Page 1

retrofit v lume 4 number 1 | 2 15


Australia Post’s upgraded digs | Lighting retrofits – easy as LED PRINT POST: 100009331

AwArd-winning Boiling wAter By


The New Lazer® Range With three stylish new designs, one touch power saving, rock-solid stability and capacities to suit the most demanding boiling water needs, the new Rheem Lazer® range continues to lead the market in performance and design. So much so that, this year, the Lazer® Office has received an Australian International Design Award in recognition of its excellence. From the Lazer Eco, a cost effective boiling water unit, to the 40 Litre Rheem Commercial, you can trust the new Rheem Lazer® range for all your instant boiling water needs.

Rheem Australia Pty Ltd For further information contact us on 132 552 or visit our website at ® Registered Trademark of Rheem Australia Pty Ltd

Contents 42

04 18


Page News


Urban Retrofitting


News from the industry

Case Study



Sustainable building design sees Australia Post reduce impact, resources and costs Retrofitting on the ocean | Interview with Royal Caribbean Cruises

It could be as easy as LED | Pip Harley, CitySwitch Green Office


Lighting on display | University of Queensland


Space for new lighting at the Perth Convention and Exhibition Centre car park

The editor, publisher, printer and their staff and agents are not responsible for the accuracy or correctness of the text of contributions contained in this publication or for the consequences of any use made of the products, and the information referred to in this publication. The editor, publisher, printer and their staff and agents expressly disclaim all liability of whatsoever nature for any consequences arising from any errors or omissions contained in this publication whether caused to a purchaser of this publication or otherwise. The views expressed in the articles and other material published herein do not necessarily reflect the views of the editor and publisher or their staff or agents. The responsibility for the accuracy of information is that of the individual contributors and neither the publisher nor editor can accept responsibility for the accuracy of information which is supplied by others. It is impossible for the publisher and editors to ensure that the advertisements and other material herein comply with the Trade Practices Act 1974 (CTH). Readers should make their own enquiries in making any decisions, and where necessary, seek professional advice. © 2015 Executive Media Pty Ltd. Reproduction in whole or in part without written permission is strictly prohibited.

International Case Study


Achieving substantial energy efficiency gains in Europe’s public building stock | Juan Ramón de las Cuevas Jiménez and Helga Treiber, BRICKER project

Cool Roofs



Retrofitting our cities | Romilly Madew, Green Building Council of Australia


Cool roofing – the pros and… pros

Voltage Optimisation


Voltage optimisation: a quick run-down

Editor: Gemma Peckham P: 03 9274 4200 E: Layout: Alma McHugh Published by: Retrofit Australia is proudly supported by:

ABN 30 007 224 204 430 William Street, Melbourne VIC 3000 T: 03 9274 4200 Fax: (03) 9329 5295 E: W: Printed by: PMI


| Company Profile | Company Profile

The next-generation commercial water heater Rinnai Australia pioneered continuous flow water heating in Australia, and is among the leaders in commercial water heating innovation. With a passion for creating sustainable products, Rinnai has developed a range of commercial condensing continuous flow water heaters. ensures a longer service life, while also reducing lifetime operating and maintenance costs. A thermal efficiency of 94 per cent allows higher flow rates to be achieved than in a standard continuous flow unit, with a similar gas load. As an example, a noncondensing unit generally offers a flow rate of 26 litres per minute at a 25-degree Celsius temperature rise, using 200 megajoules of gas. The addition of condensing technology, however, offers 32 litres per minute at a 25-degree Celsius temperature rise, while consuming 211 megajoules of gas.


ondensing technology takes continuous flow water heating one step further, by delivering more thermal efficiency than ever before. Enjoy all the same benefits that you’ve come to expect from Rinnai, plus even greater energy savings, compared to traditional water heating systems.

Unrivalled technology. Unmatched performance. The unique condensing design incorporates two innovative heat exchangers to achieve optimum heating value from every cubic foot of natural gas or propane. Residual heat from flue gases is recaptured to preheat incoming water, which then circulates to the primary copper heat exchanger. This top-down burner design increases reliability and 2 • RETROFIT AUSTRALIA • VOLUME 4 NUMBER 1 | 2015 X

These water heaters (known as HDC211s) are available in either an external or internal model, and a Rinnai-designed and -built condensing water-heating system has the potential to reduce the carbon footprint of your building. On top of this, it can significantly reduce the physical footprint of the water heating system, freeing up much-needed plant area for access or other equipment. Maintenance and monitoring is no problem either, with the added bonus of a status monitor built into the front cover of the water heater. As an extra feature, a building maintenance system (BMS) module can be fitted into each water heater, offering a set of volt-free contacts for fault status. Rinnai’s state-of-the-art hot water systems draw on 40 years of experience to supply a range of

solutions for small, medium and large commercial applications. As you’ve come to expect, all Rinnai products are easy to install, lowmaintenance, and manufactured to the highest quality. Rinnai’s commercial hot water systems are widely used throughout schools, government buildings, apartments, offices and sports facilities, as well as hotels and commercial kitchens. A package can be tailor-made to meet your building requirements, and can fit into those tight spaces! To find out more information, email, or call 1300 555 545.

Who says older buildings can’t have modern efficiencies!

At Rinnai, we design, test and manufacture innovative commercial hot water products that can be developed to suit your specific needs. Our state-of-the-art facility allows us to work quickly and efficiently, meeting your requirements with quality control that’s unsurpassed. - Our team of highly qualified technical engineers, along with local sales managers, are specifically trained to quickly determine the most cost effective solution to meet your objectives. - Condensing technology offers a thermal efficiency of 94% reducing the amount of gas consumed to deliver the hot water demand. - Solar thermal technology is designed to significantly reduce energy costs by heating the daily demand of hot water using the sun’s energy. - Sophisticated controllers are available with LCD displays and BMS fault outputs to enable easy management of your water heating plant.

| News

News from the industry Election commitment to deliver retrofit opportunities for Adelaide buildings Legislation to assist building owners access loans to improve the environmental efficiency of existing commercial buildings in South Australia was introduced in February 2015. The introduction to parliament of the Local Government (Building Upgrade Agreements) Amendments Bill 2015 is part of a $1.9 million election commitment to drive investment in sustainable commercial buildings in South Australia. ‘The state government is keen to improve the environmental performance of our ageing buildings to help deliver economic and environmental outcomes,’ says Climate Change Minister Ian Hunter. ‘With one-fifth of greenhouse gas emissions coming from energy used in buildings, the need for action to improve the carbon footprint and efficiency of our existing buildings is clear. ‘This makes good economic sense for building owners and occupiers, as well as businesses that can


provide the clean technologies and solutions that improve building performance.’ Mr Hunter says commercial building owners can have difficulty getting finance for such investments, and also struggle with a ‘split-incentive’ barrier in leased buildings where tenants enjoy the benefits of the upgrade, but the building owner has to bear the costs. ‘The Building Upgrade Finance mechanism will allow the loan to be tied to the property, rather than the property owner, and loan repayments will be collected via a local government charge levied on the property and passed on to the financier,’ he says. Chair of the Premier’s Climate Change Council, Bruce Carter commended the state government for acting on the Council’s advice. ‘Building Upgrade Finance has the potential to bring life to our ageing building stock, reduce emissions and deliver economic benefits,’ he said.

News |

Wollongong Council Administration Building achieves Australia’s first 5 Star Green Star – Performance rating Wollongong City Council’s Administration Building has become the first building in Australia to achieve a 5 Star Green Star – Performance rating from the Green Building Council of Australia, signifying ‘Australian Excellence’. The rating is also the highest Green Star – Performance rating achieved in Australia to date.

efficiency gains of 85 per cent, based on the Green Star – Performance rating tool’s calculations. Council estimates that the energy efficiency gains alone in the building are saving $200,000 in electricity costs each year, when compared to 2007–2008 consumption.

The 13-storey Administration Building was first occupied in June 1987, and houses 660 Council staff members. Over the past 10 years, Council has introduced a range of building upgrades and management practices to improve the building’s sustainability performance, replacing ageing equipment to meet modern building compliance standards. In 2014, Council began a project to improve the building’s operational performance from a sustainability perspective, using the Green Building Council of Australia’s Green Star – Performance rating tool. The upgrades and altered practices have resulted in energy efficiency gains of 55 per cent and water

Energy efficiency to slash greenhouse emissions and bills A new City of Sydney master plan for energy efficiency will show businesses and residents how to slash greenhouse pollution and save more than $600 million in energy bills by 2030. The plan could make Sydney one of the world’s most energy-efficient cities, and provide a major contribution to achieving the City’s goal of reducing carbon pollution to 70 per cent below 2006 levels by 2030. The draft energy efficiency master plan includes the most comprehensive analysis of all buildings in the City of Sydney area, and shows how energy use in homes and offices could be reduced by more than 30 per cent. The analysis, conducted by energy experts pitt&sherry, shows how to improve the efficiency

of buildings – including the City’s own properties, commercial office space, and residential blocks and accommodation. The City has already retrofitted 45 of its properties to reduce electricity and water use, and generate operational savings of more than $1 million per year. ‘We have the most ambitious emissions reductions target of any Australian government – to cut emissions by 70 per cent by 2030, based on 2006 levels, and take significant action on climate change,’ says Lord Mayor Clover Moore. ‘We are getting our own house in order by retrofitting swimming pools, community centres and libraries for optimum energy efficiency. These upgrades have reduced greenhouse gas emissions across the City’s buildings by 29 per cent – we now want to see these savings expanded across the entire city.’


| News

Property Council welcomes reduction in energy efficiency red tape The Property Council of Australia welcomes the passage through the Federal Parliament of a long overdue legislative amendment to streamline the disclosure of energy performance for office buildings. Chief Executive Ken Morrison said the government deserves full marks for taking the property industry’s legitimate concerns on board and acting to improve the operation of the Commercial Building Disclosure (CBD) Scheme. ‘Sustainability makes not only environmental, but economic sense,’ Mr Morrison says. ‘We all benefit from better energy efficiency in our buildings, and the disclosure of energy efficiency ratings is an important mechanism for achieving this; however, the way the CBD scheme has been operating since its introduction in 2010 has created costly and inefficient red tape. ‘Flaws in the original design of the scheme have created a major barrier to transactions for the sale and lease of office space in certain circumstances. ‘We are delighted the government has now taken on board our concerns and improved the way the scheme operates.’ The Building Energy Efficiency Disclosure Amendment Bill 2014, which passed the Senate in February, will introduce disclosure exemptions for building owners who receive unsolicited offers for the sale or lease of office space. Until now, building owners were unable to enter sale or lease discussions unless they had undergone time-consuming performance assessments in advance. This requirement applied even where the transaction was between a parent company and a wholly owned subsidiary. The changes that will now take effect mean that tenants and purchasers get the information they need without calcifying market transactions.


Tony Arnel named new EEC President In February 2015, the Energy Efficiency Council (EEC) announced the appointment of Tony Arnel to the position of EEC President. Mr Arnel takes the reins from Rob Thomson, who has stepped down as President after almost two years in the role. Arnel is Global Director of Sustainability at leading engineering consultancy firm Norman Disney & Young. He is currently a trustee of the Sustainable Melbourne Fund, which is an initiative of the Melbourne City Council that was created to accelerate the retrofitting of existing buildings by making funding available to building owners. Over the past decade, Arnel has been a leader in the Australian and international efficiency debate, advocating for efficient buildings as a means of reducing emissions and improving economic growth. Arnel says, ’I’m looking forward to working with Council members to build the market for energy efficiency, cogeneration and demand management in Australia, and thank my predecessor Rob Thomson, who has provided outstanding leadership throughout his tenure as President. ‘Improving our energy efficiency has the potential to deliver great upswings in productivity and economic growth across Australia, while also reducing our energy bills and cutting carbon pollution. I’m committed to the development of policies and platforms that support smarter, more sustainable energy use,’ Arnel concludes.

News |

On average, residents of highand medium-density blocks use 25 per cent more energy than those in detached dwellings, with up to 50 per cent of this energy use coming from common areas like hallways, car parks and swimming pools

Strata buildings urged to get behind energy initiative Strata and community title owners and managers are being urged to adopt an energy-saving initiative that was awarded a top prize for sustainability at the prestigious Melbourne Awards in late 2014. Smart Blocks was recognised for helping apartment owners and managers to improve the energy efficiency of common property in apartment buildings throughout Australia. On average, residents of highand medium-density blocks use 25 per cent more energy than those in detached dwellings, with up to 50 per cent of this energy use coming from common areas like hallways, car parks and swimming pools. Smart Blocks provides a groundbreaking online toolkit that equips owners and managers with the tools to work collaboratively to implement projects in the common areas of their buildings. The online project management toolkit guides participants through each

Newstead to become Victoria’s first fully renewable town Newstead will become Victoria’s first town to run on 100 per cent renewables, with the help of a $200,000 Andrews Labor Government grant announced in February by Minister for Energy and Resources, Lily D’Ambrosio. The funding will help local group Newstead 2021 develop and implement a model for supplying the town’s homes and businesses with 100 per cent renewable energy from a community-scale grid. The model will incorporate community ownership, and balance commercial viability with social equity through low prices and price protections for Newstead residents who are vulnerable to rising energy costs. Newstead 2021 has been exploring options for transitioning to 100 per cent renewable energy by undertaking household energy assessments and retrofits, conducting feasibility studies into various renewable energy supply options, and preparing a technical paper on Newstead becoming an energy self-sufficient micro-grid.

step of the process, allowing users to register their building, identify relevant projects, build a business case, and prepare a case for implementation. Projects are varied, and include lighting upgrades, heating and cooling, ventilation, and solar options. Strata Community Australia (SCA) CEO Kim Henshaw says that there are big savings for strata communities throughout Australia if they adopt the Smart Blocks projects. ‘It can often be hard to make energy-efficient changes in residential strata buildings, for many reasons, such as the frustration of trying to retrofit an old building with new power-saving technologies, the difficulties of collective decision-making, and the complexity of navigating codes and by-laws. Smart Blocks takes care of these challenges, providing a clear and easy way for owners and managers to create a more sustainable and energy-efficient building,’ says Henshaw.


| Company Profile | Company Profile

Renew Revitalise Refresh Going green in the workplace is no longer a fashion statement or fad as the evidence supports the multitudinous benefits of green design. Putting your green foot forward to reap benefits for your building doesn’t have to mean state-of-the-art solar panels or the latest eco-fibre insulation.


ome of the easiest ways to purify your air and keep your environment clean are also aesthetic assets to your workplace. 1. Breathe easier with indoor greenery Air pollution is a well-known urban hazard, but did you know that indoor air pollution is significantly worse than on most roads? The emissions from indoor plastics and synthetics accumulate and get trapped in many buildings. When it’s not practical to throw open all the windows on the 24th floor, or to fit advanced filtering technology into your air conditioners, you can still purify your air with the simple pot plant. Plants are highly effective natural air filters, as well as renowned aesthetic and moraleboosting additions to any office. The Container Connection specialises in a range of coloured, customisable, low-maintenance designs to keep your greenery lush and productive. The sub-irrigated planter design is a unique solution to keep maintenance low-fuss and unobtrusive for yearround vitality. 2. Reduce, re-use, recycle Australians are raised with great attitudes towards recycling, but many buildings and offices fail to offer the necessary vestibules to support these good habits. Clearly marked bins in high-traffic and high-use places, such as in kitchens, next to printers and in communal spaces,


help your colleagues to do their part to recycle waste. Funky, noticeable waste management options send the message that everyone is responsible for the care of the workspace and act as a visual reminder to consider where litter should go. Make it easy to keep your office clean and send the right green messages at the same time when you include recycling options in your building.

responsible materials, consult The Container Connection. Browse the extensive range of planters, recycling bins and contemporary modular furniture to enliven your communal spaces. Your green retrofit is only a phone call away.

3. Encourage green community culture Ecology in the workplace is more than a few plants and some paper bins. The ideals of minimal waste, long-term value for cost and building a future that sustains the next generation are values that any company can get behind. Successful initiatives that extend green thinking beyond the immediate office environment are ride-to-work campaigns, branded re-usable coffee cups for employees, and the use of recycled materials when ordering office supplies. The value of these programs is in the way that they share the responsibility of environmental action between the individual and the organisation supporting them. Comfortable communal areas make spaces for employees to connect, and central noticeboards can be excellent places to promote the green credentials and values of the workplace. For locally manufactured products from environmentally

Renew, Revitalise, Refresh.

Sit And Breathe Easy With The Container Connection Revive your workplace atmosphere and set the stage for social spaces with our distinctively designed litter bins, planters and furniture. • Start conversations with inviting, well designed seating • Purify the air using strategically placed planters and greenery • Boost morale with fun, well designed communal spaces The Container Connection brings people and the environment together through smart design and function. Our products are manufactured using recyclable material, so you can sit and breathe easy.

ENVIRONMENTALLY RESPONSIBLE Our products can be manufactured in recycled material upon request. Our many clients are not only committed to recycling, but are excited that we can offer manufacturing from 100% recycled material.

Shape Your Environment Re-energise your workspace with our funky furniture, smart sub-irrigated planters and clever litter solutions. The Container Connection will work closely with you to find smart, cost effective solutions for your commercial spaces.

Retrofit With A Local By sourcing Australian owned and manufactured products, you access readily available parts, on-time deliveries, exceptional product warranty and market competitiveness based on quality. Well laid out seating, planters for screening and clearly marked litter management stations are simple ways to demarcate the function of different areas and direct people to the proper use of your spaces. The Container Connection are uniquely positioned to help you respond to global trends with local solutions. Enquire now to see our full product range.

P : 07 3712 0466


P : 03 9764 1080





New Zealand

P : 02 9624 4114

P : 08 8336 3066

P : 08 9309 2442

P : 04 939 6666


planters, litterbins + furniture

| Company Profile | Company Profile

New EC fans expand energy efficiency options run as an independent ventilation source or integrated into most building management systems.

Clockwise from top: Compact 2000 EC series, Short Case Axial – EC series (SDA), ECO Watt-Stand alone, GL Gamma, Gamma.


antech has demonstrated its ongoing commitment to developing solutions for energy sustainable commercial buildings by expanding its demand control ventilation (DCV) range of fans and control ancillaries. These DCV systems are efficient and cost-effective, with lower energy requirements that can lead to a reduction in a building’s running costs, and can lower its environmental impact. To complement Fantech’s extensive range of Minimum Energy Performance Standards (MEPS) fans, additional electronically commutated (EC) fans have been introduced to the range. These EC fans use integrated electronics and a secondary magnetic field that comes from permanent magnets, rather than copper windings, to minimise energy loss from the system.


An EC fan is most efficient when it is installed as part of a DCV system. Sensors monitor the ambient conditions in a space, and provide real-time feedback to the fan. The fan’s onboard microprocessor reads this feedback and adjusts its speed, modulating the ventilation rate to match the specific requirements of the area. DCV ensures that the fan works at full speed when demand requires it, but in periods of low demand, fan speed drops accordingly, and a significant reduction in energy consumption is achieved. The EC range, with fully integrated, infinitely variable speed control, eliminates the need for external variable speed drives, current overloads and motor phase protection. They include reverse polarity protection, locked rotor protection and soft start, and can be

Fantech’s range of fans with EC motors now includes Short Case Axial in-line units and Compact 2000 wall units. The Gamma EC Series has been extended, with down-flow exhaust and supply air models added, and a greater range of sizes to the vertical discharge series. The GL Gamma roof exhaust range has also been expanded, as has the Powerline in-line EC fan series, which now includes seven models. Most of the EC fans are now available in sizes from 250 millimetres to 630 millimetres, and are complemented by an extensive range of high-quality controllers and sensors to maximise the opportunities for energy efficiency. Most models within the new EC range can be supplied individually factory-configured by Fantech to a customer’s parameters and the environment they will operate in. Fantech’s unique configuration software uses the internal intelligence of an EC fan to provide a simple and cost-effective EC fan or DCV solution. The new extended EC fan range with Fantech’s innovative DCV capabilities is a time-saving solution that does not require installers to have specialised control-programming knowledge, and ensures that onsite wiring and commissioning are kept to a minimum. Contact your local Fantech office for further information on our DCV energy-saving solutions, including both EC and AC fan configurations.

Intelligent energy saving solutions

Ta Take ake advan advantage ad advanta tag age of Fantech’s ECOTE ECOTECH range that consists of intelligent, Demand Control C ol Ve Ventilation Ven enti nti systems tailored tto your requirements. They combine efficient Electronically Electronic Electronica ctr nic Commutated (EC) fans and fully compatible, high quality sensors and controllers.

TD EcoWatt Series

Complete Demand Control Systems

Duct mounted Includes the high performance mixed-flow impeller and can be speed-controlled from 10% to 100% via a 0-10V analogue input signal.

Pre-configured to project requirements *

Short Case EC Series

Can reduce commissioning time

Duct mounted Features an aerodynamically designed, low noise, high performance axial impeller. Seven sizes available ranging from 250mm to 630mm diameter.

Powerline EC Series P D Duct mounted All models feature a high performance A centrifugal impeller. Supplied factory c pre-configured to suit our full range p of sensors and applications. o

Gamma EC Series Roof mounted exhaust and supply air units Feature a high performance centrifugal impeller. Supply air models available in a downflow discharge design; exhaust air models available in downflow and vertical discharge designs.

GL Gamma EC Series Roof mounted Ideal for commercial kitchen exhaust requiring installations, ons, and applications re an all metal housing. h

Wall mounted Features a robust galvanized steel casing and a low noise, high performance axial impeller. Ideal for ventilating warehouses, car parks, substations and plant rooms. ms. For further information on the Fantech ECOTECH systems call your nearest Fantech office or scan the QR code or visit Adelaide Brisbane Canberra Darwin Launceston Melbourne Newcastle Perth Sydney Townsville

(08) 8294 0530 (07) 3299 9888 (02) 6280 5511 (08) 8947 0447 (03) 6344 6888 (03) 9554 7845 (02) 4961 6088 (08) 9209 4999 (02) 8811 0400 (07) 4775 5222

* Most models can be pre-configured

F 0088 02/15 FAN 0

Compact 2000 EC Series

| Case Study

Sustainable building design sees Australia Post reduce impact, resources and costs 12 • RETROFIT AUSTRALIA • VOLUME 4 NUMBER 1 | 2015

Case Study |

Australia Post’s StarTrack House, which serves as its New South Wales headquarters, has been turning heads in sustainable building design circles around the country since its redevelopment in May last year. It has now caught the attention of the broader property industry after being shortlisted as one of five finalists nominated for the Property Council of Australia 2015 Innovation and Excellence Awards, the winners of which are to be announced in May.


he landmark building at Strawberry Hills in Sydney, which was sold and leased back by Australia Post, underwent substantial redevelopment to provide an attractive, modern and sustainable workplace for Australia Post and StarTrack employees and tenants. The project is part of the company’s efforts to reduce its carbon footprint and become a leader in environmental sustainability. The success of this redevelopment brought Australia Post a step closer to reaching its goal of reducing its carbon emissions by 25 per cent by 2020. The rejuvenation of StarTrack House was brought to life by Melbourne-based architects Carr Design Group, who, working with Australia Post’s head contractor and builder Buildcorp Interiors, ensured the creation of a modern, sustainable workplace for the future. Together with engineers Norman Disney & Young, Carr and Buildcorp ensured that environmental sustainability was front of mind throughout the project. StarTrack House takes advantage of solar passive design featuring the largest commercial rooftop solar photovoltaic installation in metro Sydney, and a high-performance façade to reduce its energy usage by around 50 per cent of pre-upgrade consumption. Changes to the building included upgrading of the building management systems to ensure the effective use of water, electricity and gas within the building, which has been upgraded to 5 Star Green Star standards. A completely refurbished fit-out throughout saw upgrades to lighting, amenities and lift lobbies for current and future tenant areas. Upgrades to landscaping and building access completed the environmental sustainability picture, with a 15,000-litre rainwater tank installed to service the on-site irrigation system.

As a result of these innovations, the building has been recognised as the first refurbished building in the country to receive triple 5 Star Green Star ratings in the three categories of Design, As Built and Office Interiors, under version 3 of the Green Star rating methodology. As a business that plays an integral part in the Australian community, Australia Post recognises that it has a responsibility to understand the impacts of its business operations on the environment, and to find new ways to improve. ‘Part of our commitment to building better communities includes minimising our impact on the environment,’ explains Adam Treffry, Australia Post’s General Manager of Property and Procurement. Treffry has committed to ensuring that Australia Post buildings contribute to creating more sustainable workplaces wherever possible, as he says they simply make sense. ‘Sustainable upgrades have huge benefits, both from an environmental point of view and from an investment point of view,’ Treffry says. ‘StarTrack House is an excellent example of this. It shows how a building’s energy, waste and water efficiency can be transformed through careful planning and consideration to the environment, while also lowering costs in the long term. ‘The sale, leaseback and refurbishment not only allowed us to optimise our prime location here in Sydney; it has also provided us the opportunity to invest in capabilities and infrastructure for our future.’

Improved energy efficiency Australia Post recognised that energy use within its buildings and facilities accounts for approximately twothirds of its carbon emissions, and made sure that energy efficiency was a priority in all aspects of the design of this building. Substantial improvements were made, including: RETROFIT AUSTRALIA • VOLUME 4 NUMBER 1 | 2015• 13

| Case Study

A fire water re-use tank has been installed to allow recycled water to be used for testing of the building’s fire systems.

Recycling and ecology Dedicated space throughout the building allows the storage and sorting of recycling waste. Mass plantings on the forecourt of the building are improving the ecological value of the site, as well as attracting wildlife and providing an enhanced environment for employee recreation. Only sustainable timber was used as part of the redevelopment, being either re-used or sourced from suppliers that are Forest Stewardship Council certified.

Enhanced workspaces The Australia Post workplace on levels 2 and 3 sees a completely open-plan approach to working, allowing the workplace to become an effective business tool. • more than 1050 solar panels installed on the empty roof space of the building, supporting the building power requirements on mains energy. The 370 megawatt hours of electricity that the panels generate per year is enough to reduce base building load by 25 per cent • all lighting throughout the building using T5 light fittings without reducing lighting levels • design features that maximise daylight harvesting, and the installation of a sophisticated digital addressable lighting interface system • an upgrade of the building’s 1000-panel glazing with new, high-performance, doubleglazed windows that significantly improve the thermal performance of the building envelope.


Smarter facilities The ground floor was transformed with new state-of-the-art end-of-trip facilities, supported by bike racks for 176 bikes housed securely within the basement. Clever use of space allowed the building to increase its locker area from 34 to 194 lockers, and now there are additional facilities such as a drying room, integrated ironing facilities and improved showers and change areas, making it easier for staff members to ride to work.

Better use of resources A 15,000-litre rainwater storage tank was installed to provide rainwater for the building’s on-site drip irrigation. Bathroom fixtures and fittings were upgraded to high-efficiency toilets, taps and showers, reducing our use of potable water and diminishing the pressure that our building places on the municipal waste systems.

Enhanced training resources, quiet rooms, flexible storage options, sit-to-stand desks and agile work zones cater for a diversity of people and work styles. StarTrack House has already won an array of prestigious awards, including at the 2014 Master Builders Association of New South Wales Excellence in Construction Awards where it won the ‘refurbishment, renovation, extension’ category, and a High Commendation in the 2014 Sydney Engineering Excellence Awards – Buildings and Structures category. StarTrack House now awaits the outcome of its nomination for the 2015 Property Council of Australia Innovation and Excellence Awards to be announced in May.

Condensing Boilers 35kW–150kW Up to 1800kW in cascade System Design & Consultation



| Company Profile | Company Profile

Metering Accuracy Class ‘S’: ‘there is a difference’


lectricity energy metering accuracy is an important step in ensuring the integrity of a billing system. Anomalies in measurements can, over a period of time, cost hundreds or thousands of dollars in errors. The accuracy of an energy meter is dependent on multiple factors, such as the load of the network (full load conditions will be more accurate than partial load), as well as the power factor of the system, accuracy of the energy meter and other factors.

Accuracy The accuracy depends on the design and build quality of the meter’s input channels; a higher-quality measuring meter will provide better accuracy, but will increase the price of the product. The following are some major parameters impacting the accuracy measurement of an energy meter: 1. fluctuation of the reading value, represented in percentage from the actual value (reading) 2. a fixed error (‘noises’) normally represented in percentage from full scale (FS) as its constant value 3. for power and energy measurements, the phase shift between the voltage and the current also impacts the accuracy, since the power equals voltage multiplied by current multiplied by the cosine of the phase angle 4. the phase angle accuracy is represented in degrees in current transformers, creating additional errors to energy/power meters


Accuracy metering standards Since accuracy depends on the load of the system, IEC/AS has developed different standards to define accuracy under different load conditions, known as ‘Accuracy Class’. IEC/AS Standard 62053-11 covers Accuracy Classes 0.5, 1.0 and 2 for electromechanical meters for active energy (watt hours), which means the accuracy as a percentage from the reading based on full load conditions and unity power factor; however, the accuracy deteriorates under lower load conditions, with power factor less than unity, along with the presence of harmonics. IEC/AS Standard 62053-21 covers Accuracy Classes 1.0 and 2 for static/ electronic meters for active energy (watt hours), which means the accuracy as a percentage from the reading based on full load conditions and unity power factor; however, the accuracy deteriorates under lower load conditions, with power factor less than unity along with the presence of harmonics. IEC/AS Standard 62053-22 covers higher Accuracy Classes of 0.2S and 0.5S for static/electronic meters for active energy (watt hours), providing a higher ‘Accuracy Standard’ under full load conditions and unity power factor, in addition to better accuracy readings at much lower load currents, power factor conditions less than unity along with the presence of harmonics.

System accuracy versus meter accuracy The accuracy of any energy measurement system is the summary of its components, for example energy meter plus current transformer

(CT) – with the exception being when a direct connected meter is utilised. IEC/AS Standard 60044-1 defines the Accuracy Classes for CTs. Subject to the loading of the CT, accuracy variances will occur from the quoted accuracy class, such as errors due to phase errors based on specified load impedance. Current transformers’ accuracy is defined as per IEC 60044-1, Classes 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1 and 3. In addition, Accuracy Class 0.2S and 0.5S standards for CTs apply for higher performance accuracy. The class designation is the measure of the CT’s accuracy. The ratio (primary to secondary current) error of a Class 1 CT is one per cent at rated current; the ratio error of a Class 0.5 CT is 0.5 per cent at rated current. Installing an energy meter with Accuracy Class 0.5S as a minimum requirement can assist in ensuring the Energy monitoring application has a high degree of accuracy when taking into account the accuracy performance of the CTs involved. RETURN ON INVESTMENT SATEC (Australia) Pty Ltd Phone 02 4774 2959 Fax 02 4774 0249

| Case Study

Retrofitting on the ocean With all of the focus on retrofitting buildings for energy efficiency, there has been little talk of retrofitting other greenhouse gas emitters. Royal Caribbean International is a cruise line company that is focusing on its fleet of cruise liners in an effort to reduce their impact on the environment.



etrofit Australia spoke with Royal Caribbean Cruises’ Rich Pruitt, Vice President of Maritime Safety and Environmental Stewardship; Nicholas Rose, Environmental Regulatory Lead; and Joseph Miorelli, Associate Vice President – Technical Project, new building and fleet design about the project, and how it’s affecting the

company, the environment and the passengers. Retrofit Australia (RA): There is a good deal of focus on retrofitting the built environment for energy efficiency, but Royal Caribbean is looking out to sea, to retrofit its ships with emissions purification systems. What was the reason for this initiative?

Royal Caribbean Cruises is a cruise line company that is focusing on its fleet of cruise liners in an effort to reduce their impact on the environment

Case Study |

Rich Pruitt (RP):
The retrofit program not only positions RCL ahead of all forthcoming International Maritime Organization Emission Control Area emissions standards, and will ensure compliance with existing European Union standards, but the decision to install advanced emissions purification (AEP) systems instead of switching to a fuel with a lower sulfur content will also ensure that RCL’s ships can be compliant everywhere they sail, as availability of lowersulfur fuels could be limited. While the emissions purification system is a very important program, and the new focus for RCL’s energy efficiency program should not be overlooked for many years, through implementation of advanced designs and technologies, RCL has been progressively commissioning some of the lowest-emission ships in the shipping industry. Our newest classes of ships emit about 20 per cent less carbon dioxide (CO2) per person per day than ships built a dozen years ago. In addition, we have improved our existing fleet with new technologies that have improved their propulsion efficiency by five to 10 per cent. So our focus not only remains on gaining energy efficiency, but it is also on preparing RCL for future international regulations. 

The technology is designed and proven to reduce sulfur dioxide and particulate matter emissions. We are hopeful that future testing may show additional benefits, even though that is not what the technology is built to address NR: Primarily, the reduction of sulfur dioxide and particulate matter emissions. We are also able to ensure that we can be compliant everywhere we sail, whether or not lower-sulfurcontent fuel is available. 

 RA: How will addressing the environmental impact of the ships impact upon the company?  RP: This effort is like all of our sustainability initiatives in that, ultimately, our commitment to take care of the environments and communities in which we operate is driven by the hope that if these

resources are protected, more people will continue to be able to enjoy them for years to come. And healthy, vibrant oceans and coastal communities are at the core of our business. 

 RA: Will these measures affect the passengers aboard the ships (for instance, will there be less or more noise, less noticeable emissions)?  Joseph Miorelli (JM): When fully installed and operational, the smokestack will release clean steam instead of its current visible emission. 

 RA: What kinds of challenges are faced when the works are carried out? 

RA: What types of emissions will be addressed with the AEP technology? Nicholas Rose (NR): The technology is designed and proven to reduce sulfur dioxide and particulate matter emissions. We are hopeful that future testing may show additional benefits, even though that is not what the technology is built to address. 

 RA: What are the projected results of retrofitting these systems? 


| Case Study

we are pleased with the incredibly complex work that our teams and vendors are accomplishing in bringing this program to life. Australian ports and suppliers are playing a big part in making this a success. 

 RA: What does the installation of the AEP systems involve? Will there be downtime for the company on any of its cruise routes as a result?  JM: The installation primarily involves installation of large pumps and piping systems that supply washing water to the exhaust gas scrubber tower. The tower is large, and is made to be installed in pieces that fit together. In most cases, the installation work is behind the scenes, and, in a few cases, some of the upper decks will have small areas cordoned off while workers install the equipment. We are doing everything we can to minimise any potential disruption to our guests’ vacations. The timeline for International Maritime Organization (IMO) compliance does not allow for taking these 19 ships out of service and putting them into dry dock for the entire seven- to 10-month installation process. 
 RA: Why is it important for Royal Caribbean to be ahead of the game with regard to its environmental commitments? 

JM: The primary challenge is trying to fit massive pieces of equipment into an existing ship that wasn’t built with the extra space to house that equipment, and doing so while the ships are in service with guests onboard. 


RA: Installations have begun on the first of the ships to be retrofitted. How are things going so far? JM: So far, so good. The technology in many cases is new, and the customfit approach is definitely new, so

RP: It’s important to our employees, our guests, our shareholders, and our partners that we are responsible citizens of the environments in which we operate. We operate with above-and-beyond compliance and a continuous improvement philosophy, and we are deeply committed to many sustainability initiatives. You can learn more about these in RCL’s 2013 sustainability report, available via

Lighting |

It could be

as easy as LED


Lighting is a major contributor to the amount of energy a business uses, so reducing usage can slash emissions and save a business considerable cost.

once a company begins selecting the actual product. Improvements in technology over the last couple of years make complete LED fitouts a cost-effective solution, and an increasing number of businesses in the CitySwitch network are considering this option.

nergy use from lighting can be reduced by up to 82 per cent if efficient practices are adopted. This opportunity is widely understood by facilities managers, property managers and sustainability managers of commercial office buildings. It makes the business case for lighting upgrades a fairly easy sell to the executive team, even for tenancies that have less than three years remaining on their lease.

Some early LED adopters were burned by choosing inferior products, generally based on price or poor design, and this has been widely publicised. The full benefit of a lighting upgrade relies on control technology as much as the actual light fitting itself. It’s also important to understand how the space you are trying to illuminate is actually used. Many tenancies can be over-lit, so a lighting audit may spot opportunities to reduce the number of light fittings, or make better use of daylight.


The challenges in a lighting upgrade only present themselves

So, where to start? In many instances, you can save immediately by making minor adjustments. In other cases, you may want to engage a lighting or energy efficiency professional. Whether you have a small or large office space, CitySwitch has an extensive online resources section dedicated to energy-efficient lighting, including lighting energy audit toolkits. See The NSW Office of Environment and Heritage also released version 2 of its ‘Energy Saver: Energy Efficient Lighting Technology Report’ in 2014. The guide provides an overview of the most commonly used lights, as well as factors to consider when undertaking a lighting upgrade, making it a reliable first port of call. It’s available as a hard-copy book, or to download, from


| Lighting

Another great resource is Lighting Council Australia – the peak body representing Australia’s lighting industry. Its goal is to encourage the use of environmentally appropriate, energy-efficient, quality lighting systems, and it has a quality scheme for LEDs. The voluntary industry scheme provides confidence to the market that light fittings carrying the scheme’s label match certain performance claims made by the supplier. Only members of Lighting Council Australia can take part in the scheme, and they are listed at The website is full of advice and information on topics such as replacing MR16 halogen lamps with LEDs. The Lighting Council’s Guide to Choosing LED Products and Suppliers is also worth a look.

State Library of New South Wales Location: Sydney Project: Replacement of old twin 36-watt fluorescent troffer luminaires with magnetic core ballasts with fully dimmable 30-watt LED fittings. In total, 205 fittings were replaced. An intelligent DALI control system was added, which provides fully automated lighting control, dimming lights when sufficient daylight is available and turning off lights when the area is unoccupied (via movement sensors). Outcome: The upgrade delivered 64 per cent reduction in lighting energy for the fittings alone, and with the dimming and automatic lighting control, a 75 per cent reduction in lighting energy is expected. Technology chosen: Australume 30-watt LED dimmable troffer fittings with DALI light level and occupancy sensors.


Released in September 2014, the guide is intended for commercial users of LEDs, and includes details on safety, electromagnetic compatibility, quality, warranty, component compatibility and installation. You can find it in the news section of the website. Lighting Council Australia’s CEO, Bryan Douglas, says the guide has been published in response to market demand for independent information at a time of profound change in lighting technology and the lighting industry. No matter where you are on your lighting journey, CitySwitch Green Office can provide you with free tailored advice, tools and information to help you make the best lighting choices for your office. Contact your local program managers for assistance. See

Wallmans Lawyers Location: Adelaide Project: Replacement of around 130 halogen globes with LED globes. Outcome: NABERS energy tenancy rating improvement from 4.5 to 5 stars. Technology chosen: Philips GU10 5.5-watt lights were used for non-dimmable and mains-powered fittings, while Philips Master MR16 7-watt dimmable globes were used for low-voltage fittings. Both products are 60D beam and 2700 Kelvin colour temperature, which was a near perfect match for the halogen look and feel, but without the associated heat emission. David Dercho, Client Development Manager at Wallmans Lawyers, said the firm is extremely pleased with the result, and expects to recover the capital replacement cost within 12 months thanks to the energy savings.

Lighting |

200 George Street to be fully LED-lit Announced in December 2014, the joint Mirvac and AMP Capital project being built at 200 George Street in Sydney will become one of Australia’s first fully LED-lit commercial office buildings. The move is expected to reduce lighting energy consumption by between 30 and 50 per cent, and to reduce light replacements to once every 12 years. According to Mirvac Group Executive, Commercial Development, David Rolls: ‘Current standard T5 troffer light tubes have a life of around two years, whereas LED lights have a greater than 10-year life cycle. This has major implications for reducing maintenance costs, and will lead to a significant reduction in landfill’. Mirvac has been trialling LEDs at some of its existing properties, and Sustainability Manager David Palin revealed that from results of their trials, Light Energy Australia, Eagle Lighting, Trilux and LED4Life delivered the best products.

Lighting a key part of the New South Wales Government Resource Efficiency Policy Released in 2014, the policy aims to reduce the New South Wales Government’s operating costs, and lead by example in increasing the efficiency of the resources it uses. A requirement under this policy is for all tenancy lighting over 12 watts per square metre to be upgraded to seven watts per square metre or better, which CitySwitch agrees is best practice. Government Property NSW has subsequently developed lighting specifications for fit-outs designed to assist agencies in complying with the policy with confidence. Products considered must: • comply with a specified list of technical specifications • be DALI dimmable • have a colour temperature of 4000 Kelvin (cool white) • be accredited products that appear within a list of approved lighting products.

FOR SWITCHED ON ORGANISATIONS Join the leaders and get support to manage your office energy use. Visit the CitySwitch online resource hub to access industry tools on financing office upgrades, HVAC, energy efficient lighting and more. Share in the energy efficiency conversation.



| Lighting | Lighting

The gift that keeps on giving Sydney LED lighting innovation company installs high-efficiency warehouse lighting for St Vincent de Paul Society Auburn Distribution Centre.


aving achieved impressive results with the site’s waste management performance, Joseph Fernandopulle, Manager Retail Operations and Distribution for the Society’s Sydney Archdiocese, was open to the offer from enLighten Australia to reduce lighting energy consumption at the Western Sydney site. The busy warehouse and distribution centre receives an average of 50–60 tonnes of textiles per week from the 15 trucks it operates to collect from donation bins

Fig 1: 400-watt Mercury vapour lighting


in the Greater Sydney Metropolitan area. Each collection bin is emptied on average two times per week to avoid overloading and illegal dumping. Joseph comments on the efficiency of the operations: ‘We are proud to report that as well as the 50–60 tonnes of textiles, we also recycle cardboard, metal and copper, and sell lower-grade textiles to export markets.’ A workforce of 25 rotates between unloading and sorting the pallets

(open cages) into textiles, electronics and books in the warehouse area, which is adjacent to offices housing management and support staff. The textiles are then further sorted according to gender, size and type in an enclosed sorting room.

Project drivers Given the sharp increase in electricity prices (over 20 per cent) experienced in New South Wales in the last two years, Joseph was keen to explore measures to reduce the site’s energy consumption.

Fig 2: 135-watt Cetus LED lighting

Lighting | Lighting |

The existing warehouse lighting was the traditional 400-watt mercury vapour lights, which are domeshaped in appearance with 250-watt high-pressure sodium lighting at the warehouse entry. The lights operated 10 hours per day (Monday to Friday). Natural daylight was also available via the open roller doors at the front and back exits. The lighting levels needed to be of sufficient brightness to run security cameras for the forklift operators.

Lighting solution Sydney-based lighting innovations company enLighten Australia provided a lighting design that supported the specification of its three-module Cetus 135-watt LED high bay light as a one-for-one replacement of the existing 400-watt mercury vapour lighting and a two-module 90-watt Cetus replacement for the 250-watt

high-pressure sodium lighting. The lighting levels of the LED lighting at an eight-metre hanging height exceeded the AS 1680:2.4 standard requirement of 160 lux maintained illuminance for warehouses. In both cases, a 120-degree lens was selected, which provided a wide distribution of light to eliminate black spots and enhance lighting conditions, improving safety and worker comfort. The installation was completed in October 2014 and the energy savings results were instantaneous.

Project results A 69 per cent reduction in energy consumption was achieved for the high bay lighting, representing an annual saving of 54,600 kilowatt hours per annum based on lighting operation of 50 hours per week. These figures are supported by data logging of the warehouse lighting circuits

taken on site pre- and post-installation. The data logging results revealed that the former daily spike in electricity consumption caused by the turning on and ‘striking’ of the 400-watt mercury vapour lights was eliminated as a feature of LED lighting is ‘instant strike’.

Customer feedback Joseph reports that the St Vincent de Paul Society was keen to run this project as a test case for wider rollout potential to other Society sites. The feedback from staff has been positive. ‘Upgrading to LED lighting has been a good first step into improving the site’s energy efficiency. We will be preparing a report for our Central Council and will be evaluating options for our sorting rooms, which are also fluorescent-lit.’ For more information go to


| Lighting


on display The University of Queensland (UQ) is committed to building a culture of sustainability. Along with renewable energy and behavioural change, energy efficiency is a key strategy being pursued by the University to cut emissions and reduce electricity costs.

UQ’s main campus at St Lucia in Brisbane is responsible for 80 per cent of the University’s total energy consumption. The campus comprises more than 100 buildings, including 37 large buildings, with functions ranging from car parks to state-of-the-art research facilities. The wide variety of building functions and space requirements makes energy efficiency planning and implementation very challenging.

he University started an energy efficiency program in 2012 following the establishment of the Energy Office within the Property and Facilities Division. Since then, the University has completed a range of energy efficiency projects, such as rolling out an extensive metering system to help identify energy efficiency opportunities, and aligning the scheduling of automated air conditioning systems with the University’s room-booking system. Lighting retrofit activities alone have returned savings of roughly 1.4 million kilowatt hours per annum.

The Property and Facilities Division is responsible for the infrastructure and building servicing of a range of specialised spaces. In addition to looking after lecture theatres, facilities staff maintain veterinary research facilities, engineering laboratories, an art gallery and various smallscale museums, among others. Completing energy efficiency projects while meeting functional, comfort, control and safety requirements within a variety of specialised spaces presents constant challenges for the Energy Office.


The development of a business case for energy efficiency projects can be difficult due to the University having access to relatively lowcost electricity. As a result, projects that would deliver a reasonable payback period in the commercial or residential sector may not be financially feasible at UQ. To help with the business case, the University takes into account criteria such as the project’s contribution to carbon reduction, and any opportunities that it might create for teaching, research or community engagement. One project that demonstrates some of the challenges faced by the University in delivering energy efficiency is the recently completed lighting retrofit in the School of Earth Sciences’ Geology Museum. The project involved replacing existing lighting with light-emitting diodes (LEDs), and resulted in an 80 per cent reduction in energy consumption from lighting. The environmental requirements for the preservation of the museum samples, as well as the lighting conditions needed to maintain visual comfort for visitors, made for a complex energy efficiency retrofit. The museum exhibits approximately 400 geology specimens and is used by the School of Earth Sciences as a reference library for petrology, mineralogy and palaeontology students and teaching staff. The museum is located in one of UQ’s iconic sandstone buildings, which was constructed between 1938 and 1949.

The Great Court at the University of Queensland. Image © Osamu Okada


As many of the specimens require strict temperature control to

Lighting |

avoid deterioration, the temperature within the museum is kept between 18 and 25 degrees Celsius, with air conditioning running 24 hours a day, seven days a week to avoid large diurnal temperature variations. Because of these environmental requirements, a specially designed glass enclosure of 60 square metres was built during the building’s last refurbishment in 2002, to house the museum and minimise the area within the building that would require strict temperature control. Within this enclosure, specimens are kept in class cabinets that are lit with vertical, track-mounted lighting. The potential for a viable lighting retrofit of the museum was identified by the University’s Energy Manager on a field inspection in 2013. The museum was originally fitted with a mix of 35- and 50-watt halogen lamps – 115 in total – that were manually turned on during operating hours. The University engaged Brisbane-based energy contractor Sorus to identify an alternative solution that would reduce energy consumption while continuing to meet the lighting requirements of the museum. Gaining stakeholder confidence by engaging museum staff from the outset and involving them in decision-making throughout the process was integral in ensuring the long-term success of the retrofit. Any possible concerns about compromising the quality of visual comfort or design to achieve energy targets, or working in and around delicate specimens, were managed as a result of engaging with all relevant parties from the start. LEDs were an obvious choice from an energy reduction perspective, but tests had to be

The new museum display

conducted to ensure that light quality considerations would be achieved. Light quality had to be bright enough to light the mineral and rock specimens so that users could easily see their structure and composition, but not so bright that the specimens’ features would appear washed out. To minimise costs and ensure project viability, the existing lighting tracks were retained, so the chosen lamp had to work with existing track spacing and light fittings. The aesthetics of the lamps themselves was another important consideration, so as not to distract from the display. A number of LEDs with varying colour temperatures and beam angle options were tested in situ in consultation with museum staff. The original halogen lamps had a colour temperature of 2700 Kelvin, but the trial revealed that an LED with the same colour temperature was too yellow. Similarly, the original 60-degree beam angle fitting was found to be too wide. The team decided on a seven-watt LED with a 36-degree beam angle and a colour temperature of 3000 Kelvin. Although this process was costly, it avoided any potential surprises for museum staff had the consultants simply done a like-for-like halogen-for-LED swap.

All of the museum’s 115 lamps were replaced, reducing energy consumption from lighting by 80 per cent, saving approximately 5.4 tonnes of CO2 per annum, and cutting electricity costs by $1125 per year – the equivalent of roughly 1.5 average-sized Australian homes’ annual electricity consumption. LEDs last much longer than traditional lamps, and emit less heat, so reduced maintenance costs, as well as a lower air conditioning load, were additional benefits. Museum staff and lighting specialists agree that the quality of light achieved from the LEDs is comparable, if not preferable, to that of the previous halogen bulbs. Moreover, the reduced heat produced by the LEDs decreases the risk to the preservation of the museum specimens. The savings are small in the context of the University’s overall electricity consumption, but the project has been a high-profile success within the University community. Communicating the benefits of the Geology Museum retrofit to the University community has helped with gaining support from staff in pursuing future energy efficiency projects.


| Company Profile | Company Profile

Warehouse lighting control As electricity costs increase and environmental demands become more pressing, replacing and controlling warehouse lighting is a great way to save money and energy.


n the past, at the beginning of the day the warehouse manager would flick a switch and the lights would come on. If they remembered, the lights would be switched off at the end of the shift. For 24-hour warehouses, it’s even simpler – there isn’t a switch! Today, the choice of light source and control options makes it easy to control warehouse lighting, and the energy and cost savings for doing so are compelling. High bay fluorescent or LED lights are the most controllable, as well as – depending on the manufacturer – induction, to some degree.

Some control scenarios 1. Switch the lights on when someone is using the area; turn them off when the area is vacated. This is known as presence detection. 2. Switch the lights on when someone is using the area, but dim them down when someone leaves. 3. Switch the lights on when someone is using an area, but dim the level of the lights depending on how much ambient light is available through the skylights. This is known as maintained illuminance or daylight harvesting.

Controllers There are numerous options available: high-sense passive infrared with built-in photoelectric


control; microwave, again with photoelectric; and lux sensors or networked systems – all with dimming or switching capability. These options allow sensors and luminaires to be grouped together, improving the control function. In a long aisle, you might want all of the fittings to switch on and off together. There might be multiple sensors all switching the luminaires (and/or dimming them) in unison. A wireless network (like the CP Electronics An-10 system) requires less installation and can be located, moved and scaled almost at will. A wired system would be best installed at construction.

Wiring Often the aims of a control strategy conflict with the way a building is wired. For example, the supply for luminaires might run across the aisles in a warehouse, but it is desirable to switch luminaires in a group down an aisle. There are generally three options: • re-wire • fix a control to each luminaire or have them supplied on the fitting by the lighting manufacturer • use a networked lighting control system. There are large energy and cost savings to be achieved by installing energy-efficient luminaires in warehouses, and then controlling them correctly. Provided that the

usage of the building is understood, and that the appropriate control regime is used, not only will installation costs be minimised, but the usability and energy costs will also be optimised. Consult a controls expert or lighting controls manufacturer for advice on the best option for your installation.

An-10 Wireless

The patented An-10 wireless allows you to install a fully featured lighting control system easily and with minimal disruption. An-10 has been specifically created to allow you to embrace the advantages of wireless technology, while at the same time offering all of the features and functionality demanded by modern day lighting control systems. Simple Installation Wireless signals can pass through walls, floors and ceilings, so you can position switches and detectors exactly where you need them. No need to run costly control wires between devices or back to a central controller. Reduces installation times and minimises disruption, making it an ideal solution for retrofit and new builds alike. Easier to meet building regulations and today’s demands for greater energy efficiency. Ideal for historic and listed buildings where disturbing the building fabric is difficult or impossible. Flexible Functionality System functionality is achieved by programming, not hard wiring, making it incredibly easy to design the operation of your lighting system. If you need to reorganise your living or working space, simply move and/or reprogram devices for the new layout. This is particularly useful for open-plan environments. Maintained illuminance (daylight linking or daylight harvesting) saves energy where natural light is available. Easy Expansion Adding extra devices is simple. No additional control wiring is required; simply install the extra device, program it into the system and you are ready to go!

For more information contact: CP Electronics Australia Tel: 02 9667-2700

| Lighting

Space for new lighting at the

Perth Convention and Exhibition Centre car park

Enigin Western Australia induction light retrofit improving amenity while reducing energy costs at PCEC.

The Perth Convention and Exhibition Centre (PCEC) undercover car park is a large public car park, constructed in 2003 and consisting of 1426 regular car bays, 23 ACROD bays for patrons with disabilities and special access requirements, and 84 motorcycle bays in both outdoor and indoor sections. The car park is used by visitors to the PCEC, and is accessible all hours of the day, and to pedestrians from multiple directions. An energy-efficient lighting retrofit project was recently completed for the City of Perth Parking at the PCEC car park.



he client’s brief was to achieve a 60 per cent reduction in power consumption while maintaining a 60 lux average luminance. The lights were required to have a minimum rated lamp life of 80,000 hours, which would significantly reduce maintenance costs to the client. Existing metal halide lights were installed in a nine-metre by nine-metre grid pattern when the building was constructed in 2003. These legacy lights consumed 150 watts each; were at the end of their life cycle, providing low lux levels; and were costly to run. The awarded project scope included the lighting design, supply, installation and commissioning of undercover and external energy-efficient light fittings with occupancy sensors to maximise energy efficiency. AREX induction

lights were selected by City of Perth Parking after extensive on-site testing of various energy-efficient lighting technologies and manufacturers. The chosen lights were selected because in situ they produced the highest average lux with the lowest energy consumption, and had the longest rated life. Using the original nine-squaremetre grid pattern in the underground car park, 537 induction fittings were retrofitted, with a further 39 retrofitted in the external car park to façades and light poles. The solution was to retrofit the existing lights with AREX induction light technology, which boasts a service life five to 13 times longer than metal halides; the average rated service life of an induction lamp is 100,000 hours, compared to a metal halide’s eight to 20,000 hours.

Lighting |

Figure A: Induction compared to high-intensity discharge lights: performance ratings over time (Source: Access Fixtures 2014)

Compared to LEDs, induction lights last up to twice as long (LEDs last approximately 50,000 hours compared to induction lamps at 100,000 hours). Not only do induction lamps last longer, but they also maintain their performance (lumen output) significantly better than both LEDs and high-intensity discharge types, as shown in Figure A. This equates to lower ongoing maintenance costs and replacement costs. Unlike metal halide lights, induction lights can also be easily switched on and off, as they do not require a cooling period before restarting after a blackout or switchoff. This responsiveness means that they are dimmable, reducing energy consumption and costs through the use of sensor-controlled luminaires.

At PCEC, each new induction light is linked to strategically placed motion sensors, which activate the light from its 50 per cent dimmed state to 100 per cent brightness, which significantly reduces wasted energy when no movement is detected. Dimming the lights when full brightness is not required saves energy and reduces operational costs. The external lights are also controlled to shut off during daylight hours. The project has increased light (lux) levels to comply with Australian Standards, improving amenity while reducing energy costs and CO2e emissions by more than 60 per cent. The financial savings to the city will continue to grow as the operating life of the induction lights is eight times longer than the legacy lights they replaced.

An energy monitoring device is being installed in the car park that will provide the City of Perth Parking with itemised energy data over the web, allowing the swift identification of any waste, and the ability to eliminate costs even further. Enigin is the exclusive Western Australian partner of BEST PLC, a global UK-based energy solutions business and an industry leader in clean energy services. Since 2008, Enigin has achieved outstanding success providing clean energy audit and advisory, project delivery, electricity supply and infrastructure including energy-efficient lighting to multinational corporations, federal and state government agencies, local governments and SMEs. For further information on induction lighting technology and clean energy solutions, call managing director, Dominic Da Cruz on 08 6143 8664 or visit the website


| Urban Retrofitting

Professor Rob Adams

Retrofitting our cities


We may know how to retrofit our buildings, but the real opportunity is in learning to retrofit our cities, says Professor Rob Adams.


y 2060, Australia’s population may increase to as many as 48.3 million people – and most of that growth will occur in our cities. Even under the most conservative projections by the Australian Bureau of Statistics, our nation’s population will swell to 36.8 million people. By 2060, Sydney could have roughly 8.4 million people, while Melbourne, reaching 8.5 million people, may have doubled in size.

Eight hectares of under-utilised railyards connected to inner city parkland connecting CBD to the Yarra River


‘When we hear these statistics, we think it will be a disaster – that we’ll all be squeezed into rabbit hutches,’ says the City of Melbourne’s Director City Design, Professor Rob Adams. ‘But if we’re clever, this growth could be the best thing to happen to our cities.’

Urban Retrofitting |

Melbourne’s Nicholson Street with medium-density mixed-use developments

Adams argues that, in the current world economy, there’s only one product that is guaranteed to grow – and that’s our cities. ‘Our challenge is to maximise the opportunities that this growth presents,’ he says. And this means retrofitting, or repurposing, our cities to maximise their potential. A driving force behind Melbourne’s transformation into one of the world’s most livable cities, Adams developed the first comprehensive urban design strategy for the city. Projects such as Postcode 3000, which attracted 830 per cent more residents into the CBD in just a decade, have been hailed as international success stories. Adams’ strategy has seen public space and kerbside cafés grow exponentially, redundant commercial buildings re-imagined as apartments, kilometres of bluestone paving installed across the city, laneways opened up for retail use, the Yarra River frontage redesigned with new pedestrian bridges and walkways, and street furniture, art and tree

planting enhancing the city aesthetic. This is city retrofitting at its best. He’s now looking at how to accommodate the extra people who are expected to move to Melbourne over the next few decades, with a plan that includes medium-density development along major tram and bus corridors. This, he says, will avoid further urban sprawl. Adams believes that the dominant philosophy of the 21st century will be ‘intensification, not dispersion’. An early lesson in city intensification was found within the real-world challenge faced by the University of Cape Town, where Adams studied architecture in the 1960s. ‘With the baby boomers going to university, most universities were expanding, but the University of Cape Town was geographically constrained by a surrounding national park. There was no question about it – the University needed to get better at using the facilities it had.’ The University administrators started by analysing data, discovering that

lecture halls were occupied for only 17 per cent of the time during the day. Re-timetabling enabled the University to make better use of the facilities. ‘Over four decades, the University has trebled its population with hardly any additional building. There is a noticeable difference in the atmosphere on campus, which has gone from lazy to buzzing. The University has saved millions of dollars by using existing infrastructure more efficiently, and created a better culture. This got me thinking: why can’t we do this for cities?’ Adam says He points to various examples of this theory in practice. Free rides for commuters travelling on public transport before 7 am have saved the Victorian Government millions in infrastructure spending. ‘For every 2500 passengers carried before peak hour, that’s five trains less required in the network. While that’s $15 million less in fares, it saves $85 million in extra trains.’ Similarly, residents embracing solar photovoltaics have reduced peak electricity demand and the need for


| Urban Retrofitting

new power stations with it, while also enhancing resilience. Looking at the buildings that are underused also makes sense. One of Postcode 3000’s success stories was the way it drove adaptive re-use of unwanted commercial offices. Nearly half a million square metres of downat-heel commercial office stock was converted to new uses. The Art Deco Russell Street telephone exchange, for example, was rejuvenated by Nonda Katsilidis and is now the boutique Hero apartments. A whopping 3311 per cent increase in apartments in the CBD between 1982 and 2002 led to a renaissance of culture and the arts – with more students, shoppers,


diners and residents – and double the amount of pedestrian traffic in Bourke Street Mall. Importantly, Postcode 3000 was undertaken without the need to raise council rates. In fact, Adams points out that the City of Melbourne’s rates have dropped in real terms – from 13 cents in the dollar in 1996 to four cents in the dollar in 2013 – because ‘in many cases we don’t have to fund new infrastructure; we’re just better at using what we already have. ‘By concentrating more people in our downtown, we have optimised our infrastructure spending, our running costs have dropped, and we’re financially healthy,’ Adams says.

‘Australia’s cities are responsible for 80 per cent of the nation’s GDP, generate 80 per cent of its greenhouse gas emissions, and house 80 per cent of our population. If we have the courage to look at our model of city development – a model that is no longer working for us – we can enhance efficiency, reduce infrastructure spending, ensure economic resilience and encourage more vibrant, socially cohesive cities.’ Professor Rob Adams will explore how reactivation can turn our city precincts from down-at-heel into downright delightful at Green Cities 2015.

has the solution to reduce your energy costs U

rban Energy Australasia specialise in designing viable alternative solutions to meet our clients energy requirements. We offer an extensive range of alternative and renewable energy resources. From industry scale solar thermal, to CHP (combined heat and power) electricity generation, Urban Energy has the solution to reduce your energy costs. Urban Energy offers a custom energy audit, detailed engineering design and complete install. We have install teams across Australasia with a wealth of knowledge and experience in our field. For more information on how we can cut your energy costs, contact Urban Energy Australasia.

UrbAn EnErgy solUtions At work: This system utilises a sophisticated Cogeneration system and waste heat recovery Absorption chiller to efficiently generate a proportion of the electricity used by the centre and efficiently generate cooling. The cogeneration system is a 120kW cogeneration system with a daily electrical output of 1,800 kWh and a daily thermal output of 2,445 kWh. The chiller system is a 98kW absorption chiller with a daily thermal (cooling) output 1,470 kWh.

Producing ecologically sustainable designs and environmental performance for commercial buildings in Australia 1/10 Anella Avenue Castle Hill NSW 2154 Ph: 1300 66 99 81 Fax: (02) 8850 6344

| Company Profile | Company Profile

Designed, supplied and installed sustainable, environmentally progressive solutions Urban Energy Australasia provides tailored engineered solutions to clients across Australia who seek a cost-effective, sustainable solution to their heating, hot water and power requirements. • acoustic, electrical, hydraulic and mechanical installation • project management • 24/7 remote monitoring and extended maintenance agreements • a range of procurement options.

Urban Energy was busy in 2013


ased in Sydney, we specialise in providing our broad range of clients with turnkey solutions to their hot water, heating and power requirements. Our in-house team of electrical, hydraulic and mechanical engineers, along with our project managers and computer-aided design (CAD) team are able to work alongside architects, consultants, construction companies and our clients from initial concept to design, installation and ongoing maintenance. Our aim is to provide clients with the best products to achieve the desired outcomes, while delivering innovative and environmentally sustainable solutions. We apply this philosophy with all of our clients, and the extensive cross-section of products we deliver.


We pride ourselves on working closely with our clients to gain a clear understanding of their requirements, and ensuring that they have a sound understanding of the solutions that we are going to deliver. With each project we undertake, our team works closely with all parties to ensure that deadlines are met and projects are delivered on time and on budget. Our project managers coordinate the delivery of each project, using the skills of our engineers and installers to deliver exceptional results on every project, as we strive to exceed our clients’ expectations.

Urban Energy is able to provide: • environmentally sustainable designs

2013 was a busy year for Urban Energy Australasia, with the largest trigeneration plant in Australia coming online at Sydney Airport; installation of numerous cogeneration systems at aquatic centres around the country, including a 100-kilowatt engine at the heritage-listed North Sydney Pool; and providing underfloor heating for the new lemur enclosure at Taronga Zoo. The trigeneration system at Sydney Airport provides more than 20 megawatts of power to Qantas’s catering and jet base corporate centre, and T3. This project, which is scheduled to increase in size over the coming years, is a 20-year BOOM (build, own, operate and maintain) where Urban will provide all the electrical and thermal requirements for Qantas at Sydney Airport. The client on this project came to us with a number of objectives: to have a reduction in operating costs, and a guaranteed supply of services and the reduction of carbon, allowing

Company Profile | Company Profile |

them to be more competitive and environmentally proactive in an increasingly demanding market. By entering into a BOOM program, Qantas has been able to reduce its energy costs and carbon emissions without having to have the working capital committed to such infrastructure. The BOOM program is just one of the many procurement options that Urban Energy is able to offer its clients. While over at North Sydney Pool, Urban Energy worked to provide a 100-kilowatt cogeneration system that would heat the outdoor pool to 25 degrees all year round, and maintain the indoor pool at 29 degrees. The plant is able to help the council’s sustainability targets by reducing CO2 emissions by 367 tonnes per annum. The plant will produce more than 450 megawatts of electricity per annum, which will save the council over $58,000 per year, and that saving is likely to increase over time as electricity prices increase. The Olympic pool facility accounted for 35 per cent of the council’s total electricity usage.

Taronga Zoo strives to achieve sustainability and reduce environmental impact in all of its activities. Urban Energy has also been able to help the zoo continue this philosophy. The original concept was to solely use grid electricity to heat the water for the hydronic heating; Urban Energy was able to offer a solar alternative, which, by using the power of the sun, allowed Taronga Zoo to reduce the carbon footprint of the project by 8000 kilograms per year. Urban Energy designed, supplied and installed a solution that included a Latento multi-coil tank with a nine-kilowatt electric heating element, two banks of solar thermal evacuated tubes and hydronic piping. With over 60 domestic projects and 35 commercial projects on the go, Urban Energy continues to deliver sustainable solutions that help reduce the environmental impact of individuals, businesses and councils across Australia. Currently, Urban Energy’s installed cogeneration and trigeneration systems reduce carbon emissions by 111 tonnes per day; that is 40,515 tonnes per year that is no longer being pumped into our atmosphere, and with each new system that is installed and comes online, this figure will keep on rising.

Urban Energy’s client list includes: • ASIO • Arup • Lend Lease • Brookfield Multiplex

• BUPA • CSIRO • Cundall • Qantas • North Sydney Council • New South Wales Department of Public Works • Shoalhaven City Council • Taronga Zoo.

Achieving Green Stars Our staff works closely with accredited consultants to supply the NABERS rating for the built environment as administered by the NSW office of Environment and Heritage. We strive to achieve the much sought-after 5 Star Green Star rating, which sets the benchmark for ecologically sustainable design and environmental performance for commercial buildings in Australia. As well as helping to raise the commercial sustainability benchmark, Urban help push the limits on residential projects, such as the NewActon Nishi apartments in Canberra, where, with help from Urban’s solar thermal hot water solution, Nishi has been able to deliver an average 8-Star NatHERS rating. We perform comprehensive modelling during the design phase to ensure that required performance parameters can be met.


| International Case Study

Achieving substantial energy efficiency gains in Europe’s public building stock BY JUAN RAMÓN DE LAS CUEVAS JIMÉNEZ1 AND HELGA TREIBER2

BRICKER is an exciting new showcase project developing scalable, replicable, and cost-effective systems to refurbish existing public-owned, non-residential buildings with the goal of achieving at least 50 per cent energy consumption reduction. The BRICKER concept consists of implementing a combination of active and passive technologies in three showcase buildings, with a range of different use cases and climate conditions.


International Case Study |


he BRICKER project3 aims to cut energy demand in public buildings by deploying a set of renewable and adaptable solutions across several European countries. The main objective of this project is to reduce the energy consumption of public buildings by 50 per cent, through integrating a set of active and passive technologies. The key asset of these technologies is their

replicability, so that architects, designers, promoters and end users alike may adopt similar solutions, thus boosting retrofitting of lowenergy-consuming public-owned buildings in Europe. Eighteen partners4 in six countries are collaborating to produce a scalable, replicable and cost-effective methodology for refurbishing existing public-owned, nonresidential buildings.

The showcases selected for the project are underperforming buildings with a low level of energy efficiency at demonstration sites in Spain, Belgium and Turkey. These areas represent not only a range of climatic conditions, but also different end uses of the buildings. The Spanish showcase is a rather recent administrative complex located in the city of Cáceres, in Extremadura. It was built in 2005, and is owned by the regional government. The Belgian showcase dates from 1964. Two of the seven school blocks of a Belgian high school, located in Liège and owned by the Belgian province Liège, are retrofitted. In Turkey, the researchers are refitting a hospital in Aydin. The hospital is owned by Adnan Menderes University, and was built in 1992.

Demo site in Belgium – the university building

Demo site in Turkey – the hospital building

To achieve the energy efficiency goals, an innovative integration of active and passive technologies is being deployed. The main breakthrough will stem from the development of a trigeneration system for simultaneous generation of power, heating and cooling. Its power capacity will be around 150 kilowatts, and its thermal capacity will be around 600 kilowatts. To produce the activation heat for the system, roof-mounted parabolic solar collectors, working on a higher-thanusual temperature – at about 250 to 270 degrees Celsius – are used. ‘The project will take into consideration the renewable resources locally available in each region,’ explains BRICKER coordinator Juan Ramón de las Cuevas Jiménez, of Spanish building


| International Case Study

contractor and project partner Acciona. ‘We will use biomass boilers, generating heat from biomass, geothermal district heating and absorption chillers, which use a heat source providing the energy needed to drive the cooling system. This technology already exists, but installations will be tailor-made for the project.’ Passive technologies implemented at the demo sites include new aerating windows, with an integrated, newly patented electronic heat exchanger; new PIR (PolyIsocyanurate)based insulation foams with embedded phase-change materials (PCMs), which are substances capable of storing and releasing large amounts of energy; and state-of-theart ventilated façades, commercial windows and insulation panels. While some technologies used are already on the market, others are genuinely more innovative, especially in the way that they are being

Demo site in Spain – the administration building


BRICKER aerating window: inside view (left) and outside view (right)

brought together for greater impact. The challenge is to integrate both existing and pioneering technologies in real demonstration buildings. In the Spanish site, only active energy-saving measures are going to be applied, as the building is relatively new and its passive behaviour with respect to energy saving is good enough. The project consists of integrating parabolic trough solar collectors (PTC), a biomass boiler, a heat and electricity cogeneration unit based on so-called Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC), an adsorption chiller and a cooling tower.

Major work is being conducted in the Belgian buildings. Passive technology interventions include renovation of the curtain wall and primary façade of block one, insulation of the façades and replacement window frames, as well as insulation to the roofs of both block one and six. This will increase the thermal efficiency of the buildings and diminish the need for heating energy. The integration of active technologies involves installing several prototypes of decentralised ventilation with heat collections above the new window frames. A prototype for combined production

International Case Study |

BRICKER solar parabolic collectors

of electricity and heating – based on a biomass-fed cogeneration ORC turbine system – is also part of the project. ‘The choice for wood pellets or chips depends on an analysis of the supply chain and CO2 balance,’ says Raymond Charlier, an industrial engineering expert attached to the Liège Provincial Building Service (SPB). To achieve the objective of 50 per cent reduction of energy use, an initial evaluation of the Turkish building has been undertaken. The BRICKER solutions proposed include wall and roof insulation, ventilated façades, chillers and air-to-air heat exchangers. The original material selected for the façades has been changed in view of seismic and wind load requirement in Turkey. In addition, heat exchangers, allowing the incoming fresh, cold air to be preheated by the outgoing stale, heated air without mixing with each other, will be installed. ‘This helps to reduce the amount of natural gas consumed in the burners. The heat exchangers will work conversely in summer, cutting down the energy amount used for air conditioning,’ explains Professor Yunus Cengel, Dean of the Faculty of Engineering at the Adnan Menderes University,

and coordinator of interventions at the Turkish demo sites. ‘Variable speed drives on fans and compressors are incorporated to reduce the electrical energy used by the motors of these devices.’ One of BRICKER’s challenges is the integration of its technologies into existing public buildings. ‘It means that people working in the building should not to be disturbed, and that the available space for all the facilities is constrained,’ says Noemi Jiménez-Redondo, director of research and development at engineering consultancy CEMOSA, and coordinator of the Spanish demo site. At the Belgian site, the renovation works will be undertaken while classes are running, as the school has about 1000 students and 100 staff members. The work is planned between June 2015 and April 2016. Affected classes will be organised in the remaining blocks in the school that are not being retrofitted, and in another school run by the province. This will require tight collaboration and strict planning with the school and its users. BRICKER is set to ensure that the solutions developed in these public buildings can be replicated elsewhere, and that architects,

designers, promoters and end users may adopt them. Buildings owned by public bodies account for a considerable share of the building stock in Europe, and have high visibility in public life. As such, the European public sector can be an important driver for the adoption of more efficient products, buildings and services, and for promoting behavioural changes in energy consumption by citizens and enterprises. For more information on the BRICKER project, visit



| Cool Roofs

Cool roofing –

the pros and … pros


In warmer climates such as Australia’s, protecting buildings from the heat can be difficult, especially in older buildings that aren’t sufficiently insulated, or that are poorly designed. Thankfully, with sustainable building now a major concern of most developers, there is a plethora of simple, yet effective, ways that you can alter your home or building to run more efficiently. One cost-effective, all-encompassing measure that you can take is to install a cool roof. 42 • RETROFIT AUSTRALIA • VOLUME 4 NUMBER 1 | 2015

What they are and how they work Cool roofs are designed to reflect the sun’s heat instead of absorbing it, as most other roofs do. Cool roofs work in a similar way to wearing white clothing on a hot day: the white surface reflects the heat back into the atmosphere, whereas a black surface absorb its, creating a heat trap. When standard roofs absorb too much heat, they subject the building’s management and occupants, as well the surrounding community, to a variety of ramifications. By using certain additives in roofing materials, or by applying a cool roof paint, roofs can transfer less of the sun’s heat into the building space, keeping it cooler than otherwise, and therefore reducing the cooling load on HVAC systems.

These coatings aren’t necessarily white – there are pigments in many of them that reflect the sun just as well – but, generally, the lighter the roof colour, the more effective it will be.

How to apply them to your building Installing a cool roof on a brand new building is quite straightforward: all you need to do is weigh up the positives and negatives, and decide whether or not the climate you live in is appropriate for cool roof application, and if it will reduce your costs and improve your quality of living. As with most eco-friendly fit-outs, the long-term benefits are more often than not – as long as you do your research – worth the initial financial outlay.

Cool Roofs |

For existing buildings, cool roofs can be retrofitted using a number of versatile materials, including corrugated iron, ZINCALUME®, COLORBOND®, concrete, bitumen, tile and slate. When installing a cool roof on an existing building, there are usually three options. Firstly, you can coat the roof with a special paint-like coating that is white in colour, or that contains special pigments that reflect the sun. Alternatively, you can recover the roof with a waterproofing exterior; or, if the roof is nearing the end of its life, you could even opt to remove the roof entirely and replace it with a newer, cooler one.

The energy efficiency gains Installing a cool roof comes with so many benefits that you would be hard pressed to find any negatives. A 2011 study, conducted by the University of Melbourne, showed that the installation of cool roofs at the Melbourne Airport reduced its greenhouse gas emissions by an estimated 40,000 tonnes, and culminated in energy savings of 30–40 per cent. For those concerned about bills, the financial gains can be great – particularly for owners of buildings in hot climates, where air conditioning is in constant use. By installing a cool roof – which is not much more costly than a standard roof – you will not only cut down on utility bills all year round, but you might omit the need to install an air conditioning unit in the first place, saving you the hefty costs associated with this. Similarly, the need for roof maintenance is reduced, as the decrease in heat exposure means slower degradation of the roof’s surface. On a greater scale, having a cool roof also reduces the urban heat island (UHI) effect – a phenomenon

By installing a cool roof – which is not much more costly than a standard roof – you will not only cut down on utility bills all year round, but you might omit the need to install an air conditioning unit in the first place that occurs through the heat absorption of roofs in built-up areas, where heat becomes trapped in the atmosphere, causing temperatures to rise up to 5.6 degrees Celsius higher than surrounding areas, meaning higher greenhouse gas emissions, and greater strain on peak energy times in the summer.

Whether you decide to go cool or not is up to you; these types of roofs are not appropriate for all climates, and in cooler places they can accumulate moisture or mould. But, for warmer, drier climates, they can make the world of difference for your building and your community.


| Company Profile | Company Profile

The really ‘cool’ answer Normally, SkyCool is used by building owners to cool buildings, but there is a growing realisation that SkyCool, together with a refurbishment such as that undertaken at Gordon, represents savings both immediately and into the future for at least the 10-year warranty period.

This thermal image of an uncoated strip on the Gordon Centre roof clearly contrasts the very cool blue with a normal hot (red) roof. Coating the air conditioning plant also provides significant advantages.


ustralian summers are famous around the world for surf, sand and lots of sun. We have been told that the last two summers have been Australia’s hottest on record, with an average daily temperature of 28.6 degrees Celsius, and Sydney recording a temperature of 46 degrees Celsius in the middle of January. While these soaring temperatures make for longer days at the beach, they also present a host of issues for building operators, where air conditioning demands can result in cooling being the dominant power cost. Also, the roof panel movement due to ‘thermal shock’ impinges upon its waterproof integrity.

with SkyCool to restore and protect it, thereby avoiding the heavy cost of replacing it and the complication of normal business interruption. Both centres are now enjoying dual benefits. There was an immediate saving on the cost of roof restoration at Gordon, and there will be an ongoing energy saving for the next 10 to 20 years – a critical advantage in the current climate of rising electricity pricing – at both centres. The benefits extended beyond the significant financial savings compared with the cost of a new roof, as there was no disruption to trading, and the energy savings alone can fully account for the investment.

The success of a six-year-old SkyCool application at a shopping centre in the hottest region of Western Australia is now paying dividends for Gordon Village Shopping Centre and the Gordon Village Arcade on Sydney’s North Shore. Faced with the choice of a complete roof replacement or retrofitting the existing roof with a restorative cool-roof coating to its exterior, the owner of the Gordon shopping precincts, Charter Hall Retail REIT, chose to coat the roof SkyCool cooling the roof of Plumpton Mall


Such was the case for DEXUS, another of Australia’s leading property groups with $13 billion in assets under management, which, after an energy-efficiency audit at the 18,500-square-metre Plumpton Marketplace, coated the roof with SkyCool. The project included modifications to the air conditioning, and installation of LED lighting. The Operations Manager at the shopping centre, Barry Thomson, says that the centre is now enjoying annual operational savings in the order of $60,000. Mr. Thomson says, ‘At Plumpton, before the SkyCool installation, we measured temperatures around the air-conditioning intake at 50 degrees Celsius. Since the installation, the temperature has been at ambient’. The SkyCool project is being closely scrutinised by the Green Building Fund. So far, its performance has exceeded expectations.

| Voltage Optimisation

Voltage optimisation: a quick run-down You’ve probably heard a lot about voltage optimisation lately; installations of voltage optimisation technology have been becoming more prevalent, and projects have been winning awards – most likely because it’s a highly effective way to save energy.


ere are a few things to know about voltage optimisation.

What it is Voltage optimisation is the controlled reduction of the voltage that’s supplied to a building from the grid. In Australia, voltage is supplied in the range of 230 volts plus 10 per cent or minus six per cent; in essence, this means that power companies are supplying electricity at between 216 volts and 253 volts. Usually, voltage is provided at the higher end of the range to ensure that buildings are receiving sufficient voltage; allowing for a decrease in voltage over distances, the average voltage at which electricity is delivered to Australian buildings is 247 volts. Electrical equipment in Australia is operated at 220–230 volts, meaning that buildings are receiving energy at voltages up to 33 volts higher than what they actually require. This has a few implications;


one is that electrical equipment and machinery will operate using a higher voltage than that for which it is manufactured. This creates wear on machinery, as well as energy loss through factors such as heat and vibration. Costs to businesses – particularly those in manufacturing, for instance, where significant amounts of power for machinery are used – can be substantial.

On top of this, over-voltage of your equipment means that it’s being overworked for no gain, causing faster degradation of the equipment than is necessary. Voltage optimisation reduces the voltage in your building to the optimum level for electrical and mechanical operation, saving on equipment maintenance and replacement costs.

You can either choose a stepdown voltage transformer, which is the simpler option, and which works only to reduce voltage, or you can opt for voltage optimisation, which also stabilises and regulates the voltage supply to your building, mitigating the effects of instability in the national grid, which can be quite volatile. In essence, both options are means of controlling the voltage supply to the electrical appliances and machinery within your building.

If you’ve decided to install voltage optimisation in your building, ensure that you employ an approved contractor to do the work. There are a number of systems on the market claiming to offer voltage optimisation, but that won’t offer you the efficiency of legitimate voltage optimisation systems.

The benefits There are cost savings to be made through the reduction of energy used for your electrical equipment – when your building’s machinery is using more power than is necessary for its optimum function, the energy is wasted and costs you money. It’s been reported that average energy savings from voltage optimisation are somewhere in the region of 12 to 15 per cent, but efficient systems can offer more substantial savings.


The installer will monitor the voltage at various points within your building; the main incoming supply, and other points within the building, to measure voltage drop from supply to use. Voltage optimisation technology is then installed in series with the main electricity supply to align the voltage supply with the needs of the building. Depending on analysis of the site, the technology will either be installed between the incoming power supply and the main electrical distribution board (this will affect the voltage for the entire site), or at selected distribution boards around the facility (if, for example, it’s decided that voltage optimisation will only be effective in certain areas, such as the factory floor or lighting installations).

Company Profile | Company Profile |

Solar and voltage optimisation working together


any organisations with solar photovoltaic (PV) installations are achieving a host of extra benefits when they add Powerstar voltage optimisation to either new or existing systems. These include: • a reduction in the overall energy use of the property. As systems use the solar PV-generated electricity first, this means a reduced bill for imported electricity • reduced voltage to the inverter, thus reducing heat build-up in the inverter, which increases its life span • reduced wear and tear on appliances, resulting in longer service life, especially when using

the power from the PV array, which is higher than the mains voltage • reduced cut-out frequency. Where a solar PV installation already has high local voltages, any fluctuations may push the voltage above the range of the inverter, in which case it will cut out. In these cases, installing a Powerstar unit between the consumer unit and the REC meter will ensure that the inverter is not exposed to the higher mains voltage spikes and will cut out less frequently • reduced build-up of heat and consequent losses. A particular feature of Powerstar is that it will allow current to flow in both directions.





Buildings with solar can gain additional savings when they install a Powerstar voltage optimisation unit.

One Powerstar installation in South Australia shows that a VO unit and solar both contribute to lowering energy costs and combine to provide a 24-hour solution. This site also has improved equipment life cycles, reduced maintenance costs and power quality improvements.




Includes Powerstar HV MAX, the world’s first high voltage, electronic-variable system, launched in 2011

1300 659 463 | WWW.POWERSTAR.COM 10% savings based on average savings from Powerstar installations, savings are estimate only, full guaranteed savings will be identified following site survey


| Company Profile | Company Profile

Commercial flooring that delivers design, choice and maximum Green Star points

As the shift to sustainability continues to gather pace, Shaw Contract Group – the world’s largest carpet manufacturer and recycler – delivers maximum Green Star points without having to sacrifice design or choice. ‘A GBCA “Level A” Green Star rating is not just available on a small number of specific collections – more than 300 of our products receive this rating,’ says Aaron. ‘The colour and design choices are so extensive [that] some of our most highly awarded designoriented collections receive the rating, as well as our more valueoriented collections. ‘To meet the demanding deadlines of retrofit projects, we also offer In Stock collections that are all “Level A” Green Star rated.

Australia’s first 5 Star Green Star Library, Melton Library and Learning Hub


ith more than 300 carpet tile and broadloom collections eligible for a Green Building Council of Australia (GBCA) ‘Level A’ Green Star rating, Shaw Contract Group has been making it easier to specify environmentally certified carpet since 1999. ‘At Shaw, we have always been dedicated to designing beautiful floor coverings that contribute to sustainable building design and indoor environment quality,’ says Aaron Martin, National Sales Director of Shaw Contract Group. ‘In 1999, Shaw pioneered the industry’s first Cradle to Cradle Certified CM fully recyclable PVCfree and bitumen-free carpet flooring, with the ultimate goal of creating


healthy, safe, efficient and quality products that can be continuously recycled. ‘Today, this revolutionary design utilising Eco Solution Q® nylon and EcoWorx® backing enables us to offer customers the industry’s most extensive collection of environmentally certified commercial carpet. ‘It stands up to the most stringent criteria set by green building councils around the world,’ says Aaron. Developing products to be Cradle to Cradle Certified CM has meant Shaw Contract Group products meet the criteria for GECA’s highest level of certification (‘GECA 50-2011’), which is recognised as ‘Level A’ rated according to the GBCA Green Star rating system.

‘With the In Stock collections, you have access to design-focused and budget- conscious styles within 48 hours of confirming your order direct from our Melbourne, Sydney, Brisbane and Perth warehouses,’ says Aaron. All of Shaw’s EcoWorx® products are also backed with an environmental guarantee for reclamation and recycling. At the end of the carpet’s useful life, Shaw will reclaim any EcoWorx® carpet at no cost and recycle it into new product. These products include Shaw’s EcoWorx® product platforms: EcoWorx® tile, EcoWorx® broadloom and EcoWorx® performance broadloom. Operating Australia-wide, with specification consultants in all major capital cities, Shaw Contract Group is here to help you manage your next project. To find out more about Shaw Contract Group visit or call 1800 556 302 today.


Department of Environment and Primary Industries, Attwood, Victoria

Partnering with Shaw Contract Group, the world’s largest carpet manufacturer and recycler, we can help you differentiate your space and deliver superior performing, environmentally conscious flooring solutions on time and on budget with confidence beyond installation. Choose from over 300 Cradle to Cradle CertifiedCM and GECA certified carpet tile and broadloom collections as well as a range of resilient floor coverings. And our diverse In Stock range is available immediately, so you’ll always find what you want, when you want it.

Department of Environment and Primary Industries, Attwood, Victoria

Smart System. Exsulite


The cladding system designers will love Dulux®, Australia’s largest trusted coatings supplier is proud to bring you Exsulite, the innovative thermal wall cladding system. Delivering: • Energy Efficiency • Structural Integrity • Weatherproof Barrier System • Full BCA Compliance

Exsulite utilises multiple layers to build a strong, smart walling system.

Smart System. Extra Design Flexibility For more choices in wall articulation

Timber or Steel Frame Breathable Wall Wrap Cavity Spacers

Smart System. Thermal Efficiency R3 – R7 System Options

Exsulite Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) Panels Exsulite Matrix Basecoat™ Alkali Resistant Reinforcement Mesh

Smart System. BAL 29 Certified Approved for use in bushfire prone areas

Exsulite Matrix Basecoat Exsulite Texture Coating Exsulite Membrane Topcoat

Smart System. National Installer Network Fully certified system / trained installers

Learn more at | 1300 662 841 Dulux ® AcraTex ® is a division of DuluxGroup (Australia) Pty Ltd.ABN 67 000 049 427. Dulux ® Exsulite ® and AcraTex ® are registered trade marks and Matrix Basecoat™ is a trade mark of DuluxGroup (Australia) Pty Ltd.


Dulux AcraTex 1 Jeanes Street, Beverley SA 5009.

Retrofit Australia Volume 4 Number 1  

The only Australian magazine dedicated to retrofitting existing buildings for energy efficiency.

Retrofit Australia Volume 4 Number 1  

The only Australian magazine dedicated to retrofitting existing buildings for energy efficiency.