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Alyana Feliciano — Spring 2018

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DES 505 — San Francisco State University

Helping low income and first generation students achieve higher education through visual design solutions


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index

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Introduction

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Problem and Solution

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Scale and Scope

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Literature Review

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Expert Panel

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Importance of Study

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Expert Interviews

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What I Learned

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Font and Color Analysis

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Initial Screens

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Student Feedback

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Mobile Screens

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Web screens

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Next Steps

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Introduction

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01_ Personal user experience Coming from a low income background means that getting a college education was the answer to upward mobility

Inclusive. Education. Access. Design. User Driven. APPLY +

in my family. The problem was, no one in my family knew how college worked and we lacked even the most basic resources to pay for applications or tests. It wasnâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;t until I met my educational advisor who helped me with every step of the process that I was able to attend college and eventually major in design. I began working as an educational advisor for the San Francisco College Access Center, through the recommendation of my past mentor.As a visual communication student, I found so many problems in the process of going to college that needed a design solution. Even small steps such as entering fee waivers on the SATs or lack of updated information really discouraged my population of low income and first generation students. Numerous studies show that while all students encounter struggles in the college application process, it can be especially difficult for low-income students. My idea is to create an app that acts as a toolkit to guide and support low-income students through the arduous college application process. My app will be created with the intention of helping students overcome common struggles such as mistranslating applications, lack of information, and lack of connection to available resources. There is a breadth of knowledge about the process however, it is sometimes difficult for students to identify the information that pertains directly to them due to the sheer amount of resources out there. My app will solve this by allowing the user to create personalized profiles that maximizes inclusivity and will ultimately connect them with the information they need.

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problem

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Students lack a resource that streamlines important, up-todate, and relevant information for students applying to college, ultimately deterring many students for applying.

The purpose of this project is to develop an effective application and website that will give inclusive and relevant support to any student who wants to apply to college.

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scale and scope There are a lot of determining factors in

a sample size of my project. Starting out

how one applies to college. Even what

small in a city can help me gather data

high school someone attends changes

and have some controlled factors. I can

the probability if they will recieve help,

compare different schools depending

matriculate, and transition into college.

on neighborhood and determine where

Because of this, I want to focus on the

students are succeeding the most,

San Francisco Unified School Disctrict as

depending on socioeconomic factors.

solution

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Literature review

_02 Low-income prospective college students, for example, are less likely to have informational resources in their immediate families, requiring that they rely on information from other sources. (Brown, Wohn, & Ellison, 2016)

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Learn. Research. Read. Question. Thinking.

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Setbacks Without a Map: College Access and the Online Practices of Youth from Low-Income Communities (Brown, Wohn, & Ellison, 2016) This article focuses on how both low and high income young people today have unequal access to information about higher education and other post-secondary options. The difference is evidence when low-income prospective college students are ‘less likely to have informational resources in their immediate families, requiring that they rely on information from other sources’. The researchers surveyed students from low-income communities to see how they used the internet to learn about college. They found that students are capable of finding the information but have challenges when trying to interpret the infor-

Background

mation.

In-State Tuition for Undocumented Immigrants and Its Impact on College Enroll-

Stability of Income and School Attendance among NYC Students of Low-Income

ment, Tuition Costs, Student Financial Aid, and Indebtedness.

Families. Economics of Education Review

(Amuedo-Dorantes & Sparber, 2014)

(Gennetian, Rodrigues, Hill, & Morris, 2018)

This article talks about laws and policies created at the federal level, such as the 1996

This study explores the problem of low income children, family income stability, and

Immigration Reform and Responsibility Act, that prevents ‘unlawful’ residents from re-

attendance. This shows some problems in the role of household income when it comes

ceiving a post secondary education and benefits. Contrary to this law, many states have

to different transitional ages. The study found that higher income was associated with

passed policies that allow undocumented immigrants to pay in-state tuition rates, com-

better school attendance in all grades. I want to include this study because colleges look

pared to international student tuition rates which is significantly higher. The study finds

at hardships of their applicants. Many students lose out on instruction hours, a lot of

that the enrollment rates of Mexican non-citizens are much higher in states with in-state

perceived ideas from adults is that kids are lazy or don’t want to go to school, but in fact

tuition policies compared to those without. The study also finds that the largest costs of

many students face issues in due to income problems. This is an example of institutional

the state level policies are by non-Mexican foreign-born groups, that have lower enroll-

racism which often gets overlooked.

ment rates with high borrowing rates to be able to fund their education.

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Technology Computer Usage and Access in Low-Income Urban Communities. (Araque et al., 2013) This article talks about studies done to examine effects of computer access within low-income families who participate in ‘Computer for Families’ programs. The study measures: “general computer use, access, and knowledge; employment; education; and children’s computer access, usage, and academic performance”. The study found that participates in the Computers for Families programs compared to those who didn’t participate had “access to internet from home, use a computer for more than 1h per day, complete online job applications and resumes electronically”. This article also mentions the digital divide, which “describes the perceived advantages affecting those unable or unwilling to make use of technology in their daily lives”.

The Experiences of Low-Income Latino/a Students in the California Community College

Summer Nudging: Can Personalized Text Messages and Peer Mentor Outreach

System at a Time of Education Budget Cuts.

Increase College Going among Low-Income High School Graduates?

(Chacón, 2013)

(Araque et al., 2013)

The Educational Opportunity Programs and Services (EOPS) are a California Community Col-

This article explains the ‘Summer Melt’, a phenomenon that college-bounce high school

leges wide support for many disproportionately served low-income people such as Latino/a

graduates ‘fail to matriculate in college anywhere in the year following high school’, and

students. Many of their services go beyond the classroom and provide a social safe space for

the simple, low-cost interventions in takes to make ‘substantial improvements in the

many of these students as they go through other challenges such as housing, etc. EOPS helps

students’ post secondary outcomes’. One of the interventions used personalized text

find and connect resources to their students. The study found that students ‘experienced

messages ‘to remind college-intending students of required pre-matriculation tasks and

additional difficulties in completing their educational objectives due to budget cuts’. The cuts

to connect them to counselor-based support’. Other interventions hired peer mentors

also made students perceive that their education was less socially significant. The study

who were close to their age to provide support and outreach during the summer. These

suggests that there needs to be full and equal access for this student population, as well as

low cost interventions helped increase the college enrollment rates for students who

educators, and administrators.

participated.

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Technology cont.

Specifics

Obama Seeks to Expand Internet Access to Low-Income Households - Opposing

Low-Income Students and Highly Selective Private Colleges: Geography, Searching,

Viewpoints in Context (Newsweek, 2016) The Obama administration launched a program that expanded high-speed internet and broadband connections to over 275,000 low income households’. It is important that we have policies that help our marginalized communities by giving access to information. The administration found that the lack of internet causes gaps in homework as students aren’t able to research from home. This also helps low-income families apply for employment online. Opportunity for All? Technology and Learning in Lower-Income Families (Rideout & Katz, 2016) This study examines access to internet connection and low-income families. ‘Most low and moderate income families have some some form of internet connection but many are under-connected, with mobile-only access and inconsistent connectivity.’ Also, there is a lack in many low-income homes, simply because families cannot afford them. Despite the barriers, low-income communities are thriving by creatively using media and new technologies to support children’s educational pathways and connect with family. This study is important because it’s supports my claim to mobile access within these specific communities.

and Recruiting. (Hill & Winston, 2010) This study found that “only 10% of the students at the nation’s most selective private colleges and universities came from families in the bottom 40% of the US family income distribution” and that there is a “larger share of low-income high ability students in the national population than there are actual student bodies in these highly selective schools”. These schools include Harvard, Stanford, Wellesley, and Swarthmore. This study found that these schools pay less attention to geography and more into SAT/ACT scores. This becomes problematic because by not paying attention to geography, schools ignore low-income communities and show bias against low income students at these specific schools. The Costs and Benefits of Enrolling in an Academically Matched College. Economics of Education Review (Howell & Pender, 2016) This study examines the benefits of fitting low-income students to schools that match them academically in response to increased efforts in raising college completion rates. The study found that ‘undermatched, low-income students across the distribution of academic ability would experience a substantial boost in bachelor’s degree completion, if they attended a college that better matched their academic credentials’. On top of this, the study also found that if all undermatched, low-income students were moved into their “safety” colleges, it would not overly burden these schools. Another finding suggests that the financial impact on these institutions would be substantial even if the institutions were to cover full tuition and fees for the additional low-income students.

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Expert Panel

TYLA BROWN, ASSOCIATE DIRECTOR JCYC COLLEGE COLLEGE PROGRAMS

JAQUELINE GONZALEZ, ACADEMIC ADVISOR AT THE EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITY PROGRAM (EOP)

ERIC GUTHERZ PRINCIPAL MISSION HIGH SCHOOL

MARIA SERVELLON COUNSELOR MISSION HIGH SCHOOL

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Where is an ideal place for you to receive all your college info?

Importance of study After conducting research on two different groups, current high schoolers and college students/graduates, I found that the answers give me more insight to the issues. 54% of college/graduates participants were LI/FG. More importantly, I found that a high percentage of students found it extremely difficult to go through the application process. COLLEGE STUDENTS

HIGH SCHOOL

& GRADUTES

STUDENTS

50 participants

20 participants

PA R T I C I PA N T S

100%

60%

72%

86% 90%

76%

I wish I got my information from an organized body (app or whatever medium or mode) which would inform us the specialization of each school and also what they offer so that we would be more informed when it comes to choosing which school to attend. K.S, San Mateo, CA Would‘ve loved to have app/text reminders when I was applying! Recently thought of this when I was helping my cousin apply for schools. It would‘ve been useful to have all the information aggregated in one place Y.T, St. Louis, MO

91%

80%

wish I had all of my college information in one place on an app A.B, Seattle, WA

54%

I would have liked to have almost like a personal guide or chat I could access whenever I had questions. G.A, San Francisco, CA

A one-stop info centre; be it website or pamphlet with specific categories such as enrollment, majors, finance etc. T.K, Oakland, CA

I wish I had gotten my information and reminders through apps, online, or even more hands on approach by having colleges visit during high school L.T, New York City, NY

40%

I… never thought about that. Student fairs are okay, but an unified website or app would have been nice. K.K, New York CIty, NY

20%

I wish there’s an app where we can have an advance search on the high institutions about its location, fees, ,the subject that available and the type of program which makes it easier to choose the best place to enroll N.R, Kealakekua, HA

of those surveyed were either LI or FG

of those surfound it diffiveyed werefor cult to apply either LI or FG college (testing,

financial aid, applications, etc)

Currently in college or gradu-

of those surveyed used the internet to find information

Current high school seniors

Note, HS students surveyed are from Mission High School.

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Expert Interviews

I picked Tyla Brown because I want my app to mimick what college access programs do, at a larger scale. She told me that there are a lot of different factors that determine the success of the program. Programs need memorandum of understandings, support from schools, and most importantly data. She highlighted that data from direct service is used to prove to the grantors (federal and state government) that LI/FG need the support.

MOST STUDENTS ENROLLED IN A COLLEGE ACCESS PROGRAM ARE SUCCESSFUL IN NAVIGATING THE COLLEGE APPLICATION AND INFORMATION PROCESS. WHEREAS OTHER STUDENTS WHO WOULD OTHERWISE BEEN ELIGIBLE MISS DEADLINES OR LACK INFORMATION TO CORRECTLY SUBMIT THEIR APPLICATIONS.

Maria is not only a college and career counselor at Mission High, but she is also in charge of the newcomer population, meaning students who are new to the country. Maria and I discussed a lot of the setbacks students faced beyond school. Many of our students lacked basic support in school and found that a lot of immigrant parents want students to go to school but there are a number who believe that students should go into the workforce to help the survival of their families. This is partly due to parents not having formal education.

Eric and I discussed the importance of anti-racist teaching and how it affects students of color trying to achieve college. At an institutional level, Eric has made changes that would help prevent students from missing class time, such as kicking a student out of class or trying to prevent suspensions. The “school to prison

pipeline“ are one of the setbacks that students of color, specifically Black students face and eventually deter them from achieving higher education.

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JAQUELINE GONZALEZ, ACADEMIC ADVISOR AT THE EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITY PROGRAM (EOP) SAN FRANCISCO STATE UNIVERSITY

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Jaqueline Gonzalez

What I‘ve Learned

S I N C E Y O U W O R K W I T H A S P E C I A L I Z E D P O P U L AT I O N , F O S T E R Y O U T H , O R L O W - I N C O M E , A N D F I R S T

I found that while trying to combat multiple layers of setbacks, and requirements, we cannot hand

G E N E R AT I O N Y O U T H , W H AT A R E T H E T R E N D S Y O U ’ V E F O U N D I N G E N E R A L W H E N I T C O M E S T O

hold students because they will become dependent. Originally, I wanted to make an app that has all

YO U R S PEC I FI C CAS E LOA D ?

applications pertaining the college going experience in one form. This idea would be a disadvan-

They need a lot more guidance; not necessarily hand holding but you definitely need to follow up

tage to students because it would not teach them to be resourceful. I need to balance what can be

and talk to them and make sure they follow a plan. The most important thing is follow through, you

done and what students can learn. In my discussion with Maria, the college and career counselor, I

know, checking in and emailing them because a lot of them, it’s their first time coming to college.

mentioned that I wanted to add a feature where students can take a photo or upload their transcript

They’re stressing about housing in San Francisco, they’re stressing with how expensive everything

file and it would calculate their GPA and recommend specific things like retaking a class, or taking a

is and are trying to find jobs right away. They’re stressing about not having a family, a support

more challenging class. She pointed out the fact that students need to learn how to read their own

system so they come to our space and want to talk and hang out, but, we have to redirect them in

transcripts, and find ways to discuss concerns with their counselor. She suggested a feature where

terms of academics. We teach them continued development in skills like organization, budgeting

students can input their transcripts and the app/website translates what requirements they’ve

skills, we do a little bit of everything with these students and thats where the holistic process

fulfilled and what else needs to be taken. These are part of the user’s experience that I need to take

begins.

into consideration when developing and designing my project. •

APPLY+ should encourage dialog between the student and important key players such as teachers, counselors, advisors, mentors, parents, and community members.

H O W A R E Y O U C O M M U N I C AT I N G W I T H Y O U R S T U D E N T S A N D W H AT H A V E Y O U S E E N W O R K A N D N O T WORK?

We have Campus Solutions, which is a part of Oracle where I have access to their ID numbers,

a toolkit in figuring out what students will need

transcripts, degree process reports, etc. But that’s it. We usually receive our caseloads of students through a spreadsheets and that is how I email my students individually. We don’t have the tools where I can email students in an important platform, like the student portal. Like high school students, college students need to learn how to check their emails as well… San Francisco State in

APPLY+ should not be an app that does all the work for students, rather be a supplement or

APPLY+ should be easy and intuitive to use, and can be accessed by all students, not just the LI/FG even if they the target population

general, sends so many emails so my messages get buried under that. Students are falling through the cracks because they are missing important information.

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Concept Development

03_ Idea. Sketches. Design. Refining. Color. APPLY +

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Ideas and sketches

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Font and color analysis Clean and simple Gradients are a great trend and they are dynamic, giving a change in a flat look. I chose these colors, contrary to my old yellow and black look because they are very neutral and give the feeling of fresh and near look.

HIGHLIGHT/ACCENT CERULEAN COLOR CODE HEX: #99E8FF

HIGHLIGHT/ACCENT

PANTONE 429

TEXT

PANTONE 406

LIGHT SAPPHIRE BLUE COLOR CODE HEX: #B0BEFF

BLUE COLOR CODE HEX: #2699FB

PRIMARY

BLACK COLOR CODE HEX: #000000

BASE

LIGHT GREY COLOR CODE HEX: #F8F8F8

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PANTONE 636

PANTONE BLACK C

PANTONE 11-4201

A better Helvetica Apple released SF Pro with two options, one for body text fonts and a display font; both optimized for function. I really

BODY TEXT SF PRO TEXT 8PT TYPE 12PT LEADING

ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz Lorem xipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Curabitur mi tortor, fermentum posuere arcu vitae,

liked both looks, because it is simple, yet has a friendly and approachable feel.

bibendum lobortis arcu. Vivamus in scelerisque metus. Nullam vel ipsum sit amet diam iaculis faucibus. Interdum et malesuada fames ac ante ipsum primis in faucibus. HEADING SF PRO DISPLAY 30PT, 25PT 12PT LEADING

Header 1

Good morning, Jose. Welcome back!

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Initial wireframes

</apply> was my first initial name for

This is the initial account creation

Initial screens just have announ-

This is the screen after a few months,

the app because I wanted to mix tech

page. I want basic information from

cemnts and look like a calendar. As

it can help show and encourage

(code) with college (apply). I realized

the student.

a productivity app, students need

students how much work and pro-

calendars and reminders as they are

gress theyâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;ve made.

that it is hard and confusing to read.

busy during the school year.

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Initial wireframes

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Sometimes it‘s hard to get a hold on my counselor so I‘m not sure if I‘m taking the right classes for me. It would be nice if I could text my counselor but I know that she isn‘t allowed to give us her number. If we could have a way to talk to our counselor or teacher without having to wait for an email, that would be really good.

Student feedback Seniors I‘ve asked my students to look through my initial app and website and they gave me a few recommendations. Since they aren‘t design students, I didn‘t get a lot of feedback in terms of usability but more of what students would like to see in terms of features. A lot of them said that it‘s useful and would have liked to use the app in their application process.

It would be nice to a have a checklist so I know what to do. I think a lot of this stuff is so confusing and we don‘t have a place to look for all of it. Raven A.

Andrea A.

I wish there was a place where I can find all of the scholarships. I know the college center prints a bulletin but I have to wait every month. I know that there are opportunities that come every week or everyday. Jackie Z.

I really don‘t know what to major in and it‘s hard because my family wants me to become an accounant. I don‘t like math and I don‘t know anything about being an accountant so I wish there was a place where I can find recommendations or see what others are doing with their major or career. Xiaowen L.

I know college professors will not remind us about assignments and they are strict but it would be nice if we can recieve reminders about important deadlines... Danny H.

There should be a place where I can put all my information like passwords and student portal id numbers. I applied to 12 schools and have to remember each password. It takes so much time and energy to recover them if I lose the info. Stephanie E.

Would be cool if there was a way I can compare different majors or different schools in one page. I hate having to go back and forth cause there‘s millions of pages

Can I prefill this info out then have it transfer to my applications? David C.

Jose R.

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04_ Final Design Proposal APPLY +

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UX/UI. Develop. Create. Test. Refine. APPLY+


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Letâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;s make college possible.

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Major changes Compared to my initial wireframes, I changed the appâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s colors to be more inviting. My concept is a modern and easy to look at. I use subtle drop shadows to make my cards/modals look more dynamic/floating.

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Phone screens

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Phone screens

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Web screens

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Next steps MORE THAN JUST COLLEGE

I believe there are better alternatives to college, I want to help students find the right path for them. I want to work with more career options as well because not everyone fits the university and college mold. There are programs that help with careers that range from hospitality and management to UX/UI.

MORE THAN JUST SAN FR ANCISCO, CALIFORNIA

I have to admit that a lot of my data and experience stems from work, and my knowlege about the California school system, specifically San Francisco, which has an abundance in resources in terms of help and support, but at the same time missing a lot of students.

MORE THAN JUST A PUBLIC, 4 YEAR UNIVERSITY

I want to add features that will address schools outside of the public university system, and intergrate applications from applications such as Common App and CSS profile.

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Bibliography Amuedo-Dorantes, C., & Sparber, C. (2014). In-state tuition for undocumented immigrants

Castleman, B. L., & Page, L. C. (2015). Summer nudging: Can personalized text messages

and its impact on college enrollment, tuition costs, student financial aid, and indebtedness.

and peer mentor outreach increase college going among low-income high school gradu-

Regional Science and Urban Economics, 49, 11–24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.regsciurbe-

ates? Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 115, 144–160. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.

co.2014.07.010

jebo.2014.12.008

Araque, J. C., Maiden, R. P., Bravo, N., Estrada, I., Evans, R., Hubchik, K., … Reddy, M.

Chacón, J. A. (2013). The Experiences of Low-Income Latino/a Students in the California

(2013). Computer usage and access in low-income urban communities. Computers in Hu-

Community College System at a Time of Education Budget Cuts. Journal of Hispanic Higher

man Behavior, 29(4), 1393–1401. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2013.01.032

Education, 12(3), 207–224. https://doi.org/10.1177/1538192712468158

Bleemer, Z., & Zafar, B. (2018). Intended college attendance: Evidence from an experiment

Cooper, C. R. (2014). Cultural brokers: How immigrant youth in multicultural societies navigate

on college returns and costs. Journal of Public Economics, 157, 184–211. https://doi.

and negotiate their pathways to college identities. Learning, Culture and Social Interaction,

org/10.1016/j.jpubeco.2017.11.002

3(2), 170–176. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lcsi.2013.12.005

Brown, M. G., Wohn, D. Y., & Ellison, N. (2016). Without a map: College access and the

Ehlert, M., Finger, C., Rusconi, A., & Solga, H. (2017). Applying to college: Do information

online practices of youth from low-income communities. Computers & Education, 92–93,

deficits lower the likelihood of college-eligible students from less-privileged families to pur-

104–116. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2015.10.001

sue their college intentions?: Evidence from a field experiment. Social Science Research, 67,

Seah, K. K. (2018). Immigrant educators and students’ academic achievement. Labour Economics, 51, 152–169. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.labeco.2017.12.007 Sichling, F. (2017). Diversity on the urban margin: The influence of social networks on the transition to adulthood of disadvantaged immigrant youth. Geoforum. https://doi.

193–212. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssresearch.2017.04.005 Gennetian, L. A., Rodrigues, C., Hill, H. D., & Morris, P. A. (2018). Stability of income and school attendance among NYC students of low-income families. Economics of Education Review, 63, 20–30. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.econedurev.2018.01.003

org/10.1016/j.geoforum.2017.03.029 Song, H., & Elliott, W. (2011). The role of assets in improving college attainment among Hispanic immigrant youth in the U.S. Children and Youth Services Review, 33(11), 2160– 2167. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2011.06.023 Tate, K. A., Fouad, N. A., Marks, L. R., Young, G., Guzman, E., & Williams, E. G. (2015). Underrepresented First-Generation, Low-Income College Students’ Pursuit of a Graduate Education: Investigating the Influence of Self-Efficacy, Coping Efficacy, and Family Influence. Journal of Career Assessment, 23(3), 427–441. https://doi.org/10.1177/1069072714547498

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Hill, C. B., & Winston, G. C. (2010). Low-income students and highly selective private colleges: Geography, searching, and recruiting. Economics of Education Review, 29(4), 495–503. https:// doi.org/10.1016/j.econedurev.2009.12.004 Howell, J. S., & Pender, M. (2016). The costs and benefits of enrolling in an academically matched college. Economics of Education Review, 51, 152–168. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. econedurev.2015.06.008 Joan Ganz Cooney Center - Opportunity for All? Technology and Learning in Lower-Income Families. (n.d.). Retrieved February 12, 2018, from http://joanganzcooneycenter.org/publication/opportunity-for-all-technology-and-learning-in-lower-income-families/ Mendenhall, R., Kramer, K. Z., & Bellisle, D. (2018). Low- and moderate-income families’ avenues to mobility: Overcoming threats to asset accumulation and remaining in undesirable neighborhoods. Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, 53, 26–39. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.rssm.2017.12.001 Obama seeks to expand Internet access to low-income households - Opposing Viewpoints in Context. (n.d.). Retrieved February 11, 2018, from http://ic.galegroup.com.jpllnet.sfsu. edu/ic/ovic/NewsDetailsPage/NewsDetailsWindow?disableHighlighting=&displayGroupName=News&docIndex=&source=&prodId=&mode=view&limiter=&display-query=&contentModules=&action=e&sortBy=&windowstate=normal&currPage=&dviSelectedPage=&scanId=&query=&search_within_results=&p=OVIC&catId=&u=sfsu_main&displayGroups=&documentId=GALE%7CA430339133&activityType=&failOver

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The culturally competent college access application.

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The culturally competent college access application.

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