have bilingual (German-English) and English articles from academics and practitioners. It is peer-reviewed.

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Conference Reports

The radical left and crisis in the EU: From marginality to the mainstream? University of Edinburgh, Scotland 17 May 2013 This conference aimed to analyse the divergent response of the European radical left to international economic crisis and the ‘age of austerity’ and to focus on the puzzle of absence of a consistent radical left upsurge since 2008. In particular, it concentrated on current state of intellectual and/or particular opposition to the EU as manifested by radical left. It gathered 19 leading experts in this newly emerging research field.

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The first panel concentrated on overviews of the radical left. Cornelia Hildebrandt (Rosa Luxemburg Foundation) provided a survey of electoral results and social support, as compared with the centre-left and Greens, arguing that the radical left’s identity problems were critical to their sub-par performance. Dieter Ohr (Freie Universität Berlin) focused on the impact of a country’s issue opportunity structure on the electoral fortunes of the radical left in Europe, arguing, inter alia, that a shift leftwards in social democrats’ positions strengthens the success of the radical left. Cesar Guzman-Concha (Freie Universität Berlin) examined alternative conceptions for the ‘success’ of the radical left, in particular whether to define success as levels of electoral support, or as changes in party positions within political systems. He argued for focusing on the role of institutional and historical characteristics of the countries and societies in which these parties are embedded. Michael Holmes (Liverpool Hope University) focussed on the response of radical left parties to European integration. He rejected dominant views of the radical left as euro-sceptic and entrenched in their opposition to the European Union, noting a pattern by which parties of all hues have gradually been drawn into an accommodation with the EU. The second panel homed in on radical left responses to the crisis. Luke March (University of Edinburgh) compared the responses of the Party of European Socialists, European Greens and Party of the European Left. He noted that all three party families have converged around criticism of neo-liberalism. However, broader policy consensus and shared understandings of a post neo-liberal model are absent. Dan Keith and Francis McGowan (University of Sussex) focussed on the politics of migration, investigating the degree to which the radical left has followed the centre-left in adopting less tolerant policy stances on this issue. The authors argued that the radical left is caught between defending a universalist position of solidarity with marginalized communities and opposing immigration as a manifestation of globalisation. Giorgos Charalambous (University of Cyprus) then dealt with the question of how European radical left parties have responded to the crisis in terms of their mobilisation strategies and approaches to civil society. Utilizing data from an expert survey, he provided a comparative analysis of the significance of party-specific characteristics in radical left organisational responses. The post-lunch panels dealt more with national case studies. Panel Three was focussed on central Europe (broadly defined). Fabien Escalona (Institut d’Etudes Politiques de Grenoble) and Mathieu Vieira (Université Libre de Bruxelles) analysed the emergence of the French Left Front as the outcome of social democratic dissent. They contended that a positive ‘altereuropéanisme’ provided the unifying claim for the Left Front that distinguishes

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it from the Socialist Party. Dan Keith (University of Sussex) then analysed the response of the Dutch Socialist Party (SP) to the economic crisis, arguing that crises of identity, leadership and governing ability were behind the SP’s failure to consolidate its stunning growth in the polls during the 2012 Dutch parliamentary election campaign. David S. Bell (University of Leeds) then provided a panoramic view of the main parties and groups to the left of the French Parti socialiste, in particular the Trotskyite NPA, Lutte ouvrière and the tiny Parti des travailleurs as well as the unions and the anti-globalisation and protest movements. Vladimir Handl (Charles University, Prague) rounded out the panel by providing an overview of the problems and perspectives confronting the Czech Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia. This party is benefitting in opinion polls from the economic crisis without as yet being able to change its ideological stance or strategic position in order to capitalise more fully and turn from a party of protest to a real coalition partner. The final panel centred on Southern Europe. Marco Lisi (New University of Lisbon) concentrated on the radical left in Portugal, asking whether austerity measures represent an incentive for enhancing cooperation among left parties or whether they reinforce the cleavage between governing vs. representative parties. The paper shed light on the conditions that make rapprochement among left parties possible, discussed the governmental potential of radical left parties in comparative perspective, as well as to examining changes in voter-party linkage. Costas Eleftheriou and Michalis Spourdalakis (University of Athens) then presented the strategy of the radical Greek left during the crisis, emphasising two levels: social mobilisation and their stance towards EU management of the crisis. The paper argued that each party’s organisational traits are crucial for the formulation of the mobilisation model; secondly, strong anti-European positions are followed by a refusal of governmental participation while pro-European stances favour government-centered strategies. Stavros D. Mavroudeas (University of Macedonia) also focused on the Greek left, specifically their attitude to the European integration project. The paper showed how after the eruption of the 2007-8 economic crisis, anti-EU positions prevailed in Greek society and among the Greek Left. The final paper by Loudovikos Kotsonopoulos (Nikos Poulantzas Institute) focused specifically on SYRIZA, in particular its search for political identity and organisational cohesion. It argued that after the coalition’s remarkable success in the two successive national elections in 2012, SYRIZA now has the opportunity for greater organisational integration, surpassing the normal problems inherent in many radical left parties. Attended by 30 delegates (students, the public, academics and activists), the conference was a resounding success, engendering vibrant debate. The next stage is to consolidate our contacts into a more cohesive network and to thematise the contributions into a publication. The conference was organised by Luke March. For further information, contact l.march@ed.ac.uk https://www.facebook.com/groups/412368308795345/

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Ethnicity, Race and Nationalism in European Media and Film: Rights, Responsibilities, Representations. University of Manchester, UK 23-25 May 2013 Over 90 people gathered for three days in the Chancellors Hotel Conference Centre in Manchester to discuss issues of ethnicity, race and nationalism in media and film. The aim of the conference was to facilitate a cross-cultural, comparative study of the impact of media and film on the playing out of the “crisis of multiculturalism” in West and East European societies, and to analyse the similarities and differences in media and cinematic approaches to ethnic cohesion issues throughout Europe. Two of the five keynote speakers came from outside academia. Richard Stone OBE was a panel member of the 'Stephen Lawrence Inquiry' into racism in policing (1997/99) and recently published a book called 'Hidden stories of the Stephen Lawrence Inquiry – how the agenda of a major Inquiry gets undermined'. In his lecture, Stone demonstrated the controversial and complex nature of the media involvement in this case. The second speaker from the field of practice, Henri Nickels, described the activities of the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights in Vienna, for which he works as a Programme Manger for Research. Not all of the “conventional” academic keynote speakers were conventional in how they approached their talks. Sabrina P. Ramet from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology in Trondheim enlightened the audience with an impromptu performance of a song for Tito. In her talk on the role of the ethnic factor in the break-up of Yugoslavia, Ramet looked at how the media were used by nationalist politicians in Serbia and Croatia in order to politicize ethnic and religious identities. John Downing from the Department of Radio-Television, Southern Illinois University, chose an ironic title for his talk: “Reflections on racisms, ethnicities and media in a brand-new post-racist Europe?” However, the lecture went well beyond irony and appealed to scholars to adopt a more activist approach to ensuring responsible media coverage of issues relating to race and ethnicity. Downing also described his own experience as a researcher on racism and the media, and as an activist protesting against racial prejudices in US academia and beyond. Marie Gillespie (The Open University, UK) shared with conference participants the results of her AHRC-funded research on the relationship between international broadcasting in the UK (BBC foreign services) and social media. Her lecture had the intriguing title “Tweeting the Olympics: The BBC World Service, British Soft Power and Cosmopolitan Imagination”. The 21 panels covered a wide variety of issues around ethnicity, race and nationalism in European media. An important topic was media presentations of multiculturalism. One panel explored the relationships between social cohesion and trends in the use and production of media in the UK as well as media approaches to the coverage of migration during the 2010 UK general elections. Humour on the small screen was explored through two papers on the representation of Romani people in Finnish television sketch series and Indian families in UK television. Both papers highlighted the difficulties entailed in moving beyond objectification and stereotype in comic television depictions of ethnic minorities. Papers throughout the conference discussed questions related to immigration and integration, as presented, for example, in Austrian crime series and British soap operas.

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Racism was discussed in its appearances online, in the press and on television screens. A topic elaborated in two papers was the racial subtexts of media coverage of recent urban riots in Russia and the UK. Some Q&A sessions turned into animated discussions, for example around the question of where researchers should situate ethical boundaries when carrying out fieldwork among groupings on the far-right, such as the English Defence League. A lively debate also developed over the extent to which it is permissible to generalise about ‘the media’ when analysing anti-Islamic discourse. It was argued that television is very different from the popular press, and that what is true of broadcasters in one country does not necessarily apply to others. Another discussion evolved around terminology used in analyses of representation of Roma when many objected to the binary use of Roma versus the civic term of the country they live in, as this, so it was argued, discursively excludes the Roma from their respective nationalities. The notion of Europe as understood in this conference went beyond the boundaries of the European Union and included Russia, other countries of the former Soviet Union and Turkey. Papers included media and film depiction of ethnic relations and nation building in post-Communist countries, such as civil society in the Belarusian press, Buddhism in Buriyatian media and cinematic presentations of bride kidnapping in Kyrgyz tradition. Turkish media were discussed in relation to the Kurdish question and minority filmmaking in Turkey. An important conference topic was the depiction of ethnicity, nationalism and race in cinematic productions. One paper argued that blaxploitation films were more than violent low-brow B-movies and suggested that their positive roles were often overlooked in a foregrounding of their violence and sexually explicit content. Recent film theory was applied to an analysis of Claire Denis's 35 Shots of Rum, set in the suburbs of Paris, and theories of exile and diaspora to an analysis of the Spanish film, Even the Rain. Other papers on film included an exploration of nationalism in Serbia and the cinematic representation of Roma. It is hoped that selected paper from the conference will form the basis of two journal special issues. For more details of the papers delivered, see: http://russiantvcohesion.humanities.manchester.ac.uk/events/ The event was organised by a group of University of Manchester researchers whose threeyear AHRC project, “Mediating Post-Soviet Difference”, helped to fund the conference. The project team, led by Professor Stephen Hutchings and Professor Vera Tolz, has also included two Research Associates, Dr Sue-Ann Harding and Dr Elisabeth Schimpfossl. The project addresses Russian state television's approach to ethnic tension. It explores the media’s nation building function in the particular context of contemporary Russia and investigates how Russian television mediates between government policy on ethnic diversity and conflict, and discourses of nationalist xenophobia. For more details, see: http://russiantvcohesion.humanities.manchester.ac.uk/

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Book Reviews

Decentring the West: the Idea of Democracy and the Struggle for Hegemony

Edited by Viatcheslav Morozov (Ashgate, Farnham and Burlington, 2013), 207 pp., ISBN 9781409449706 Reviewed by Prof Paul Lewis Open University, UK The title of this book gives some indication of the approach it takes – being positioned, we are informed in the Preface, at the intersection of the poststructuralist theory of hegemony and postcolonial studies. Democracy is thus viewed as 'an empty signifier hegemonically controlled by the West' but also as a 'focus of counter-hegemonic discourses that are actively promoted outside the Western core'. It is not an approach, it is clear, that will find much favour with those who prefer to trace the progress of democracy with the aid of Freedom House indicators – unless they welcome a distinct shift of focus. The insights of Derrida, Lefort, Rancière and Badiou are favoured, although the editor's introductory chapter also refers to writers on democracy located more in the Anglo-Saxon mainstream like Bull, Carothers, Chandler and Dahl. The main question, of course, is what contribution this collection of case studies is intended to make and the kind of insight it is designed to offer. Here, it must be said, the editor presents no single answer. The book is a 'study of democracy as a concept that shapes our existence as political beings, whose meaning is profoundly conditioned by diverse historical experience', as well as an 'examination of the role played by the idea of democracy in the current debate on future world order'; it also embarks on a search for 'the possibility of a global democratic discourse that would keep a critical distinction from both the Western project of democracy promotion and the cynical instrumental use of prodemocracy rhetoric by certain non-Western leaders'. A primary feature of the argument it develops is that if democracy is to remain a meaningful notion it has be defined at the international level, and in this context much depends on the contribution made in the casestudies that make up most of the book. These cover a range of semi-peripheral countries (Turkey, Russia, Bolivia, Brazil, Venezuela and China), and investigate the use made of democratic discourse in some Western countries (Estonia, Denmark and China). Prior to this, Artemy Magun, examines the idea of democracy which, it is clear, is not quite the empty signifier presented at the outset but rather a widely used and abused concept with multiple meanings and deeply rooted historical contradictions. He does not think it likely that an exit is possible from the contradictions and vicious circles it entails, although 'utopian syntheses' on occasion emerge – like the Paris Commune; Russian, German and Hungarian Councils (i.e. Soviets); or participatory municipalities in contemporary Brazil and Bolivia, that maintain some kind of democratic memory that keeps the core idea alive in the public sphere. Subsequent case-studies confirm the contradictory use of the democratic idea and the ambiguity of its status outside the Western powers that appear to determine its meaning. In practice Russia, for example, cannot and does not want to ally itself with regimes pursuing explicitly anti-Western policies and resorts to language that vindicate one of the pivotal signifiers of Western discourses (Andrey Makarychev). Turkey, on the other hand, while providing a democratic model for changing patterns of

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politics in the Middle East, presents it in ways that reinforce the Western distinctiveness and monopoly over full democracy (Bahar Rumelili). Elena Pavlova, too, surveying new democratic discourses in Russia and Latin America, notes that empty signifiers accumulate a lot of power. She concludes that Russia has in effect become part of the hegemonic Western project while a different kind of discourse has emerged in Latin America, which can more unexpectedly be described as genuinely counter-hegemonic precisely because it does not make a stand against Western values. Further examination of Latin American cases show that 'nativist' forces in Bolivia and Venezuela may indeed be counter-hegemonic but are less accurately described as democratic (Maia and Santoro), while a more powerful country like Brazil showed a clear understanding that defying the West would be a waste of effort and that the established international order still had much to offer (Pecequilo). There is, on the other hand, rather more to be said about Chinese views of democracy than might have been expected, although Lomanov concludes that democratisation in the contemporary Chinese setting is a strategy for the adaptation of a one-party system to new challenges (very much on the old Soviet model) and has little to do with the introduction of democracy as most Western observers would understand it. Nevertheless, in 1997 the notion of the rule of law was introduced while strengthening mechanisms of arbitration and property protection, measures that would doubtless be approved by the analysts of Freedom House. Diverse currents of political activity have also developed, not least by the dissidents pursuing more radical change who launched the Charter 08 publication, which suggests that there is more substance to some kind of democratisation in the country than is generally recognised. Readers may also be surprised to read of the significant tensions that have emerged between different conceptions of democracy in Sweden and Denmark, although the extensive reports of immigrant riots in the Stockholm suburbs being broadcast as I write confirm that the much admired Swedish model is indeed not without internal critics either. The book contains, then, many interesting insights – while stopping short, as Morozov states in the Conclusion, of revealing 'a shining path towards a truly universal democratic order'. On a note of considerable optimism he also argues that continuing signs of global democratic crisis at least show that democracy has a future. As a signifier, then, it is not that empty.

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Publications Alert

Acemoglu, D., Egorov, G. & Sonin, K. (2013) ‘A Political Theory of Populism’, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 128, 771-805. Afshar, H. (2013) ‘The Politics of Fear: What does it mean to those who are Otherized and Feared?’, Ethnic and Racial Studies, 36, 9-27. Alam, A. (2013) ‘Islam and Post-Modernism: Locating the Rise of Islamism in Turkey (Retraction of vol 20, 352, 2009)’, Journal of Islamic Studies, 24, 127. Aspelund, A., Lindeman, M. & Verkasalo, M. (2013) ‘Political Conservatism and Left-Right Orientation in 28 Eastern and Western European Countries’, Political Psychology, 34, 409417. Baer, M. D. (2013) ‘Turk and Jew in Berlin: The First Turkish Migration to Germany and the Shoah’, Comparative Studies in Society and History, 55, 330-355. Barker, E. (2013) ‘Theocratic Democracy: The Social Construction of Religious and Secular Extremism’, Crime Media Culture, 9, 106-108. Barnes, T. J. & Minca, C. (2013) ‘Nazi Spatial Theory: The Dark Geographies of Carl Schmitt and Walter Christaller’, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 103, 669-687. Bos, L., van der Brug, W. & de Vreese, C. H. (2013) ‘An Experimental Test of the Impact of Style and Rhetoric on the Perception of Right-wing Populist and Mainstream Party Leaders’, Acta Politica, 48, 192-208. Carlston, E. G. (2012) ‘Women Modernists and Fascism’, Modernism-Modernity, 19, 820-822. Cohen-Almagor, R. (2012) ‘Two-State Solution – The Way Forward’, Annual Review of Law and Ethics, 20, 381-395. Cohen-Almagor, R. (2013) ‘Freedom of Expression v. Social Responsibility: Holocaust Denial in Canada’, Journal of Mass Media Ethics, 28/1, 42-56. Cohen-Almagor, R. (2013) ‘Religious, Hateful and Racist Speech in Israel’, Shofar, 31/2, 97-115. Dahlstrom, C. & Esaiasson, P. (2013) ‘The Immigration Issue and Anti-immigrant Party Success in Sweden 1970-2006: A Deviant Case Analysis’, Party Politics, 19, 343-364. Dalgaard-Nielsen, A. (2013) ‘Promoting Exit from Violent Extremism: Themes and Approaches’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 36, 99-115. De Bromhead, A., Eichengreen, B. & O'Rourke, K. H. (2013) ‘Political Extremism in the 1920s and 1930s: Do German Lessons Generalize?’, Journal of Economic History, 73, 371-406. De Prospo, M. (2013) ‘Reconstructing the Army of a Collapsed Nation: The Kingdom of the South of Italy (September 1943-March 1944)’, Journal of Modern Italian Studies, 18, 1-16. Di Figlia, M. (2012) ‘Fascism and antisemitism’, Mediterranea-Ricerche Storiche, 615-617. Dubow, J. & Steadman-Jones, R. D. (2013) ‘Linguistic Cosmopolitans: Arendt, Capek, Orwell’, Journal of European Studies, 43, 119-140. Durham, M. (2013) ‘New British Fascism: Rise of the British National Party’, Patterns of Prejudice, 47, 194-196. [Book review] Fisher, J. (2013) ‘From Nazism to Communism: German Schoolteachers under Two Dictatorships’, American Historical Review, 118, 274-275. Foschi, R., Giannone, A. & Giuliani, A. (2013) ‘Italian Psychology under Protection: Agostino Gemelli Between Catholicism and Fascism’, History of Psychology, 16, 130-144. Franssen, V., Dhont, K. & Van Hiel, A. (2013) ‘Age-Related Differences in Ethnic Prejudice: Evidence of the Mediating Effect of Right-Wing Attitudes’, Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 23, 252-257. Gilligan, P. (2013) ‘"Harsh Realism": Gender, Reality Television, and the Politics of the "Sink" Housing Estate in Austerity Britain’, Television & New Media, 14, 244-260. Gnisci, A., Zollo, P., Perugini, M. & Di Conza, A. (2013) ‘A Comparative Study of Toughness and

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Neutrality in Italian and English Political Interviews’, Journal of Pragmatics, 50, 152-167. Hart, B. W. (2013) ‘Science, Politics, and Prejudice: The Dynamics and Significance of British Anthropology's Failure to Confront Nazi Racial Ideology’, European History Quarterly, 43, 301-325. Holbrook, C. (2012) ‘Marxism for Beginner Nations: Radical Nationalist Historians and the Great War’, Labour History, 123-144. Holbrook, D., Ramsay, G. & Taylor, M. (2013) ‘"Terroristic Content": Towards a Grading Scale’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 25, 202-223. Johnson, S. (2013) ‘"Jews and Other Foreigners": Manchester and the Rescue of the Victims of European Fascism, 1933-1940’, American Historical Review, 118, 261-262. Jones, B. & Searle, R. (2013) ‘Humphrey Jennings, the Left and the Experience of Modernity in mid twentieth-century Britain’, History Workshop Journal, 190-212. Karademir, A. (2013) ‘Heidegger and Nazism: On the Relation between German Conservatism, Heidegger, and the National Socialist Ideology’, Philosophical Forum, 44, 99-123. Kürti, L. (2012) ‘Twenty Years After: Rock Music and National Rock in Hungary’, REGION: Regional Studies of Russia, Eastern Europe, and Central Asia, 1/1: 93-129. Leavitt, C. L. (2012) ‘Weltliteratur as Anti-Fascism: Philology and Politics in Luigi Foscolo Benedetto's’, "Letteratura mondiale"'. Mln, 127, 1171-1205. Lygo, E. (2013) ‘Promoting Soviet Culture in Britain: The history of the Society for Cultural Relations between the Peoples of the British Commonwealth and the USSR, 1924-1945’, Modern Language Review, 108, 571. Nagorski, A. (2013) ‘The Devil in History: Communism, Fascism, and Some Lessons of the Twentieth Century’, Foreign Affairs, 92, 172-176. Nefes, T. S. (2013) ‘Political Parties' Perceptions and uses of anti-Semitic Conspiracy Theories in Turkey’, Sociological Review, 61, 247-264. Onraet, E. & Van Hiel, A. (2013) ‘When Threat to Society becomes a Threat to Oneself: Implications for Right-wing Attitudes and Ethnic Prejudice’, International Journal of Psychology, 48, 2534. Onraet, E., Van Hiel, A., Dhont, K. & Pattyn, S. (2013) ‘Internal and External Threat in Relationship With Right-Wing Attitudes’, Journal of Personality, 81, 233-248. Pantucci, R. (2013) ‘Radical: My Journey from Islamist Extremism to a Democratic Awakening’, International Affairs, 89, 200-201. Perry, R., Sibley, C. G. & Duckitt, J. (2013) ‘Dangerous and Competitive Worldviews: A metaanalysis of their Associations with Social Dominance Orientation and Right-Wing Authoritarianism’, Journal of Research in Personality, 47, 116-127. Pisoiu, D. (2013) ‘Coming to Believe "Truths" About Islamist Radicalization in Europe’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 25, 246-263. Plax, M. J. (2013) ‘On Extremism in our Time’, Society, 50, 196-203. Pytlas, B. (2013) ‘Radical-right Narratives in Slovakia and Hungary: Historical Legacies, Mythic overlaying and Contemporary Politics’, Patterns of Prejudice, 47, 162-183. Rydgren, J. & Ruth, P. (2013) ‘Contextual Explanations of Radical Right-wing Support in Sweden: Socioeconomic Marginalization, Group Threat, and the Halo Effect’ Ethnic and Racial Studies, 36, 711-728. Sandberg, S. (2013) ‘Are Self-narratives Strategic or Determined, Unified or Fragmented? Reading Breivik's Manifesto in Light of Narrative Criminology’, Acta Sociologica, 56, 69-83. Scheck, R. (2012) ‘Nazi Propaganda toward French Muslim Prisoners of War’ Holocaust and Genocide Studies, 26, 447-477. Schlembach, R. (2013) ‘Autonomous Nationalists: Neo-Nazism in Motion’, Patterns of Prejudice, 47, 192-194. Shaffer, B. & Duckitt, J. (2013) ‘The Dimensional Structure of People's Fears, Threats, and Concerns and their Relationship with Right-wing Authoritarianism and Social Dominance Orientation’,

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International Journal of Psychology, 48, 6-17. Sherrill, S. (2013) ‘Choose Your Right-Wing Utopia’, New Republic, 244, 12-13. Shurts, S. E. (2013) ‘Resentment and the Right: A Twentieth-Century Cycle of Reaction, Revaluation, and Retreat by the French Extreme Right’, European History Quarterly, 43, 257-278. Smid, M. (2012) ‘The Personality of Benito Mussolini and Reflections of Italian Fascism in the Czech Catholic Milieu in the context of the First Czechoslovak Republic’, Studia Theologica-Czech Republic, 14, 127-144. Sobolewska, M., Fieldhouse, E. & Cutts, D. (2013) ‘Taking Minorities for Granted? Ethnic Density, Party Campaigning and Targeting Minority Voters in 2010 British General Elections’, Parliamentary Affairs, 66, 329-344. Stanczyk, E. (2013) ‘Caught between Germany and Russia: Memory and National Identity in Poland's Right-Wing Media Post-2004’ Slavonic and East European Review, 91, 289. Sternhell, Z. (2013) ‘Political Conversion: Doriot, the PPF and the issue of French fascism’, French History, 27, 144-145. Stone, D. (2013) The Holocaust, Fascism and Memory: Essays in the History of Ideas, Basingstoke: Palgrave. Tamir, D. (2013) ‘Ideologies in the Age of Extremes: Liberalism, Conservatism, Communism, Fascism 1914-1991’, Political Studies Review, 11, 118-118. Vrecko, J. (2012) ‘The Barbarogenius, the Barbaric, and Fascism’, Primerjalna Knjizevnost, 35, 261270. Warner, C. M. (2013) ‘Christian Democracy in Italy: An Alternative Path to Religious Party Moderation’, Party Politics, 19, 256-276. Weinberg, G. L. (2013) ‘Catholicism and the Roots of Nazism: Religious Identity and National Socialism’, Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 43, 629-630. Werts, H., Scheepers, P. & Lubbers, M. (2013) ‘Euro-scepticism and Radical Right-wing Voting in Europe, 2002-2008: Social Cleavages, Socio-political Attitudes and Contextual Characteristics Determining Voting for the Radical right’, European Union Politics, 14, 183-205. Wilson, M. S. & Sibley, C. G. (2013) ‘Social Dominance Orientation and Right-Wing Authoritarianism: Additive and Interactive Effects on Political Conservatism’, Political Psychology, 34, 277-284.

ECPR Standing Group on Extremism and Democracy Convenors: David Art (David.Art@tufts.edu); Elisabeth Carter (e.carter@keele.ac.uk)

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