Page 1


Table of Contents FOREWORD ....................................................................................................................................................................4 SECTION 1.0: MARKET OVERVIEW............................................................................................................................. 1 1.1

Introduction ...........................................................................................................................................1

1.2

Population ..............................................................................................................................................1

1.3

Demographics .......................................................................................................................................1

1.4

Climate ...................................................................................................................................................1

1.5

Language ................................................................................................................................................2

1.6

Hours of Business .................................................................................................................................2

1.7

Public Holidays .....................................................................................................................................2

1.8

Travel & Transportation ......................................................................................................................2

1.9

Time Zone ..............................................................................................................................................4

1.10

Currency .................................................................................................................................................4

1.11

Communication.....................................................................................................................................4

SECTION 2.0: ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL ENVIRONMENT .....................................................................................4 2.1

Economic Performance.........................................................................................................................4

2.2

Structure of Output............................................................................................................................... 7

2.3

Economic Outlook ................................................................................................................................ 7

2.4

Business (S達o Paulo and Rio de Janeiro)............................................................................................ 8

2.5

Labour Force ..........................................................................................................................................8

2.6

Political Stability and Structure ..........................................................................................................9

SECTION 3.0: TRADE ENVIRONMENT ........................................................................................................................9 3.1

Import Statistics.....................................................................................................................................9

3.2

Import Tariffs & Taxes ....................................................................................................................... 10

3.3

Trade Barriers ...................................................................................................................................... 11

3.4

Prohibited and Restricted Imports ................................................................................................... 12

3.5

Trade Agreements .............................................................................................................................. 12

SECTION 4.0: MARKET CHALLENGES ...................................................................................................................... 13 4.1

Size ........................................................................................................................................................ 13

4.2

Culture.................................................................................................................................................. 13

4.3

Networking .......................................................................................................................................... 13

4.4

Status .................................................................................................................................................... 14

4.5

Language .............................................................................................................................................. 14


4.6

Logistics................................................................................................................................................ 14

4.7

Compliance .......................................................................................................................................... 14

SECTION 5.0: MARKET ENTRY STRATEGIES ............................................................................................................ 15 5.1

Using a Distributor ............................................................................................................................. 15

5.2

Joint Ventures/Licensing .................................................................................................................... 15

SECTION 6.0: SELLING, MARKETING & PROMOTIONS .......................................................................................... 15 6.1

Relationships & Communication ...................................................................................................... 15

6.2

Selling Factors/Techniques ................................................................................................................ 16

6.3

Trade Promotion ................................................................................................................................. 18

6.4

Electronic Commerce.......................................................................................................................... 18

6.5

Distribution and Sales Channels ....................................................................................................... 19

6.6

Shipping Information ......................................................................................................................... 20

6.7

Due Diligence ...................................................................................................................................... 20

SECTION 7.0: STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS...................................................................................................... 21 7.1

Standards ............................................................................................................................................. 21

7.2

Laws and Regulations ........................................................................................................................ 21

7.3

Samples ................................................................................................................................................ 21

7.4

Packaging, Labelling and Marking Requirements ......................................................................... 22

7.5

Customs Regulations .......................................................................................................................... 22

7.6

Exchange Controls .............................................................................................................................. 23

SECTION 8.0: TRADE EVENTS AND FAIRS................................................................................................................ 23 SECTION 10.0: FINANCING EXPORTS TO BRAZIL .................................................................................................... 23 SECTION 11.0: USEFUL CONTACTS .......................................................................................................................... 24 11.1

Trinidad and Tobago .......................................................................................................................... 24

11.2

Brazil ..................................................................................................................................................... 25

Appendices....................................................................................................................................................................... Appendix I – Brazil Population by State ........................................................................................................... Appendix II – São Paulo Metro System ............................................................................................................ Appendix III – Consumer Expenditure, 2011................................................................................................... Appendix IV – Authority By Product ............................................................................................................... Appendix V – Public Translators .......................................................................................................................


FOREWORD This Market Guide is intended to give Trinidad & Tobago exporters relevant and valuable information for successfully exporting their goods to São Paulo, Brazil. The information contained therein is based on a compilation of exporTT’s visits to the market, in-market consultant information, and desk research which is cited accordingly. Feel free to contact us at 1.868.623.5507 to discuss your exporting needs. **********


SECTION 1.0: MARKET OVERVIEW 1.1 Introduction Brazil, officially the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and the Latin American region. It is the world's fifth largest country, both by geographical area and by population. Brazil has an area of 8,515,767 km2. There are twenty-six (26) States and one (1) Federal District where the federal capital is Brasilia. The focus of this Market Guide is on the city of São Paulo which is ranked as one of the largest cities of the world. 1.2

Population

Population of Brazil: Population of the State of São Paulo: Population of the city of São Paulo:

198.7 million (2012) 41,262,199 11 million

Source: The Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE), 2014 (See Appendix I for the population of the other states in Brazil)

1.3

Demographics

Ethnic Groups:

Religions:

White 47.7%, Mulatto (mixed white and black) 43.1%, Black 7.6%, Asian 1.1%, Indigenous 0.4% (2010 est.) Roman Catholic 64.6%, other Catholic 0.4%, Protestant 22.2% (includes Adventist 6.5%, Assembly of God 2.0%, Christian Congregation of Brazil 1.2%, Universal Kingdom of God 1.0%, other Protestant 11.5%), other Christian 0.7%, Spiritist 2.2%, other 1.4%, none 8%, unspecified 0.4% (2010 est.)

Source: CIA World Factbook, 2015

1.4 Climate São Paulo is known for its temperate weather. Its seasons are as follows:  Summer – December to February (28-35°C)  Fall – March to June (15-28°C)  Winter – June to August (8-18°C)  Spring – September – November (18-28°C)

Market Guide for Exporting Goods from Trinidad and Tobago to São Paulo, Brazil

Page 1 of 27


1.5 Language While knowledge of the English language may be prevalent among business executives and government officials, Portuguese is the main language of communication, therefore, the use of an interpreter is highly recommended. 1.6 Hours of Business1 São Paulo’s official business hours are usually 9:00 a.m. – 6:00 p.m. with one (1) hour for lunch between 12:00 noon and 3:00 p.m. Banking hours are usually 10:00 a.m. – 4:00 p.m. Aside from these conventional hours, advertising agencies and technology companies begin work later in the day. It is advisable that you are aware of the business hours for the specific sector and company you hope to do business with as they may have unique working hours. 1.7

1.8 1.8.1

Public Holidays Month Day January 01 January 25 Announced annually Announced annually Announced annually May 01 Announced Annually July 09 September 07 October 12 November 15 November 20 December 25

Observance New Year’s Day Anniversary of the City of São Paulo Carnival Holiday Friday Easter Labour Day Corpus Christi Constitutional Revolution 1932 Independence of Brazil Our Lady of Aparecida Feast - Aparecida Proclamation of the Republic Afro Brazilian Conscience Day Christmas

Travel & Transportation Airline Travel

São Paulo is serviced by three airports:  Aeroporto Internacional de São Paulo/Guarulhos Governador André Franco Montoro (Cumbica) (GRU)  Aeroporto Doméstico de Congonhas (CGH)  Aeroporto Internacional de Viracopos/Campinas (VCP)

1

Be reminded than Brazil uses the 24-hour clock (i.e. 5:00p.m. will be 1700hrs.)

Market Guide for Exporting Goods from Trinidad and Tobago to São Paulo, Brazil

Page 2 of 27


Flights from Trinidad and Tobago to São Paulo, Brazil (all airports) with 1 stop are available as follows: DEPARTURE

AIRLINE COPA COPA, Gol

POS Trinidad

TAB Tobago

Surinam Airways, Avianca American Insel Air, Avianca COPA, Gol

ROUTE Via Panama Via Panama, Belo Horizonte

DURATION 11h 40m+

Via Curacao, Bogotá

15h 0m+

Via Miami Via Curacao, Bogotá

15h 25m+ 15h 50m+

Direct

7 hours

14h 5m+

* Internally, there are chartered flights from Brasilia and Rio de Janeiro to São Paulo. Distance from downtown São Paulo: Approximate driving time = 37 minutes (via Rod. Ayrton Senna da Silva) Please be advised that the city is notable for heavy traffic. Individual Entry Requirements 1. Valid Passport (should not be expiring in 6 months) 2. Airline Ticket 3. There are no Visa requirements for business and leisure visits that are up to ninety (90) days.  All visitors are advised to notify the Embassy in Brazil of your travel in the event that you encounter any difficulties while on your trip.  While there are no required vaccinations to enter Brazil, nationals of Trinidad and Tobago are advised to have all their vaccinations current. Malaria vaccination is advisable for travel as well. Individual Exit Requirements 1. Valid Passport 2. Airline Ticket 3. Departure Tax = USD 36 1.8.2 Ground Transportation Taxi services are available in four (4) categories:- Common, radio, special and luxury. The fares are as follows:  Monday to Saturday, 6:00 a.m. – 8:00 p.m. is R$ 2.10/km (USD 0.95/km)  Monday to Saturday 8:00 p.m. – 6:00 a.m. R$ 2.73/km (USD 1.23/km) (See Appendix II for the layout of the São Paulo Metro System)

Market Guide for Exporting Goods from Trinidad and Tobago to São Paulo, Brazil

Page 3 of 27


1.9 Time Zone The official time zone is Brasîlia time = UTC–03:00 hours Time Difference: One (1) hour behind Trinidad and Tobago 1.10 Currency São Paulo uses the official currency of Brazil, the Real ($R). The currency is divided into 1, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 banknotes and 1, 5, 10, 25 and 50 coins, known as centavos. Persons should travel with Reais in the event that there are any difficulties in carrying out a transaction with a foreign card. Small change is said to be difficult to come by, therefore it is advisable, especially for smaller purchases and taxi travel, that small change be accumulated. Contact should be made with your local bank before travelling to ensure that international transactions are feasible. Please note that all transactions may result in a cash withdrawal charge. 1.11 Communication Calls from Trinidad and Tobago to São Paulo  Landline: 011 – 55 – 11 – Land phone number  Mobile: 011 – 55 – 10 Digit Mobile number Calls from São Paulo to Trinidad and Tobago = 00 – 1 – 868 – 7 digit phone number

SECTION 2.0: ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL ENVIRONMENT 2.1

Economic Performance Indicator GDP: GDP per capita: GDP Growth: Inflation Rate: Unemployment Rate (2011) Imports by Product (2013):

Import Partners (2013):

Economic Performance USD 2,245.67 billion USD 11,208.08 2.49% 6.20% 6.69% 1. Mineral Products – 31.3% 2. Machinery and Appliances – 20.4% 3. Products of the chemical or allied indus. – 8.4% 4. Textiles and textile articles – 5.4% 5. Transport equipment – 5.4% 1. European Union – 21.2% 2. China 15.6% 3. USA – 15.1% 4. Argentina – 6.9% 5. Nigeria – 4.0%

Sources: World Bank 2014; EU Trade Directorate 2013i

Market Guide for Exporting Goods from Trinidad and Tobago to São Paulo, Brazil

Page 4 of 27


Much of the country’s development has been possible through the nation’s expansion of exports (this will be detailed in the Trade Section) and the creation of social programmes to alleviate poverty and expand the middle class. One such programme has been the Growth Acceleration Programme (PAC) - Phase I and Phase II which was recently completed.2 (Source: InvestorIdeas.com 2014)ii While there have been some slight fluctuations in GDP, the country’s output has significantly increased from 2000-2013. There was a decrease in 2012 and 2013. The data suggests that Brazil was able to weather much of the financial crisis of 2008 and recover relatively well. 2,500,000.00 2,000,000.00 1,500,000.00 1,000,000.00 500,000.00 0.00 2000

2001 2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

GDP at current prices in US$ million1/ Source: Central Bank of Brazil (BCB) 2014

Despite Brazil’s sound economic performance, its exchange rate with the major economies has been increasing over the past few years. Its exchange rate is expected to continue to increase for another four (4) years. Such an increase poses an economic risk, as the cost of importing may be passed on to the consumer. Any effect on the population’s purchasing power could affect the country’s economic performance. (See Appendix III for Consumer Expenditure, 2011)

Table 1: Brazil Exchange Rate with Key Economies 2

PAC I spanned from 2007-2009 and focused on two (2) elements; infrastructural investment and

institutional measures. Infrastructural investment focused on the logistics and energy sectors while providing solutions for social and urban development. The institution measures surrounded the improvement of the tax system while encouraging credit and financing. It was geared towards an overall improvement of the investment environment and fiscal measures. The second phase of this programme; PAC II is from the period 2011-2014. The programme has since finished with 82.3% of its projects reportedly finished. PAC II focused on areas similar to PAC I with the addition of sanitation and electricity for all.

Market Guide for Exporting Goods from Trinidad and Tobago to São Paulo, Brazil

Page 5 of 27


Year

BRL/USD

BRL/EUR

BRL/GBP

BRL/CHF

2010

1.76

2.33

2.73

1.69

2011

1.68

2.33

2.7

1.89

2012

1.95

2.48

3.12

2.09

2013

2.16

2.85

3.35

2.33

2014f

2.49

3.05

3.82

2.24

2015f

2.45

3.01

3.94

2.31

2016f

2.32

2.78

3.8

2.21

2017f

2.25

2.7

3.71

2.16

2018f

2.17

2.6

3.62

2.09

Source: Business Monitor International 2014iii

The inflation rate shows the annual changes of prices. For anyone interested in exporting or doing business in Brazil, it is important to understand the changes in prices as it can affect a person/company’s ability to be competitive. For the decade 2005-2015, Brazil has had a target inflation rate of 4.5%, but in actuality, inflation ranged between 2.5-6.5% over the said period. Therefore, the Central Bank will make alterations where necessary to ensure that the inflation rate is between 2.5-6.5%. Despite this target, the actual rates each year has varied, as shown below.

BRA Z IL A CT U A L INF L AT ION RAT E V. TA RGE T INF L AT ION RAT E

PERCENTAGE (%)

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

YEAR Actual Inflation Rate

2011

2012

2013

Target Rate

Source: Central Bank of Brazil (2014)

Market Guide for Exporting Goods from Trinidad and Tobago to SĂŁo Paulo, Brazil

Page 6 of 27


2.2

Structure of Output

Output by Sector São Paulo City SOURCE Taxes and Subsidies Agriculture Manufacturing Construction Commerce Business Services Public Services

2011 (R$, MILLION) 179,972 459 129,647 23,388 236,765 152,302 113,520

% OF GDP 21.53 0.05 15.51 2.80 28.31 18.22 13.58

Source: Euromonitor 2012iv

The table above shows that Commerce is the largest sector in Brazil, followed by Business Services in 2011. The city’s commerce is expected to have expanded considerably from hosting parts of the 2014 FIFA World Cup but the event will have little impact in the long-term. 2.3 Economic Outlook Brazil has undertaken a shift in economic policy that has curtailed the decline in key economic indicators in the first quarter of 2015. While the incumbent government was elected for another term, there was widespread discontent with the execution of its economic policy that resulted in an overall loss of credibility. The current Minister of Finance, Mr. Joaquim Levy said that they will work in conjunction with the Central Bank to create a more pragmatic economic (fiscal and monetary) policy which had resulted in the following outlook:  Little to no change in GDP for the year  Deterioration in the terms of Trade  Consumption to increase due to 2.5% increase in the minimum wage  Weaker currency (depreciation due to deterioration of economy) A forecast of economic variables is detailed in the following table.

Source: BBVA Research 2015v

Market Guide for Exporting Goods from Trinidad and Tobago to São Paulo, Brazil

Page 7 of 27


2.4 Business (São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro) Brazil ranked 20 in the 2015 Ease of Doing Business Report. They were ranked 123 in 2014. The main areas of concern are Paying Taxes (177), Dealing with Construction Permits (174) and Starting a Business (167). While the Trading Across Borders indicator improved by three points, from 126 in 2014 to 123 in 2014. Specifically relating to the city of São Paulo, the average trade information is summarised below. Indicator Documents to Import (number) Time (number) Cost to Import (USD)

São Paulo 6 17 1,925.00

Latin America 6 18.7 1,691.00

Source: World Bank Group 2015vi

2.5

Labour Force

Labour Force: Labour Force by Occupation:

107.3 Million (2013) Agriculture: 15.7% Industry: 13.3% Services: 71%

Source: Business Monitor International 2014

The country has maintained healthy levels of unemployment for the past five years. Business Monitor International (2014) forecasts the unemployment rate to be at 5.1% by 2018.

Unemployment Rate (% Change)

PERCENT

8 6 4 2 0 2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014f

2015f

YEAR

2016f

U… 2017f

2018f

Source: Business Monitor International (2014)

Market Guide for Exporting Goods from Trinidad and Tobago to São Paulo, Brazil

Page 8 of 27


Although there are conflicting perspectives on the origin of such low unemployment rates, certain factors are agreed upon – specifically the increase in real income (the average real income increased by 100 Reais from 2011-2013). The government has committed to increasing income and employment while maintaining a certain level of monetary and fiscal discipline. In keeping with this policy, the government announced an increased minimum wage by 6.78% to 724 Reais a month (310 USD) in 2013. The city of São Paulo’s labour force was measured at 10.05 million in 2011. With an unemployment rate of 6.2 for the same year. 2.6 Political Stability and Structure Brazil is a democratic government that is divided into the Executive Branch, Legislative Branch and Judicial Branch. The President is the Head of Government, unlike that of Trinidad and Tobago. Elections are constitutionally due every four (4) years. The local government comprises twenty-seven (27) states and approximately Five Thousand, Five Hundred (5,500) municipalities which are run by a major. Brazil’s political and economic stability has been greatly affected at present by the divide between The Congress, the Government and the ongoing Petrobras Scandal (Forbes 2015). The October 2014 election resulted in a run off that led to the re-election of President Rousseff, despite widespread distrust of her government. Nonetheless, Brazil’s stability rating by Standard and Poor’s points to a politically and economically stable government at the moment.

SECTION 3.0: TRADE ENVIRONMENT 3.1

Import Statistics

Brazil’s largest imports for 2013 are detailed in the table below. HS Code (2-digit)

Product Label

Value in 2014 (USD Thousand)

84 85 87 29 39 30 90 38 40 73

Machinery, nuclear reactors, boilers, etc Electrical, electronic equipment Vehicles other than railway, tramway Organic chemicals Plastics and articles thereof Pharmaceutical products Optical, photo, technical, medical, etc apparatus Miscellaneous Chemical Products Rubber and articles thereof Articles of iron or steel

45,039,948 31,873,948 19,469,841 20,684,814 8,849,150 8,442,961 7,426,679 6,761,456 5,407,705 4,083,056

Market Guide for Exporting Goods from Trinidad and Tobago to São Paulo, Brazil

Page 9 of 27


The country’s top trading partners are detailed below.

BRAZIL’S TOP 10 TRADING PARTNERS, 2013

South Korea

Chila Panama Mexico

Venezuela Japan

European Union

Argentina

USA China

Source: European Union Trade Commission

As a single nation, China dominates as the country exporting to Brazil, but as a bloc, the European Union is the highest. From China, Brazil’s largest importers were electrical equipment, machines and mineral fuels. These products, plus aircrafts, optic and medical instruments, were imported from the states. As will be disclosed later, any product deemed to impact or influence the human body must either be manufactured in Brazil (the company can set up a manufacturing establishment in Brazil) or imported by a registered importer of these products. Additionally, many international food and beverage companies manufacture in Brazil. Therefore, much of their imports have been primary products or high end finished manufactured goods that are not available in the country. 3.2

Import Tariffs & Taxes

Tariffs As tariffs are provided on a product basis, exporters are advised to contact exporTT’s Export Market Research Centre (EMRC) for their product’s tariffs in Brazil.

Market Guide for Exporting Goods from Trinidad and Tobago to São Paulo, Brazil

Page 10 of 27


Taxes In 2013, Forbes found Brazil to be the most cumbersome tax system in the world.3 The taxes that impact our exporters directly and indirectly are the following:  Transfer Pricing o Transfer Pricing are rules that establish a standardised method of valuation on imported or exported goods. In 2012, Brazil changed its transfer pricing methodology for imported goods called “Method of Price Under Quotation on Import (PCI)” which PKF International Limited (PKFI) defined as “the average daily amount of assets or rights subject to public prices in internationally recognised commodities and future exchanges”.  Value Added Sales & Service Tax otherwise known as the Tax on circulation of goods and transportation and communication services  ICMS (VAT) o The value added tax on imported good range from 18-25%. The tax is charged ad varlorem (based on value)  Excise Tax o Food – 0% o Soft Drinks – 44% o Alcoholic Drinks – 11-143% o Plastic and rubber – 0-20% o Textile Materials – 0-15% o Machinery and equipment – 0-20% o Precision instruments – 0-15% o Transport – 13-35% o Other – 0-60%  Import Tax o The tax is charged on the wholesale price of the imported product and the cost of insurance and freight (CIF).  Industrialised Product Tax (IPI) o This tax ranged from 0-15% and is charged imported manufacturing products.  Merchant Marine Renewal Tax (AFRMM)4 o A tax applied to imports by sea. The tax is 25% of the on the ocean freight costs plus port handling charges 3.3 Trade Barriers5 Brazil ranks 86th on the World Economic Forum’s Enabling Trade Index 2014 ranking, indicating that the country still has a very restricted domestic market. Among these restrictions, they have This measure was calculated in terms of number of hours spent on tax compliance. It found that tax compliance took 2,600 hours despite only having 9 payments. http://www.forbes.com/sites/joeharpaz/2013/12/17/brazil-ranked-most-time-consuming-tax-regime-inthe-world/ 4 Source: exporTT meeting with Customs Authority 5 Source: http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_GlobalEnablingTrade_Report_2014.pdf 3

Market Guide for Exporting Goods from Trinidad and Tobago to São Paulo, Brazil

Page 11 of 27


very high tariff rate and a low rate of imports that are duty free. The country also ranked uncomfortably low in infrastructure for international trade despite the growth and stature of its economy. Finally, the country’s administration of trade is very poor. The process of applying for certificates and paying taxes is complicated, unclear and often time, subjective (exporters may be required to provide additional documentation without warning that are outside of the normal requirements). 3.4

Prohibited and Restricted Imports

Prohibited  Illegal Drugs  Guns, explosives and ammunition  Knives and deadly weapons  Fresh fruit and vegetables  Plant and plant products  All species of bird  Pets and animals – unless authorised  Dairy products including milk, egg and cheese  Fish and fish products  Cigarettes or alcoholic beverages of Brazilian origin  Hazardous materials  Pornographic material  Used Cars  Used consumer products for commercial purposes Restricted  Flower, plants and plants products will require permission from the Ministry of Agriculture before being granted admission into the country.  Meat, egg or fish products will all also require permission from the Ministry of Agriculture before entering the country.  Cats, dogs and other animals being imported will need an international health certificate from the country of origin which was issued less than ten (10) days prior to their arrival. Pets ninety (90) days or older will also require a Rabies vaccination certificate issued thirty (30) days prior to the intended date of arrival. 3.5

Trade Agreements Date 1986 1990 1991 1995

Agreement Uruguay Argentina MERCOSUR Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the WTO

Market Guide for Exporting Goods from Trinidad and Tobago to São Paulo, Brazil

Type Partial Preferential Agreement Partial Preferential Agreement Customs Union Multilateral

Page 12 of 27


1996 1997 2002 2003 2004 2004 2005 2006 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Not signed Not Signed

MERCOSUR – Chile MERCOSUR – Bolivia Mexico (Auto Sector Agreement) Mexico Guyana Colombia – Ecuador – Venezuela – Mercosur MERCOSUR – Peru MERCOSUR – Mexico Suriname MERCOSUR – Israel MERCOSUR – Southern African Customs Union (SACU) MERCOSUR – India MERCOSUR – Morocco MERCOSUR – Egypt MERCOSUR – Southern African Customs Union

Free Trade Agreement Free Trade Agreement Partial Preferential Agreement Partial Preferential Agreement Partial Preferential Agreement Partial Preferential Agreement Free Trade Agreement Framework Agreement Partial Preferential Agreement Free Trade Agreement Not in force Partial Preferential Agreement Framework Agreements Free Trade Agreement Partial Preferential Agreement

Source: OAS Trade Information Systems

SECTION 4.0: MARKET CHALLENGES 4.1 Size The size of the Brazilian market not only refers to the geographical size of the country but also the size of the population and the market. The Federative Republic comprises of 22 States which are socially, economically, culturally and ethnically unique. Exporters wishing to enter the market of Brazil will have to study these specific nuances carefully and the ways in which these elements will impact the success of their products. The size of Brazil makes transportation within the country difficult to manoeuvre. When scheduling business meetings, be aware of the distances between and within cities. Cities like São Paulo have heavy traffic. 4.2 Culture As stated before, each State in Brazil should be regarded as a unique and individual market. With this, comes variances in culture. Each culture will determine how business is conducted and the contributing factors for business in each city. The next two challenges were direct experiences from the Market Survey Mission to Brazil in 2014. 4.3 Networking Throughout the Market Survey, we found the importance of being well connected and its impact on securing business meetings. In instances where our Consultant was not acquainted with the

Market Guide for Exporting Goods from Trinidad and Tobago to São Paulo, Brazil

Page 13 of 27


specific Ministry or company, they were often forced to have telephone or Skype meetings, which were frequently rescheduled. The status of the person wishing to schedule the meeting is equally as important as who you know. 4.4 Status When scheduling business meetings, any representative of government or company will be matched with their equivalent in the organization (i.e. CEO with CEO, Officer with Officer etc). When trying to execute high powered meetings, high powered representatives should be sent to secure them. 4.5 Language The official language of Brazil is Portuguese. Research has indicated that while English is spoken on occasion, it is preferred that meetings be conducted in their native Portuguese tongue. Additionally, as with any country that does not speak your native language, it is important to ensure that you are equipped with someone who is able to. Another plausible solution is learning Portuguese to ensure that you are in control of your business interactions. 4.6 Logistics When considering exporting to Brazil, Logistics and Transportation costs should be considered and factored into the price of a product. A recurring theme in the meetings were the high costs of logistical arrangements and local transportation with São Paulo and Brasilia. No one was able to give a specific estimate as to the cost of logistics and transportation, therefore, exporters are advised to get in contact with a logistics company to estimate the cost for your product. 4.7 Compliance Meetings in Brazil and market research has shown that companies encounter issues when complying with the country’s requirements to export. Exporters should be aware of the classification of their product (the Brazilian HS Code and affiliated tariff) and provide proper and complete documentation required for exporting, which is summarised in Section 8.0 –Standards and Regulations. The next chapter will also cover the required legal and regulatory requirements for each product. Exporters should also be aware that any product deemed to impact or influence the human body must either be manufactured in Brazil (the company can set up a manufacturing establishment in Brazil) or imported by a registered importer of these products. Other than these avenues, the importing of these products are prohibited.

Market Guide for Exporting Goods from Trinidad and Tobago to São Paulo, Brazil

Page 14 of 27


SECTION 5.0: MARKET ENTRY STRATEGIES 5.1 Using a Distributor Guided by the New Brazilian Civil Code implemented in January 2003, there are two separate contracts that affect exporters from Trinidad and Tobago; sales/commercial representation and distribution agreement.6 A sales/commercial contract is one between a buyer and a producer (company or individual) that has no employment relationship, done on a fee basis. This relationship is exclusive to a certain territory. In contrast, a distribution agreement is one where products are purchased by the distributor (one distributor per territory), with the intent to sell in a specific territory. This agreement allowed for sub-distribution, but the basis of this is determined by the manufacturer. For termination without cause, both contracts require a ninety (90) day notice for termination or payment of 1/3 commission on sales earned after three months. For distribution agreement, in addition to the 90-day notice, the Code requires that the period prior to the investment is one that is proportional to the investment. 5.2 Joint Ventures/Licensing Joint ventures as a market entry strategy are not guided by any law, but the incorporation outlined in a formal contract, must be in the form of corporation (Sociedade An么nima) or limited liability company (Limitada). While licensing agreements are encouraged, exporters should hire the service of an experienced local attorney before and during the execution of this agreement. After the agreement is reached, it must be registered with the Brazilian Industrial Property Institute (INPI: www.inpi.gov.br).

SECTION 6.0: SELLING, MARKETING & PROMOTIONS 6.1 Relationships & Communication It is important to note that in order to work effectively, Brazilians need to know who they are doing business with, as they negotiate with people/individuals rather than with a company. Therefore, in getting to know the person they are doing business with, Brazilians prefer face-toface meetings over written communication. However, when it comes to business agreements, Brazilians insist on drawing up detailed legal contracts.

Commercial Code (C贸digo Comercial): http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/Leis/L05561850.htm, New Brazilian Code: http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/LEIS/2002/L10406.htm 6

Market Guide for Exporting Goods from Trinidad and Tobago to S茫o Paulo, Brazil

Page 15 of 27


6.2 Selling Factors/Techniques Selling factors and techniques are described in the following five steps to master the selling process. Steps

Description Handshake  With a firm hand, men shake hands when greeting one another, while maintaining steady eye contact.  Women generally kiss each other, starting with the left and alternating cheeks.  If a woman wishes to shake hands with a man, she should extend her hand first.

1. Greeting

Dress  Brazilians take pride in dressing well, therefore men should wear conservative, well-tailored, dark coloured business suits.  Women should wear business suits or dresses that are elegant and feminine with good quality as well as matching accessories.  Pay attention to all round grooming, especially since manicures are expected. Speaking  Speak clearly.  Pay attention to voice, tone, eye contact, etc.  Use correct titles and surnames. Business Cards  It is advisable to have one side of your business card translated into Portuguese.  During introductions, business cards should be exchanged with everyone at a meeting.  Present your business card in a professional manner with the Portuguese side facing the recipient.

2. Ask questions to understand the prospect

Don’t ask direct questions but ask leading questions in a conversation type manner to find out the buyer’s need and what he/she is looking for.

Also, expect questions about your company since Brazilians are more comfortable doing business with people and companies they know.

Market Guide for Exporting Goods from Trinidad and Tobago to São Paulo, Brazil

Page 16 of 27


3. Present Benefits

4. Negotiations

5. Close

It is normal business culture to be interrupted while you are speaking or making a presentation.

Present the benefits of your product/s or service/s in a manner that aligns them to the need of the buyer.  Remember that Brazilians negotiate with people, not companies.  Since this is a group culture, it is important that you do not criticize or do anything to embarrass a Brazilian. It causes both the Brazilian and yourself to lose face, which is in violation of an unwritten rule in communication in Brazil.  Brazilians take time when negotiating and spend a lot of time reviewing details, therefore do not rush them or appear to be impatient.  If the Brazilian buyer is not interested in your product/s or service/s, don’t end the meeting in despair, remain calm. Instead, take the opportunity to find out more about the market and their needs so that you can possibly make adjustments to your product to suit their needs.  Brazilian business is hierarchical and decisions are made by the highest-ranking person. It is very important to know and agree on the next steps which should include a thank you email that captures the essence of the conversation and the activities that would follow. Meetings  While business appointments can be arranged on short notice, ideally it should be made 2-3 weeks in advance and confirmed in writing. Note that meetings can be cancelled or changed at the last minute.  It important to arrive on time for meetings. However, do not appear impatient or frustrated if you are kept waiting by a Brazilian as they see time as something outside their control and the demands of relationships takes precedence over adhering to a strict schedule.

Other Tips Promotional Material  Prepare your marketing tools e.g. brochures, samples, PowerPoint presentations, etc. and make them come alive with images. Interpreter  When using an interpreter, do not speak directly to the interpreter as if the buyer is absent, however keep the conversation focused on the buyer and allow the interpreter to interpret accordingly.

Market Guide for Exporting Goods from Trinidad and Tobago to São Paulo, Brazil

Page 17 of 27


General  Be prepared  Know your business and your products  Be confident  Be a persuasive negotiator  Take notes and if possible, bring a notetaker. Source: http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/resources/global-etiquette/brazil-country-profile.htmlvii

6.3 Trade Promotion Locally, exporTT offers Trade Promotion programmes periodically, including Trade Missions, Trade Shows, Trade Fairs, Matchmaking Events, Conferences, etc. These programmes are conducted with a pre-approved budget as well as an element of co-financing with the exporter for some activities. 6.4 Electronic Commerceviii In January, 2015, Brazil was ranked as having the 10th largest Ecommerce sales worldwide; the only Latin American country to do so

The growth in e commerce, has growing twice as fast as retail sales despite the latter being the main mode of retail nonetheless. The table on the left, demonstrates e-commerce purchases by product category. Source: eMarketer, 2015

Market Guide for Exporting Goods from Trinidad and Tobago to São Paulo, Brazil

Page 18 of 27


6.5

Distribution and Sales Channels

Distribution Channel The distribution channel in Brazil for export to the market can be approached in three (3) ways: 1. Direct 2. Indirect (i.e. Brokers) 3. Commercial Representative Import Management Services, Savixx, detailed briefly the requirements for each approach as follows:

Savixx 2013ix

The method of export will determine how your product gets to the specific importer of the product, their distribution network while in the market and number of intermediaries that you will require along the way. Sales Channel Exporters when considering Brazil, should make the link between their methods of entry into the market, the distribution of the product and where is it distributed. The supermarket chain is one well known form of retail in Brazil. The other existing forms will have to be researched because the sales channel will differ by product. The supermarket channel in Brazil is largely dominated by a few major commercial entities that are responsible for various segments of retail. The top 5 will be listed below.

Market Guide for Exporting Goods from Trinidad and Tobago to S達o Paulo, Brazil

Page 19 of 27


To view the brands that each supermarket owns and the varying retail outlets, from hypermarkets to speciality type, visit The Brazil Business: http://thebrazilbusiness.com/article/the-10-largest-supermarket-chains-in-brazil.

TOP 5 SUPERMARKET CHAINS IN BRAZIL Companhia Brasileira de Distribuicao

Carrefour Comercio e Industria Ltda

Walmart Brasil Ltda

Cencosud Brasil Comercial Ltda

Companhia Zaffari Comercio e Industria

6.6

Shipping Information Description

20 ft (USD)

40 ft (USD)

Ocean Freight

700.00

1000.00

Origin Terminal Handing Charge Customs Fine Surcharge Bunker Contribution

185.00 11.00 100.00

185.00 11.00 200.00

Liner Out Fine

50.00

50.00

Documentation Free

50.00

50.00

1,096.00

1,496.00

Total

6.7 Due Diligence Before finalizing any contract whether for sale or representation, Trinidad & Tobago exporters should obtain information on the bona fides of Brazilian firms including reliable business and financial references. Also, because of the language difference between Trinidad & Tobago and Brazil, this presents opportunities for serious miscommunication and misunderstandings and sometimes with grave consequences which you would want to avoid. Therefore when entering into business with

Market Guide for Exporting Goods from Trinidad and Tobago to S達o Paulo, Brazil

Page 20 of 27


Brazilian companies, it is imperative to utilize the services of a competent bi-lingual attorney to avoid communication failures.

SECTION 7.0: STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS 7.1 Standards7 The National System of Metrology, Standardization and Industrial Quality (SINMETRO) which comprises of CONMETRO (this entity comprises of 9 government ministries), INMETRO, the Brazilian Association of Technical Norms (ABNT), IPEM and the accredited labs is the organization responsible for Standards in Brazil. These voluntary standards are published annually in the National Standardization Plan, but can only be accessed by a Member of the Association or a Member of any one of the Committees, listed in the following address: http://abnt.iso.org/livelink/livelink/fetch/2000/2827/Comit%C3%AAs_T%C3%A9cnicos_%20_%C3%82mbito_de_atua%C3%A7%C3%A3o.html?nodeid=6873132&vernum=0. INMETRO is the World Trade Organization’s focal point for Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) and any technical standards operational in the country. These standards are in Portuguese, and can be accessed at the following link: http://www.inmetro.gov.br/legislacao/consulta.asp?seq_classe=1&sig_classe=RTAC. Exporters are advised to consult this website to see the standards that may have changes for their specific product. As new standards are published daily, exporters should check this website as close to the date of export to ensure that nothing has changed since their last check. 7.2 Laws and Regulations8 As mentioned in the last sub-chapter, changes to standards are available at the INMETRO database, which is available publicly on the web. The laws that affect any product, is housed within the respective government authority responsible for the products, which is listed in Appendix V. The laws that may affect an exporter are many in number, therefore, research requests will have to be made to investigate those that affect your specific products. These requests can be fulfilled by exporTT on an individual basis. This section will briefly outline Competition Law (explaining how it impacts you the exporter), the regulations that apply to specific imported products, those for joint ventures and contracts. 7.3 Samples Samples are categorised into two groups: those with commercial value (FOB value more than USD 10) and those without (FOB value less than USD 10). Inspection is done at random, but may

Source: Brazil Legal Provisions ge.com/data/files/tmp/Legal_Provisions_2012.pdf 8 Ibid. 7

2012,

available

Market Guide for Exporting Goods from Trinidad and Tobago to SĂŁo Paulo, Brazil

at:

http://expertdirectory.s-

Page 21 of 27


be conducted by the relevant authority responsible for monitoring your product. If this takes place, the following documents may be necessary;  Statement of Responsibility  Power of Attorney, with legal representative signature  Sanitary license number (if applicable)  Technical Term of Responsible (ART)  State Revenue Collection Guide proof of payment  Petition of Fiscalization, with legal representative signature Samples can be sent either through SISCOMEX (Foreign Trade Secretariat) or by Courier. 7.4 Packaging, Labelling and Marking Requirements While products can be sold in their original packaging, the labelling must provide, in Portuguese, the following additions:  Product Description  Weight at local standard  Product composition  Validity  Country of Origin  Name and Address of importer  Any special warnings, notes or risks to health or security  Nutritional values These elements are all in keeping with the Brazilian Customer Protection Code. Additional information on labelling for specific products can be found at ANVISA’s website: www.anvisa.gov.br, the Centre for Sanitation Vigilance: www.cvs.saude.sp.gov.br, and the Institute for Weights and Measures (IPEM): www.ipem.sp.gov.br. 7.5 Customs Regulations Before proceeding, exporters should ensure that the person/entity importing on your behalf has an import license (LI). It can be obtained from one of the sixteen (16) entities on http://www.desenvolvimento.gov.br/arquivos/dwnl_1308919721.pdf. Additionally, importers must also be registered with SISCOMEX at the Foreign Trade Secretariat. Import Requirements and Documentation 1. Product Registration – This process, at its best, is estimated to take up to two (2) years. 2. Permits - Permits can be administered from the necessary authority relating to your products. The authority and their responsibility by product is summarised in Appendix V 3. Exporters must prepare and provide the following documents: a. Bank Document b. Bill of Lading c. Cargo Release order d. Pro-forma Invoice e. Nota Fiscal (BRL – US conversation based on FOB price on the day)

Market Guide for Exporting Goods from Trinidad and Tobago to São Paulo, Brazil

Page 22 of 27


f. g. h. i.

Commercial Invoice Shipping Certificate Packing List Certificate of Origin

While these documents are standard, exporters are advised that additional information and documents may be required. 7.6 Exchange Controls As previously mentioned, all imports must be declared in the SISCOMEX system and payments are done in foreign currencies, subject to the exchange rate at the specific day of landing. In addition, exporters must sign an exchange contract with a bank and the account that the payment is made from, must not be an overseas account. Imports below USD 3,000 have a simplified system (DSI) but those over this range, are subject to this system.

SECTION 8.0: TRADE EVENTS AND FAIRS There are a multitude of trade shows and trade related events in Brazil. Any exporter seeking one for their specific range of products, can contact exporTT or check any of the following sites periodically. http://10times.com/brazil/tradeshows http://www.eventseye.com/fairs/c1_trade-shows_brazil.html http://www.reedexpo.com/Our-Events/events-list/?d=4%7C152_100091#

SECTION 10.0: FINANCING EXPORTS TO BRAZIL exporTT Limited provides a Co-financing Service, through which an exporter can be reimbursed (50% reimbursement) for the following market access activities: a. Product Registration b. Trademark Registration c. Product Testing d. Translation & Interpretation Services e. Legal representation for product, brand and trademark registration f. Booth rental at trade shows g. Business to business matchmaking services h. Shipping of samples i. In-store marketing and promotions j. Booth design at trade shows k. Ground transportation for exporTT led groups at trade missions and trade shows l. Brand registration m. Label modification n. Registration at international capacity building forum/workshop

Market Guide for Exporting Goods from Trinidad and Tobago to S達o Paulo, Brazil

Page 23 of 27


Please contact the following person or any other exporTT representative for more information on these services: Mr. Crisen Maharaj Manager- Capacity Building and Programme Financing exporTT Limited 151B Charlotte Street Port of Spain Tel.: (868) 623-5507 Ext. 362 Fax: (868) 625-8126 Mobile: (868) 796-4276 Email: cmaharaj@exportt.co.tt Website: www.exportt.co.tt In addition to local banks, to obtain information on financing exports to Brazil, please contact: Mr. Shaun Waldron Manager, Credit & Business Development Export Import Bank of Trinidad & Tobago Limited #30 Queen's Park West, Port of Spain Phone: 1-(868)-628-2762 Ext. 288 Fax: 1-(868) -628-9370 Email: swaldron@eximbanktt.com Website: www.eximbanktt.com

SECTION 11.0: USEFUL CONTACTS 11.1 Trinidad and Tobago Office

Contact Information Jamila Greene (Ms.) Export Officer

exporTT Limited

151B Charlotte Street Port of Spain Tel: 1.868.624.3932 Ext. 234 Fax: 1.868.625.8126 Email: jgreene@exportt.co.tt Web: www.exportt.co.tt

Market Guide for Exporting Goods from Trinidad and Tobago to S達o Paulo, Brazil

Page 24 of 27


Office

Embassy of Brazil in Trinidad and Tobago

Shipping Agencies

Translation Services

Contact Information Brazilian Embassy in Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago 18 Sweet Briar Road St. Clair Port of Spain Trinidad and Tobago Telephone: 1.868.622.5771/9 Fax: 1.868.622.4323 Email: brasembtt@wow.net Head of Mission: Mr. Paulo Sergio Traballi Bozzi, Ambassador Shipping Association of Trinidad & Tobago 15 Scott Bushe Street, Port of Spain Phone: 1.868.625.2388/1.868.623-3355 Fax: 1.868.623.8570 Email: om@shipping.co.tt Web: http://shipping.co.tt/member%20search.php?id=1&page=1 A list of official translation and interpreting agencies approved by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Trinidad and Tobago can be found in Appendix VI.

11.2 Brazil Office Ministry of Development, Industry and Trade (MDIC)

APEX Brasil

Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA)

Ministry of Agriculture (MAPA)

Contact Information Ministry of Development, Industry and Trade (MDIC) Felipe Cabral Bastos Telephone: +55 61 2027 9369 Email: felipe.bastos@bdic.gov.br http://www.mdic.gov.br/ APEX Brasil Cintia Marques Faleiro Telephone: +55 61 3426 0720 Email: cintia.faleiro@apexbrazil.com.br www.apexbrasil.com.br Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) Yane de Carvalha Sansevero Telephone: +55 61 3462 5424 Email: yane.carvalho@anvisa.gov.br www.anvisa.gov.br Ministry of Agriculture (MAPA) Marlos Schuck Vincenzi Telephone: +55 61 3218 2336 Email: marlos.vincenzi@agricultura.gov.br http://www.agricultura.gov.br/

Market Guide for Exporting Goods from Trinidad and Tobago to S達o Paulo, Brazil

Page 25 of 27


Office

Port Authority

Customs Authority (Receita Federal)

National Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology (INMETRO)

Brazilian Statistical Institute (IBGE)

São Paulo Chamber of Commerce

Association of Retailers and Distributors (ABAD)

Association for Packaging (ABRE) Supermarket Association (AMIS)

Contact Information Port Authority Isabela Oliveira Telephone: +55 61 3411 5824 Email: Isabela.oliveira@portosdobrasil.gov.br www.portosdobrasil.gov.br Customs Authority (Receita Federal) www.receita.fazenda.gov.br Gilberto Tragancin Telephone: +55 61 3412 3402 Email: gilberto.tragancin@receita.fazenda.gov.br Rafaela Ronchi Telephone: +55 61 3412 3402 Email: Rafaela.ronchi@rceita.fazenda.gov.br National Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology (INMETRO) de Oliveira Corrêa Telephone: +55 21 2563 2787 Email: rocorrea@inmetro.gov.br http://www.inmetro.gov.br/english/ Brazilian Statistical Institute (IBGE) Wagner Martins Magalhaes de Silveira Telephone: +55 11 3060 5512 Email: wagner.silveira@ibge.gov.br www.ibge.gov.br São Paulo Chamber of Commerce Guilherme Fedozzi Telephone: +55 11 5534 4333 Email: gfedozzi@ascp.com.br http://portal.acsp.com.br Association of Retailers and Distributors (ABAD) João Aparecido Pereira Thais Comapanaro Dutra www.abad.com.br Association for Packaging (ABRE) Sidney Roberto Telephone: +55 11 3060 5512 Email: centroinfo@abre.org.br www.abre.org.br Supermarket Association (AMIS) Paulo Parma

Market Guide for Exporting Goods from Trinidad and Tobago to São Paulo, Brazil

Page 26 of 27


Office

National Association for Paper Distributors (ANDIPA)

Commercial and Business Association for the City of Jundíaí (ACEJundíai)

Contact Information Telephone: +55 31 2122 0500 Email: paulo@amis.org.br www.amis.org.br National Association for Paper Distributors (ANDIPA) Vicentre Amato Sobrinho Telephone: +55 11 3044 2214 Email: andipa@andipa.org.br www.andipa.org.br Commercial and Business Association for the City of Jundíaí (ACEJundíai) Alefe Messaias Telephone: +55 11 3308 4339 Email: alefe@acejundiai.com.br http://acejuniai.com.br./

Market Guide for Exporting Goods from Trinidad and Tobago to São Paulo, Brazil

Page 27 of 27


Appendices


Appendix I – Brazil Population by State9 STATE São Paulo Minas Gerais Rio de Janiero Bahai Rio Grande do Sul Paraná Pernambuco Ceará Pará Maranhão Santa Catarina Goiás Paraiba Espírito Santo Amazonas Rio Grande do Norte Alagoas Piauí Mato Grosso Distrito Federal Mato Grosso do Sul Sergipe Rondônia Tocantins Acre Amapá Roraima

CAPITAL São Paulo Belo Horizonte Rio de Janiero Salvador Porto Alegre Curitiba Recife Fortaleza Belém São Luis Florianópolis Goiânia João Pessoa Vitória Manaus Natal Maceió Teresina Cuiabá Brasilia Campo Grande Aracaju Porto Velho Palmas Rio Branco Macapá Boa Vista

POPULATION 43,663,669 20,593,356 16,369,179 15,044,137 11,164,043 10,997,465 9,208,550 8,778,576 7,969,654 6,794,301 6,634,254 6,434,048 3,914,421 3,839,366 3,807,921 3,373,959 3,300,935 3,184,166 3,182,113 2,789,761 2,587,269 2,195,662 1,728,214 1,478,164 776,463 734,996 488,072

Source: Instituto Brasileiro Geografia e Estatística 2014

9

Estimates based on 2010 Census population


Appendix II – São Paulo Metro System


Appendix III – Consumer Expenditure, 2011

Consumer Expenditure by Category, 2011

Food and Non-Alcoholic Drinks

Alcholic Drink, Tobacco etc

Clothing and Footwear

Housing

Household Goods and Services

Health

Transport

Communication

Recreation and Culture


Appendix IV – Authority By Product 1. Brazil Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) a. Hygiene, cosmetic and perfume products i. Testing, definition and classification of products. b. Drugs i. Registration, classification and regulation enforcement. c. Food and beverages i. Inspection, registration and verification of product and packaging. In addition, they monitor ii. Ingredients, contamination and veterinary residues d. Health Related products e. Tobacco Products i. Origin, quality, marketing and advertising. 2. Ministry of Agriculture (MAPA) a. Health surveillance of animal, plants, inputs, animal feed, plant origin, packaging, pallets of wood imported. 3. National Institute of Metrology Standardization and Industrial Quality (INMETRO) a. This agency administers the quality standards for all goods and services entering the country. They also set the standard that need be met once in a country. INMETRO has administrative power to remove a product from the shelves if it does not confirm to standards. For the list of certified products, visit the following website, which is Portuguese: www.inmetro.gov.br/prodcert/Produtos/busca.asp. 4. Ministry of Development, Industry and Trade (MDIC)


Appendix V – Public Translators (Approved by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Trinidad and Tobago) 1)

Mr. Kelvin Hoskins #3 O’Connor Street, off Dickson Avenue, Diego Martin Tel: 352-2238/632-8286

2)

Ms. Doris Millan #42 Saddle Road, Maraval Tel: 753-0643/628-8414

Spanish

3)

Mr. Jaime Graells #28 Old Paddock Road, Blue Range, Diego Martin Tel: 759-5218/637-7140

4)

Mr. Luis Arreaza # 38 Carlos Street, Woodbrook Tel: 764-8683

Spanish, French

5)

Mr. Chantale Leonard-St. Clair Director (Ag.) Translation & Interpreting Services Unit Spanish, French, Portuguese, College of Science Technology and Applied Arts Dutch, German of Trinidad and Tobago (COSTAAT) Tel: (868) 625 5030 Ext. 5270 Fax: (868) 627 5714 E-mail: cstclair@costaatt.edu.tt; pwilliams@costaatt.edu.tt

6)

Mr. David Coutisson Director THE ALLIANCE FRANÇAISE # 17 Alcazar Street, Port of Spain Tel: 622-6119/6728

7)

French

Eric Maitrejean CITB Coordinator Caribbean Interpretation & Translation Bureau University of the West Indies St. Augustine Campus, St. Augustine Tel: 662-0758 Email: CITB@sta.uwi.edu

Spanish, French, Arabic


WORKS CITED

European Union, Trade in Goods with Brazil. (2014). EU Trade Commission Directorate. Retrieved from: http://trade.ec.europa.eu/doclib/docs/2006/september/tradoc_113359.pdf i

“Brazil’s Growth Acceleration Program’s Second Phase (PAC 2) Completes Three Years with 82.3% of Projects Completed”. (2014). Investor Ideas.com. Retrieved from http://www.investorideas.com/news/2014/international/02204.asp ii

iii

Economic Outlook – Q3 2014. (2014) Business Monitor International.

iv

Passport: São Paulo City Review. (2012). Euromonitor International.

Brazil Economic Outlook. (2015). BBVA Research. Retrieved from; https://www.bbvaresearch.com/wpcontent/uploads/2015/03/Brazil_Economic_Outlook_Feb151.pdf v

Ease of Doing Business in Brazil. (2015). World Bank Group. Retrieved from: http://www.doingbusiness.org/data/exploreeconomies/brazil#trading-across-borders vi

Brazil - Language, Culture, Customs and Etiquette. Retrieved from: http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/resources/global-etiquette/brazil-country-profile.html vii

Brazil Ranks No. 10 for Retail Ecommerce Sales Worldwide. (2015). eMarketer. Retrieved from: http://www.emarketer.com/Article/Brazil-Ranks-No-10-Retail-Ecommerce-SalesWorldwide/1011804 viii

Import and Distribution. (2013). Savixx. Retrieved from http://www.hannover.ihk.de/fileadmin/data/Dokumente/Themen/International/Veranstaltungsuebersicht /SAVIXX_IHK2013.pdf ix

Brazil Market Guide  
Brazil Market Guide  

exporTT has provided extensive insight to the Brazilian Market. Take a look!

Advertisement