Page 1

Emirates Air Line


Looking back on the delivery of London’s iconic cable-car transport

News and advice

Focus on Residential Lifts and Accessibility

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The Magazine of the International Building Transportation Industry

Mission Statement The intelligent collection, management and distribution of information for the benefit of the industry, while providing a global marketing platform that expands the reach of the industry to all corners of the world. Subscriber Services & Back Issues • ELEVATOR WORLD UK is available in both print and digital versions. Questions regarding new print or digital subscriptions, renewals, bulk subscriptions, subscription payments, change of address, back issues or billing may call +44 7484 371712 or email suzanne@elevatorworlduk.com. News, Press Releases and Article Submissions • Submissions to be considered for publication should be sent to editorial@elevatorworlduk.com. Editorial space is non-paid; material is accepted based on newsworthiness or educational value and may be edited. UK contact Suzanne McCoy, email suzanne@elevatorworlduk.com. Overseas contact: Managing Editor Angela C. Baldwin, ext. 30, or email angie@elevatorworld.com Reprints/Permission • To order editorial or advertising reprints, email Brad O'Guynn at brad@elevatorworld.com. • To obtain permission to use any part of ELEVATOR WORLD, email Ricia Sturgeon-Hendrick at ricia@elevatorworld.com. Advertising • For display, classified or online advertising information, email Advertising Manager Lesley K. Hicks at lesley@elevatorworld.com. The Bookstore • For educational books, posters and videos, email Susan Crigler at susan@elevatorworld.com; online at www.elevatorbooks.com; or request our Educational Materials Catalog. Online • www.TheElevatorMuseum.org: Take a tour of the history of the elevator industry. • www.elevatorjobsitesafety.com: Complete Safety Handbook PDF, plus current revisions, quizzes, safety products, toolbox meetings and links. • www.elevatordirectory.com: A powerful online business directory, events calendar, classifieds section and more. How to Contact ELEVATOR WORLD Corporate Office USA • Shipping: 354 Morgan Avenue; Mobile, Alabama 36606 • Phone: (251) 479-4514 or toll-free: 1-800-730-5093 • Fax: (251) 479-7043 • Email: editorial@elevatorworld.com or sales@elevatorworld.com How to Contact ELEVATOR WORLD UK • Phone: +44 7484 371712 • Email: suzanne@elevatorworlduk.com or editorial@elevatorworlduk.com



Editor-at-Large/Publisher Angela Baldwin (V.P. Editorial), Massimo Bezzi, Jonathan Ricia Sturgeon-Hendrick, ext. 25 Charest, Scott Eastman (Controller), James Green, Ricia

Hendrick (Chairman), Achim Hütter, John Koshak, Robert

President Lane, T. Bruce MacKinnon (President), Lillie McWilliams (V.P. Production), Brad O’Guynn (V.P. Sales/Marketing) and T. Bruce MacKinnon, ext. 20 Robert Schaeffer EDITORIAL TECHNICAL ADVISORY GROUP Editor John Antona, Richard E. Baxter, Louis Bialy, James W. Coaker, Ferhat Çelik, M.J. Mohamed Iqbal, John Koshak, Ami Lustig, Dave Cooper TAK Mathews, Zack R. McCain, Parag Mehta, Richard Peters, editorial@elevatorworlduk.com Jay A. Popp, Ken Smith and Dr. Albert So International Managing Editor CORRESPONDENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS Africa: Shem Oirere; Australia: John Inglis, Dean Morgan, Angela C. Baldwin, ext. 30 Production/Design Manager Suzanne McCoy +44 7484 371712 suzanne@elevatorworlduk.com Senior Associate Editor Lee Freeland, ext. 41 Associate Editors Kaija Wilkinson, ext. 13 Matt Irvin, ext. 40

Ritchie Lobert; Canada: John Murphy; China: Peng Jie, Zhang Lexiang, Dr. Albert So; Europe: Luc Rivet; Germany: Undine Stricker-Berghoff; Hungary: Marius Makovsky; India: TAK Mathews; Iran: Amir Reza Hashemi; Amirhossein Haji Seyed Boroujerdi Israel: Ami Lustig; Italy: Massimo Bezzi; Japan: Masaru Matsumoto, Youichi Saji, Yukiyasu Hirano; Mexico: Raul Gonzales Mora; Netherlands: Koos van Lindenberg; New Zealand: Bob Johnston; Russia: Viktor Khristich, Yury Kireev; South America: Carmen Maldacena; Taiwan: Spenser Cheng; Turkey: Bülent Yilmaz, Süleyman Özcan; United Arab Emirates: M.J. Mohamed Iqbal; United Kingdom: David Cooper; United States: John Koshak, Jim Coaker, Richard Gregory, David Herres, Dr. Lee Gray, George Gibson, Matthew Jackson

PRODUCTION CORRESPONDING PUBLICATIONS Vice President of Production Argentina: Revista del Ascensor, Subir y Bajar; Brazil: Revista Elevador Brasil; China: China Elevator; Germany: Lift Report, Lillie K. McWilliams, ext. 15

Lift Journal; Greece: Anelkistiras; Iran: Donya-ye Asansor; Italy:

Art Director Elevatori; Korea: Elevator & Parking Systems; The Netherlands: Liftinstituut Magazine; Poland: Dzwig Khalid Al-Shethry, ext. 28 Magazyn; Russia: Lift Russia; Spain: Ascensores y Montacargas;

Graphic Design Associate Ukraine: Lift Expert Claire Nicholls, ext. 16 ELEVATOR WORLD India is a quarterly magazine published by Elevator World, Inc. (Mobile, Alabama) and

Web/Graphic Designer Virgo Publications (Bangalore, India). Advertising and Diego Torres, ext. 24 subscription information can be found at website: COMMERCIAL


Vice President of Sales/Marketing ELEVATOR WORLD Turkey is a bimonthly magazine owned Brad O’Guynn, ext. 38 and published by Elevator World, Inc. Advertising and subscription information can be found at website: www.

Advertising Account Executives elevatorworld.com.tr or by calling (251) 479-4514. Scott Brown, ext. 31 ELEVATOR WORLD Middle East is a quarterly magazine Fred Wilkinson, ext. 17 owned and published by Elevator World, Inc. Advertising and subscription information can be found at website: www.

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ELEVATOR WORLD UK is a quarterly magazine owned and

Advertising/Circulation Manager operated by Elevator World, Inc. Advertising and subscription Lesley K. Hicks, ext. 29 information can be found at website: www.elevatorworlduk.com. Educational Sales Associate ELEVATOR WORLD Europe is a bimontly magazine owned Susan Crigler, ext. 19 and operated by Elevator World, Inc. Advertising and subscription information can be found at website: www.

Controller elevatorworld.eu. J. Scott Eastman, CPA, ext. 33

ELEVATOR WORLD is a registered trademark and all rights reserved. Copyright © 2020. For permission to reprint any portion of this magazine, please write ELEVATOR WORLD at P.O. Box 6507; Mobile, AL 36660. ELEVATOR WORLD is published in the interest of the members of the elevator industry, to improve communication within the industry and to further the continuing education of members of the industry. ELEVATOR WORLD publishes articles by contributing authors as a stimulation to thinking and not as directives. ELEVATOR WORLD publishes this material without accepting responsibility for its absolute accuracy, but with hopes that the vast majority of it will have validity for the field. The ideas expressed therein should be tempered by recognized elevator engineering practices, guidelines, codes and standards. Publication of any article or advertisement should not be deemed as an endorsement by ELEVATOR WORLD. Printed by Cummings, 4 Peters Brook Drive, Hookset, N.H. 0316-6495. Periodicals postage paid at Mobile, Alabama, and at additional mailing office. Post Office Publication Number 172-680 (ISSN 0013-6158), under the act of March 3rd. U.S. Pat. Office. Postmaster send address changes to Elevator World, Inc., P.O. Box 6507, Mobile, AL 36660; fax: (251) 479-7043. Published monthly. Subscription rates (print): U.S. and possessions: $89.99/one year. International, including Canada: $125/one year; Digital format: $39.99; Single copies: $15 in print, $5 digital; THE ELEVATOR WORLD SOURCE© (print or digital): $25. (All subscribers receive THE ELEVATOR WORLD SOURCE© free.) By using a credit card for subscriptions, you agree to Continuous Service. ELEVATOR WORLD UK, formerly Elevation, was founded by Ish Buckingham in 1994.


Official Partner of Liftex: www.elevatorworlduk.com • Year/Quarter Issue ###




Issue 103 2020/2


Celebrating Eight Years Since the U.K’s First Urban Cable Car cover photo © Transport for London submitted by LECS (UK) With the Tokyo 2021 Olympic Games on the horizon, LECS (UK) looks back on the delivery of London’s iconic cable-car transport for the London 2012 Summer Olympics.



The Ship Escalator

by Marcel Hermans Locks, lifts, inclines? Your author offers a brand new idea for overcoming differences in water level.

106 IEE Expo


by Vijay Pandya VT industry converges on Mumbai for eighth IEE Expo to discuss the latest developments with an eye toward the future.







Stannah Supplies Wheelchair Lift for Historic Castle


Cabin Design

submitted by Stannah


Homelifts and Stairlifts and their Critical Role During the COVID-19 Pandemic

An Ecosystem of Opportunities

submitted by KONE


Rising to the Challenge

ISO DIS 8100-32 on Planning and Selection of Passenger Lifts

by Nick Mellor

by Bill MacLachlan

Residential lifts: Does Design Matter?

by Len Halsey

www.elevatorworlduk.com • 2020/2 Issue 103

by Muharrem Çakırer

by Marja-Liisa Siikonen




submitted by Hawkswell Kilvington Ltd


Consultants Voice -

by Colin Craney



Coronavirus: Likely Effects on Your Company and How Best to Mitigate Them

A Strange, and Different, New World

Can an Employer be Liable for an Employee’s Data Protection Breach? submitted by Hawkswell Kilvington Ltd


Safety Matters

by Dave Cooper


Common or Not?

Elevator Ride Quality

by Hamish McGlashan


Contract Matters -

by Jonathan Hawkswell






by Jim Roberts



Shadow Boards: A Common-Sense Approach to Effective Tool Management

Hybrid Construction Contracts

Gateway, the IoT Mirror for Lift Cars

by Fabio Liberali and Alessandro Cremaschi

Management Matters

The Business Excellence Model by Mark Woods

Future-Proofing Emergency Communications by Marek Loucky

Response to “Voluntary Egress Elevators”

by Giuseppe Iotti

Longer Life For Escalator Steps

by Dr. Ali Albadri



Out of Harm’s Way

Impact of Cultures on Elevatoring


by TAK Mathews

by Max Guijt




Editor’s Overview


Product Spotlight






Property Managers Guide


In Memoriam


Advertisers Index



120 And Finally. . .

2020/2 Issue 103 • ELEVATOR WORLD UK



Reflections on the Crisis


by Dave Cooper

elcome to the 103rd issue of ELEVATOR WORLD UK. In the last issue, I opened with, “It seems like such a lot has happened since the last edition, not at least the potential issues that may or may not affect the marketplace. The ‘Brexit’ word seems to have died down as a regular term that resounded through our ears since the deed was done.” Anyone remember Brexit? I went on to say, “If the Brexit uncertainty wasn’t enough, the coronavirus issue now seems to be making its way through Europe, as well.” Well, that was a bit of an understatement! Many businesses have closed their doors, many others are treading water, and who knows what will happen to the economy. Many charities are suffering, as well, and with many of them relying on retail outlets to fund their operations, the eventual effect may well be disastrous. The nation is also seeing a rapid increase in anxiety, alcohol and domestic abuse, and mental health issues. One thing that has never been more apparent is that everyone matters in this world. One thing I will say is this crisis has taken me from seeing the very best to the worst of humanity. I have enjoyed more than 20 years of being a Rotarian and seeing how communities can pull together has not been strange to me, but I do hope the world will be a better place after the virus is eliminated. On walks to our local shops, we have found most people saying “Hello” or “Thank you” for social distancing. These are people I would normally never talk to in my rush down Petts Wood Road to the station. I hope they still say hello after this is all over. We, like so many, have taken to going outside on Thursday nights and clapping for our colleagues in the National Health Service. Every week, a lady (who I have never met before but is a neighbour across the road) waves to me to say goodnight after the clapping has finished. Why did it take the virus to make that happen? Why didn’t I offer to pick up shopping for her when I was going down the road already? It makes me wonder. For many people, not much will have changed. The hidden virus that is loneliness will have meant that people who were already housebound with few (if any) visitors apart from the occasional carer or food delivery could have lived oblivious through this if not for the media. It makes you think, doesn’t it? That cannot be a great place to be. To be honest, I haven’t been impressed with the clarity of messages coming from the government or its agencies when it comes to how the lift industry should operate during the crisis. It seems to me that you cannot blanket-term someone a “key worker” in our industry, but you can say there is a key task that


www.elevatorworlduk.com • 2020/2 Issue 103

has to be fulfilled on a certain occasion. Perhaps lessons will be learned about blanket classifications when we mop up after the event. I made the decision to go and do a Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations 1998 (LOLER) examination in the second week of lockdown. Once I heard the story, I made the decision that it was a key task, and, temporarily, I had to become a key worker. The story was that a housebound lady was on the upper levels of a residential block. When I say “upper level,” I mean the 18th floor, and, yes, you have to question why she was placed there and how she would escape in the event of fire. To be fair, I don’t know the full story; she may have lived there for many years and become impaired, rather than having been placed there. Anyway, the local authority was going to follow guidelines and switch the duplex pair of lifts off until they could get a thorough examination undertaken. Whilst residential buildings do not require thorough examinations under LOLER, there is an implied duty of care under other statutory instruments. The lifts have been irrelevant to the lady on the 18th floor for her personal use, as she was housebound; however, they became very important when her food delivery company said it wouldn’t walk up 18 floors to deliver her food consignment. In many respects, I am enjoying my newfound time working from home, rather than running round the country at high speed, but I realise that, economically, it cannot go on forever. Now is the time to operate with integrity. I have only been aware of one incident of what I thought was major profiteering, when a contractor charged a nursing home £7,200 for a replacement VL door lock. However, I was comforted when I queried this with the company and found they were distraught. It transpired to be a genuine error. I am sure there will be opportunities for people to take advantage of the situation, but, by far, the comments I have heard about our industry have been positive, and I applaud you all for that. It is time to sign off now, and my message is simple – stay safe, and evaluate what is important to you in life going forward.





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15-17 15-17 19-20 19-23 21-24

NOV 5-7 23

DEC 7-8

The Elevator Show Dubai, U.A.E.


Cibse Guide D Official Launch Highgate House, Northampton www.cibse.org/lifts-group

Symposium on Lift and Escalator Technologies Highgate House, Northampton www.liftsymposium.org

Lift Expo Italia Milan, Italy


INELEX Izmir, Turkey


Global Lift & Escalator Expo Dhaka Dhaka, Bangladesh


ISO/TC 178 Plenary and Working Groups Meeting Shanghai, China


CTBUH Conference Kuala Lumpur and Singapore ctbuhconference.com

Eurasia Asansรถr Istanbul, Turkey


International Sourcing Exposition for Elevators and Escalators Mumbai, India


CIBSE Lifts Group - Annual Seminar CIBSE, London, SW12 9BS


International Elevator & Escalator Symposium Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.elevatorsymposium.org



CIBSE Lifts Group - AGM & Evening Meeting 2021


Asansรถr Istanbul


Istanbul, Turkey


Russian Elevator Week




CIBSE, London, SW12 9BS

Moscow, Russia




Elevcon Prague, Czech Republic



Global Lift & Escalator Expo Africa


Johannesburg, South Africa


Interlift 2021


Augsburg, Germany



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Dangers of Manually Lowering Elevators Are Rarely Understood In years past, nonprofessionals were instructed on how to perform an elevator rescue by manually lowering an elevator. This was an awful idea then and remains one to this day. Please never attempt this if you are not an elevator expert. It is extremely dangerous and misunderstood by many. When someone (even a trained elevator mechanic or, preferably, team) manually lowers an elevator, they are overriding dozens of safety devices and, often, don’t know for sure if the passengers are safe. You should never manually lower an elevator with a passenger, unless you can confirm that all doors are closed and locked and that the passenger remains safe during the lowering. You also need to constantly confirm that no collisions are occurring. Often, this will require a second person to assist and have good communications with them (typically via two-way radios) during the entire procedure. This allows for one person to constantly observe the elevator, while a second mechanic controls the movement of the elevator, remaining in constant communications. A solo lowering with a passenger should only be performed in rare, dire situations and requires you to confirm the doors are locked and the passenger is away from the doors. Then, the car should be moved fractions of an inch, then all equipment should be rechecked. The passenger should also be checked on before moving another fraction of an inch. Repeat over and over. Obviously, this takes a long time to be done properly. Please consider that, when you manually lower an elevator, you are disabling all safety devices and allowing thousands of pounds of elevator equipment to move, whether the doors are open or closed. If you don’t make certain that all doors remain closed and locked, it is very possible that you may crush or tear a person apart. I’m sorry for that visualization, but it’s much better to have it than to do it. Manually lowering an elevator is extremely dangerous, so please just don’t do it. With today’s roped hydraulic elevators, it’s even more dangerous. Even if you’re a first responder and have some elevator training, please don’t manually lower the elevator. It’s just too dangerous and should not be recommended or done by anyone other than highly trained elevator mechanics with adequate assistance. Jerry F. Lewis Elevator Man NeededKnowledge Writer

We found this important explanation on LinkedIn. For more industry articles from Lewis, visit bit.ly/2vBDFme. . . . Editor

EW U.K. / 1,600+ Readers This monthly email newsletter is published and delivered free to all registered subscribers. It is comprised of concise, easy-to-read news and information specific to the UK market keeping you informed until the next quarterly issue of the magazine is published. Premier sponsorship available at the top of the email and multiple interior banner ads with a link to your website or preferred marketing material. Go to elevatorworlduk.com to signup for the newsletter.


www.elevatorworlduk.com • 2020/2 Issue 103

C.E. Electronics

The Lift Indicator Specialists INDICATORS

16 Segment, Dot Matrix & LCD Scrolling Messages Flashing Side Arrows Landing Arrival Flags Destination Control


4.3” to 19” + Lift Screens Floor Information & Scheduled Messages Video, TV, Live Data & Weather Feed Lobby Panels & Destination Displays Wide Viewing Angle & High Contrast


Antique, Contemporary & Unique Sweep Smooth and Steady Pointer 180° & 360° Designs Bespoke Multilite Indicators New Horizontal Indicators

SECURITY & ACCESS Keypad, Swipe, Fob & Proximity Reader Control Access to Multiple Floors Timed and Emergency Override Options Wireless Fob Relay System CCTV Systems


Compliant with EN81-70 Indicators, Speech Units & Gongs 2 Input Ceiling Mount Induction Loop Kits Call Registration Buzzer No Entry Indicator USA: C.E. Electronics Inc 2107 Industrial Drive Bryan, OH43506 USA Phone: +1 (419) 636 6705 Email: sales@ceelectronics.com Website: www.ceelectronics.com

Insert Name Mike Carp byline

Mike Carp, Sales Director at DeSeM Lifts for the last 16 years, passed away on March 7 at age 69. Mike is described in many genuine tributes as a “proper gent.” Dave Martin, Text Lifts managing director, said, “In the 26 years of employing and working with DeSeM Mike, we never heard him swear or raise his voice, and, most importantly, [he] was a caring friend and colleague, of the old school, with a very dry sense of humour.” Many Self Storage Association UK and Federation of European Self Storage Associations members will recall Mike from his presence on the Trade Stand for DeSeM Lifts in recent years at almost every annual conference since the mid 1990s, irrespective of the geographical location. Many Lift & Escalator Industry Association members will also recall him from manning the DeSeM Lifts stand at LIFTEX shows at ExCeL London. He also frequented the annual conferences of the British Association of Removers.  He will be sadly missed by so many customers, colleagues, suppliers, engineers, friends and family. 

Frank Roullier Long-time lift industry member Frank Roullier recently lost his battle with cancer, passing away on 7th April. Frank worked for Griffin Elevator Ltd. for more than 16 years. Prior to joining the lift industry, Frank was a motor mechanic and MOT tester for many years. According to Griffin Elevator Sales Director Daniel Griffin: “The UK lift community sadly lost one of its loyal servants following a long and hard-fought battle against cancer. Frank was not only a loyal employee, he was a great friend, rock-n-roll legend and pillar of the local community. He will be sorely missed by all that had the pleasure of knowing him.” Frank is survived by his wife, Lynn, and son, Frankie.


www.elevatorworlduk.com • 2020/2 Issue 103

About The Elevator Show With a combined industry history of more than 130 years, Elevator World and AFAG are pleased to present The Elevator Show, a new industry exhibition held every two years at the Dubai World Trade Centre. The organizers have accumulated a robust network of over 100,000 contacts worldwide and project more than 10,000 visitors during the three-day event. Attendees can expect to see the latest technology, designs and services from more than 100 exhibitors made up of small and medium-sized elevator component companies and major manufacturers.



7-9 Sept 2020 Contact

T.Bruce MacKinnon President Elevator World Inc. tbruce@elevatorworld.com Tel: +1 251 479 4514

Bülent Yılmaz Managing Director Eurasia & Middle East Elevator World Inc. bulent@elevatorworld.com Tel: +90 216 348 48 76

Joachim Kalsdorf Project Manager AFAG Joachim.Kalsdorf@afag.de Tel: +49 821 58982-451

Sandra Geißler Project Consultant AFAG sandra.geissler@afag.de Tel: +49 821 58982-452

Valentina Fischer Project Assistant AFAG valentina.fischer@afag.de Tel: +49 821 58982-452

General: EW Tel: +1-251-479-4514 elevatorworld.com

info@elevatorshowdubai.com elevatorshowdubai.com

AFAG Tel: +49-821-58982-450 afag.de


Industry News Reporting the highs and lows of our industry LEIA President: Focus on Training, Retention, Technology

Bar Fined for Lift Safety Failures Following Death of Swansea Employee

During a recent welcome speech, 2020 Lift and Escalator Industry Association (LEIA) President David Warr said LEIA should focus on training and retaining skilled engineers and on using new technology to enhance equipment performance. Warr took the reins from 2019 President David Sharp, who was thanked for his support and guidance over the last year. On recruiting, training and retaining skilled engineers, Warr pointed out the labour market in the vertical-transportation industry and others continues to be tight.  “I believe that the industry needs to be giving new starters proper training, and this needs to be based on a grasp of engineering fundamentals and good work skills, and supported by the employer,” Warr said. “Every trainee should have a mentor.” Warr talked about his involvement in the Trailblazer apprenticeship program, for which he served as chair of the Lift and Escalator Industry Group. He called the program “an essential component for training the next workforce,” and said it has helped nurture many industry professionals — including himself — who have risen in companies and even started their own. “2020 is the year that we need to spread the message about the benefits of apprenticeships across the industry,” he said. Effort should also be made toward retaining skilled engineers after they have earned their National Vocational Qualification. LEIA should continue to work with the Health and Safety Executive and other stakeholders to promote the use of new technology such as remote monitoring and fitting of sensors to monitor performance. Such remote monitoring, he said, would “allow engineers to focus on maintenance while onsite,” as well as help combat spurious injury claims “often associated with tripping on sills or being hit by closing doors.”

A national chain of bars has been fined for safety failures after an employee died in an accident in a lift on February 24, 2014, WalesOnline reported. The 20-year-old man had been transporting heavy chairs in a service lift at the Walkabout bar in Swansea City Centre when one of the chairs moved and crushed him. He was trapped in the elevator for more than half an hour before firefighters freed him. He was rushed to the hospital but died four days later. The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) launched an investigation following the death, and on March 10, Walkabout operators Intertain Ltd. (now owned by Stonegate Pub Co. Ltd.) appeared at Swansea Magistrates Court having previously pleaded guilty to five offences under the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974. The lift in question was supposed to have a “thorough examination” every six months, but an investigation found the last such check had been 962 days before the incident. With credit for guilty pleas, the firm was fined a total of £48,000 and was ordered to pay more than £15,000 in prosecution costs.

photos courtesy of L.E.I.A.


www.elevatorworlduk.com • 2020/2 Issue 103

New Appointment to CIBSE Board The Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers (CIBSE) has appointed Dave Cooper, managing director of consultancy LECS UK, to its board. An industry consultant, engineer and ELEVATOR WORLD UK editor, Dave is a key advisor to governments, including the U.K.’s Government’s Department for Transport, on major vertical transportation projects. Dave is a regular international speaker at CIBSE global conferences, author of key books on vertical transportation Dave Cooper (including accidents and litigation) and retains a keen interest in research in his position as an honorary visiting fellow of the University of Northampton. “I am delighted to join the CIBSE board,” he said. “I have been a keen member of the body for over 29 years and look forward to helping to deliver CIBSE’s goals for 2020 and beyond.” He will officially take office in May.


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Otis Becomes Independant, Publicly Traded Company Otis completed its separation from United Technologies Corp. (UTC) and began trading on the New York Stock Exchange the morning of April 3 as NYSE: OTIS. Otis says it is wellpositioned for sustained, long-term growth due to urbanization, a growing middle class and digitization. In 2019, Otis reported sales of US$13.1 billion. Its service portfolio generates recurring sales and “robust” cashflow. As part of the separation, UTC shareholders received distribution of one-half share of OTIS common stock for each share of UTC common stock held. UTC shareowners will receive cash in lieu of any fractional shares, as no fractional shares of Otis will be issued. UTC shareowners will also retain their shares of UTC common stock. Otis originally listed its common stock on the NYSE in April 1920, and Otis President and CEO Judy Marks called April 3, 2020, a “historic day” in the company’s history, continuing, “Throughout our 167 years in business, we have experienced all types of markets and historic events — and rose to respond. We’re confident we will endure and succeed, despite today’s current challenges. Our vast global footprint and focus on strategic digital investments enable us to better serve our customers locally, deliver on our commitments worldwide and support our growth as cities expand.” The company continues to monitor the evolving effect of the coronavirus pandemic on its operations and 2020 financial outlook and plans to provide an update on the impact with first-quarter earnings in early May.

IEES 2020 Call for Abstracts Organisers of the 2020 International Elevator & Escalator Symposium (IEES), Liftinstituut Solutions B.V. and Elevator World, Inc., have issued a call for abstracts of paper presentations for the event, to be held at the Hotel Okura in Amsterdam on December 7-8. Submissions relating to the topic, “The Future of Vertical Transportation in 2030,” are welcome through June 19. A technical committee will review the abstracts, and its assessments will be shared on July 17. Submit at email. For more information, visit www.elevatorsymposium. org/Submit.

Elevator World Photo Contest Deadline Extended The deadline has been extended for the ELEVATOR WORLD Photo Contest 2020. We have already received more than 80 fantastic photos for this year’s contest. However, due to the current health crisis and shelter-in-place protocols, we want to make sure everyone has the opportunity to participate. The new deadline is set for July 15, and winners and runners-up will now be featured in the November issue. We cannot wait to see, and share with everyone, images of our industry on the rise. For full details and to submit photos, visit website.


www.elevatorworlduk.com • 2020/2 Issue 103

UoN, LECS Announce New Lift Engineering Award The University of Northampton (UoN), in association with LECS (UK Ltd.), announced the introduction of the Alex MacDonald Award for Lift Engineering in April. The award, plus GBP200 (US$247) in prize money, will be presented every year to the UoN MSc Lift Engineering student whose master’s degree dissertation is deemed the most innovative and of highest quality. Its name is in memory of Alex MacDonald, a colleague of London-based vertical-transportation consultancy LECS, who died in February at the age of 29. LECS said he “was an outstanding engineer and a true professional. Having studied both architecture and engineering, he was leading a groundbreaking project in the Docklands set to attract worldwide attention for its bespoke design.”

Alex MacDonald

LECS Managing Director David Cooper commented: “As an engineering consultant working in this area for 35-plus years, I am a keen supporter of ongoing education, learning and bringing new blood into the industry. Our dear colleague Alex MacDonald was a great example of the best of the next generation coming into this sector and is greatly missed by all who worked with him. It is a privilege to be managing director of LECS on its 30th anniversary; we hope this award will encourage all MSc students to push the boundaries in thought and research developments, as well as create a legacy for Alex, who was an exceptional engineer.” Postgraduate Programme Leader for Lift Engineering at UoN Dr. Stefan Kaczmarczyk said: “The university has been proud to be associated with LECS over the years and with [MacDonald], who studied here. We hope this annual award will inspire and motivate our students to achieve their academic and professional goals, while always remembering MacDonald.” The inaugural award will be presented this year.


Lifting Industry News News from the lifting industry association, LEEA LEEA Asks Members to Spread the Word about GLAD The Lifting Equipment Engineers Association (LEEA), a global body representing the lifting industry, is promoting Global Lifting Awareness Day (GLAD) on 9 July 2020, and is inviting its members to take to social media with the hashtag #GLAD2020 to spread the word about raising standards throughout the industry and to end-user markets. “GLAD on 9 July will be a very important day for the global lifting industry, said LEEA CEO Ross Moloney. All too often, our industry is hidden, ignored or unrecognised by end-users and certainly by some of the supply chains that we serve. Global Lifting Awareness Day is about getting the whole industry and the associated supply chains to recognise the importance of high standards in lifting, the significance of quality and how to ensure lifting best practice. “It has been great working with industry media representatives Guy Harris of LHI magazine and Mark Bridger of Bridger Howes to bring this to life, after coming together to discuss how to raise awareness of our sector and of high standards.” Bridger said: “We invite everybody to join in with #GLAD2020 on 9 July 2020. This is all about bringing the industry together to tell the world about high standards and the things in lifting they are ‘GLAD’ about — such as innovation, standards, collaboration, technological change or even something lifting-related you’ve seen that has amused you.” Harris, the publisher of LHI, said: “We encourage readers, associations and sector stakeholders to generate awareness of lifting standards, best practice and lifting’s vital role in end-user supply chains by taking to social media on 9 July 2020. We want to see your messages, with the #GLAD2020 hashtag, driving home the vital role lifting plays in so many supply chains, and that best practice is critical to avoid risk of injury.” Ross Moloney concluded: “GLAD on 9 July 2020 will be a big day for our industry, and LEEA members are going to be an important part it. So, make sure it’s in your diary and let’s raise global awareness of high-quality lifting practice — not forgetting to add #GLAD2020 to it.” leeaint.com

Kevin Keegan to Host LEEA Awards 2020 The Lifting Equipment Engineers Association (LEEA) has announced that this year’s LEEA Awards, taking place at the Liverpool Exhibition Centre on October 13 during LiftEx, will be hosted by Kevin Keegan. LEEA said he is a “Liverpool legend and one of the U.K.’s best-loved former football players and managers.” LEEA CEO Ross Moloney added, “We are absolutely delighted that Kevin will be joining us at our awards ceremony to celebrate our industry’s achievements.” The rewards presented honour the association’s members and their employees who have made significant contributions to lifting standards in the industry. The event will reward the association’s members and members’ employees who have made significant contributions to lifting standards. Ten categories are included this year: ♦ Best Innovation ♦ Kevin Holmes Award for Excellence in Developing People ♦ Safety Award ♦ Outstanding Apprentice ♦ Unsung Hero ♦ Accredited Training Scheme – Best Trainer ♦ Best Lifting Equipment Inspector/Tester/Examiner ♦ Best Team ♦ Best Lifting Operation ♦ LEEA CEO’s Award

Kevin Keegan Continued


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19 - 22 October 2021 | Messe Augsburg | Germany able now l i a v a m ion for Applicat .de

lift r e t n i . w ww

Organiser: AFAG Messen und Ausstellungen GmbH Am Messezentrum 5, 86159 Augsburg I www.interlift.de

Technical sponsor: VFA-Interlift e.V. Süderstraße 282, 20537 Hamburg I www.vfa-interlift.de


Coronavirus Updates The industry pulls together in these challenging times. Coronavirus Cancellations, Reschedulings ELEVATOR WORLD has been the vertical-transportation industry’s source for news and information for 67 years, and we aim to continue to be during the coronavirus pandemic affecting readers, advertisers, employees, contributors and associates around the world. Unfortunately, quarantine and social distancing efforts have affected the following industry events: ♦ The International Association of Elevator Engineers (IAEE) has postponed Elevcon 2020 (elevcon.com). It will be rescheduled for a date in 2021, still in Prague at the Grandior Hotel. ♦ The European Lift Association (ELA) Annual Conference (ela-aisbl.eu), which had been scheduled for May in Brussels, Belgium, has been postponed until, tentatively, September 17. It will still take place in Brussels. ♦ Lift Expo Italia 2020 (liftexpoitalia.com) organizer ANICA (Italian elevator components association) has announced a rescheduling of the event to September 30-October 2. It is to be held at MICO – Milan Convention Center, Level 0 North Wing, in Milan, Italy. ♦ Ascen.tec (ascen-tec.gr/en), the second iteration of the industry expo that had been scheduled for May in Paiania, Greece, has been postponed until an undetermined time. ♦ Organizers of the World Elevator & Escalator Expo 2020 (www.elevator-expo.com) in Shanghai have postponed the event until August 18-21. The biennial event is to be held at the National Exhibition and Convention Center. ♦ The May Symposium on Lift and Escalator Technologies (liftsymposium.org) event, which was to be held in Shanghai, has been postponed until an undetermined time. The September 23-24 edition in Northampton, U.K., called the Lift & Escalator Symposium, is to proceed as planned. ♦ ExpoElevador (www.expoelevador.com), the biennial tradeshow in São Paulo, Brazil, has been rescheduled to March 1-3, 2021. ♦ The Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) has rescheduled its 2020 Tall + Urban Innovation Conference to take place during the CTBUH Conference (ctbuhconference.com) on October 19-23. No longer in Chicago, the CTBUH Awards Program will be incorporated into the October event at the Marina Bay Sands Hotel in Singapore. A “Regional City Program” (bit.ly/2QF97Yg) during the CTBUH Conference will take place in Kuala Lumpur. Visit “Daily News” at www.elevatorworld.com, and subscribe to the ELENET and EW UK News newsletters for updates.

Google HQ Construction Site Closed by Coronavirus Case Lendlease shut down the construction site of the Google U.K. headquarters in King’s Cross on March 12 after a subcontractor who had access to the site office tested positive for exposure to the coronavirus, Construction News reported. The Google scheme was the first major project to be stopped in the U.K. as a result of the coronavirus pandemic. As the number of coronavirus increased, construction firms have stepped up their monitoring and taken pre-emptive action. For example, Galliford Try revealed that, since March 9, its backoffice payroll and IT helpdesk staff had been ordered to work from home. Other construction companies began taking measures to mitigate the spread of the virus, which causes COVID-19.

BSC: Employers Must Protect Workers or Face Consequences The British Safety Council (BSC) backed a joint statement from the Health and Safety Executive (HSE), CBI and TUC calling for employers to ensure safe working conditions during the coronavirus outbreak. BSC Chairman Lawrence Waterman said: “Since the government’s restrictions came in, we have been very clear that employers must protect worker. Key to this is for managers to talk to their employees about how they can manage the risks that coronavirus presents. “Coronavirus has presented us with a new set of challenges, but it should not undermine our principles – good health and safety practice is about working together to reduce risks, and those principles should be applied to making work safe during this crisis. There are clearly some employers who are putting safe working conditions at risk. This must end, and the HSE is right to insist that it will take action if it has to.” The full statement can be read at website: bit.ly/2Vv7huy. Continued


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Plans for United 2020 Convention and Exposition are moving forward! NAEC and the UNITED team are committed to creating an exciting event for you this September, and it will include elements that will be both virtual and respectful of social distancing. We are in the planning phase of the event and welcome your ideas and suggestions. Be part of shaping our event by sending your ideas to info@naec.org. Just as the world is changing, we are too!

Why register for UNITED? • • • • • • •

ELEVATE your business development NETWORK with industry peers COMPARE the latest and most innovative ideas and technologies MEET new suppliers and negotiate deals on site ENGAGE with exhibitors first hand and get your questions answered on the spot EXPLORE what your competition is offering ATTEND educational classes that offer Continuing Education credits for CET, CAT, QEI & NEEIEP

For more details, visit Unitedconvention.com

Email Info@naec.org




COVID-19 Support for Employers

Second EFESME Videoconference on Crisis

The government is supporting businesses and their employees through a package of measures during this period of unprecedented disruption. It has also announced an extensive package of financial measures, including the Job Retention Scheme, a Statutory Sick Pay rebate package for small and medium-sized employers, and deferred VAT and income-tax payments. Those with fewer than 250 employees will be able to reclaim Statutory Sick Pay for employees unable to work because they are ill with COVID-19 or have been advised to self-isolate. This refund will be for up to two weeks per employee. Employers are urged to use discretion about evidence they ask for when making decisions about sick pay. If evidence is required, employees can get an Isolation Note from NHS 111 online if they have symptoms or if they live with someone who has symptoms. Find out about other government support for businesses affected by coronavirus. Businesses that need to increase their workforce as a result of the outbreak, such as those in social care, food logistics, preparation and retail, should post vacancies on Find a Job. Support, advice and information to help with the impact of COVID-19 on businesses is available at www.gov.uk/coronavirus/ business-support.

The European Federation for Elevator Small and Mediumsized Businesses (EFESME) held a second videoconference on the coronavirus pandemic with its members on April 6. Topics included how the European Union (EU) has intervened to support the internal market and its member states, and what individual states are doing to help their SMEs overcome the crisis. It was agreed that, given the importance of SMEs for the European economy, the measures put in place by the EU to help and protect them are undoubtedly welcome and represent an extremely valuable line of support. As for the actions taken by individual states, EFESME said they have been much more numerous and important since March 25. “Despite sometimes different national positions, EFESME members have found many points of discussion in common and have renewed their commitment to support each other through the federation to help their SMEs to overcome the crisis together. EFESME and its president thank the members for their participation and for the ongoing, collective effort they are making to protect and support [the] SMEs they so effectively represent,” the organization added.

CITB Supports Construction Employers The Construction Industry Training Board’s (CITB) COVID-19 updates page is being refreshed daily and includes information on a range of subjects, including grants, funding and the National Construction College. There is also a range of government support measures available to U.K. businesses and employees. CITB have reviewed training that meets its Assured Standards. They identified 22 that can be delivered through remote learning, or online video links like Teams, Skype, Zoom and WebEx. The full list can be viewed here. They have also compiled a database of local and regional advice services they have been using and signposting to employers across England, Scotland and Wales during the crisis. See the database on the website.

ILE Trading Statement U.K.-based elevator supplier ILE reports that it is open for business and focused on serving its customers. ILE will maintain supply of all essential equipment during the COVID-19 pandemic. The London office is open for business with all standard-stock items including, GAL Manufacturing Corp. products, available for supply and delivery. The Leicester office is open for technical support and essential electrical spares. It is offering additional contact information, including mobile phone numbers. Read the complete statement.

Forced Apart But Working Together Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat Chairman Steve Watts, a partner in London-based cost-consulting company alinea, shared a letter, “Forced Apart But Working Together,” on April 7 touching on challenges of the coronavirus pandemic, particularly how to strike a balance between saving lives and saving livelihoods, and ways the crisis could result in rebirth, renewal and better tall-building practices. This, he said, will hinge on cooperation and “new life being breathed into research and innovation.”

Avire to Host “Analogue To Fibre” Webinar With U.K. Focus Avire insights expert Matt Davies plans to present a webinar, “Analogue to Fibre,” on April 22 at 12:30 p.m. local time in London. It will focus on the changing world of communications networks and the impact these changes will have on the lift industry, particularly in the U.K. Davies will explore what is happening, when it is happening and what it means for lift emergency telephone equipment. Sign up here.

Kone 24/7 Connected Services Free for Certain Customers KONE is offering to install its 24/7 Connected Services free during the COVID-19 pandemic for customers that operate medical facilities and care homes. “We care deeply about the customers and communities we serve, and we are taking extra steps to protect our customers’ businesses during this extraordinary time,” said Hugues Delval, executive vice president, Service Business at KONE. “We have a responsibility to help keep society running and critical services operational. Nowhere is this more important than in the area of patient care.” Continued


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’S 2020

DEADLINE EXTENDED TO JULY 15 Send us your best shots and you could win one of many great prizes and be published in ELEVATOR WORLD magazine! We look forward to viewing the elevator world through your unique lens.

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HSE & HAS Position on Thorough Examinations During Pandemic The Safety Assessment Federation Ltd. (SAF) reported in March that the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) had outlined its position regarding thorough examination of lifts in relation to the coronavirus pandemic as follows: “Following the government’s recent announcement that we are now in the ‘delay’ phase of the COVID-19 outbreak, the HSE is advising owners of lifting equipment and, in particular, engineering companies [that] carry out the thorough examinations and testing of lifting equipment to note the following: ♦ Lifting equipment for the lifting of persons is carried out every six months with a dated report issued to the lift owner. The next six-month examination should take place on or before this date but not after. ♦ If no thorough examination has taken place prior to the date on the report, the lifting equipment should not be used until it has been examined by a competent person. ♦ However, if engineering companies are suffering shortages in their own resources, they should consider focusing their thorough examination of lifts on premises where the most vulnerable are located, such as hospitals and care homes where people may not be as able to use stairs, as opposed to shops and offices, where staff may be more able to do so. “Most premises have more than one lift, so some redundancy is already built in should a lift have to be taken out of use having gone beyond its examination date until an engineer is available to visit. “There is a higher risk of lifting equipment failure should it not be examined as per the six-month schedule, and dutyholders are expected to take all reasonably practicable steps to make sure their equipment complies with the law. HSE will keep the situation under review and does not have any plans to issue any exemptions to LOLER requirements.” In addition, SAF said HSA told it that: No derogation is being considered. A pragmatic approach should be used, and entering sites to conduct inspections should be under controlled circumstances considering the health perspective of those conducting the examinations. For example, examination companies should consider their workforce safety from a health standpoint as clients are. This could be done by preparing a risk assessment or adopting a company approach to ensure protection of workforce health, considering the risks posed in the environment in which the examinations will take place. If the examination of a piece of equipment is overdue, the responsibility is with the client, and a pragmatic approach should be adopted.


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Wittur Launches Webinars Wittur, which recently tweaked its logo to reflect social distancing, has launched a series of webinars about its latest components and projects. In the April 30 webinar, Safety Gears Project Manager Andreas Guster plans a presentation on the ESG electromechanical safety gear and will be available to answer questions.

Liftinstituut Offers Free Webinars on Functional Safety “Functional safety” has become an important consideration in the elevator industry, but many may not fully understand what the term means. Liftinstituut is organizing a series of four free webinars to shed light on the subject. The online gatherings will discuss the most common misconceptions and failures of functional safety, SIL and Programmable Electronic Safety Systems (PESS). PESS experts will introduce functional safety and its application to elevators. Each webinar lasts 1 hr and starts at 9 a.m. Eastern Daylight Time. For more information and to register, visit website. The topics are: “What Is Safety Integrity Level (SIL)?” (May 12), “The Bigger Picture of Functional Safety: The Interconnection of Standards” (May 26) and “What Is the FMEA (Failure Mode Effects Analysis)?” (June 9).

Help From Lerch Bates Elevator consulting firm Lerch Bates is offering “complimentary assistance on the systematic process for exercising your elevator and escalator equipment” during the ongoing COVID-19 situation, according to the company’s LinkedIn page, which also posts tips for equipment owners. Those interested in the service can contact their nearest Lerch Bates representative or email marketing@lerchbates.com.

Free Management Resource Website Given the interruption experienced by most businesses across the U.K. as a result of the coronavirus pandemic, Statius Management Services have created a resources website to help businesses during this period. The website is free and covers subjects including: ♦ Banking and finance ♦ People and human resources ♦ Homeworking and health and safety ♦ Homeworking and information security ♦ Help for kids Each section has a variety of information, links, checklists and downloads. It is updated regularly and can be found at www.statius.co.uk/a-sanitised-helping-hand

Update from Wittur Wittur said in an announcement that its Spanish factories are fully operational, and its Italian factories are partially up and running until restrictions are lifted. “This means we have reopened production and can begin to get on track with customer orders,” Wittur states. Contact Wittur at phone: 44 (0) 1352 707 470 and email spares.uk@wittur.com or sales.uk@ wittur.com. Continued

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BSC Offering Free Online Work-at-Home Training The British Safety Council (BSC), registered charity, is offering free online training through June 30 for home workers as the nation adjusts work habits to meet the threat of coronavirus. As millions of workers in Britain have set themselves up to work from home, they are forced to adjust to a new way of working that lacks the social interaction of the workplace. The courses include: ♦ Remote Workers’ Health Safety and Welfare. This course includes information about legal duties of remote working, guidance to reduce risk and planning for and managing emergencies. ♦ Mental Health: Start the Conversation. This course offers a comprehensive introduction to mental health and explores the link between pressure facing people at work and outside work that affects mental health. ♦ Managing Stress Within Your Team. This course highlights some of the pressures managers’ teams might face, helps managers become more aware of their own actions and behaviours, and, most importantly, helps them manage and reduce stress levels within their teams.

Speaking from his home office, BSC Chief Executive Mike Robinson said: “Even in normal times, it’s important for people’s well-being to make sure they are connected to their colleagues and their work if they are not coming into the workplace. At a time of serious anxiety in the life of our country, keeping an eye on your well-being and your colleagues’ well-being will be really important. It is our founding mission at BSC to ensure that nobody is injured or made ill through their work, and that includes people working from home in a national crisis. At times like these, every organisation needs to put aside commercial imperatives and focus on pulling together to do the right thing.” More information is available at britsafe.org. Continued

HS2 Seeks Suppliers for £465 M Lift, Escalator Contracts The HS2 high-speed rail network has launched a search for contractors to design, deliver and maintain almost 300 lifts and escalators for four major new stations, the system announced in April. The contracts, valued at up to £465 million, call for about 168 lifts and 128 escalators to be installed in the new stations in London and Birmingham, which will serve hundreds of thousands of passengers daily. The longest escalators will be at Old Oak Common, in west London, which will take passengers 13.5 m up from subsurface platforms to the concourse level. In total, the new station — where HS2 meets Crossrail services to Heathrow and the West End of London — will have more than 50 lifts and escalators. All the new stations will be built to the highest industry environmental standard — Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method (BREEAM) Excellent –- in terms of sustainable lifetime performance, and are designed to be zero-carbon facilities. Energy-efficient lifts and escalators will play a key role in achieving the standard. The contract will be divided into two separate packages for lifts and escalators, with the winners appointed to frameworks. This flexible approach will allow for

potential changes in the number of lifts and escalators ordered as station designs are finalised. Contracts, expected to be awarded next year, will include maintenance for 20 years. When complete, the HS2 network will serve eight of Britain’s 10 largest cities, and will halve travel time between London, Birmingham and points north.

A rendering shows a proposed escalator layout for HS2’s Old Oak Common station in west London. Continued


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British Safety Council Welcomes Government COVID-19 Help In a March 11 letter, the British Safety Council, a charity whose membership consists mostly of companies, praised the inclusion of £30 billion (US$37.3 billion) Chancellor of the Exchequer Rishi Sunak pledged to help businesses effected by the coronavirus pandemic in a budget “overshadowed by the [coronavirus] epidemic.” Measures include: ♦ Statuary sick pay being paid to those who choose to selfisolate, regardless of whether they are showing symptoms ♦ Enabling self-employed individuals to access support through the benefits system ♦ Enabling businesses that employ fewer than 250 to be reimbursed for two weeks of sick-pay ♦ Making loans available to small businesses ♦ Abolishing certain loan rates for businesses in the retail, leisure and hospitality industries that are particularly affected “We are in uncharted territory when it comes to the effect of the coronavirus outbreak on people and the economy,” British Safety Council Chief Executive Mike Robinson said. He added: “While I welcome some of the specific measures announced today, the outbreak raises important questions about the available support for workers who are unwell. Long before coronavirus, the British Safety Council called for changes to sick

pay to support the lowest paid, and we have been increasingly vocal about the negative impact of presenteeism and people workingg when they are ill. All our focus now must be on tackling the current crisis, and we will work with the government to minimise coronavirus’ worst effects. But, once the crisis is over, we will revisit the way we support unwell workers, and stem the tide of presenteeism.”

European Lift Congress Heilbronn Announced European Lift Congress Heilbronn has been scheduled for October 27-28 at the Heilbronn University of Applied Sciences in Heilbronn, Germany. Its theme, “Challenges and Chances,” focuses on the interdisciplinary world of elevator technology at the intersection of buildings and modern mechanical engineering, electrical engineering and information technologies of the future under the effects of progressing globalization. Efforts by the European Committee for Standardization will also be reported, and market susceptibility and how they operate in times of change will be examined in the form of examples for the European and Asian economic areas. Finally, a common topic is the lack of skilled labor, which the European Lift Association (ELA) has taken appropriate measures to counter. The event is chaired by Dr. Wolfram Vogel and supported by ELA, VDMA (German mechanical engineering association), VFA and VdTÜV.

TLA Facility Helps Stop “Dangerous Ladder Shipment” The Ladder Association (TLA) reported in April that its newly opened Test & Research Centre in Soham was instrumental in helping the Suffolk Trading Standards Imports Team prevent 266 dangerous ladders from entering the U.K. in March. “These dangerous ladders, likely destined for online sale to unsuspecting businesses and homeowners, could have compromised the safety of users and contributed to potential falls from height causing injury or worse,” remarked TLA. Trading Standards intercepted a suspicious shipment of ladders at Felixstowe and turned to the Test & Research Centre for assistance. The suspect shipment contained two ladder products that claimed to be compliant to the EN 131 ladder standard. Initially, the ladders were held at the port due to missing the name and address of the producer and batch identification, both offences under Regulation 7 of the General Product Safety Regulation.[1] However, on further examination, the Trading Standards Officers had other concerns about the ladders and put them through critical safety fault testing, where they failed vertical load, strength and opening restraint tests. John Darby, Test & Research Centre general manager, commented: “It has been several years hard work to get the Test & Research Centre to where it is now. The industry felt that


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there was a problem with imported ladders not meeting the standards. Above all, they felt strongly enough about it to support the start-up of the Test and Research Centre. It appears from this work that their concerns were correct. “Ladders fall under the General Product Safety Regulations in the U.K. Product producers and suppliers must ensure that products placed on the market are safe. If you are buying and importing ladders into the U.K., it is good practice to verify what the manufacturer has told you. Independent certification, together with batch testing, give suppliers confidence in the supply chain and would have prevented these dangerous products attempting to enter the UK.”


[1] www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2005/1803/regulation/7

"The FutuRe of veRtical TRanspoRtation In 2030"


2020 at

organized by: &




Charity News An Update on Your Industry Charity The lift industry charity celebrates 13 years The Lift Industry Charity is celebrating 13 years since it was formally recognised by the Charities Commission on May 31, 2007, as charity number 1119434. Those 13 years have seen the charity helping many families in accordance with its mission statement of “The relief of financial hardship and provision of appropriate support where required to industry colleagues and their families who have been injured whilst working or employed within the industry”. The charity exists to help financially but not to judge causation of injury. Very often injured parties are in their early to mid-career years and have young families which is where the charity provides essential support. Over the years the charity has paid out many thousands of pounds to numerous families. For obvious reasons we cannot go into the individual details of cases but we have received many letters of thanks from families that we have supported. It has been an interesting 13 years and the role of the charity continues to grow and knowledge of its existence has increased over that period of time. We raise the money we need to support people through various fund-raising events and in particular this year we are lucky to benefit from the raffle and auction for the lift industry annual karting event. It is vital that we retain sufficient funds to be able to respond quickly when one of our industry colleagues needs us. We have recently been able to support a lift engineer and his family whose home was destroyed by fire late at night. We cannot imagine how you wold feel after such an event when you have lost your home and all of its contents. The good news is that the family survived the fire however they have sustained serious burns. The charity stepped in to make an immediate initial payment to the family to help them on the long road to rebuilding their lives. Trustees are: ♦ Alan Warren (A&A) Chairman ♦ Ish Buckingham (Adept) Treasurer ♦ Dave Cooper (LECS UK LTD) Secretary ♦ Lee Dean (LECS UK LTD) ♦ Ray Davies (De Graaff) ♦ James Edge (TLS) ♦ Mark Woods (Statius) ♦ Reiss Stygal (A&A) ♦ Philip Rudd (Jackson Lifts) Any of the Trustees would be happy to talk about the role of the charity and what it does with you. We are really pleased with our first 13 years and whilst we prefer it when accidents don’t occur in the first place we are well placed to respond when they do occur. Please visit the charity website www.liftindustrycharity.co.uk where all the details of the charity, including the Trustees, and how to donate, can be found.

Share your news with us. To submit content, email editorial@elevatorworlduk.com


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23 - 24 September 2020 www.liftsymposium.org


Coronavirus: Likely Effects on Your Company and How Best to Mitigate Them Submitted by Hawkswell Kilvington Ltd. The impact of the coronavirus outbreak has been felt by businesses at every corner of the globe, and the U.K. construction industry is far from immune. With the recent announcement from Public Health England that widespread transmission of the disease in the U.K. is “highly likely” in the coming weeks and months, we consider what this might mean for you and your construction company.

Potential Implications of Coronavirus on a Construction Project There are two main ways by which coronavirus is likely to impact the U.K. construction projects (and, in turn, companies). The first is by causing problems along the supply chain. Most projects will rely on the provision of materials, components or services from China or another impacted country at some stage. Many of the suppliers in question have been forced to suspend operations. It will not be long before the significant effects of this are felt in the U.K. The second is the risk that a company’s workforce becomes infected. At the time of this writing, government guidelines state certain individuals should self-isolate, and, as construction workers cannot work from home like those in other sectors, this is likely to have a significant effect on a project. Both issues are likely to affect a company’s ability to perform its obligations under a construction contract.

Potential Commercial Implications The serious and inevitable impact coronavirus is having on parties up and down the construction chain has been evidenced by changes in the stock market. It was reported in Construction News in March that the that combined share value of Balfour Beatty, Kier, Morgan Sindall and Costain had dropped by £325 million from Monday to Friday. Large housebuilders were also reported to have been affected, with Persimmon, Barratt, Taylor Wimpy, Vistry and Berkeley suffering a £4.5-billion combined drop in market value.

hygiene and encouraging employees to carry tissues to cover their mouths if they cough/sneeze. Upcoming business trips should also be reviewed.

Create Continuity Plans The second step is to come up with continuity plans to minimize the disruption to projects. This may involve surveying suppliers and planning for material shortages, considering options to offset short-term cash-flow issues, keeping up-todate with government announcements that may assist/advise and reviewing how best to counteract a potential shortage of manpower.

Review Live Contracts The third step is to review the contracts currently being worked under. Consider your company’s rights and obligations. If your company cannot perform its obligations under a contract due to the coronavirus outbreak, it could potentially amount to a breach of contract. The consequences of that potential breach for your business will depend on the terms of the contract — particularly, whether it protects you against the risk of an epidemic.

How Your Contract Might Protect You and the Position in the Common Standard Forms Where your project has been delayed by coronavirus, you may be entitled to claim an extension of time and additional payment from your employer. This will depend on how the contract deals with the risk of epidemic/disease, directly or indirectly.


There are several steps that companies should take without delay to mitigate harm the outbreak may cause.

The NEC suite of contracts does not specifically deal with epidemics; however, a potential argument is that the effects of an epidemic fall under NEC3 clause 60.1(19). Under this clause, a contractor is entitled to claim a compensation event whereby an event which neither party could have prevented, and had such a small chance of occurring that it would have been unreasonable to have allowed for it, stops the contractor completing the works at all and/or in accordance with the “Accepted Programme.”

Ensure Employee Safety


Steps to Take Now to Mitigate the Effect on Your Company

The first step is to attempt to avoid the spread of the virus and focus on the safety of employees by deciding on a company policy for situations whereby an employee may be infected and making employees aware of the same. It may also be useful to provide employees with guidance on prevention, i.e., hand


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The JCT suite of contracts is, likewise, silent on epidemics. However, it allows for an extension of time (and, thus, relief from liquidated damages) for force majeure. “Force majeure” is not defined in the JCT, so its meaning is open to interpretation; however, the widely replied-upon definition, approved in

COVID-19 ADVICE Lebeaupin v Crispin, states, “All circumstances independent to the will of man and which is not in his power to control. . . thus, war, inundations and epidemics are cases of force majeure. . . .” Notably, “Any direct legislative or administrative interference” would also fall within the scope of force majeure.

FIDIC The 1999 Conditions of Contract for Construction (aka the “FIDIC Red Book”) clause 8.4(d) specifically allows for an extension of time in the event of “unforeseeable shortages in the availability of personnel or goods by epidemic or governmental actions.” Whilst the above is the position in the unamended standard forms, schedules of amendments commonly amend risk allocation, meaning parties should be careful to check the precise wording of contracts.

How Common Law Might Protect You If your contract does not provide protection as above, a last port of call may be the common-law doctrine of frustration. This doctrine provides that, where a change of circumstances makes performance of the contract physically or commercially impossible, a party is discharged from its obligations under a contract. Cases whereby frustration is successfully relied upon are rare. However, the serious effects of the coronavirus pandemic may well give rise to such a scenario.

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Practical Considerations — Act Now! A party will undoubtedly need to jump through certain hoops within its contract to secure the protection outlined above. These hoops may include notifying its employer of the circumstance leading to it making a claim within a certain period of becoming aware of it. If this is the case, notice should be given now. Further requirements may include submitting revised programs outlining delay, submitting early warning notices and submitting regular progress reports. Complying with such requirements will be key to mitigating the overall effects of the pandemic on a company and should be identified and addressed as soon as possible.

Comment Whilst this article has provided general guidance, we strongly recommend seeking legal advice as to a party’s protection/obligations in any specific contract likely to be affected. This will allow a party to protect its position by flagging specific obligations with which it is required to comply, thereby ensuring additional costs/extensions of time will be available when required. This article contains information of general interest about current legal issues, but does not provide legal advice. It is prepared for the general information of our clients and other interested parties. This article should not be relied upon in any specific situation without appropriate legal advice. If you require legal advice on any of the issues raised in this article, please contact one of our specialist construction lawyers. © Hawkswell Kilvington Ltd. 2020

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2020/2 Issue 103 • ELEVATOR WORLD UK



A Strange, and Different, New World Your author puts the current crisis and its implications for our industry into context.


by Colin Craney n the last issue of ELEVATOR WORLD UK, I wrote of the prospects for the industry, together with some of the likely forthcoming changes, challenges and opportunities, and expressed optimism about the future of the industry and its capacity to develop in response to changes in the wider environment. That was less than nine weeks ago. The global external environment now looks less rosy. However, things come and go. I’ve worked through the Three-Day Week, the Winter of Discontent, the recessions of the early 1980s, the exchange-ratedriven downturn of the late 1980s/early 1990s, the dot-com boom and bust during 1999 and 2000, which was quickly followed by 9/11, and, more recently, the financial crash of 2007-2009, the effects of which remain unresolved. The very fact I am here at all is a substantiation of my grandfather’s patient fortitude in surviving six years of World War I and, in its immediate wake, the 1918 Spanish flu pandemic, which history indicates was very similar in effect and response to our current crisis. While the current crisis is serious, it has arrived and it will go, and the world will go on, although perhaps not in its previous socio-political-economic guise. But, go on it will. Indeed, the indication from figures 1 and 2, which highlight the different forms of recession and associated durations, is that the economic fallout from this event may prove not as destructive

Figure 1: Types of Recessions & Economic Impact; courtesy Goldman Sachs


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or enduring as that of the 1929 and 2007 structural recessions. While the good news is that the economy inevitably bounces back, the difficulty has always been that things change thereafter. I have no doubt this will hold true as we emerge from the current crisis and start to feel our way forward. As nation states strive to respond to the immediacy of the crisis, it seems inevitable that questions will be asked about the role of governments and national leaders in relation to the efficacy of their responses, or, in some cases, lack thereof. Questions will also be asked related to the extent to which states were prepared, particularly given this event was not wholly unforeseen, unforeseeable or without precedent. On the whole, the people of the U.K., together with our healthcare institutions, have responded magnificently, with everyone rallying around the need to do what is necessary in response to the crisis. Regardless of all the problems and risks, shortages of equipment and lack of preparedness, the National Health Service (NHS) staff have performed miracles.


Figure 2: Depths of Recessions; “ONS Total Fall in GDP,” EconomicsHelp.org.

Unfortunately, the same cannot be said of our government. For at least 10 years now, NHS has been beset by political interference, underfunding and fallout from governmentsupported — but mismanaged — capital investment projects, including the failure of Carillion and the effect this had on a number of major hospital development projects. Despite the promises made back in 2010, austerity policies promoted by the last four governments have failed. Indeed, it is only in the face of the likely consequence of this failure that the current government began to espouse policies based on investment in our industries and public services, and in those regions of the country that were left behind. This has been lacking for too long. Regardless of socio-political ideologies, it is the state (in all affected nations) that is required to step to the fore in times of crisis. The “Free Market=Good” and “State/Public-Sector=Bad” mantra, which has been overplayed for too many years now, seems nonsensical in times of crisis. It is the state, principally the NHS, that is called upon to deal with the crisis, while our ministers of state appear inept and incompetent in organising supplies, communicating and managing the situation. The old saying, “in times of crisis the state really is the bank of last resort,” is true. In the daily television briefings it is the explanations, advice and support provided by NHS managers and scientists that have been exemplary, to the extent that it is little short of embarrassing to observe these good people standing alongside our political leaders, who we see looking helpless and inept. If government has not performed well, then it is heartening to note that the great majority of private-sector employers (with only a few, perhaps predictable, exceptions) have opted to

forego dividend payouts and support their employees and workforces as best they can, and with welcome support from the Treasury. Responsible government and leadership require that those in power act in the best interests of their people, regardless of ideological considerations, to ensure the nation state maintains the level of preparedness necessary to deal with foreseeable, but rare and/or unpredictable events. For some years, this duty has been ignored — and perhaps even considered oldfashioned or redundant — in light of technology and freemarket ideologies. The reality is that these allegedly oldfashioned concepts of risk management reflect a proper approach to government, the application of which is essential in technologically developed societies. It seems that nature has readily exposed the limits of technology, together with our lack of preparedness. As the world emerges from the crisis, the different responses and approaches adopted by different countries (which, as I write, appear to be producing different outcomes) will no doubt become the yardstick by which leadership is measured. Let us hope that the U.K. is not seen lacking in this respect. So what, then, are the prospects for the future? The world economy, including that of the U.K., will inevitably fall into recession. I say inevitably because the shutdown of trade for such an extended period is certain to generate the technical elements of a recession. However, economic history indicates that the effects of event-driven recessions, as opposed to those arising from structural or cyclical factors, tend to be less destructive in overall effect and longevity, and have quicker recoveries (Figures 1 and 2). Continued

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CONSULTANT’S VOICE Let us hope that this is case here, albeit that, during the transition period, extensive state support of industry and commerce will be required. Supply chains (the supermarkets), have held up well and should pull through relatively well. While law firms continue to operate, albeit in a restricted form, the insolvency and force majeure and delay claims, together with insurance-related business disruption claims, should keep them occupied for years to come. Inevitably, our industry firms are adversely affected by the financial effects and disruptive nature of the crisis. While government has promised extensive aid and support, it absolutely must deliver this, supporting our public services, firms and infrastructure in whatever ways required, to kickstart the economy and return us to our social norms as soon as it is safe to do so. During the 2007 recession, the construction sector lost many people, many of whom left the workforce never to return, depleting what was already a seriously weak workforce. We have, hopefully, learned from this and firms have retained their workforces. However, many of the foreign workers who were in the U.K. prior to the crisis have, understandably, returned home. Throughout the country, we have big buildings awaiting completion, with more on the planning boards. The country is in dire need of infrastructure upgrades, which government must ensure receives the necessary financial and planning support. A new construction sector workforce and operating structure, which will be required to support the firms that survive the current crisis (regardless of negative press reporting, the U.K. retains a number of very strong construction firms), will become critical in terms of moving forward and recovering from recession. The thorny question of Brexit must also be considered. Whilst it was always recognised that the U.K. was not financially well-positioned to undertake Brexit, one must wonder whether, and how, such a significant step can now be taken and, in light of the crisis and the enforced realisation that we are not an island immune from world events, whether the whole Brexit proposition is desirable and/or achievable. The single priority of government must be the immediate and rapid restart of the economy. For example, an immediate concern, affecting all European countries, relates to the availability of labour for coming food harvests. Our industry may be considered a microcosm of the wider economy, and firms will need support to bounce back. I note a level of bitching in relation to alleged improper operating practices by certain industry firms, which appear in the main to affect the statutory inspection sector. Whilst such complaints or whinges may, or may not, attract some element of credence, the general atmosphere of bitching and backbiting during a time of crisis is unseemly. When the world economy restarts, we have regulatory changes, technological developments and operational management changes still to come. These have not gone away. The Grenfell Inquiry, together with the outcome (if there is one) of the government review of construction industry payment


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practices, will be concluded, and will bring about structural changes in management, technology, materials application and working practices, to prevail upon what is already a somewhat beleaguered industry. Otis and thyssenkrupp are now private firms. The effect of the restructuring of two massive, internationally operating firms, coupled with the fallout from the crisis, can only have a significant disruptive effect on industry structure. The industry’s customer base will change. In the retail sector, many firms, attracted by management school theory, sold their accumulated property portfolios to lease them back and release capital to, for example, shareholders, or used them for investment. The outcome is substantially weakened firms which, in the case of unforeseen events in the external environment, are no longer able to generate revenues sufficient to meet their lease-and-debt costs together with a profit. A number of retailers will therefore disappear. Leveraged financial takeovers of successful businesses provide little benefit for consumers (prices do not fall, and services do not improve, and often, deteriorate) and result only in a weakened business and a reduced service/product offering. Venture capital, in its original form, applied to the development of new technologies, industries and innovation, and provided a basis for entrepreneurs to develop businesses. Its extension into the wider business environment has not benefited markets or consumers, and, in times like these, firms are exposed to untenable levels of debt. Figure 3 highlights how cycles of technological innovation and development change economies and the basis of competition, and, in doing so, disrupt established socioeconomic norms and how such changes tend to coincide with significant socioeconomic upheavals. What have we learned, or perhaps relearned, from the COVID-19 event? Well, we are social beings and the lockdown has hopefully put paid to the idea that technology and the internet can run the world. It is the people who count, and who must be considered at the forefront of policymaking. In recent years, our high streets have suffered due to the concept that internet retailing is now the predominant means of transaction. However, markets have, since time immemorial, been places where people meet and socialise alongside the conduct of trade. Whilst our retailers have undoubtedly suffered during the crisis, an opportunity arises to rethink retailing and, given people’s sense of value in their social environment, is likely to be reinvigorated by the lock-down (as I write, I am approaching stir-crazy), opportunity presents itself. We must also ensure that the economic bounce-back is inclusive and that the socioeconomic inequalities and divides that have beset our nation and its different regions are addressed and corrected. In this crisis, it has so often been the lower-paid workers who have been called upon to the provide the essential care and bear the associated risks (often without the necessary personal protective equipment). This must not go unrecognised or unaddressed.


Figure 3: “The Sixth Kondratieff: Long Waves of Prosperity” Allianz Global Investors, Analysis & Trends, January 2010.

Overall, and regardless of political ideologies, as we enter the so-called sixth Kondratieff and its envisaged technological and healthcare innovations, we are presented with an opportunity to engage in a considered review of our future, together with a new start and socioeconomic rebuilding, which we should not allow to pass us by. Pull quotes: While the good news is that the economy inevitably bounces back, the difficulty has always been that things change thereafter. I have no doubt this will hold true as we emerge from the current crisis and start to feel our way forward. As the world emerges from the crisis, the different responses and approaches adopted by different countries will no doubt become the yardstick by which leadership is measured. Whilst such complaints or whinges may, or may not, attract some element of credence, the general atmosphere of bitching and backbiting during a time of crisis is unseemly.

Colin Craney has 42 years of industry experience, initially in a number of field and management roles with Otis, followed by 17 years in consulting, currently for SVM Associates. Colin is a U.K. chartered engineer and fellow of CIBSE, European engineer, chartered safety and health practitioner, accredited consultant on the HSE Occupational Safety and Health Consultants Register and a member of the Chartered Institution of Occupational Safety and Health. Colin is a barrister, having been called to the bar by the Honourable Society of the Middle Temple. Colin is a Fellow of the Charted Institute of Arbitrators, an accredited mediator and a chartered manager and fellow of the Chartered Management Institute. Colin has been appointed in relation to hundreds of failure investigations, regulatory enforcement prosecutions, commercial claims and disputes. Areas of interest and expertise include the EC Directives, law and regulatory compliance applicable to the lift industry, management, health and safety in the lift industry, CDM 2015 principal designer, authorising engineer under NHS HTM 08-02, the modernisation of historical lift installations, lift and escalator related dilapidations and landlord and tenant disputes, competition and intellectual property law, incident and failure investigation, alternative dispute resolution and expert witness. Colin Craney is a forensic and consultant engineer, accredited mediator, management consultant and chartered safety and health practitioner with SVM Associates, a practice of independent lift and escalator and building services consulting engineers. He may be contacted at colin.craney@svma.co.uk. 2020/2 Issue 103 • ELEVATOR WORLD UK


Ship escalator in plan view


Locks, lifts, inclines? Your author offers a brand new idea for overcoming differences in water level. by Marcel Hermans Going to the 28th floor of an office building is something that should be done by use of a lift. But crowds shopping in department stores or commuting through train or subway stations are better served by escalators to travel to a different floor. And, within your own home, you most certainly have neither of those, but just stairs. The rationale behind all of this applies equally to boaters touring the world’s waterways. An analogy of this same principle has led to the development of a completely new concept for lockage of vessels: the ship escalator. Although the average recreational boater may look upon the passage of a lock as an interesting and exciting part of the trip, waterway designers and engineers analyse it as just an aspect of traffic. Two main aspects for analysing and understanding traffic are travel speed and capacity.

Lift or Escalator? Using escalators to travel 28 floors can become a timeconsuming experience (speed limitation), just like replacing the escalator in a subway station by a single lift will undoubtedly result in crowds backing up at both ends (capacity limitation). Lifts are good to bridge great height differences fairly quickly, but have a very limited capacity, while escalators on the other hand don’t move fast but have a high capacity because of their continuous motion. A regular shiplock is in that sense almost identical to a lift: traffic is transported vertically in a separate ‘cage’ that can also be used for traffic in the opposite direction after its doors are opened. High


Elevation - difference

Parallel cascade-locks or Parallel elevators High

Ship elevator or Cascade-locks




Elevation - difference


Low The ship escalator is particularly well suited for situations with high traffic volumes and low elevation differences (in a similar manner as functionality of regular escalators compared to lifts and stairs).


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Traffic - volume


Traffic - volume

Ship escalator

Multiple parallel elevators


Lift Low

Total length of construction Doors Mooring slot Central island Mooring slot

Cell length

Water basin 1

Water basin 2

The main elements of a ship escalator

The newly developed concept of the ship escalator works almost identically to a regular escalator. Boats are raised or lowered in a steady on-going continuous motion, proceeding to their individual compartment lined up behind each other.

And what it takes to keep the doors moving isn’t as bad as it may seem either. The doors are all linked to each other through a chain around the central island, so the hydro-static forces on the doors that move towards the upper basin are compensated by the forces on the doors moving in the Non-Stop Locking other direction. These doors, by the way, Here is how it works: also guarantee that the chains on the two An arriving boat lines up next to and sidewalls with the mooring slots keep the then ties off to one of the mooring slots exact same speed as those doors. While on the sidewall of the structure. moving forward through either canal of These mooring slots are attached to a the ship escalator, each door is locked sort of chain that turns around the into position on the chain around the sidewall and are thus slowly moving in sidewall assuring synchrony and good the direction of traffic. The mooring slot water sealing. - with boat - is automatically pulled Another interesting aspect is that the forward through a canal into the central mooring slots could easily be equipped A Ship Escalator connecting two lakes part of the structure, where doors close in with a safety feature like the ones used in front and behind the boat. ski lifts, where the mooring slot would only start moving As soon as the one door behind the boat is closed, the water forward into the actual heart of the ship escalator when a boat level in this now fully enclosed cell (that still maintains the is safely and correctly moored to it. same slow forward movement) gets raised at a constant pace. Reprinted from Waterways World, May 2002. And, just a few minutes later, the cell reaches the upper basin, the door in front of the boat opens and turns around the corner of the central island. However simple and effective this concept may sound, The boat, while still slowly being pulled forward along the the idea of a ship escalator is just that, a concept. Invented sidewall, can now be released from the mooring slot and is free by Marcel Hermans in 1996, the concept received its first to sail at its own speed again in the upper basin. And in the publication in the technical literature for Waterway canal at the other side of the central island, the same process is Engineering upon completion of a technical feasibility study taking place at the same time but in the opposite direction. in the Netherlands in 1999. This article followed in May 2002 in the boating magazine Waterways World, which is where Let Nature Do The Work it was recently discovered by your UK editor. When we At first glance, this way to raise or lower ships to a different contacted the author, Hermans, he said: elevation may seem quite laborious. From a technical “I’m glad that the concept of the ship escalator is not perspective, however, it’s not that bad at all. The whole system totally lost in history and forgotten about. It’s nice to hear is based on equilibrium and, in that sense, manages well to let that after all those years it’s still something that fascinates nature do most of the work. The volume of water needed to some people that happen to read about it.” raise the cells in the one direction equals the volume of surplus The full technical paper is an interesting read, with much water from the cells being lowered. Therefore, a set of pipes more technical detail for those that like a more in-depth through the central island with simple pressure valves is all it read. You can find the paper on our website at www. takes to accomplish the very smooth water exchange. With elevatorworlduk.com/online-extras/ that, the continuous movement of the door is all it takes to We would love to hear your comments on this interesting guarantee the right water levels are obtained and maintained concept. Send your comments to editorial@elevatorworlduk. at all times. com 2020/2 Issue 103 • ELEVATOR WORLD UK



Can an Employer be Liable for an Employee’s Data Protection Breach? Guidance From The UK Supreme Court Submitted by Hawkswell Kilvington Ltd. Can an employer be held vicariously liable for unauthorised breaches of the Data Protection Act 1998 (the “DPA 1998”) committed by an employee? The UK Supreme Court sets the record straight in a case where a Wm Morrison Supermarkets plc’s (“Morrisons”) disgruntled employee uploads details of nearly 100,000 Morrisons’ employees’ onto a publicly accessible website.

Background Mr Skelton was employed by Morrisons as a senior auditor in Morrisons’ internal audit team. In July 2013 he was given a verbal warning for minor misconduct, but this led to Mr Skelton harbouring an irrational grudge against Morrisons. Subsequently, in preparation for Morrisons’ regular external audit, the auditors, KPMG, requested payroll data from Morrisons to test their accuracy. The task of collating and transmitting the data was given to Mr Skelton. To enable him to carry out the task, he was given access to the payroll data relating to the whole of Morrisons’ workforce (around 126,000 employees). After providing the data to KPMG, Mr Skelton copied the data onto a USB stick, which he took home, and posted the data on the internet, sending the data to three national newspapers. None of the newspapers published the data, but one did alert Morrisons. Morrisons immediately took steps to remove the data from the internet, contacted the police and started an internal investigation. Mr Skelton was arrested a few days later and sentenced to eight years imprisonment.

What Was Being Claimed? The claimants were 9,263 of Morrisons’ employees or former employees who claimed Morrisons was either primarily or vicariously liable for Mr Skelton’s wrongful conduct and therefore, claimed damages for misuse of private information and breach of confidence, and breach of its statutory duty under s 4(4) of the DPA 1998. S 4(4) of the DPA 1998 requires a data controller to comply with eight principles of data protection, and s 13(1) of the DPA 1998 entitles any victim of a breach of the DPA 1998 to receive compensation for that damage.

What is Vicarious Liability? Vicarious liability is a doctrine where an employer will be liable for torts committed by its employee where there is a sufficient connection between the employment and the wrongdoing. There is a two-stage test:


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1) Is there a relationship between the primary wrongdoer and the person alleged to be liable that is capable of giving rise to vicarious liability? 2) Is the connection between the employment and the wrongful act so close that it would be just and reasonable to impose liability?

The High Court’s Decision In the first instance, the High Court dismissed the claim under s 4(4) of the DPA 1998 and found that Morrisons was not primarily liable for Mr Skelton’s actions as it had not directly misused or permitted the misuse of any personal information of its employees. However, in deciding whether Morrisons was vicariously liable for Mr Skelton’s actions, the High Court considered the Supreme Court’s decision in Mohamud v Wm Morrison Supermarkets plc [2016], in which it was held that Morrisons was vicariously liable for an employee’s unprovoked violent assault on a customer because there was such a close connection between the employee’s job role of attending to customers and the assault. After considering this, the High Court held that there was a sufficient connection between how Mr Skelton was employed and his wrongful conduct, resulting in Morrisons being held vicariously liable for Mr Skelton’s actions.

Court of Appeal Morrisons appealed to the Court of Appeal and submitted that:

1) the DPA 1998 impliedly excludes the application of vicarious liability of the employer for the misuse of private information or breach of the duty of confidence; and 2) the wrongful acts of Mr Skelton did not occur during his employment and, therefore, Morrisons could not be vicariously liable for those wrongful acts. The Court of Appeal dismissed the appeal, concluding that the High Court was right in deciding that the task given to Mr Skelton by Morrisons included the sending of data to third parties. Court of Appeal also considered the Supreme Court’s decision in Mohamud, in which it was stated that the employee’s motive was irrelevant and therefore, the fact that Mr Skelton was trying to harm Morrisons in carrying out the act, did not prevent Morrisons from being vicariously liable for his actions. The Court of Appeal also concluded that vicarious liability for misuse of private information and breach of confidence was not expressly or impliedly excluded by the DPA 1998.


Supreme Court Morrisons further appealed to the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court held that the Court of Appeal had misunderstood the principles of vicarious liability and allowed Morrisons’ appeal. The Supreme Court considered the relevant question to be whether Mr Skelton’s act of disclosing the data was so closely connected to the acts he had been employed to do that, for the purposes of Morrisons’ liability to third parties, the disclosure may be regarded as made while acting in the ordinary course of his employment. The connecting factor between what Mr Skelton was authorised to do and the disclosure is that he could not have made the disclosure if he had not been given the task of collating the data and transmitting it to KPMG. It was the provision of the data to him so that he could perform that task that enabled him to make a private copy of the data, which he subsequently used to make the disclosure. However, the Supreme Court considered the fact that Mr Skelton’s employment presented him with the opportunity to disclose the information did not justify the finding of vicarious liability. Further, it is not common for an employer to be found vicariously liable when an employee is pursuing a personal vendetta. Therefore, on the facts, the “close connection” test had not been satisfied. Although the Supreme Court had found there was no vicarious liability, for completeness, it still expressed its view on Morrisons’ assertion that the DPA 1998 excluded vicarious liability. Morrisons had argued DPA 1998 impliedly excluded the vicarious liability of an employer in these circumstances because s13 of the DPA 1998 provided that liability was only to be imposed on data controllers who had acted without reasonable care. The court rejected this argument and considered it irrelevant that the statutory liability of a data controller under the DPA 1998 is based on reasonable care, whereas vicarious liability is not based on fault.

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Analysis This decision has provided some much-needed clarity on the scope of vicarious liability. It represents mostly good news for employers in that employers will not always be held vicariously liable for the acts of its disgruntled employees. However, it is important to remember that the Supreme Court was not persuaded by Morrisons’ argument that the DPA 1998 excludes vicarious liability. Therefore, if the “close connection” test was satisfied, it remains possible for an employer to be vicariously liable for a data breach. This article contains information of general interest about current legal issues, but does not provide legal advice. It is prepared for the general information of our clients and other interested parties. This article should not be relied upon in any specific situation without appropriate legal advice. If you require legal advice on any of the issues raised in this article, please contact one of our specialist construction lawyers. © Hawkswell Kilvington Ltd. 2020

more details on

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Celebrating Eight Years Since the U.K’s First Urban Cable Car With the Tokyo 2021 Olympic Games on the horizon, LECS (UK) looks back on the delivery of London’s iconic cable-car transport for the London 2012 Summer Olympics. submitted by LECS (UK) The Emirates Air Line cable car is the U.K.’s first and only urban cable car. It provides a low-emission, quick, direct and accessible link across the River Thames. Announced in July 2010, it was completed two years later, in time for the 2012 London Summer Olympics. Travelling between two terminals at Greenwich Peninsula and Royal Victoria Docks, it links the O2 arena in Greenwich, south London, and the ExCel London exhibition centre at the Royal Docks. The system consists of 36 cabins, of which 34 are in use at any given time. Each cabin can carry up to 10 passengers. The cable spans a total of 1,100 m, and is supported by two 90-m, 570-mT towers. The system can operate at speeds up to 6 m/s. At that speed, a complete, one-way crossing takes 4 min, 14 s. It now forms part of London’s transport infrastructure. Service operator Transport for London (TfL) estimates the system can carry up to 2,500 people per hour in each direction. As the chief technical advisor to the Department for Transport (DfT) on this project, Eur. Ing. Dave Cooper reviewed The huge crane used to construct the south tower


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some of the engineering challenges encountered and the creative solutions developed. “Analysts considered all options for a transport system, including a bridge, a water-based transport system and a tunnel, Dave Cooper said. “The cable car was selected as the preferred option for a number of reasons, including cost, speed of build and aesthetics.”

LECS (UK)’s Role On the back of more than 30 years’ experience working on complex cable-car and vertical-transportation systems throughout the world, LECS was appointed chief technical advisor to the DfT. LECS (UK) has advised on numerous cable-car installations, and is a leading expert on accidents and failures involving this type of equipment. Dave Cooper said: “As technical advisor, LECS (UK) was responsible for approving the design and ensuring it was compliant with Cableway Installations Regulations 2004. The project had huge technical challenges, as well as high-profile stakeholders and enormous public expectation. The unique aspects of the project called for some innovative construction techniques, and was an exceptionally exciting project to be involved in.” The erection of the South Tower called for installation of the largest lifting capacity crawler crane in Europe. The crawler crane was delivered by more than 70 articulated lorries. It ran on tracks — not wheels — to aid mobility, and was assembled on-site in two weeks. When assembled, its reach was 120 m with a height of 183 m. The huge temporary structure had a maximum lifting capacity of 1,350 mT — the equivalent of 193 Routemaster buses. The immense lift capacity was required to lift the huge pieces of each tower section, weighing up to 68 mT each, into place. “LECS undertook rigorous testing and commissioning to ensure compliance with statutory requirements and European standards to a Stage 2 sign off under the requirements of the Regulations,” Dave Cooper said.

The transportation system consists of a continuous single rope measuring 50 mm to which up to 34 cabins can be attached. The system is incredibly efficient and, as with a traction elevator system, must provide power only to move the out-of-balance load when the cabins are out on the line and equally spaced. It is fully accessible for persons with mobility impairments and allows cabins to come to a stand for loading and unloading. To achieve this, an anti-collision system was designed into the software to prevent cabins coming into contact with each other. Continued

About the Project

Client: Transport for London Ultimate Asset Owner: Docklands Light Railway (DLR) Contractor: Mace Group Architect: Aedas System Subcontractor: Doppelmayr Seilbahnen GmbH Statutory Authority: Government of the United Kingdom, DfT Consultant to Statutory Authority: LECS(UK) Ltd./Dave Cooper Consultants to DLR: Neil Thompson, Tim Whittome Structural Engineers: Buro Happold (now AECOM) Mechanical Engineering: URS Scott Wilson

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Challenges Design and Construction of Towers The first challenge was how to construct the two main towers (both 86-m tall and weighing 570 mT) to accommodate the river crossing and one smaller intermediate tower measuring more than 65 m in height and weighing 270 mT. Dave Cooper said it was not only the towers’ size that made construction so challenging, but also that one tower had to be positioned in the river. In addition, he said, exacting stability was essential to operate the cable cars. The design of the towers, using a complex helix structure to link the four steel ribbons, assisted in providing this stability. The towers, made up of approximately 6,500 pieces of steel of varying thicknesses of 30-50 mm, were welded together and connected to helical tubes running inside the tower. This provided the required stiffness. There are three main towers and two compression towers. The main towers support the system at height, and the compression towers provide rope diversion from the stations to the head of the towers. Three towers were provided to facilitate a 51-m-tall ship to pass underneath the system at high tide. The only way the line could be maintained at a height to meet the tall-ship criteria was to introduce a third tower. The towers are 86 m tall, and their “baby sister” (the north intermediate tower), stands 65 m.

South tower

The project had huge technical challenges, as well as high-profile stakeholders and enormous public expectation.

— Dave Cooper, project chief technical advisor, LECS (UK)

Getting the Cable in Place Another challenge was how to pull the cable between the terminals via the towers, over the Royal Victoria Dock and across the River Thames. This constituted a highly complex and intricate part of construction. Boats were used to make the initial rope connection. This was eventually replaced with the cable itself. The cable was pulled into place and tensioned using a 12-mT winch located on the platform of the South Terminal. The cable was clamped and secured at each terminal and tensioned to gain a minimum clearance of 54 m above the mean high watermark. The system has a traction sheave and a return pulley/diverter sheave that is tensioned in a similar fashion to an escalator step chain. Once


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Return pulley/diverter sheave

View from the cabins between the south tower and the station

the cable was tensioned to the correct height, the next step was to carry out the rigorous testing and commissioning process for the whole system.

Risk from Vessels There is also the potential for an out-ofcontrol vessel to strike a tower, causing damage to the system. While the risk was assessed as incredibly low, a ship-impact system was employed to divert risk from the towers.

The Weather During the build, the U.K. experienced its worst period of inclement weather since records began. The construction team had to contend with exceptionally heavy rain and a period of snow.

In the Event of Failure The system was designed so that, in the event of failure, all passengers could be retrieved in a timely manner. The ultimate design allows for a huge amount of redundancy and system support, including an innovative emergency bearing system that was incorporated in case of a bearing failure on the main traction and tensioning sheaves. The bearing design was developed specifically for this project and is the first time it has been used. The success of the design means it is being adopted for future cable-car projects around the world. The system is fully accessible to passengers in wheelchairs, with bikes and with pushchairs.

Wheelchair-bound passenger

Awards ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦

The project scooped numerous awards including: Award for Infrastructure or Transportation Structures Institution of Structural Engineers Structural Award, 2013 Structural Steel Design Awards, 2013 ELEVATOR WORLD Project of the Year, 2013

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Focus on Residential Lifts and Accessibility

Stannah Supplies Wheelchair Lift for Historic Castle Submitted by Stannah When the administration of Castle Howard in North Yorkshire needed to replace a wheelchair platform lift, it turned to Stannah and their Stairiser CR (Curved Rail) model for installation in the stately edifice, which has been the home of the Howard family for more than 300 years. Matthew Nicholson, Head of Commercial Operations at Castle Howard, noted: “The previous lift was supplied by an overseas supplier. Whilst it had served us well it had come to the point where it was unreliable and repair parts had become impossible to source. The lift had been in place for many years, and with the high volume of paying visitors (more than 250,000 each year) it was business-critical that we replaced it. “We approached three main suppliers, including the company who were maintaining the existing lift for us. All of the suppliers had experience in installing stairisers into Grade I-listed buildings. Stannah is recognised as a U.K. market leader in this area and was the most competitively priced. The schedule of works from point of ordering was also a key issue, and Stannah was able to meet our timescales. “In keeping with English Heritage guidelines, our conservation architect, curator and the Howard family insisted that no further drill holes were made into the historic and protected Grand Staircase. Stannah was very open to this and installed the lift stanchions to the fixing points of its predecessor. Stannah also closely matched the lift colour with the natural stone walls. “Whilst we remained open to the public, Stannah rose to the challenge with aplomb and even worked outside normal business hours to ensure minimal disruption to our visitors. The installation was completed ahead of schedule and was crucial to our Christmas operation — our busiest time of year — where we welcomed over 67,000 visitors to the house.” Continued


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Project Overview Client: Castle Howard Estate Limited Architect: Sir John Vanbrugh and Nicholas Hawksmoor Internal area: 140,000 ft2 Grounds: 3,561 ha (8,800 acres); a mix of farmland, woodland and parkland Visitors per annum: 250,000 and growing

The hillside makes a sudden, steep change to a 41° incline, necessitating the curve in the elevator.

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17th-Century Heritage Castle Howard is the Grade I-listed ancestral home of the Howard family. Construction began in 1699 and took more than 100 years to complete. Set in picturesque grounds, the House is accustomed to the limelight when it comes to films and television appearances. These include Stanley Kubrick’s “Barry Lyndon,” Evelyn Waugh’s “Brideshead Revisited” and, most recently, ITV’s “Victoria.” Listed as one of the “Treasure Houses of England,” this Baroque/Palladian masterpiece is both the family’s private residence and an iconic tourist attraction.

Accessible to All To cater to visitors of all mobility levels, Castle Howard has a comprehensive accessibility policy. This comprises many elements, including car parking, a hearing loop, onsite manual wheelchairs and the Stannah Stairiser CR wheelchair platform lift. “Accessibility is key to the visitor experience and so the Stannah Stairiser CR has had a huge impact on the enjoyment and ease with which visitors with mobility restriction can experience the wonders of Castle Howard and its collection of art and antiquities,” said Nicholson. “Additionally, the lift has taken a great deal of stress away from the staff who welcome the visitors to the House, knowing that they can easily move wheelchair users and mobilityrestricted guests up to the principal floor of the house.” The lift was Installed in just a few days, ahead of time and budget — in time for the House’s Christmas 2019 display.


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About the Stannah Stairiser CR The Stannah Stairiser CR is prominently located at the House’s Grand Staircase up to the main floor and most of the rooms. Despite its prominent location, the lift is appropriately discreet in its presence. It is, in fact, one of the slimmest wheelchair platform lifts on the market but still allows for the efficient movement of mobilitycompromised people. It can accommodate one person in a wheelchair, or a person seated on the lift seat provided. The curved rail allows users to navigate the staircase, which rises in two stages, with a linking level that lends a natural grace to the incline and where visitors can stop to admire family portraits lining the walls.

Elevator Specifications Travel: 11 m Mounting: Stanchion mounted Handing: Left Number of support stanchions: 15 Platform size: 800 mm x 1250 mm Motor selection: Cabinet 3 PH (0.75—1.1 kw)—k1 Side access ramp: Yes Fold-down seat: Yes Standard load: 225 kg wheelchair user + user

When not in use, the folding platform and barrier arm ensure that the lift stows away neatly and leaves the stairway free for pedestrian use. Built-in safety features make it impossible to operate the lift until the barrier arms and ramps are folded in place. Its easy-to-use constant-pressure controls allow passengers to operate it independently. The lift stops automatically at the upper and lower landings, and the intuitive controls allow the user to stop the lift at any time. Suitable for indoor and outdoor use, the lift can be wallmounted or stanchion floor-mounted to existing bolt holes, or a combination of both. A choice of fixing methods, parking options and drive layouts make it ideal for restrictive landing

spaces and building limitations. Installation typically takes one to two days for the Stairiser SR (straight rail) and three to five days for the Stairiser CR range. The Stairiser CR, along with the complete Stannah line, complies with the Equality Act 2010, EN81-40 Safety rules for the construction and installation of lifts and with the latest Machinery Directive 2006/42/EC. Stannah lift products are designed and manufactured to be energy efficient and costeffective to run.

Lift Maintenance All Stannah installations and refurbishments are covered by a maintenance contract. Stannah, which has more than 150 years’ experience, offers service, repair, modernisation and refurbishment of all types of lifts, stairlifts, escalators and moving walkways — not only those from the Stannah product range, but also other lift manufacturers’ equipment. Stannah also offers a bespoke lifts service, custom-building lifts to meet customers’ specific requirements. The company is involved in the design, supply, installation, refurbishment and maintenance of a comprehensive range of passenger, service and platform lifts, escalators and moving walkways.

Ideal for Retrofitting The Stannah Stairiser CR is ideal for retrofitting in existing buildings, as its installation has minimal impact on the existing infrastructure.

2020/2 Issue 103 • ELEVATOR WORLD UK


Focus on Residential Lifts and Accessibility

Homelifts and Stairlifts and Their Critical Role During the COVID-19 Pandemic by Nick Mellor At a time when hospitals are under immense pressure for beds to care for COVID-19 patients, Government guidance recognises that helping to move patients who no longer require acute care into the most appropriate setting will help save thousands of lives. We know that with an ageing population, falls amongst the over 65s are the biggest single cause of emergency hospital admissions. Stairlifts and homelifts play a crucial role in allowing patients to go back into their homes, and to be able to stay safely in their homes. The industry is looking at how it responds to meet the demand, manage the urgent installation process and conduct essential maintenance during this period of lockdown.

Solutions Available So, what are the solutions available to help users get between floors in their home? LEIA’s Personal Lift Group (PLG) was formed specifically to provide guidance on this sector. The group meets three times a year to address items of importance to this industry and provides input to the rest of the association including advising on technical standards, safety, education and training. As part of its remit, the group produced “A Guide to choosing a Vertical Lifting Appliance for your Home” for end-users and specifiers to highlight the factors to consider when choosing a lift. This free guide can be accessed via the LEIA website at www.leia.co.uk. A snapshot of the current options for home lifting solutions:

1) Stairlift with chair – for installation on either straight or curved stairs. Stairlifts are the most numerous and potentially the most quickly installed lift for the home. BS EN 81-40 specifies requirements for both chair stairlifts and platform stairlifts below. 2) Inclined platform stairlift – stairlift designed to be able to carry a user in a wheelchair, so is wider than a chair stairlift and less common in domestic situations. Careful assessment is needed of the stair and the strength of the stair or wall on which that it is fixed. BS EN 81-40 specifies its requirements.


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3) Homelift with partially enclosed cabin – a through-floor lift with a partially enclosed cabin that has no liftway (shaft), so minimising the use of space and travels between two floors, passing through the floor/ceiling. This type of product should be compliant with safety standard BS 5900 and is suitable only for private dwellings. 4) Homelift with fully enclosed cabin – as the homelift above, but with fully enclosed cabin. This is a more recent product innovation that should generally follow BS 5900, except for this standard assumes a partially enclosed cabin. 5) Enclosed lifting platform – more usually found in public-access applications, these travel within an enclosed liftway (shaft) and are operated by constant pressure controls that require the user to hold down a control button. This type of product should meet product standard BS EN 81-41. 6) So-called “slow-speed lifts” – essentially, a passenger lift with a fully enclosed car and automatic controls but with a low travelling speed limited to 0.15 m/s (so most suitable for rises of two to three floors and lighter usage). This type is especially useful where pit depth and headroom is limited. 7) Traditional passenger lift – a range of sizes suitable for a wide range of users that can be provided to meet the accessibility requirements of the Building Regulation Approved Document M and BS EN 81-70. This type is not so often found in domestic applications because of the more significant building requirements. The product safety standard is BS EN 81-20.

Points to Consider Whilst the ever-evolving choice of products available is positive news, there are several issues to consider. We advise users and specifiers to consider the following when selecting products: ♦ Make sure the lift you are selecting is large enough for your needs. ♦ Make sure they are compliant with building regulations, where applicable.

♦ Make sure they are compliant with product safety standards – these are listed above. ♦ Make sure surrounds and any lifting flap for vertical lifting devices going through floors have appropriate fire protection. ♦ Make sure the company you are using is a LEIA member. Our members are required to have quality system to ISO 9001 and health and safety systems to BS OSHAS 18001/ BS ISO 45001. They also have access to LEIA support on a range of standards and regulations and educational resources. ♦ Consider what is happening with the sizes of wheelchairs and mobility scooters. Think about the challenges these may pose for lifts: are they large enough to accommodate these types of products? Look at building solutions to avoid mobility scooter impacts on lift landing doors. There is more detail in our guide to choosing a vertical lifting appliance for you home.

Essential Maintenance LEIA guidance recognises how essential homelifts and stairlifts are to many users, and the need for inspection and maintenance to keep these working safely. The installation of new units is critical where is allows users to return home from hospital. There has understandably been a move to reduce or cancel many maintenance visits at the start of the lockdown. However, if occupants continue to use their lifts, then, as HSE guidance recognizes, they will need to have them maintained and, if they come under LOLER, thoroughly examined. Now that we are facing restrictions (particularly for the over 70s) which could last for months, the industry needs to be smart about how it copes with this issue and avoids having breakdowns that leave users without the access they need – putting pressure back on hospitals or social services. For more information or to download the Guide to choosing a Vertical Lifting Appliance for your Home visit www.leia.co.uk. Nick Mellor is managing director of the Lift and Escalator Industry Association (LEIA), where he has worked since 2012, and has been in the lift industry since 1992. He was in the inaugural cohort on the MSc in Lift Engineering from the (now) University of Northampton, from which he graduated in 2002 and where he is an Associate Lecturer on the MSc and visiting fellow. Mellor sits on the British Standards Institution’s (BSI’s) MHE/4 lifts, hoist and escalator committee, where he has been involved in the development of various British standards. He is a BSI delegate to various European (CEN) and International (ISO) working groups, including those looking at firefighters’ lifts and lifts for evacuation. He is the principle author of two chapters of CIBSE Guide D and has published a number of papers. Nick holds a BSc(Eng) from Imperial College, London, an MBA from Brunel University/Henley Management College and an MSc in lift engineering from the University of Northampton. 2020/2 Issue 103 • ELEVATOR WORLD UK


Focus on Residential Lifts and Accessibility

Rising to the Challenge Curved inclined elevator helps family of disabled former athlete enjoy their lake home together. by Bill MacLachlan The Finger Lakes region of Upstate New York is arguably one of the nation’s most beautiful places to live, and the crown jewel of the Finger Lakes is Lake Skaneateles in Skaneateles, New York. This 8,800-acre lake, known for its clean and clear waters, is a draw for tourists and those wanting to build dream houses in a place where recreational boating and other water activities are readily available. Many of these dream houses are built up on hills that offer impressive views of the lake below, but those views often come with a trade-off: the steep incline makes it difficult to access the water. While a set of stairs is an obvious solution, even this can be challenging, if not downright impossible, for people living with physical disabilities. A family in Skaneateles chose Orono, Minnesota-based Hill Hiker, Inc. to manufacture and install a private-residence inclined elevator to solve just such a challenge, so the client’s family and friends could easily manage the steep hillside that leads from the main house to the boat house at the lake elevation. The client was thrown a true curve ball in life. Once a professional athlete and public figure, he is now living with a debilitating neurological disorder that makes the steep stairs to the lake very difficult, if not impossible, for him to use. His family, looking to prioritize their time with their father, decided to get him the inclined elevator as a gift so they could continue to enjoy the lake together. Part of the arrangement was that the elevator be installed in time for Father’s Day 2019. Hill Hiker delivered on this timeline, and the family was able to access the lake again, just as they had on previous Father’s Days.

The general contractor for the project was Trident Shoreline Environmental Services of Skaneateles. The top landing of the elevator is level with the first floor of the house. As the car begins its travel, it proceeds down a 9° slope descending the hill. At approximately the 80-ft mark, the angle of incline changes to more than 41° and travels for the next 30 ft. For the final 36 ft, the elevator maintains a steep, 41° journey to the bottom landing. As the car travels through the curve, a second set of wheels and channels gently raise the downhill end of the car to keep it level across the curve transition and to the bottom landing on the lake shore. The system has hardwired call stations at each landing, plus full directional controls with wireless operation on-board the car. An enhanced repeater was installed to ensure the wireless system would not lose communication along the track’s curve. The in-car controls utilize a 900-MHz spread-spectrum digital wireless system, eliminating the need for a traveling cable, which would be subject to potentially damaging outdoor conditions, such as temperature extremes, wind, rain, snow, humidity and ultraviolet radiation. While the possibility of cracked or broken cables creating rogue signals can be a serious concern for inclined elevator applications, the robust nature of commercial wireless technology facilitates constant communication between the battery-operated transmitters in the car and the hardwired receiving unit in the elevator controller at the top of the hill. This eliminates the possibility of rogue signals or failed button commands. The elevator will not operate with a dead battery until it is replaced.

Tough Terrain

Transportation System Details

The main challenge of this installation was the topography of the site. A substantial change in the incline angle midway down the hill created a need for a curved rail system with a mechanical levelling system to keep the car level from the top of the hill all the way to the bottom. Hill Hiker engaged engineering, planning and design firm VAA, LLC to collaborate on the structural design. Using Revit 3D Modelling software, Hill Hiker and VAA created a 3D model of the site, which enabled the engineers and installers to virtually “run” the car through the curve and ensure everything would work as planned.

Hill Hiker manufactured and installed the entire Hill Hiker Hillside Lift. The length of travel is 146 ft with a vertical rise of 45 ft. It travels at a speed of 59 ft/min and serves two stops. The drive machine is a single-cable winding drum that, through a series of deflection sheaves, pulls the car through a C-channel rail. The chassis holds two sets of safeties: an over-speed centrifugal governor wheel, which rides with the car, and a slack cable or broken-rope safety connected to the main hoisting cable. A mechanically resettable safety switch is mounted near the motor/drum assembly to cut motor power and engage the brakes in the event the cable goes slack. Continued


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The curved inclined elevator travels from the main house’s ground-floor level to the lakeside boathouse below.

The hillside makes a sudden, steep change to a 41° incline, necessitating the curve in the elevator.

The track follows a steep drop.

Concrete footings support the upper section of the elevator track.

The track on its footings

The hill adds to the scenic beauty.

Steel posts mounted on the footings

The inclined elevator uses this winding-drum machine. Hill Hiker recommends annual preventive maintenance to help eliminate downtime. In addition, the company provides a maintenance control program that allows any licensed elevator technician to provide maintenance.

A steel frame in place to support the lower, steep section of the track 2020/2 Issue 103 • ELEVATOR WORLD UK


Computer drawing shows the top landing; note the winding-drum machine below the car.

Computer drawing shows the car at different points along the track


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Inclined Elevator Specifications The project adhered to ASME A17.1-2016/CSA B44-16 Section 5.4 Private Residence Inclined Elevators.

Type, size and material: 7 X 19, 3/8-in. galvanized aircraft cable

Material Specifications


A. Steel shall conform to ASTM a240; yield strength = 43,200 psi. B. Machine bolts shall be grade 18-8 stainless steel. C. Welding shall use e71t-11 AWS classification.

Frame material: Steel Wall material: Polycarbonate panels (ANSI Z97.1) Height of car: 42 in. Outside car width: 51-1/8 in. Outside car length: 67-5/8 in. Platform material: Marine-grade, Americans with Disabilities Act-acceptable non-slip fibre-grate flooring material

General Information Rated speed: 59 ft/min Angle of incline: 9°-41° with angle change Track length: 146 ft

Loads Car/chassis weight: 650 lb Rated load: 1000 lb

Support Structure Concrete step footings with vertical steel tube flange support posts in conjunction with a partial I-beam support structure

Drive System Driving means: Winding-drum drive Input power: Single-phase 220-240 VAC, 60Hz Motor: 5 hp Brake: AC electromagnetic brake on motor Gearbox: 125:1

Car Ropes Number of drive ropes: 1 Rated breaking strength: 14,400 lb

Electric contacts and mechanical locks are installed on both landing gates and the car door. The car is a 51-1/8-X-67-5/8-in., open-construction cab mounted to a 3-X-5-ft chassis. The track and car are constructed of 7-ga. standard steel, and the car is suspended by 3/8-in. galvanized aircraft cable with a rated breaking strength of 14,400 lb. The on-board controls, including directional buttons, a stop button and a door-open safety circuit, are operated through wireless communication. The landing controls include hardwired buttons at each landing, protected by a keyless entry pad. The control panel is UL-508A listed and includes a variable-frequency drive and programmable logic controller designed for seamless, safe

Elevator Controller/Controls Approvals: UL listed/certified Weather rating: NEMA 4X Variable-frequency drive: Variable-speed AC motor control with soft start/soft slow down Call stations: On-board car and at each landing station, with security

Safety System Limit switches: Deceleration, directional and terminal switches at top and bottom of hill Emergency stop buttons: Top, bottom and on-board car Track system: Captured rail design Slack cable system: At motor and on-board car Overspeed centrifugal governor: Located on car Spring buffer: Located on the track Electrical: Disconnect with lockout, tagout, low-voltage switches and controls Gates: Shut-off switches on car and landing station gates

operation. Hill Hiker utilizes solid-state, quick-disconnect-style proximity deceleration limit switches for maximum weather resistance. All electrical enclosures, buttons, switches and other components have a minimum of NEMA 4X weather ratings. Bill MacLachlan, president and owner of Hill Hiker, Inc., started his career in sales in the early 1980s and, in 1990 became national sales manager for Access Mobility, a small elevator company interested in the inclined elevator market. MacLachlan helped develop the product and, in 1996, moved to launch Hill Hiker. He holds a Limited Master Elevator Constructor License in many states and has received many industry accolades. Hill Hiker’s work has been featured several times in ELEVATOR WORLD and has been reported on in The Wall Street Journal and other publications. 2020/2 Issue 103 • ELEVATOR WORLD UK


Focus on Residential Lifts and Accessibility

Residential Lifts: Does Design Matter? by Len Halsey

While high-end office developments gain much attention in terms of profile and prestige, the same cannot be said of humbler residential developments, even though they make up a significant portion of the UK lift market. Over time, the focus within the lift industry, and the associated academic world that surrounds it, has placed its emphasis on understanding traffic patterns in complex office buildings and coming up with innovative solutions. This is well illustrated in industry literature and publications where there is abundant information on traffic analysis, single verses double deck solutions and innovative design to suit particular situations. However, in the background, the important residential market has flourished with little attention. The current housing shortage in the UK has led to a huge increase in the number of private residential developments being built across the country, with tall blocks of high-density apartments being concentrated in cities and towns. The boom in this sector has also led to a widening of what is being offered. In addition to the purchase of luxury and standard apartments, developers are offering private rented accommodation; serviced apartments; and affordable and starter homes for those trying to get on the housing ladder. In all of these developments, lifts play a key part. Although the number of lifts per building may be relatively small, the number of developments means there is a substantial market to be satisfied. Against this background, it is interesting to look at the criteria being applied to designing lifting solutions for residential buildings. The thing that quickly becomes apparent is the complete lack of consistency in the approach taken by developers. In many instances, consultants are not used, and the absolute minimum is all that will be provided with little thought for building users. Larger developments do look to consultants’ advice, but there is no guarantee that advice will be followed. Whilst there is inconsistency in the developers’ approach, there is guidance to establish what should be provided. CIBSE Guide D¹ gives comprehensive information, and there is also a myriad of ‘guidance’ from local authorities, housing


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associations and other organisations. These generally refer to documents such as BS 8300 and Part M of the building regulations, together with recommendations on minimum requirements. And, we often see the minimum regarded as the maximum. However, apart from Guide D, a comprehensive approach to determining the number or capacity of lifts required is not provided. Unlike office buildings, the level of research into traffic patterns in residential buildings has not been studied in anywhere near as much detail. There has been some work undertaken but, in comparison to office buildings, it is minimal and as such a research-led design approach is nowhere near as refined as that for office developments. The situation isn’t helped by the fact there is no single ‘go to’ reference for residential buildings such as the British Council of Offices Guide to Specification² (BCO), which is the definitive reference point for office designers, developers and letting agents. This sets out, in clear and concise terms, the performance criteria to be achieved. Something along these lines is currently not available for residential buildings, although perhaps urgently needed. So, when looking to design lifting requirements for residential buildings, where do you start? Stating the obvious, the first step is to establish if the building is a private or public sector development. This will set the criteria for the design in terms of specification and robustness of the equipment. Many will be familiar with local authority requirements for lifts that are durable, highly specified and vandal resistant. On the other hand, the private sector caters to a much wider spectrum of residential developments with designs to suit. When determining the number of lifts required, CIBSE Guide D is a key reference point. This looks at building population densities based on tenure type and the number of bedrooms in each apartment. It also provides guidance on interval and handling capacity by tenure and establishes a sound basis for starting the design process. From the private developer’s point of view, it is easy to apply the selective use of guidance, or ignore it altogether, as a means of minimising both the number and capacity of lifts to be installed. Add to this the ‘other building’ argument: “Up the

road they only have two 10-passenger lifts in a 30-story building. Why do you want three 15-passenger lifts?” It is easy to see what consultants and designers are up against in justifying their case. As always cost and “space take” are major drivers, and this approach has led to instances where the developer dictates what will be provided, in some instances with dire consequences It is against this disjointed background that making the case for proper/sufficient lift provision is often difficult. As always though, there are a number of criteria and considerations that should inform the basis of the design. These should include establishing what is required of the lifts both during construction and in servicing the building. This could include things such as:

1) Are the lifts required for beneficial use during construction? If so, what do they need to accommodate in terms of material sizes and weights? 2) Are lifts used as part of the plant replacement strategy? 3) The need to move large items of furniture and white goods. 4) Use by the emergency services and the need to accommodate a stretcher or coffin. 5) Disabled access using large motorised mobility scooters. 6) The ability to accommodate bicycles without standing them up. 7) The façade/glass replacement strategy. Does it involve taking large pieces of cladding or glass up in the lifts? 8) How long are kitchen work tops (inclusive of packing and means of transportation): will they fit in the lift?

9) Is there a care facility in the building requiring special services? 10) Provision of firefighting lifts. 11) Are evacuation lifts required? 12) Are there building amenities to be serviced by the lifts? If so, what are their requirements? 13) Redundancy; particularly where a single lift is being considered. While some items may appear unusual, these are things that do come to light, generally when it’s found the lifts are incapable of meeting the need. However, they are about the practical use of the lifts. While consideration of these points helps inform the size and capacity of lifts, it does not address the question of the number required, and it is here that CIBSE Guide D provides the necessary information. Having confirmed the use of the lifts, type of tenure and building population, the number of lifts can be established. The handling capacity guidance varies according to tenure between 5% and 8% with a balanced traffic of 50% travelling in each direction. Whilst a handling capacity of 8% for luxury buildings is not atypical, this could be nearer to 6%. This obviously affects the basis of determining the number and capacity of lifts required. The other point to note is that CIBSE Guide D details interval, as opposed to average, waiting time, now considered a better measure of performance. The use of simulation software has the means of determining the levels of performance provided by the system, however, it should be noted the traffic profiles detailed in Guide D section 4 show a maximum handling Continued

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capacity of 6%. Guide D also states that consideration should be given to down-peak traffic, but something else to think about is heavy two-way traffic during weekends. In addition to the basic design criteria, other factors should form part of the design assessment. These revolve around the provision of services and building ‘churn’, or people moving in and out. Private rental and serviced apartments can be expected to have higher tenancy turnover with higher demands being made of the lifts to cater to tenant moves, and, in the case of serviced apartments, hotel-like facilities for cleaning, catering and laundry. This suggests that the design of serviced apartments should be based on criteria more applicable to hotels than apartments. Ideally, a separate goods-passenger lift should be provided for all privately developed residential buildings, but the reality is they rarely are, and the needs of servicing the building fall on the passenger lifts. One possible means of addressing this issue is to have at least one lift with an increased capacity and a managed approach to servicing the building outside of peak periods. The use of the building and how it is managed are also major considerations in the design of peripheral elements such as visitor management and security. Will there be a concierge or reception services? If not, what security measures will be required for deliveries and visitors? Does the building have any public access amenities such as a gym, restaurant or roof top garden? Are there any restrictions on interfloor traffic, as part of a ‘Secured by Design’ requirement for the building, which is part of the local authority planning permission. Waste management is a significant issue. Are there waste stores on each level? Are shoots provided, or do residents bring their waste down to a central point? If collected from a store on each floor, then a separate goods-passenger lift must be a serious consideration. With lift service potentially being compromised by people moving, deliveries, waste collection and facility services, what is the impact on the performance of the lifts that remain in passenger service? This needs to be understood, and the practical implications appreciated. Another criterium associated with the design is occupancy rates. Occupancy rates are sometimes used to factor the building population, resulting in a reduced vertical transportation design. Whilst this may be considered acceptable at the higher end of the market, it does carry a risk if the building occupancy ever exceeds the design criteria. Needless to say, this is something that shouldn’t be considered for middle/lower parts of the residential spectrum.


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In North America, apartments originally aimed at “professional singles” are now occupied by couples with families. It appears the professional singles didn’t move out but stayed to raise their children. This has changed the use of the building, and it is now providing family homes, something never intended. The letting of apartments on a short-term basis, such as with Airbnb, is something else being seen now. This brings a higher turnover of tenants and was probably not something considered at the time of design. This is something attractive to buyers and continuing with increasing popularity. Perhaps these unintended uses should lead to a degree of ‘future proofing’ in both the building and lift design. This is highly unlikely but with changes in the way buildings are used, much as offices, it would be in the owner’s interest to have a building that can adapt to new and evolving social and commercial trends. The high level of residential building will continue for some time. The disjointed and inconsistent approach we currently see appears set to continue. However, design does matter, and buildings that have a considered approach are much better placed to provide the best service now and into the future. Both designers and developers have the ability, and arguably the obligation, to make the lives of those who use their buildings just that little bit better. The question is: in the absence of definitive guidance, will they do so?

References [1] [2] [3]

CIBSE Guide D, Transportation systems in buildings, 2015 British Council of Offices, Guide to specification, Best practice for offices, 2019 Traffic Patterns in Hotels and Residential Buildings - Marja-Liisa Siikonen 2013

Len Halsey is project executive at Canary Wharf in East London, responsible for verticaltransportation (VT) design across all the district’s developments. He has nearly 56 years in the VT industry, during that time witnessing the technical changes from electromechanical to electronic systems and the introduction of microprocessor technology. A native of London, Len had a 34-year career with Otis after studying at Hackney Technical College. He has been with Canary Wharf for 22 years.

Independent Lift, Escalator and Façade Access Equipment Consulting Engineers LONDON | MANCHESTER | EASTBOURNE

Areas of Expertise:

Services Offered:

• Passenger & Goods Lifts • Accessible Platforms • Escalators and Moving Walks • Façade Access Equipment • Cableways & Cable Cars • Funiculars

• Surveys • Risk Assessments • DDA Compliance Audits • Maintenance Audits • Training • Portfolio Management • Statutory Inspections

• Traffic Analysis • New Installation Specifications • Modernisation Specifications • Project Management • Witnessing of Commissioning • Expert Witness • Maintenance Specifications

London Office: 52 Grosvenor Gardens, London, SW1W 0AU. T: 0203 755 5233. E: lee.dean@lecsuk.co.uk Manchester Office: 111 Piccadilly, Manchester, M1 2HY. T: 0161 638 0984. E: john.bentley@lecsuk.co.uk Eastbourne Office: Archer House, Northbourne Road, Eastbourne, BN22 8PW. E: dave.cooper@lecsuk.co.uk


Focus on Residential Lifts and Accessibility

Cabin Design Thinking of design first helps prevent creating obstacles for the disabled, while enhancing accessibility. by Muharrem Çakırer Design is the way to show how beautiful any product can be. As the elevator cab carries people and goods and is the part of the elevator visible to the end user, it is one of the two important components (the other being the doors) to passengers. This fact makes the car an architectural and decorative element of the building. Therefore, cab design has an important place in expressing the brand identity of individuals and companies. Additionally, original and aesthetic design of a cab can make riding in an elevator a memorable experience. Although an elevator cab looks like a closed box with three sides (and, thus, seems easy to design), there are many factors to be considered. Undoubtedly, “accessibility” is the most important factor.

Accessibility entails enabling all passengers, including the disabled, to benefit from elevators equally and easily. For example, according to EN 81-70, the European standard on accessibility, there is detailed information about how to locate the car operating panel in the cab: at the side wall of the car, on the right side (with centre-opening doors), on the closing jamb side (with side-opening doors) and at least 40 cm from the adjacent (front and rear) walls. Although the standard is clearly defined by the applicable standards, we regretfully observe that some car manufacturers locate the operating panel on the rear wall of the car. In addition to being unaesthetic, such a design will create disadvantages to the disabled. For example, wheelchair users’ feet will hit the rear wall, making it impossible for them to reach the buttons. With the doors

Figure 1a : A decorative-cut mirror


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closing automatically, the user could also be entrapped. It is necessary to think in a designoriented way from the beginning to prevent the creation of new obstacles for the disabled, while easing their difficulties and stress. For example, when building a single-door elevator with a capacity of 1000 kg to be used for the transportation of stretchers, planning a car with the dimensions of 1,100 X 2,100 mm may be the ideal solution. If stretchers will not be transported on this elevator, and if the lift shaft permits, then designing a car with dimensions of 1,400 X 1,600 mm may be the ideal solution, as this will provide the wheelchair user with the ability to manoeuvre within the car. On the other hand, tests have proven that a minimum width of 1,200 mm is required for providing turning space for people who use walkers. So, a car designed with a minimum 1,200 mm of short edge will be accessible. If the designer adheres to accessibility principles, everyone will benefit. Using contrasting colours or, most importantly, contrasting tones in car design can be helpful in identifying objects and avoiding hazards. The car floor and panel walls should be designed in contrasting colours. For example, a car that has lightgray stainless-steel walls should be complemented with a floor using black natural stone so a person with visual impairment can distinguish the borders of the car. Similarly, the operating panel and the wall on which it is installed, as well as the buttons and button panel, should be supplied in contrasting colours. Homogeneous distribution of light should be provided in cabin lighting. Spotlights should not be the only light source, as they will not provide homogeneous distribution of light, but will create shadows. A mirror on the car’s back wall has many advantages. When the user pushes the call button, and the door is open, they can easily be sure the car is on the floor by seeing themselves. The mirror can also make people feel more comfortable, as it can help the environment look larger. Additionally, it can help a wheelchair user exit the car backward by allowing them to see more of where they are moving. Decorative-cut mirrors can be used for aesthetic reasons (Figures 1a & 1b). Continued

Figure 1b : A decorative-cut mirror 2020/2 Issue 103 • ELEVATOR WORLD UK


The glass used for mirrors in cars should be shatter-proof. For cars that need to be resistant to vandalism, supermirror stainless-steel can be used instead of glass. However, some people do not like the exaggerated use of the supermirror coating. As stated previously, the designer should first have full knowledge of applicable elevator standards. For example, according to TS EN 81-72, the standard for firefighter lifts in Turkey, an emergency trapdoor shall be provided at the top of the car measuring a minimum of 0.5 X 0.7 m for the rescue of firefighters if they become trapped inside the car. A ladder or stepping points should be provided to reach the roof of the car and should be positioned at the short side of the emergency trap door. Otherwise, it may not be possible for the firefighter, racing against time and carrying special equipment, to climb up to the cabin roof (Figure 2).

Figure 2: A ladder or stepping points should be provided to reach the roof of the car, according to TS EN 81-72.


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Figure 3: “Mirror stainless” strips interspersed in a “satina stainless” cab

Panoramic lifts may reduce the risk of panic for passengers and help them communicate with others in the event of being stuck in the lift. However, sufferers of acrophobia may be negatively influenced. The most common coating used in car design, metallic gray, does not strain the eyes and gives confidence. Additionally, compared with coatings in dark tones, it does not show dirt. This is a reason “satina stainless” is the most common coating for cars. However, a fully gray cab is boring. Using “mirror stainless” strips at regular intervals makes the cab more aesthetic (Figure 3).

Muharrem Çakırer is an electrical engineer with Çağın Asansör İmalat in Ankara, Turkey.


[1] TS EN 81-70: 2007. “Accessibility to lifts for persons including persons with disability” [2] EN 81-70:2018. “Accessibility to lifts for persons including persons with disability” [3] TS EN 81-72:2015. “Firefighters lifts”

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Focus on Residential Lifts and Accessibility

Accessibility Takes Centre Stage Space-saving, energy-efficient options for the home feature in this Product Spotlight section.

Staircase/Wheelchair Lift ❮

Denmark-based Liftup A/S offers the FlexStep stairlift, designed to function both as an ordinary staircase and as a wheelchair lift. The company says its two-in-one solution saves space, compared to installing both a flight of stairs and a separate lift. Its various configuration and installation options are particularly useful where space is tight enough to prevent both a lift and flight of stairs. Suitable for both indoor and outdoor use, it only requires a level floor. A button press initiates the transformation between lift and staircase. Four motors the company calls “intelligent” and “synchronized” are at each corner of the lift for smooth and discreet operation. It is available in standard step widths of 700, 800, 900 and 1,000 mm, with platform lengths up to 1,830 mm. Customizable options include finish material, colour, installation configuration and more. www.liftup.dk

The FlexStep is intended for both new and existing buildings and includes battery backup.

Both the car and controls of the Through-Floor Lift are illuminated.


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Compact Home Lift

Pollock Lifts of Carrickfergus, U.K., designs, manufactures and installs lifts throughout the U.K. and Ireland. Its Through-Floor Lift includes what the company calls “a smart electric motor” designed for quiet and energy-efficient operation. It adds that the lift’s self-supporting structure allows it to easily move through the floor. Like the company’s other home lifts, it has a dedicated battery backup, which will always return the car to the ground floor, where passengers can exit via a manual release. It also includes an “Auto Homing Fire Response System” and carries CE compliance. The product has a traction drive, soft starting and stopping, on-board diagnostics display, self-levelling, a power door, in-car phone and remote-control call stations. Its travel is 4.2 m, and it can carry 225 kg. Ten car sizes are available, as are side-hung, wheelchair and seated configurations. pollockhomelifts.co.uk

Focus on Residential Lifts and Accessibility

An Ecosystem of Opportunities KONE’s technology partnerships enhance accessibility.

submitted by KONE “Alone we can do so little; together we can do so much.” As digitalization opens a world of new opportunities for traditional engineering companies, this simple observation, attributed to deaf-blind American author Helen Keller, holds truer than ever. By working together with innovative partners, KONE is looking to take the experience of moving through a building to a whole new level. The elevator is often something we take for granted. Its significance is apparent primarily when it stops working. But what if the elevator could connect more than floors? What if it became the central platform of a smart building? What if other building solutions could be integrated with elevators to enhance the experience of moving around a building? From your perspective, what solutions would improve People Flow? This is the kind of thinking that prompted KONE to reach out to innovative companies in fields ranging from artificial intelligence to robotics to music, to start creating a dynamic partner ecosystem. The ecosystem’s common goal is to create the best possible experience for the different types of people moving in and between buildings.


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KONE’s collaboration with BlindSquare is a great example of this: boosting building accessibility for persons who are blind or visually impaired by helping them ride elevators safely. “Elevators already have Braille next to buttons, but very few people who are blind read Braille,” says Ilkka Pirttimaa, CEO of MIPSoft, the company behind BlindSquare, a navigation app for people who are blind or partially sighted. For someone with vision loss, the app is a life-changer. “The self-voicing app allows the user to call an elevator and go directly to their floor via guidance prompts,” Pirttimaa observes. Such technology is made possible by Application Programming Interfaces (APIs). APIs allow secure Ilkka Pirttimaa interactions between digital

applications or systems so they can work together and offer new solutions. “BlindSquare uses KONE’s APIs to integrate with our equipment,” says Jukka Salmikuukka, head of Ecosystem Business Development at KONE. “The app can call the elevator, and the elevator relays information to the app. The phone says: ‘elevator door opens,’ so people know when they can walk on.”

Just the Beginning By leveraging existing interfaces, KONE can partner with developers to produce commercially viable integrations that add to the overall People Flow experience. In the case of BlindSquare, there are plans to expand the collaboration from elevators to escalators: to use the app to direct the visually impaired to find a row of escalators in a metro station while the escalators relay their status to BlindSquare. Today, the only way a person who is visually impaired can find

the escalator they want is by touching the handrail. “This is a safety risk,” says Salmikuukka. “In the future scenario, the app will say ‘the escalator on the right goes up; the two on the left are coming toward you.’” Pirttimaa hopes the partnership will continue to develop and even more accessibility features will be added to elevators and escalators. The same APIs used to connect the BlindSquare app to elevators can also be used by other partners — like those providing home-automation systems, or service robots like Jeeves by Robotise. The APIs also enable KONE’s own applications, such as the Residential Flow smartphoneenabled building access solution and 24/7 Connected Services preventive-maintenance tool.

Always Striving KONE is constantly looking to grow its partner ecosystem in search of new, innovative services that meet the diverse needs of various groups of people. Building owners know their tenants and the people who use their buildings best, and often have their own ideas about how to help people move about in the urban environment. “About half of our partners have been introduced to us by our customers, and some customers have their own apps which they integrate with our solutions,” says Salmikuukka. Pirttimaa says she is happy that KONE has both the technical skill and willingness to work with developers. “It takes courage to do new things and we wanted to work with a courageous company,” he says. KONE’s global partner ecosystem currently consists of the following companies: Amazon Alexa, BlindSquare, iLoq, Robotise, Savioke, Soundtrack Your Brand and Systam.

2020/2 Issue 103 • ELEVATOR WORLD UK


Focus on Residential Lifts and Accessibility

ISO DIS 8100-32 on Planning and Selection of Passenger Lifts by Marja-Liisa Siikonen Work to revise the ISO 4190-6:1984 standard on lift planning and selection of passenger lifts to be installed in residential buildings[1] started in 2014. This spring, the new ISO DIS 810032[2] was approved for the final ballot. The Draft International Standard (DIS) extends the lift traffic planning from residential buildings of the current standard ISO 4190-6 to planning and selection of passenger lifts to be installed in office, hotel and residential buildings. In addition, the draft document takes into account the accessibility for persons with impaired disabilities. The draft considers not only the morning up-peak traffic, but also traffic mixes for lunch hour and two-way traffic. It can be applied to conventional control with up and down call buttons and destination control systems. The use of the planning methods is demonstrated by examples in the Annexes of the draft document. Introduction The current ISO 4190-6[1] gives a simple guidance for passenger lift selection in residential buildings. Lift selection graphs have been produced using the up-peak traffic formulas. Lift group configuration is selected using the charts for a given number of floors and population. The ISO lift selection standard 4190-6 is from 1984 and needs revision. In this millennium, discussion started about how to perform lift traffic simulation with stable results[3,4] and how to compare and avoid the misinterpretation of results[5, 6]. ISO TC178 Working Group 6 (WG6) made an initiative to update ISO 4190-6 in the ISO TC178 25th plenary meeting New York in 2013. A decision was made to revise the current standard with an extension of the scope to include buildings other than residential buildings. WG6 established Subgroup 5 (SG5) to conduct the work and named 17 experts in the group. The number of SG5 experts has varied during the years, being currently 14, of which nine were in the original group. The current SG5 members are, in alphabetical order of ISO member bodies: Theresa Christy/ASME, Albert Hsu/ASME, Chen Fengwang/CN, Ming Kai Wang/CN, Gina Barney/BSI, Richard Peters/BSI, Hans Jappsen/DIN, Jörg Müller/DIN, Olaf Rieke/DIN, John Tibbits/SA, Ami Lustig/SII, Marja-Liisa Siikonen/SFS, Janne Sorsa/SFS and Lukas Finschi/SNV. So far, the project has taken about five calendar years. SG5 had its first meeting in Helsinki in spring 2014. Up to now, there have been 51 SG5 meetings, and 11 WG6 meetings, where this item has been followed. The


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first six SG5 meetings were face-to-face, but soon the group discovered that live video-meetings were the best way to conduct the work. ISO TC178 accepted the revision work as a new working item in 2017. The working draft (WD) was registered as a Committee Draft, ISO CD 8100-32, in September 2018. At the end of 2018, the CD was approved for registration as Draft International Standard (DIS). After the DIS ballot this spring, the ISO DIS 8100-32 was approved for final ballot. The text will be revised and submitted to the ISO Central Secretariat, and after that it will go to final ballot for International Standard. This paper briefly describes the goal of the revision work, the basic principles of the calculation and simulation method, and the effects of the mass and area-based method in choosing the rated load. Finally, a comparison of the selected lift configurations with the current standard ISO 4190-6 and the ISO DIS 8100-32 is demonstrated.

Goals of the Revision Work The target of the revision work was to update the current ISO 4190-6 standard to cover offices and hotels in addition to current residential buildings. SG5 set a goal to develop a simple and quick standard for selecting passenger lifts in different types of buildings that would be in line with the current ISO 4190-6. The revised standard should present state-of-the-art technology and be transparent for users. For advanced control systems, simulation of more realistic traffic patterns, such as lunchtime traffic, is needed to determine whether the lift(s) are able to handle the traffic in all traffic situations. The state-of-the-art of lift traffic analysis is to simulate passenger traffic in buildings with conventional control, destination control or some other lift system, and determine how well the selected lift system serves the defined passenger traffic pattern. Therefore, an additional goal was set to include the traffic simulation as part of the document. The simulator models and validation of the simulator software were considered to be beyond the scope of the document. The simulation method describes only the inputs and the outputs of the simulation; i.e., the traffic patterns that are used as an input for the simulations, and lift performance and passenger service level parameters that are received as an output from the simulation. The calculation and the simulation methods support each other, which can be demonstrated with examples.

Simulation gives results in terms of passenger waiting time, as opposed to interval, which is provided by the calculation method For the lift selection, simple design criteria and their values are defined. To be in line with the current standard, lift selection graphs to make the initial selection for lift configuration and lift speed are provided for each building type. The selection graphs can be used as the first approach in defining the lift in the building. In the beginning of the project it was thought to be too demanding a task to include consideration of the non-linearity of the car platform area and the rated load. Over the course of time, however, one more goal for choosing the rated load by mass or area was added in the document.

Calculation Method The calculation method is based on the up-peak round-trip time formula. Up-peak traffic is a situation where people arrive from the main entrance and travel to upper floors. They arrive with a constant arrival rate or following Poisson arrival process. People enter the nearest car in the lobby until it is filled up to a certain ratio. There is no passenger traffic downward or between the floors. Lifts are automatically returned to the main entrance when they become vacant after serving all car calls and all people have exited the cars. The up-peak round-trip time equation was developed in the last century. The development of traffic planning theory was started in the 1920s by the elevator consultant engineer Basset Jones, who derived an equation for the probable number of lift stops in up-peak. In 1923, Mr. Basset Jones[7] derived an equation for the probable number of stops, S, during an elevator up-trip in a building with N floors above the entrance floor and average number of P persons inside the car (1) In 1955, SchrĂśder[8] derived the equation for the highest reversal floor, H (2) These equations were used by Strakosch[9] and developed further[10]. The most popular form of the up-peak formula using Eqs. (1) - (2) was introduced in the middle of the 1970s[9]. In the formula tv is the time to travel between two adjacent floors at rated speed

situations[14, 15, 16] have been developed, and the up-peak formulas have been verified with real traffic[17]. In planning, elevators are expected to transport the whole building population from the lobby to upper floors within about 20-60 minutes, depending on the building or tenant type[18]. Filling times correlate to lift group handling capacity that shows the percentage of population that the lifts can transport in five minutes. Each building type has its own requirement for lift handling capacity. Lift handling capacity should meet the traffic demand of a building. People flow measurements in buildings have revealed that pure up-peak traffic is often not the worst traffic situation for the lifts during the day, as passenger waiting times during mixed up-peak or lunchtime traffic can be much longer. It is difficult to estimate lunchtime waiting times accurately with up-peak RTT, since control systems affect the passenger service quality in mixed traffic situation. With traffic simulations, passenger waiting and journey times can be determined in various traffic situations.

Simulation Method In the simulation method, a simple procedure for how to give inputs and print and interpret output results is described. The simulator software and control software are the propriety of the developer companies and are not within the scope of this document. A validation method for the simulation software, however, would be useful in the future[17]. In lift traffic simulation, various traffic patterns can be used for different types of buildings. Some of them are based on measurements, and others describe the traffic situations more on the theoretical basis[19, 20, 21, 22]. According to the measurement results in office building lift lobbies, passengers arrive randomly[10]. That is why in simulation the passenger arrivals should follow a Poisson distribution. In the ISO simulation method, the simplest possible passenger traffic patterns were defined; i.e., patterns where the passenger arrival rate is constant. For different traffic patterns, the mixes of passengers entering the building, exiting the building or travelling between floors are described. Each building type has its own traffic mixes. The traffic mixes of the constant traffic patterns follow the typical daily traffic profiles, such as morning up-peak and lunch-time traffic in offices. Each defined traffic mix is simulated for several passenger arrival rates.

(3) In the 8100-32 DIS, the simplest form of the up-peak roundtrip time equation was selected. Eqs. (1) and (2) assume constant passenger arrival rate, and even population distribution on upper floors, and Eq, (3), an average floor distance for all floors. More advanced up-peak formulas considering Poisson arrival process[10] and uneven population distribution[11], uneven floor heights[12], many entrances[13] and generalization of the up-peak formulas to involve all traffic

Figure 1: Up-peak waiting time scaled to interval as a function of car loading with collective control system[11]


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In the studies of the1970s and even earlier, it was shown that in up-peak, passenger waiting times start to increase when the traffic demand increases and cars are filled; e.g., close to 80% of the rated load (Figure 1). The rated load of a lift is the load for which the lift has been built and designed to operate. Rated capacity is the maximum number of passengers a lift can transport without being in conflict due to safety norms. It is calculated from the rated load by dividing it by the average mass of a person. The observed measurements show that cars are filled normally to 75-80% of the rated capacity[9]. To consider the comfort of the passengers inside cars, in simulations the maximum number of passengers allowed to enter the car can be set smaller; e.g., 80% of the rated load. Waiting times increase rapidly, especially in up-peak while in other traffic mixes the increase can be slower. In the ISO simulation method, the first simulation is made for arrival rate at the required handling capacity; e.g., 12% of the building population in five minutes[20, 21]. A series of three simulations is performed with increasing arrival rates — e.g., 12%, 13% and 14% — of the population in five minutes. The simulation time for each arrival rate should be long enough, preferably two hours, which ensures stable output results in most cases. For statistical

lifts, the rated passenger capacity and the speed of the lifts. According to Figure 1, waiting times start to saturate at an average of 80% of the rated load. With traffic calculations, the average number of passengers inside a lift is determined, and the rated load is calculated by dividing it by 0.8. For safety reasons, the car platform area does not increase linearly with the rated load and the rated passenger capacity. The area per person gets smaller with higher loads, which causes a problem in passenger capacity per area. The lift traffic analysis can consider the accommodation of passengers in cars when choosing the rated load. A touch zone of passengers according to Fruin[23] is 0.28 m2. In crowded cars, even densities such as 0,.14 m2 have been observed[9]. The required passenger space depends on the culture and even the gender[24] of the people. In the selection charts and examples of ISO DIS 8100-32, the average mass of 75 kg[25] and area of 0.21 m2 per person[23] were chosen. For the passenger mass and area, local measures of each country and area are encouraged to be used. Table 1 shows how the rated load is chosen from the calculated average car load when using the mass-based or area and mass-based selection method.

Average number of passengers in the car at departure from the main entrance floor

6 persons

8 persons

10 persons

13 persons

16 persons

Area and mass-based selection

630 kg

1000 kg

1275 kg

1600 kg

2000 kg

Mass-based selection

630 kg

800 kg

1000 kg

1275 kg

1600 kg

Table 1: Selection of rated load based on the average number of persons inside a car

reasons, the first 15 minutes transient from the beginning of the simulation and the last 5 minutes from the end of the simulation are removed[2, 3, 4]. Thus, from a two-hour simulation the results are analyzed for 100 minutes. If, for instance, simulation time was half an hour, the simulation results are analyzed only for 10 minutes, which is rather a short time for statistical analysis. In this case, to achieve stable results, the simulation should be repeated; e.g., 10 times with slightly different random passenger arrivals. Average passenger waiting times are calculated for each arrival rate, and they are compared to given criteria: e.g., 30 s in office buildings. If the waiting times meet the criteria at all points, the lift configuration can be selected, but it may have excess handling capacity. On the other hand, if none of the simulated average waiting times meet the criteria, the lift configuration can be rejected. If the average waiting time meets the criteria with at the arrival rate of required handling capacity and slightly exceeds the given criteria with the higher arrival rates, the lift system meets the requirements of this standard.

Selection of Rated Load The lift traffic calculations determine how many passengers a lift or a lift group should transport within a certain time; i.e., lift handling capacity. The most important lift characteristics that affect the lift handling capacity are the selected number of


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Example selection of the rated load: Let’s assume that the calculation model has given the result that lifts should be able to transport an average of eight persons inside a car. a) Mass-based selection Assuming a weight of 75 kg per person, the lifts should be able transport 8 X 75 kg = 600 kg with 80% filling ratio. The rated load should be greater than 600/0.8 = 750 kg. According to ISO DIS 8100-30: 2017[26], the nearest rated load exceeding 750 kg is 800 kg, which would be the selected rated load. b) Area and mass-based selection Assuming 0.21 m2 per person, the required area with 80% filling ratio 8 X 0.21 m2 = 1.68 m2; for 100% platform area should be 1.68/0.8 = 2.1 m2. According to ISO 8100-1:2018[27] the nearest rated load with maximum platform area greater than 2.1 m2 is 1000 kg.

First Approach from Selection Graphs In ISO 4190-6, the building may have two entrance floors: the main entrance floor and a parking floor. The floor height is 2.8 ± 0.2 m, and the building can have up to 20 floors and a population up to 800 persons. The lift group can include one, two or three lifts with speeds up to 2.5 m/s, and load up to 1000 kg. The selection charts are formed using the up-peak formula. The criterion for the lift handling capacity is 7.5% of the

population in five minutes, and separate selection graphs are provided for 60-s, 80-s or 100-s intervals. In ISO DIS 8100-32, similar selection graphs as in the ISO 4190-6 standard were depicted for the three building types. The graphs are based on the up-peak formula, Eq. (3). The method for how the graphs are produced has been introduced and discussed earlier in symposiums on lift and escalator technologies[28, 29]. The selection graphs cover up to 40 floors and a 1200-lb population. Lift speeds vary from 1.0 m/s to 3.5 m/s and loads from 630 kg to 1800 kg. For accessibility reasons smaller cars are not included. The floor-to-floor distance varies from 3.0 to 4.0 m, depending on the building type. Simple design criteria for the required handling capacity and the interval are given in the document for different types of buildings. The requirements of ISO 4190-6 and ISO DIS 8100-32 differ slightly. In residential buildings the handling capacity requirement is 7.5% in ISO 4190-6 and 6% in the ISO DIS 8100-32. The current standard provides selection graphs for 60-s, 80-s and 100-s intervals, called selection Programmes 60, 80 and 100. In the new DIS, the interval criteria is 60 s. The passenger transfer time in the existing residential graphs was assumed to be 1.75 s, while in the new draft it is 1.0-1.2 s, depending on the door width. For narrow doors, the transfer time is longer than for wider doors.

Population/number of floors

The lift arrangements according to the selection graphs of the current 4190-6 standard and the new DIS are compared for residential buildings with one entrance floor. Table 2 shows the lift configurations suggested by Programme 100, 80 and 60 of the current ISO 4190-6, and by Figure C.1 of the new ISO DIS 8100-32[28]. Some low-rise buildings were selected as test examples. According to the table, the number of cars in Programme 60 and Figure C.1 are the same. For a 500-person population and 15 floors, however, Programme 100 suggests one car less than in the other alternatives of the table, since the interval requirement is longer. For accessibility reasons, ISO DIS 8100-32 does not have a car smaller than 630 kg; otherwise, the suggested loads are about the same. The graphs in the new DIS show only symmetrical lift groups, but one car in a group is recommended to be at least 1000 kg to accommodate accessibility requirements and to be able to transport furniture, prams, etc. According to Table 3, the lift speeds of 4190-6 are partly lower and higher than they are in the new DIS. In the new DIS, the speed range starts from 1.0 m/s and has an additional speed class for 2.0 m/s, which makes a difference in the recommended speeds. As a summary, considering the recommended lift groups of ISO 4190-6 Programmes and ISO DIS 8100-32, one can say that they are not exactly the same but they are in line with each other, considering that they have slightly different handling capacity criteria and constraints in car loads.

Number of lifts and rated load ISO 4190-6: 1984

ISO DIS 8100-32: 2019

Programme 100

Programme 80

Programme 60


1 X 630 kg

1 X 630 kg

1 X 630 kg

1 X 630 kg *


1 X 400 kg + 1 x 1000 kg

1 X 400 kg + 1 X 1000 kg

1 X 400 kg + 1 X 1000 kg

2 X 630 kg*


2 X 1000 kg

2 X 400 kg + 1 X 1000 kg

2 X 630 kg + 1 X 1000 kg

3 X 630 kg*


1 X 630 kg + 2 X 1000 kg

1 X 630 kg + 2 X 1000 kg


3 X 800 – 1000 kg*

Table 2: Comparison of lift arrangements in a residential building without parking level[1, 2, 29]

Population/number of floors

Rated speed (m/s) ISO 4190-6: 1984

ISO DIS 8100-32: 2019

Programme 100

Programme 80

Programme 60

100 / 5





300 /10





500 / 15





700/ 20




Table 3: Comparison of lift speeds in a residential building without parking level[1, 2, 29] Continued

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Conclusions In this paper, the main contents of the new ISO DIS 8100-32 are described. SG5 provided demanding goals to the document and, after five years of intensive work, found a consensus. The new draft international standard covers passenger lift planning for three types of buildings: offices, hotels and residential buildings. It presents the state-of-the-art technology by covering all types of group control systems and traffic patterns, including a theoretical up-peak traffic calculation and traffic simulation method for other types of traffic patterns. The tables and graphs of the new draft document reflect current lift safety standards and accessibility for persons with disabilities. The final goal of choosing the rated load was solved after thorough discussions. The SG5 arrived at a solution where the rated load can be selected either according to passenger mass, or area and mass. The new DIS is in line with the current standard by providing similar graphs for quick lift selection as in ISO 4190-6, but extending the graphs to cover the three building types. The subject has inspired the experts of SG5 for long-lasting debates on various issues. Many articles have been published on these subjects during the work, some of which are mentioned in the references of this article: a few of the issues were briefly touched upon in the paper concerning ISO 4190-6 revision from 2016[30].

References [1]

[2] [3] [4] [5]

[6] [7]

ISO 4190-6:1984, Lifts and service lifts (USA: Elevators and dumbwaiters) – Part 6: Passenger lifts to be installed in residential buildings – Planning and selection. ISO DIS 8100-32:2019, Lifts for the transportation of persons and goods – Part 32: Planning and selection of passenger lifts to be installed in office, hotel and residential buildings. H. Hakonen and M-L. Siikonen, “Elevator traffic simulation procedure.” Elevator Technology 19, Thessaloniki, 2008; 131-140; IAEE.; Elevator World 2009; 57(9): 180-190. Finschi, L., “State-of-the-Art Traffic Analysis.” Elevcon Lucerne 2010, Elevator Technology 20: 106-115, IAEE . Christy, T., “Common Misconceptions Regarding Elevator Traffic Simulations.” 3rd Symposium on Lift & Escalator Technologies, Northampton 2013; (3): 30-35. ISSN 2052-7225 (Print), ISSN 2052-7233 (Online). Jappsen, H. and Rieke, O. “Difficulties in Comparing the Results of Lift-Traffic-Simulations.” Elevcon Miami 2012, Elevator Technology 21, IAEE and Elevator World 2014; (1): 96-105. Jones, B., “The probable number of stops made by an elevator.” General Electric Review 1923; 26(8): 583-587.


Schröder, J., “Personenaufzuge.” Födern und Heben 1955.


Strakosch, G.R., Vertical Transportation: Elevators and Escalators, Wiley, New York 1967.


Alexandris, N.A., Statistical Models in Lift Systems. PhD Thesis, Victoria University of Manchester 1977.


Barney, G.C. & Dos Santos, S.M., Elevator traffic analysis design and control. Peter Peregrinus Ltd., London 1977: 386. ISBN 0-86341-0421

[12] Roschier, N-R. and Kaakinen, M., “New Formula for Elevator Round Trip Time Calculation.” Supplement to Elevator World 1978; (3). [13] Lutfi Al-Sharif, Ahmad Hammoudeh, “Evaluating the Elevator Round Trip Time for Multiple Entrances and Incoming Traffic Conditions using Markov Chain Monte Carlo.” International


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[14] [15]


[17] [18]

Journal of Industrial and Systems Engineering (IJISE), Inderscience Publishers 2014; 18(1): 51-64. Hakonen, H. and Siikonen, M-L, “Generalized calculation of Round Trip Time.” Elevcon Helsinki 2006, Elevator Technology 16: 90-99. Peters, R., “Lift traffic analysis: Formulae for the general case.” Building Services Engineering Research & Technology 1990; 11(2): 65-67. Al-Sharif L and Abu Alqumsan A M. “An Integrated Framework for Elevator Traffic Design under General Traffic Conditions Using Origin Destination Matrices. Virtual Interval and the Monte Carlo Simulation Method.” Building Services Engineering Research and Technology 2015; 36(6): 728-750. Sorsa, J. and Siikonen, M-L. “Up-peak Roundtrip Time in Theoretical Calculation, Traffic Simulation, and Reality.” Elevcon Paris 2014, Elevator Technology 22: 347-258, IAEE. Powell, B.A., “Elevator banking for high-rise buildings.” Transportation Science 1975; (5): 200-210.


Siikonen, M-L., “Traffic Patterns in Hotels and Residential Buildings”, 3th Symposium on Lift & Escalator Technologies, Northampton 2013; 3. ISSN 2052-7225 (Print), ISSN 2052-7233 (Online). [20] Chartered Institute of Building Services Engineers (CIBSE) Guide D 2015. Transportation systems in buildings, CIBSE [21] British Council for Offices, Guide to specification. British Council for Offices, London 2014. [22] Barney, G.C., Elevator Traffic Handbook. Spon Press, London 2015: 438. [23] Fruin, J.J., Pedestrian planning and design. Metropolitan Association of Urban Designers and Environmental Planners; 206. [24] Sorsa, J., Ruokokoski, M. and Siikonen, M-L., “Human Body Size in Lift Traffic Design.” 4th Symposium on Lift & Escalator Technologies, Northampton 2014; 4: 213-223. ISSN 2052-7225 (Print), ISSN 2052-7233 (Online). [25] ISO/TR 11071-2:2006, Comparison of worldwide lift safety standards – Part 2: Hydraulic lifts (elevators) [26] ISO DIS 8100-30:2017, Lifts for the transport of persons and goods – Part 30: Class I, II, III and IV lifts installation [27] ISO 8100-1:2018, Lift (Elevator) installation — Part 1: Class I, II, III and VI lifts [28] Ruokokoski, M. and Siikonen, M-L., “Lift Planning and Selection Graphs.” 7th Symposium on Lift & Escalator Technologies, Northampton 2017; 7(22). ISSN 2052-7225 (Print), ISSN 2052-7233 (Online). [29] Barney, G. and Peters, R., “The Evolution of Lift Traffic Design from Human to Expert System” 9th Symposium on Lift & Escalator Technologis, Northampton 2018; 9(20): 1-14. ISSN 2052-7225 (Print), ISSN 2052-7233 (Online). [30] Siikonen, M-L, “ISO 4190-6 Revision – Planning and Selection of Lifts in Office Buildings, Hotels and Residential Buildings.” Elevcon Madrid 2016; Elevator Technology 23: 230-329. IAEE.

Marja-Liisa Siikonen is the convenor of the TC178 WG6 SG5 to draft the document ISO DIS 8100-32. She received her M.Sc. in technical physics from Helsinki University of Technology. Later, she obtained her Lic.Sc. (Tech.) and D.Sc. (Tech.) degree in applied mathematics from Helsinki University of Technology. She has published numerous articles and patents in the field of lift control systems and lift traffic planning, building traffic simulation and evacuation and people flow in buildings. Her latest research interests are on people movement inside buildings, their social behaviour and lift energy consumption.


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Longer Life for Escalator Steps LU pioneers the art of prolonging the lifespan of escalator steps in the U.K. by Dr. Ali Albadri London Underground (LU) scraps a significant number of steel escalator steps each year based upon criteria laid out in the LU Escalator Category 1 standard. Your author has examined the possibility of relaxing the stringent criteria for weld defects (thus reducing scrapping costs), while ensuring safety. The LU standard mandates that a minimum sample of 10 steps from each escalator should be formally inspected every year for suspect indications. A step fails the test if any defects are found in a non-welded metal (parent) or if a crack longer than 5 mm is found in the area where the weld meets the parent metal. In either case, the step will be replaced with a new one at a cost of approximately GBP750 (US$969). Additional inspections are carried out on an escalator in which even one of its steps is found to contain a suspect indication. Defects in steps’ welds can develop due to manufacturing errors or fatigue damage by cyclic loading, the latter of which manifests more frequently in welds than in parent metal. Your author explored methods to ensure their structural integrity with a less-demanding criterion: changing the acceptable weld defect length from 5 to 10 mm. We are trying to discover and unveil the art of prolonging the lifespan of escalator steps without compromising safety. Theoretical and experimental programs have been planned and put in action to verify this issue and place new foundations for future development in this subject.

Yoke arm Pan

Escalators are subjected to a significant number of cyclic stresses. The cumulative effect of these cycles in the step structure has the potential to initiate cracks, especially at sensitive locations, such as welds. It is, therefore, very important that the behaviour of the steps is fully understood so there is no risk of an unsafe condition developing.

Simulation and Testing A simulation of different crack lengths in the weld between the top of the step yoke arm and pan (Figure 1) was analysed. It was found that after an initial increase in the stress level, there is no increase at the crack tip when the crack is 20 mm long. This finding has a significant effect on the way steps with cracks are managed and ensured for safety, especially if supported by experimental testing. Prior to laboratory testing, a finite element analysis (FEA) computer simulation investigation was conducted to evaluate the impact of different crack lengths in a specific step area where a crack-like indication is traditionally known to be exhibited. Similar principles are deployed in many industries, such as rail transportation (rolling stock) and aeronautics. We carried out a test on a step with a crack in the joint between the yoke arm and pan using a test rig (Figure 2). The crack length was monitored and measured throughout 10 million cycles under torsional loading (horizontal twisting of the step), which is considered the most significant source of step stress. It arises from irregularities in the tracking system of the escalator on which the steps run. If a defect is stable up to 10 million cycles at ±3 mm of twist, then the accepted limit, beyond which no further crack propagation can occur in accordance with European and British standards, has been achieved.

Figure 1: A step with the yoke arms and pan (seen from underneath)


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MAINTENANCE The strain readings were plotted against the number of cycles (Figure 3). The monitoring gauges were mounted at different locations in the step. The gauges did not show any significant variation over the number of cycles, except strain gauges 6 and 7, which showed changes. Strain gauge 6 showed the stress level Strain gauge 6 on where the crack presents the step near the area with crack (increased then decreased due to load transfer). However, strain gauge 7 showed the stress begin to increase moderately as the stop pivoted (opposite to the Hydraulic Ram side of the step that had the crack) during the test. The frequent measurements of crack lengths showed an increase from only 20 to 24 mm Escalator Step over 0.7 million-4.7 million cycles (Figure 3, mark-up lines). FEA and testing contributed to providing assurance that this type of escalator step with this defect is safe to operate in customer service. This has been supported by regular, nondestructive examination of a sample of steps from each escalator in service. Testing has concluded that a 10-mm defect is acceptable.

Strain gauge 7 on the step near the area with crack

Figure 2: This rig for escalator step testing is situated at the Frank Pick House in Acton

Acknowledgements Your author would like to thank Dr. Tony Miller, with L&E Engineering, and Benjamin Wilson, a graduate engineer who aided in setting up the test described here, for their assistance. Dr. Ali Albadri is chief engineer for escalator maintenance at LU.

Figure 3: A graph of the variation in the strain (stress) levels on both sides of the step 2020/2 Issue 103 • ELEVATOR WORLD UK



Out of Harm’s Way All stakeholders should be aware of contributing factors that can lead to diminished safety of elevators and escalators.

by Max Guijt This article was first presented at the 2019 International Elevator and Escalator Symposium in Las Vegas. For more information on December 7-8 2020’s event in Amsterdam and to participate, visit www.elevatorsymposium.org.

The safety of elevators and escalators depends on the quality of the design, manufacturing process, installation, correct testing/commissioning and maintenance/safety inspection regime during their lifecycle. We at Shanderry Elevator & Escalator Consultants, Ltd. are often engaged by owners when they have persistent issues with their equipment. Invariably, we find that the issues relate to equipment not set up correctly at the commissioning stage or maintained incorrectly, or that the maintenance provider lacks the knowledge or diagnostic tools for that type of equipment. Often, when we take a closer look at the equipment, we find shortfalls in relation to essential health and safety requirements (EHSRs) that are not necessarily contributing to the issues, but pose a hazard and potential risk. In all European Union (EU) countries and the U.S., there are mandatory requirements related to elevator and escalator safety inspections by state or independent inspection bodies. In the EU, independent safety inspections for escalators are not always required, depending on the jurisdiction. We regularly find elevators and escalators that have been assessed by a safety inspection body that fall short of applicable health and safety standards. These shortfalls are not mentioned in the safety inspection report. To explain this better, two examples of recent findings follow.

Example No. 1 After persistent issues with escalators in Boston, the owner ultimately requested an independent review of the installations. The request for this review started with the question, “Is it normal that escalator handrails need to be replaced after two years?” Industry norms indicate an expected handrail lifespan of approximately seven-plus years, provided correct maintenance is conducted. The escalators in question were newly installed and handed over to the owner in 2016. The persistent issues started from the day the units went into service. After approximately 14 months, the owner lost confidence in the original equipment installer, as no resolution was provided. The owner decided to change


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maintenance providers from the original installer. However, changing providers did not resolve the issues. After the equipment was in service for 24 months, the owner of the equipment sought an independent expert opinion. Upon assessment, several issues were noted. One was that the gaps between the skirting and steps exceeded the 4-mm maximum. This was not causing breakdowns, but it highlighted a significant risk of feet or objects becoming trapped between stationary skirting and moving step. Another issue found was that, from the commissioning stage, the activation force setting of the combplate switches was incorrect. This caused the escalators to shut down every time a combplate was hit with a force above the force setting. This is undesirable and can cause people on the escalators to fall when the escalator abruptly stops, in addition to the inconvenience of the escalators being constantly out of service. The setting was around 600 N (135 lbf), and the manufacturer’s manual stated these needed to be set at around 1,700 N (380 lbf). Numerous other issues were found. These ranged from incorrect handrail tensioning, incorrect step track setup, incorrect step-chain tensioning to other items. Combined, the issues caused excessive wear of the handrails and step chains, of which the client was not made aware. The assessment was conducted in accordance with the relevant ASME A17.1 code and the manufacturer’s instructions and guidelines. The assessment concluded the incorrect settings and adjustments must have been present at the commissioning stage. The escalators received the mandatory safety inspection from the AHJ. It was expected that the inspection body conducting the inspection would have noted the incorrect settings and safety dimensions in its report, but it did not. We investigated the maintenance procedures, and it was found the maintenance technicians lacked the tools or training to maintain the equipment correctly. They were also not fully aware of the risks pertaining to incorrect safety spaces between steps and skirting or combplate pressure settings.



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Example No. 2 An exercise was conducted recently for a public state body in an EU country, whereby a sample portfolio of 50 elevators was assessed. The state body had approximately 600 elevators in its portfolio. The exercise was instigated by several incidents that occurred for which the state body was ultimately liable. The portfolio contained equipment of nearly all European elevator manufacturers. Approximately 70% of the portfolio assessed was installed in accordance with the European Lift Directive (95/16/EC) that went into effect in August 1999. Approximately 30% of the equipment was installed before August 1999 and needed to comply with the European Directives for Lifts & Lifting Equipment 84/528/EEC and 84/529/ EEC. The assessment was conducted based on the relevant versions of the EN 81 European harmonized standard series. An electric elevator installed in 1990 was assessed against EN 81-1:1984. If the elevator was installed in 2007, it was assessed against EN 81-1 +A1, A2:2005, etc. All elevators received their mandatory safety inspections from an ISO 17020 accredited inspection body. The state body (owner) is bound by public procurement rules, and the portfolio is tendered every three to five years. We found that, except for the very recently installed equipment, none of the equipment was maintained by the original installer during its lifecycle. Our assessment did not find any elevator to comply in full with the EHSRs. Alarmingly, three safety gears were found nonfunctional and one elevator had a bridged door contact. In this instance, a mandated safety inspection was conducted the morning before we made our assessment. It concluded that all equipment had numerous shortfalls in varying degrees when assessed against the relevant health and safety regulations, standards and codes. The number of shortfalls of the 50 elevators is illustrated in Table 1. Level of Risk

Accumulated No. of Risk Items Identified on 50 Elevators









Table 1

When we tried to establish why there were so many shortfalls, we found three common denominators:

1) Ninety-five percent of the equipment was not maintained by the original equipment installer or had changed among several maintenance providers during its operational life. 2) Eighty-five percent of the equipment did not have manuals or electrical drawings available with the equipment. 3) Maintenance providers and safety inspectors were not sufficiently equipped with the knowledge or tools to maintain or inspect the equipment correctly. In an ideal world, the original equipment installer would be the maintenance provider during the lifecycle of an elevator or


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escalator. They should have the information, tools and knowledge to maintain their equipment correctly. However, we are not living in an ideal world, and most elevator and escalator maintenance providers will have a range of equipment in their maintenance portfolios they did not install. There are also companies that do not install new elevators or escalators, but only provide maintenance. The market tendency for maintenance providers is to grow their maintenance portfolio. Providers will, in principle, take on any type of unit for maintenance. Elevators and escalators are high-cost maintenance items for owners, who tend to look for the best price available in the market. This is especially true when owners are regulated by internal processes, whereby a portfolio needs to be tendered publicly. Owners tend to believe that for an elevator/escalator, any reputable maintenance provider can maintain their equipment, regardless of make, type or technique applied. This leads to owners looking for the best market price for maintenance. Owners are not necessarily able to assess if the maintenance provider has the information, tools or knowledge to maintain their equipment. In practice, we regularly note that the maintenance technician has neither the information, tools (especially diagnostic tools) nor knowledge to maintain the equipment correctly. This is becoming more and more evident now, because most new equipment — and especially control systems — is software-based. We have noted that some OEMs are reluctant, or, in some cases, refuse to supply other providers the necessary tools to gain access to the diagnostic software for troubleshooting, fault-finding or changing parameters. Notwithstanding, a section of the software should be closed protocol to safeguard the integrity of the safety circuits. In relation to safety inspection bodies, we find they are usually competent, according to their certification. In practice, we find that, in some cases, the actual inspector is not equipped with the knowledge or correct tools to conduct the inspection appropriately. For example, an inspector might not have door pressure gauges to measure elevator door-closing forces. We have not found any inspection body with access to diagnostic tools. In jurisdictions where mandatory safety inspections are not enforced by regulators, we find some elevator/escalator owners are not aware of statutory requirements. We note that, in these jurisdictions, it leads to circumstances in which the equipment does not receive any independent safety inspections. Maintenance providers do not necessarily inform the owners of this statutory requirement, either.

MAINTENANCE Based on our experience, we reason that correct maintenance and safety inspections stand and fall with quality control systems by owners, maintenance providers, inspection and accreditation bodies. Quality-control systems, when applied correctly, should identify the shortfalls in documentation, knowledge, training, tools, EHSRs, etc. Accreditation bodies that certify inspection bodies and Notified Bodies should have a more active role. The qualityassurance schemes with which maintenance providers are accredited are becoming more and more theoretical; theory and practice are proven to not be the same. If the qualityassurance schemes and quality-control systems are applied in practice, and if any identified shortfalls are corrected, elevators and escalators should become safer. Standardization bodies, in conjunction with elevator and escalator manufacturers, should investigate a system whereby diagnostic tools for all types of elevators and escalators are available to all maintenance providers and inspection bodies. An example can be taken from the automobile industry. All maintenance providers in the automobile industry can purchase a diagnostic tool they can plug into an OBD II interface with which every modern vehicle is equipped. With the correct software, they can read the basic information of the automobile management systems without compromising the safety integrity of the software or management systems. If this were available in the elevator and escalator industry, it would, in my considered opinion, reduce or negate the risk of not having access to control systems and enhance overall work practices and safety. Ultimately, this article has taken a very broad stance with the above. As elevator and escalator consultants, we at Shanderry Elevator & Escalator Consultants Ltd. are mostly employed when equipment has problems. Therefore, we seldom see equipment that has no issues. There are certainly owners, maintenance providers, accreditation bodies and inspection bodies taking the correct approach, and that should be recognized. Correct maintenance and an independent safety inspection regime are essential for continued safety of elevators and escalators. It is, therefore, important that the correct remuneration for the required maintenance or inspection service is negotiated with owners. It is essential that maintenance providers and inspection bodies have the documentation, tools and knowledge available with enough time to conduct their scope of works. Without this, elevator or escalator safety can diminish over their lifecycle, and the consequences can be catastrophic. Max Guijt is managing director of Shanderry Elevator & Escalator Consultants Ltd., which is headquartered in Portarlington, Ireland; operates in 17 EU countries; and assists clients in Europe and the U.S. Shanderry conducts approximately 1,300 independent elevator and escalator audits annually for and on behalf of owners.



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2020/2 Issue 103 • ELEVATOR WORLD UK



Shadow Boards: A Common-Sense Approach to Effective Tool Management by Jim Roberts High levels of safety, security and organisation must be paramount when it comes to the working environment, and one way to achieve these ideals is through the use of shadow and impactful visual communication boards, which contribute significantly to companies efforts regarding 5S compliance and lean operations. Any effective workplace — from an office to the factory shop floor, from the warehouse and logistics centre to high street store — benefits from a reliance on visual cues and communication to operate efficiently and safely. The advantage of visual workplaces are heightened levels of quality, productivity, safety and employee morale. Visual aids subliminally feed people with the information they need by answering questions, identifying equipment and describing procedures. They also provide important safety information, and that’s one reason why we are seeing increasing numbers of organisations implementing 5S programmes. Developed in Japan, and embodying orderliness, standardisation and cleanliness, among other attributes, 5S is an inexpensive management approach that has at its heart a system of visual aids and tools. These are designed to help employees positively contribute to the organisation in which they work, driving through improvements and advantages


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across the whole business environment. Enshrined in the 5S concept are sort, set, shine, standardisation and sustain. 5S itself can be subject to continuous improvement, so the adoption of shadow boards for tools and specialist equipment will provide a common sense — and more cost-effective — way to improve the organisation of the workplace, as part of the overall adoption of lean processes.

Elimination of Waste Who wouldn’t agree that the elimination of wasteful practices is an important consideration in business? So, nullifying the effect of unnecessary actions can add value and cut costs. Shadow boards are a proven means to implement continuous improvement principles because they are designed to encourage smarter working practices and drive out waste. Misplacing workplace equipment can be frustrating, inconvenient and inefficient. It is so often the case that it is not until work is underway and people are reaching for a specific item, on to find it has gone missing. They will inevitably have to then stop what they are doing and waste valuable time and effort attempting to locate the item — or, if they are unable to find it, spend needlessly to replace it.

READERS’ PLATFORM Experience has shown that visual solutions are more effective than any other medium of communication, even in distracting environments. When introduced into the workplace, the impact and advantage of shadow boards can be manifold. Equipment and tools can be arranged in order in a logical position and handy locations, making them immediately visible. Anything amiss — a missing brush, for instance — can be instantly identified and rectified before other people become involved. Shadow boards are the embodiment of a common-sense, effective approach to “law and order” in the workplace. Shadowing products (or equipment) has proven effective in helping people find the right device quickly and efficiently; thus, less time is wasted. Usage instructions suitably indicated alongside serve as a subtle reminder every time the device is used. It is quite useful to have shadow boards with colours and artwork best suited to the visibility levels in the workplace. When colour-coded, they can create standardisation, personalisation and effective delineation to ensure that the right equipment is always available, in the right place at the right time. Users can also reduce operational costs, as workplace standardisation eliminates the practice of designing and installing expensive and time-consuming custom-made shadow boards. No business can afford to be complacent when it comes to workplace efficiency, regardless of the operational environment. It’s clear that higher visibility of tools and more-effective management of them is important for staying in step with 5S lean processes. Specifically designed to ensure compliance with lean processes, they can help to unlock higher productivity levels in the workplace. Ease of location due to clear product marking provides rapid identification of equipment in a busy, cluttered industrial shop floor or warehouse, enhancing production levels and reducing errors, while minimising the possibility of cross-contamination in hygiene areas Shadow boards can also transcend the testing environments of today’s workplace. While a hard copy of instructions has a short life, is difficult to reference and needs multiple prints for distribution, details featured on shadow board systems are here to stay, unless there are additions or deletions to the set of devices. Multiple transparent pockets can hold hard copies of processes/instructions, with changes updated by simply replacing an older copy with the latest details. These are but a few benefits of the shadow board system. Adopting the right design will help make best of this visual solution.

Different Workplaces It’s important to recognise that each workplace is different: it has its own unique requirements around tool organisation and management, and this must be reflected in any solution involving shadow boards. So, a visualisation strategy must be tailored to suit individual needs and requirements — the one-size-fits-all approach doesn’t work. Workplaces, large or small, require complex planning and product support, so it is wise to think about visualisation investments in terms of quality, reliability and performance. Consider also how your supplier can add value through bespoke planning and consultancy services. Implementation of standardised shadow boards such as Beaverswood’s new Modulean range, can be innovative, cost-effective and timesaving investments, meeting the demand for impactful visual communication as companies comply with 5S and lean practices in the workplace. Modulean reflects a comprehensive package of off-the-shelf, ready-to-purchase, highly visible boards that can be used effectively individually or as part of a modular system. Jim Roberts is product manager at Beaverswood, a manufacturer of innovative products designed to improve the efficiency, safety and sustainability of the physical workplace. Its range includes labelling and signage, waste segregation and 5S visual communication solutions, as well as health and safety products.

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Common or Not? Your author concludes that the answer is “yes.”


by Dave Cooper recently received an email from a colleague recently asking me if a common button was a requirement on a car-top control unit. My immediate reaction was “no,” as I remember a discussion a few years ago when, after much debate, I became aware there was a requirement for buttons to be bistable, but there was no mention of a common button in EN 81-1. in EN 81-1 (1998) stated: “b) The movement of the car shall be dependent on a constant pressure on a push button protected against accidental operation and with the direction of movement clearly indicated.” Having been asked the question about the common button and given the number of changes in standards, I thought I would do a bit of investigating. I found that EN 81-20 (2014) states: “ The inspection control station shall consist of: a) A switch (inspection operation switch) which shall satisfy the requirements for electric safety devices (5.11.2) b) “This switch, which shall be bi-stable, shall be protected against involuntary operation; Direction push buttons ‘UP’ and ‘DOWN’ protected against accidental operation with the direction of movement clearly indicated c) A push button ‘RUN’ protected against accident operation.” EN 81-80 (“Improvement of safety of existing lifts”) states that you should comply with EN 81-20. You could be deceived by looking at BS 7255 “Safe working on lifts,” as it is due for updating and will take into


consideration the new EN 81-20 requirements. A date for its updating is not yet known. Annex B of BS 7255 (2012) shows diagrams of car-top control units with and without a common button. Its opening few lines state: “A car top control station conforming to BS EN 81-1 and BS EN 81-2 provides the following functions:

1. An ‘inspection operation/normal service control’ device; 2. An ‘up’ direction button; 3. A ‘down’ direction button; 4. A ‘stopping’ device; 5. An electrical socket outlet (if not provided elsewhere on the car roof)” There is no mention of a common button. On the basis of the forgoing, I have to conclude that, to comply with EN 81-20, there needs to be a common button, and, on the basis that bringing lifts up to modern standards, if you have to replace a car-top control unit for any reason, a common button should be included. Keep your eye out for the updated BS 7255. Common or Not? Yes.

References [1] BSI Group. BS EN 81-1, Amendment A3 (2009). [2] BSI Group. BS EN 81-2, Amendment A3 (2009). [3] BSI Group. BS EN 81-20 (2014). [4] BSI Group. BS 7255 (2012).









Figure B.1 Typical arrangement of basic layout for car top operating buttons and switches


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Key 1 Green background

4 Red stop button

2 Yellow background

5 White background

3 Blue background

6 Red background

NOTE 1 A heavy black line indicates the position of shrouding around each control. NOTE 2 Stop switch shown in stop position. NOTE 3 A broken outline indicates the run position. NOTE 4 A red L.E.D. illuminated car top alarm button is optional. Figure B.2 Typical arrangement of enhanced layout for car top operating buttons and switches

David Cooper BSc(Hons), MSc, MPhil, CEng, FIET, FCIBSE, FRSA, FCGI, FCABE, MBES is the Managing Director of UK-based lift consultants LECS (UK) Ltd. He has been in the lift & escalator industry since 1980 and is a well-known author and speaker. He holds a Master of Philosophy Degree following a 5-year research project into accidents on escalators, a Master of Science Degree in Lift Engineering as well as a Bachelor of Science Honours degree, Higher National Certificate and a Continuing Education Certificate in lift and escalator engineering. He is a co-author of “The Elevator & Escalator Micropedia” (1997) and “Elevator & Escalator Accident Investigation & Litigation” (2002 & 2005), as well as being a contributor to a number of other books, including CIBSE Guide D. He is a regular columnist in trade journals worldwide including ELEVATOR WORLD UK, ELEVATOR WORLD and Elevatori. He has presented at a number of industry seminars worldwide, including 2008 Elevcon (Thessaloniki), 2008 NAVTP (San Francisco), 1999 LESA (Melbourne), 1999 CIBSE (Hong Kong), 1999 IAEE (London), 1998 (Zurich), 1997 CIBSE (Hong Kong), 1996 (Barcelona) and 1993 (Vienna), as well as numerous presentations within the UK. He is also a Founding Trustee of the UK’s Lift Industry Charity, which assists industry members and/or their families after an accident at work. In 2012, David was awarded the silver medal by CIBSE for services to the Institution. David Chairs the Charity that runs the Lift Symposium, and is an Honorary Visiting Fellow at The University of Northampton.

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Elevator Ride Quality by Hamish McGlashan Over recent years, the major OEMs have increasingly focused on ride quality to create a point of differentiation, particularly in the high-rise and high-speed market. This is now filtering down to the more standard product ranges, with some suppliers providing product-specific datasheets detailing achievable noise and vibration limits. The elevator ride experience influences building users’ perception of the quality of the elevator, which contributes to their overall perspective of the building and its facilities. For example, consistently noisy/shaking elevators become a talking point between building users and can have a negative impact on their day, even more so where meeting rooms or sleeping accommodation is located adjacent to elevator shafts. Ultimately, this can have a financial impact on building owners, as tenants demand service charge reductions. It also has the potential to discourage prospective tenants.

While there are no published international standards that define required quality standards for an elevator ride, in the U.K., the British Council for Offices (BCO) Guide to Specification sets a benchmark for the industry with its best-practice guides for the commercial property sector. BCO provides acceptable lift ride-quality values applicable to passenger lifts in office buildings. The Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers’ (CIBSE) Guide D: Transportation Systems in Buildings 2015 is a core resource for the vertical-transportation industry, as it provides a wealth of information and recommendations. It is

Industry Standards ISO 18738-1:2012 Measurement of ride quality — Part 1: Lifts (elevators) details the methods and tools for ride-quality measurement. It defines ride quality as sound levels in the car and vibration of the car floor, relevant to passenger perception associated with elevator motion. The standard states that its objective is to: “. . .encourage industry-wide uniformity in the definition, measurement, processing Ride-quality measurements should be taken to confirm compliance with specification. and expression of vibration and noise signals that comprise lift ride quality. The aim of such uniformity also a valuable source of information for architects, developers is to benefit lift industry clients by reducing variability in the and those managing estates and buildings. Guide D provides results of lift ride quality measurements caused by differences in guidance on maximum noise and vibration levels for a range of the methods of acquiring and quantifying the signals.” lift speeds and building types. ISO 18738-1 is relevant to those that develop manufacturing As for U.K. government guidance, the Department of specifications and calibration methods for instrumentation Health’s HTM 08-02 and Health Facilities Scotland’s SHTM 08-02 used to test elevator ride quality, as well as manufacturers and give guidance on the planning, design, maintenance and installers who must meet the elevator ride quality specified in operation of lifts in the health sector. This includes the their contracts. The aim of the standard is to support these following values, which are deemed acceptable for lifts in parties to produce simple elevator ride-quality measurements healthcare facilities: that do not require noise and vibration analysis specialists. The ♦ Horizontal and vertical vibration: maximum peak-to-peak of standard also ensures these measures can be traceable to 0.15 m/s² national standards during the calibration of elevator ♦ In-car noise: maximum of 55 dBA equipment.


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READERS’ PLATFORM In addition, both the British Standard EN 81-20 Safety rules for the construction and installation of lifts and ASME A17.1 Safety Code for Elevators and Escalators define permissible levels of guide-rail deflection. The values given are safety-related to ensure safe operation of the lift. However, as highlighted by one of the world’s major guide-rail suppliers, far more stringent values are required to ensure good ride quality.

Good Ride Quality Whilst there are no published standards that define good ride quality, it is important to understand the elements that contribute to it. To achieve good ride quality, all of the following must be considered, as they are all interconnected. Some key factors Poor elevator ride can have a negative impact on users’ perception of a building. are: ♦ The design and installation of the the problems and work with the contractor to resolve them, guide-rail system, including the brackets and guide clips causing additional tenant disruption and cost. ♦ Appropriate guide-shoe selection to suit speed and car We recommend ride-quality measurements are taken to capacity confirm compliance with specification at the time of final ♦ Ensuring that the centre of suspension, centre of gravity of commissioning. This will allow engineers to identify any the car and centre line of the guide rails are all aligned (This problems and apply any corrective actions necessary prior to is often referred to as “static balance.”) handover. To eliminate any possible inconsistencies, any ♦ The design of the elevator cab, sling and vibration isolation measurements and analysis carried out must use tools and mounts methods in compliance with ISO 18738. ♦ Suspension rope tensions Poor ride quality primarily results in vibration, which is ♦ Motor drive system either heard or felt. It can also mask indicators of component failure, which may result in more costly repairs further down Costly Retrofit the line. In simple terms, the costs can be controlled by Many people attempt to rectify poor ride quality without adequate investment at an early stage through an appropriate addressing some of the most basic elements such as guide-rail performance specification, lift system design, purchase of alignment. In many cases, this is the result of certain fast-track suitable equipment and management of installation quality. installation methods, which are not conducive to achieving Getting this right should avoid time-consuming and costly good ride quality. Alongside this, there is often a lack of remedial work. knowledge of how to fix poor guide-rail alignment once a lift installation is completed. Once the lift is in operation, there is an understandable hesitancy to inconvenience users if a lift needs to be taken out of service for rectification work. Likewise, building owners are put off by potential costs, as it can take a considerable amount of time to straighten out a poor installation. Making elevator ride quality a “retrofit” consideration is more costly in the long term, rather than having it as a core element of the build process – from design, through to construction and commissioning. For example, we at TÜV SÜD Dunbar Boardman have sometimes been involved in projects where we wrote the original specification but were not engaged again until the building was finished and occupied — once the developer received complaints from residents about lift quality. In most cases, we were then reengaged to identify

Hamish McGlashan is an associate director at European elevator, escalator and access consultancy TÜV SÜD Dunbar Boardman. Operating throughout Europe, the Middle East and India, TÜV SÜD Dunbar Boardman is part of worldwide technical-service provider TÜV SÜD, which has more than 24,000 employees across more than 1,000 locations.

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Hybrid Construction Contracts Guidance from the Court of Appeal


by Jonathan Hawkswell n the recent case of C Spencer Limited v MW High Tech Projects UK Limited, the Court of Appeal considered whether, in the case of a hybrid contract (one that provides for both “construction operations” and “non-construction operations,” within the meaning of the Housing Grants, Construction and Regeneration Act 1996 (as amended) (“HGCRA”)), a valid payment notice must separately identify the sum due in respect of the “construction operations” element of the works.

Background In November 2015, C Spencer Limited (“CSL”) was engaged by MW High Tech Projects UK Limited (“MW”) under a hybrid sub-contract that provided for periodic interim payments. Primary elements of the sub-contract works were construction operations within the meaning of s105(1) of HGCRA; however, the sub-contract works also included non-construction operations. In 2018, a dispute arose in respect of interim payment application 31; neither CSL’s application for payment nor MW’s payment notice separately identified the sums due in respect of construction operations from the sums due in respect of non-construction operations. CSL gave notice of its intention to refer the dispute to adjudication but MW raised a jurisdictional challenge on the basis that the adjudicator was only able to deal with disputes in respect of construction operations and the dispute, as framed by CSL, failed to distinguish between construction operations and non-construction operations. CSL subsequently withdrew its adjudication claim. In February 2019, CSL issued interim payment application 32, which distinguished the sums due in respect of construction operations and non-construction operations. In response, MW submitted a payment notice that valued the application at a negative figure (the “Payment Notice”). The Payment Notice did not allocate any sums by reference to construction operations only.

The TCC’s Decision CSL commenced Part 8 proceedings seeking payment on the basis that MW’s Payment Notice was invalid due to no sum being allocated to construction operations only. MW argued that the payment provisions of the sub-contract did not require the sums to be separated and therefore the Payment Notice was valid. The TCC held that where a hybrid contract contained a payment scheme that was compliant with (or mirrored) the relevant provisions of the HGCRA for both construction and non-construction operations, a payment notice that did not


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separately identify the sums due in respect of construction operations was capable of constituting a valid notice under sections 110A and 111 of the HGCRA. The Payment Notice submitted by MW was therefore valid and CSL’s Part 8 claim was dismissed. Recognising the wider significance of the points raised, the TCC nevertheless gave permission for CSL to appeal against the court’s ruling. The central issue on appeal The main issue for consideration by the Court of Appeal concerned statutory and contractual interpretation. CSL argued that the words in s104(5) HGCRA (“only so far as it relates to construction operations”) had to be read into every section of the HGCRA concerned with payment. Consequently, in the context of a hybrid contract, where a payment notice fails to specify (within the overall sum notified) the amount that relates to construction operations only, such payment notice would be non-compliant with the HGCRA. MW submitted that reading in the additional words was unnecessary and would cause confusion, complexity, and additional cost.

The Court of Appeal’s Decision The Court of Appeal affirmed the TCC’s decision for the following reasons: ♦ The HGCRA does not require payment terms in a hybrid contract to provide for the separate notification and breakdown of sums due in respect of construction operations only. ♦ The payment provisions in the sub-contract complied with the mandatory requirements of the HGCRA. There was no requirement on either party to notify and break down sums due in respect of construction operations only in their interim applications, payment notices or pay less notices. ♦ The HGCRA can be construed perfectly well without reading in any words at all and, as such, it was neither necessary nor appropriate to read in the words from s104(5) (“only so far as it relates to construction operations”) into later sections of the HGCRA concerning payment.

CONTRACT MATTERS ♌ Parties are free to extend the payment provisions deriving from s109 – 111 of the HGCRA to cover both construction and non-construction operations. ♌ The adjudication provisions in the sub-contract had been narrowed so that they only related to referrals in respect of construction operations. A similar limitation/qualification could have easily been applied to the payment provisions of the sub-contract, but ultimately was not. ♌ Neither the payer nor the payee wants to be in a position where two separate payment processes, with different procedural requirements, are live. Certainty and transparency are upheld if the stage payment is a single sum based on a monthly valuation or the achievement of a particular milestone. Both the TCC and Court of Appeal concurred that, in the case where separate payment schemes applied, it would be necessary to distinguish construction operations from nonconstruction operations in respect of each application and payment notice. However, in this case, a single, compliant payment regime had been agreed by the parties.

Analysis This case confirms that where a hybrid contract contains an HGCRA-compliant payment scheme applying to both construction and non-construction operations, a payment notice is not required to separately identify sums due in respect of the construction operation element.

However, whether a payment application or payment notice needs to separately identify the sums due in respect of the construction operations depends largely upon the terms of the relevant contract. Plainly, if a contract provides for different payment schemes in respect of construction and nonconstruction operations or if the payment terms are not compliant with the HGCRA, separate identification of the sums due in respect of the construction operations element is required. This article contains information of general interest about current legal issues, but does not provide legal advice. It is prepared for the general information of our clients and other interested parties. This article should not be relied upon in any specific situation without appropriate legal advice. If you require legal advice on any of the issues raised in this article, please contact one of our specialist construction lawyers. Š Hawkswell Kilvington Ltd. 2020 Jonathan Hawkswell specialises in advising the building and civil engineering industry sectors primarily in relation to contentious matters. He has significant experience in resolving disputes through adjudication, arbitration, mediation, conciliation and litigation in the Technology & Construction Court. He has been involved in a number of substantial claims through adjudication for extensions of time and final account disputes. Before founding Hawkswell Kilvington, Jonathan was National Head of Construction at Pinsent Curtis Biddle (now Pinsent Masons).

Hawkswell Kilvington 


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17 Navigation Court, Wakefield, WF2 7BJ | 28 Queen Street, London, EC4R 1BB Tel: 01924 285719 | Fax: 01924 257666 | enquiries@hklegal.co.uk | www.hklegal.co.uk 2020/2 Issue 103 • ELEVATOR WORLD UK



Gateway, the IoT Mirror for Lift Cars IoT application for lift cars

by Fabio Liberali and Alessandro Cremaschi Gateway is a patent-pending, (Italian Patent No. 102017000031537 – 22/3/2017; European patent pending), Internet of Things (IoT) technology applied to glass mirrors in lift cars. It transforms common lift-car mirrors into interactive touchscreen displays managed remotely via the internet. Unlike traditional cars’ video screens, Gateway has many different purposes: ♦ Interactive touchscreen display ♦ Digital signage and communication ♦ Emergency connection to 24-hr servicing (through an additional micro camera) ♦ Maintenance support (direct video/audio connection between headquarters and onsite maintenance personnel) The system is extremely light and thin, with no impact on car weight and space. Gateway is a tailormade product that can be adapted to both new cars and modernizations.

Introduction Traditional Cars The push button in the traditional car has the drawback of limiting communication between the user and operational center to merely an audio system. Furthermore, warnings, messages and information are traditionally displayed in the car by means of posting paper notices or using closed-circuit screens exclusively devoted to this function. The main object of Gateway is to provide a car in which, unlike traditional equipment of this type, communication is not limited to audio signals, but also includes video signals and internet to provide features allowing the user to interact with the outside world and vice versa. Another object is to provide a car having, within a single system of communication, the function of displaying notices and general information messages, both useful for the user and commercially relevant, the dimensions of which do not affect the interior design or are undesirable in the smallest cars. This feature is particularly relevant, as it provides the lift owner the possibility to sell commercial communication/advertising in the car.

The IoT Revolution The IoT is the network of physical devices, vehicles, home appliances and other items embedded with electronics,


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software, sensors, actuators and connectivity that enable these objects to connect and exchange data. Each thing is uniquely identifiable through its embedded computing system but is able to interoperate within the existing internet infrastructure [1-3]. Experts estimate the IoT will consist of more than 30 billion objects by 2020[4] and more than 75 billion by 2025. It is also estimated that the global market value of IoT will reach US$1102 billion by 2026.[5] A growing portion of IoT devices is created for consumer use. Examples of consumer applications include connected car, entertainment, home automation, wearable technology, quantified self, connected health, and appliances such as washers/dryers, robotic vacuums, air purifiers, ovens and refrigerators/freezers that use Wi-Fi for remote monitoring.[6] Gateway applies such technology to lift cars.

Connect the Car to the Outside World In traditional lift systems, cars are passive; i.e., they lack means suitable for communication, the ability to provide the user with audio and video signals, etc. If present, the auxiliary communication means (traditional TV screen, touchpad, etc.) affects the appearance and design of the space inside the car. Such devices have a limited quality in terms of design opportunities, video dimensions and brightness, and custom solutions. Moreover, TV screens and touchpads are exposed to various risks (e.g., vandalism and robbery). Gateway provides new solutions. It hides the whole hardware behind a mirror, avoiding the above-mentioned risks. It provides architects and designers a new opportunity to create elegant lift cars. The “wow effect” is also added, deriving from the new communication and digital signage system. It also opens the door to multiple and real-time management of communication on every car from a single remote point. Its enhanced communication and interactive features is in accordance with Lift Directive 2014/33/EU and Machinery Directive 2006/42/EC.

Video With Touchscreen Technology Gateway applies IoT to car mirrors, making a normal mirror a completely new multimedia tool connected to the internet. If switched off, it serves as a traditional car mirror. Optionally, it can become a full-video interactive touchscreen. This feature


Video Technical Specifications





42 in.

49 in.

55 in.

Power supply

100-240 V, 50/60 Hz

100-240 V, 50/60 Hz

100-240 V, 50/60 Hz

Power type




110 W

125 W

140 W

Power consumption Dimensions

949 X 555 X 32 mm

1095 X 637 X 32 mm

1230 X 714 X 32 mm





Contrast ratio




850 X 2,130 mm

35 kg

39 kg

45 kg

950 X 2,130 mm

37 kg

41 kg

47 kg

1,100 X 2,130 mm

41 kg

45 kg

51 kg

Table 1

Structure Frame The mirror is a tailor-made product with a frame made of special aluminum profiles that support the whole structure and affix to the wall of the car. The frame holds the tempered mirror and digital display. The affixing system, which can be personalized, has affixing points at the top and bottom transoms with screws that can be easily hidden. The frame provides a gap between the hardware and the wall for all heat to evacuate. The structure is lightweight and slim and has negligible impact on rated load or car area. Mirror thickness is 35/40 mm. The car frame structure is provided on the top transom with an air space to evacuate heat generated by the hardware.


Figure 1: Connecting the car to the outside world

allows maintenance operators to read operational parameters directly on site and open the door to many other options and services that need interaction between the system and user.

System Features The system’s display is designed to operate 24/7 with high brightness. The video system can be permanently active or activated by sensors for proximity, light, weight, etc. Its touch mode can be activated/deactivated remotely or locally. The display’s features are: ♦ Resolution: full high definition at 1920 X 1080 (FHD) ♦ Connectivity options (either offline or online connection): local-area network (LAN), Wi-Fi, HDMI, DVI-D, OPS, USB, Secure Digital card, IR, audio or RJ45 ♦ Display dimensions: 42, 49 and 55 in., among others ♦ Display orientation: horizontal or vertical.

The mirror glass is tough and reliable. It is based on the LU-VE Group/TGD technology used in doors for refrigerated cabinets in shops and supermarkets (heavy duty and impact resistant). The glass is tempered according to EN 12150 with thermally toughened soda lime silicate safety glass. Its tensile strength is 150 N/mm2, which is about five times that of normal glass. Moreover, in case of breakage, the glass shatters into small, blunt-edged fragments to help prevent damage and injuries. Finally, it has a reflective treatment providing a mirror-like effect when the screen is dark (turned off), while it is transparent when the screen is lit (turned on).

Adaptable Design Both mirror and finish are customizable, which is an important aspect when considering the mirror is supposed to be installed in high-end lift systems. It is also possible to customize its serigraphy (screen printing) according to the customer’s needs and requirements (e.g., logo). Continued

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Table 2: Frame and mirror structure for 49-in. model (dimensions: 1,100 X 2,150 mm)

Table 3: Mirror car integration for 42-in. model (dimensions: 820 x 2,137 mm)


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Figure 2: Gateway at the Wittur Cube at Interlift 2019; photo courtesy of the Wittur Group

Connectivity Gateway has multiple possibilities for connection with the digital world. Once it is plugged into power with a simple PC cable, it can be connected to the local network by LAN or Wi-Fi and access the internet. Once connected, the system becomes a real interface that displays a variety of content that can be managed on three different levels.

Entry Level Once connected, the system runs a basic software with a certain number of templates that can be customized through a remote PC connected to the same network. Once the contents are completed, the system asks for the scheduling time and duration, and transfers the contents to the display. It is possible

Figure 4: Gateway in an office building in the Milan area, Italy; photo courtesy of Tre-engine

to schedule a variety of content at different times and personalize (only existing) templates with pictures and videos (no connection to an RSS feed).

Pro Level This level has all the features of the entry level but with a wider range of templates. It also provides the opportunity to create new content layouts and connect to an RSS feed. It still operates on a local network, but the system can manage a group of displays logged on the same network. The user can manage content distribution for all the connected devices from a single PC, including giving different scheduling and layout to each device.

Advanced Level This level has all the features of the pro level, adding the opportunity to manage a network of devices connected to different local networks, regardless of physical location. It uses dedicated hardware and software to connects all the devices through the internet. This level is mandatory when the system integrates a TV camera or any other interface system controlled from a remote place.

Applications and Functions Communication and Digital Signage

Figure 3: Gateway in a luxury hotel in Tuscany, Italy; photo courtesy of the Wittur Group

Digital signage is a subsegment of electronic signage defined as a “remotely managed digital display typically tied in with sales, advertising and marketing”[7] or as “a network of electronic displays that are centrally managed and individually addressable for the display of text, animated or video messages for advertising, information, entertainment and merchandising to targeted audiences.”[8] They can be found in public spaces, transportation systems, museums, stadiums, retail stores, hotels, restaurants, corporate buildings, etc. to provide wayfinding, exhibitions, marketing and outdoor advertising.[9] Continued 2020/2 Issue 103 • ELEVATOR WORLD UK



Figure 5: High-quality, high-resolution images Figure 6: Touchscreen feature

In this case, the Gateway becomes a communication and digital-signage device, opening the car to the outside world. It can transmit information, photos, videos, websites, advertising and more, and remotely change the content in real time. The user can also ask and receive customized information, limited only by the services provided by the manager.

Emergency Mode Calm passengers are safe passengers. In the event of an alarm, the new system might improve the safety of users, becoming a new bidirectional communication channel between the passenger and outside world. A hidden micro webcam enables audio/visual communication between the safety/assistance service and passenger. The safety operator might see what’s going on inside the car: health emergency, special needs (i.e., writing messages on the screen for hearingimpaired passengers), presence of children, etc. On the passenger side, the possibility to see a human face (rather than just have an audio conversation) might reduce panic and fear, and better understand communication from the safety/ assistance service.

Figure 7: Emergency support mode (simulation)

Maintenance Support Given the possibility to transform the mirror into the touchscreen of a remote computer (i.e., servicing headquarters, control room), Gateway can support maintenance personnel onsite. Maintenance staff can connect to the service center and access such files as manuals, instructions and documents). It might also provide technical information regarding the lift system on its touchscreen. Due to its interactivity, Gateway might also become a powerful device to support programmed- and predictivemaintenance service, displaying useful information/tools (graphics, video recording, working parameters, etc.) to the onsite technician.


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Figure 8: Maintenance support mode (simulation)


Figure 8: Possible future application: facial recognition system/passenger tracking (courtesy: VSBLTY)

Conclusions Gateway applies IoT technology to car mirrors, transforming them into new, powerful, revolutionary devices. The system can be installed not only inside the car, but also in the lift lobby to provide: ♦ Digital signage (product information, advertising and promotion, brand building, etc.) ♦ Audience measurement systems (number, gender and age group of passengers; opening/closing cycles; etc.); ♦ User activity (gaming, marketing, interaction activated by proximity sensors, mobile social engagement, etc.) Some, if not all, of these features might be applied to lift cars to improve information, safety and maintenance. (See the video at bit.ly/2RLCgl7.) It enables lifts to provide real-time, user-friendly: ♦ Public and internal information (news, weather forecast, building directory and map, corporate messages, etc.) ♦ Local advertising ♦ Interactive video, which might reduce perceived wait time, both in cars and the lift lobby ♦ Safety information (emergency exit, building map, passenger behavior guidelines, etc.) ♦ Maintenance (user-friendly and easy-to-access technical information during service operation, remote file access, diagrams, functions display, etc.) ♦ Passenger tracking (gender, age group, boarding modes, etc), see Figure 8. ♦ Ask and receive customized information/service focused on the user’s needs (e.g., turning the touchscreen into a very large push button for people with impaired view)

Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank Emanuele Eusebio and Luca Pasqualotto of LU-VE Group for their support and help in preparing this paper. Also, thanks to Wittur Group for providing us the images of the first Gateway in service. Thanks to Language Services professor Kenneth John Allan for his longterm support and brilliant ideas. Finally, special thanks to Dr.

Gina Barney of Gina Barney Associates in the U.K. for her wise advice and help, but most of all for her friendship. gateway.luve.it


[1] Brown, Eric. “Who Needs the Internet of Things?” Linux.com (September 13, 2016, retrieved October 23, 2016). [2] Brown, Eric. “21 Open Source Projects for IoT,” Linux.com (September 20, 2016, retrieved October 23, 2016). [3] “Internet of Things Global Standards Initiative,” ITU (Retrieved June 26, 2015). [4] Nordrum, Amy. “Popular Internet of Things Forecast of 50 Billion Devices by 2020 Is Outdated,” (August 18, 2016). [5] Hsu, Chin-Lung and Lin, Judy Chuan-Chuan. “An empirical examination of consumer adoption of Internet of Things services: Network externalities and concern for information privacy perspectives” (www.fortunebusinessinsight.com) [6] “How IoT’s are Changing the Fundamentals of ‘Retailing,’” Indian Business of Tech, Mobile & Startups. (Trak.in: August 30, 2016, retrieved June 2, 2017). [7] Schaeffler, J. “Digital Signage: Software, Networks, Advertising and Displays: A Primer for Understanding the Business,” NAB Executive Technology Briefings, 1st Edition, Focal Press (2013), p. 1. [8] Schaeffler, J., Digital Signage: Software, Networks, Advertising and Displays: A Primer for Understanding the Business, Focal Press (2013), p. 3-4. [9] Wikipedia. “Digital Signage” (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_ signage).

Fabio Liberali is co-owner, member of the board of directors and head of the Communication and Public Relations Department at LU-VE Group (an international heating, ventilation and air-conditioning company). He was the editorial manager of Elevatori for some 23 years and is an honorary member of its Technical Committee. He was the team leader of the Italia Magnifica at Interlift 2013. He has been a consultant for several communication departments, trade associations, tradeshow organizers, companies and others. Alessandro Cremaschi is cofounder at TGD SpA (a member company of LU-VE Group). He is member of the TGD Board of Directors and head of new business development. He is a civil engineer and an inventor, having registered seven European patents regarding the improvement of glass doors for refrigeration, including LED technologies for product illumination, branding and advertising. He has 25 years of experience in the use of glass and aluminium. 2020/2 Issue 103 • ELEVATOR WORLD UK



The Business Excellence Model


by Mark Woods

any years ago, I studied for an MBA with an excellent bloke named Prof. John Oakland. He was actually the world’s first professor of quality management. As part of the study, I looked into a variety of what were then called Total Quality Management (TQM) models. Well, having swotted away on several different models, I wrote and submitted my thesis, which turned out okay. I got a good mark. But, about three months after my submission, the first incarnation of the Business Excellence Model was published, knocking all of my hard work into a cocked hat! Since then, the Business Excellence Model, sometimes called the EFQM Excellence Model (European Foundation for Quality Management), has become the most widely used continuous improvement tool in the world. It can be used by most organisations regardless of size or sector. So much for my MBA thesis! The model is made up of two parts, the first of which is called the “enablers.” These include: ♦ Leadership ♦ People management ♦ Strategy ♦ Partnerships and resources ♦ Processes These parts are called “enablers,” because they can each be directly managed. They lead to the second part of the model,


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which generates the “results” from the work done with the enablers. So, the component parts of the model’s second part are: ♦ People results ♦ Customer results ♦ Society results ♦ Business results To my mind, what makes this model most interesting is the scoring methodology for each of the models’ components, which also drills down into a number of sub-criteria that can also be scored. This scoring methodology allows the host company to quantitively assess its current performance. However, the objective is not necessarily to get a high score, but instead, it is to use the scoring system to critically assess current performance and put plans in place to improve the score over time. Whilst the objective behind the model was to create a quantitative framework to be used to drive performance improvement, over time a series of awards have developed around the model. You can apply for the award in different relevant sectors: public, private and SME. If you are of that

MANAGEMENT MATTERS mind, be warned that it is an extremely tough and robust model. Should you apply, you have to demonstrate quantitative performance improvement in each of the nine categories over a period of at least three, but preferably five, years. In total, there are 1,000 points to play for, and a company will be doing pretty well if it gets more than 500 points. Even the winners of these very prestigious awards usually only get 750-800 points.

How to Use It The Business Excellence Model can be used in different ways. You can: ♦ Use a very quick and dirty one-page checklist to score yourself ♦ Get your team (and all of your staff) to use the quick and dirty checklist ♦ Train a sample of your people to assess you ♦ Apply for the awards Taking each of the above in turn, we have a one-page checklist that can be downloaded. You can fire that about the business, collecting people scores and perhaps making comparisons between directors, managers and staff. Are the directors harder on themselves than the staff, or the other way around? The BQF run a number of assessor courses, and your people could attend one or more of those and then undertake a rigorous assessment of your current practices. Again, the BQF offer a number of award schemes covering companies new to the idea of continual improvement and those more versed in the process, which would normally be for a company getting more than 600 points, or there are the awards themselves.

Conclusion If you look at how the model assigns scores, customer satisfaction gets 20% of the marks; people management and people results get 9% each, for a total of 18%; and business results gets 15%. At Statius, we’ve always believed that a happy staff makes for happy customers, and happy customers come back, thereby delivering better business results. This is a view that is, at least anecdotally, reflected in the models scoring methodology. However, regardless of the above, the Business Excellence Model provides a comprehensive framework on which to build towards the elusive goal of continual and quantifiable improvement.

Related Tools ♦ Any and all improvement tools and techniques

Recommended References ♦ The British Quality Foundation website: https://www.bqf.org. uk/ ♦ The Impact of Business Excellence on Financial Performance – British Quality Foundation

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♦ The EFQM Excellence Model for Assessing Organizational Performance: A management Guide (Best Practice) – this includes 32 score sheet proformas ♦ The X Factor: winning performance through business excellence – this is a bit heavy but includes a load of the research into excellent companies

Downloadable Resources ♦ A very quick and dirty BEM score sheet https://www.statius. co.uk/assets/Uploads/One-page-BEM-checklist.jpg ♦ Business Excellence Model impact on performance (© BEM) www.statius.co.uk/assets/Uploads/BQF-BEM-does-it-work.pdf Mark Woods has a background in engineering. After completing an award winning apprenticeship he completed a degree in Mechanical and Production Engineering. He also has an MBA from Bradford University where he studied with Professor J.S. Oakland, the world’s first Professor of Total Quality Management. During the time he spent in industry he gained extensive experience of both implementing new technology and strategic appraisal. Mark is now a managing partner of Statius Management Services, a management consultancy specialising in performance improvement a subject on which Mark has published a number of papers and articles.

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Future-Proofing Emergency Communications The right solution can add cutting-edge technology to both legacy and brand-new elevator systems. by Marek Loucky Ongoing changes in telecommunications networks are presenting big challenges for the elevator emergency communication field. In recent years, we have heard the voices announcing that traditional public switched telephone networks (PSTNs) are being replaced by Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) technology. Further challenges involve cellular networks, as wireless carriers shift from 2G (GSM) and 3G (UMTS) toward 4G (LTE) systems. Both of these trends are having significant impacts on the design and operation of elevator emergency communication systems (not to mention alarm systems). The time schedules for GSM, UMTS and legacy PSTN network shutdowns vary from region to region, but considering the overall number of new gateways that will be deployed through the end of 2025, elevator companies have no room for hesitation. As technology and customers’ requirements and expectations naturally evolve, the new solution should be built on modern IP technologies that are highly flexible and can facilitate various changes and add-ons in the future. Nobody wants to buy a solution that will have to be replaced in a few years. This article identifies the most common-use cases and offers guidance in selecting the most appropriate solution, so passengers won’t be left helpless in case of entrapment.

2N® EasyGate IP 2N Telekomunikace supports all 2G, 3G, and 4G networks with its EasyGate IP, the latest generation of the company’s successful product line. With the EasyGate IP device, the traditional analog cabin communicator (dialer) is connected to the FXS port via an RJ-9 connector. The EasyGate IP offers a dual-SIM (subscriber identity module) design for customers in regions that struggle with the availability of mobile networks. In these cases, the primary SIM can be, for example, a global SIM, while the secondary SIM is local from a different carrier. The EasyGate IP will select the network based on signal strength and quality. The EasyGate IP is designed to work in demanding environments. Its industrial-style case carries an IP43 rating for spraying water and operates within a wide temperature range: -40°C to +85°C (-40°F to +185°F). It includes a holder for mounting on either a wall or a DIN rail. With its serial bus RS232, input contact for sending SMS and USB-C, the device allows the user to connect different devices. It also has an output relay with normally open (NO) and normally closed (NC) contacts.

Fixed-Line Replacement There are still elevators with communication systems (dialers and audio units) connected directly to the PSTN via analog lines, though the number of these lines declines dramatically every year. These networks are difficult to maintain and don’t provide any advanced functionality or higher sound quality, so it comes as no surprise that the cost of this service is increasing. The question becomes, “What should you do when your telco provider switches off its PSTN networks?” The answer is easy: use an analog cellular gateway. This independent solution offers the following benefits: ♦ Lower subscription fee ♦ Advanced services, like video streaming ♦ Data connectivity ♦ No hassle with building owners about telco lines ♦ Faster recovery from disasters Replacement of the old fixed lines has been achieved through 2G or 3G gateways so far, but these will be irrelevant soon, and customers will have to go the 4G way. Given the improvement in service, this could be a case of the sooner, the better.


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The EasyGate IP can be used as a universal access solution.

Some elevator companies may have many units under service contracts, and for these companies, it’s important to keep up with how their devices are operating — that is, if there are any existing or potential issues. In earlier times, this required physically accessing each elevator. With a large portfolio, this can quickly become very expensive. EasyGate IP offers connectivity to the My2N cloud, a powerful tool that allows the service company to manage, monitor and operate thousands of devices from one place. The My2N cloud service is designed to be as intuitive and helpful as possible. Technicians and administrators need no special knowledge in VoIP or information technology: just plug in the device, and configuration starts automatically. Once the

PRODUCT SPOTLIGHT My2N cloud is connected to all managed devices, it knows all The biggest advantage of this product, however, lies in how operational parameters, like battery status, network registration it processes calls and transfers elevator protocols (like P100). 2N and consumed data. Some of its capabilities are: has converted communication to VoIP, thus avoiding the ♦ Firmware upgrades bring new features and improvements. distortion of dual-tone multifrequency (DTMF). This is essential ♦ Automatic configuration to remove the risk of configuration for correct functioning, which can hardly be achieved in a mistakes by field technicians different way, such as through voice over long-term evolution ♦ Detailed monitoring to receive immediate device status (VoLTE) (ELEVATOR WORLD, December 2019). ♦ Hosted PBX (My2N Session Initiation Protocol [SIP] proxy) to put everything under the VoLTE VoIP via 4G administrator’s control from one location Voice transfer yes yes ♦ Connectivity to any other third-party VoIP provider DTMF problematic yes ♦ Bulk changes eliminate onsite visits, saving Signaling info separate channel together with voice technicians’ time Configuration complexity carrier-specific universal ♦ Partner application programming interface for easy integrations with customers’ monitoring systems Retrofit My2N cloud is not a requirement to use the devices 2N’s products for retrofit include the EasyGate IP and the 2N described in this article, as all can be configured to work in a Lift1, a traditional analog unit for two-way communication in standalone mode. All of them include a web graphical user single-shaft installations powered from the gateway. It includes interface for simple local configuration, so no special tools are configuration profiles and up to six numbers for alarm calls. needed for setup. However, My2N cloud can offer ease, a Lift1 comes in various modifications according to specific uses: reduction of configuration errors, faster event response and ♦ Car operating panel (COP): board installed behind car panel time savings. ♦ Compact: on-wall installation inside the cabin, with or without button ♦ Flush-mount: COP mounted on metal plate for flush installation, with or without button ♦ Top of car (TOC): mounted in robust metal housing for installation on TOC Lift1 installation is possible to complete with various accessories, like induction loop, blocking module, amplifier or voice station switch for extra audio units on top of and under the car. Continued My2N cloud


COP Compact

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Futureproof IP Solution 2N Telekomunikace is part of Axis Communications and aims to be a trendsetter in many related industries, like IP intercoms, IP audio and IP access control. As a private branch exchange (PBX) producer, 2N has also undergone the transition from traditional analog and digital telephony to VoIP. Such a change appears to be inevitable in the elevator industry, as well, because it makes sense from an operational and technical point of view. An emergency communication system consists of three principal parts: ♦ Customer’s premises: 2N offers the necessary hardware for VoIP. ♦ Communication network: 2N offers VoIP services via the My2N cloud or through interconnection to third-party VoIP providers. ♦ Service center: must be equipped with VoIP terminals. There is no need for other media gateways, converters or workarounds that preserve the analog technologies of the 19th and 20th centuries and cause unreliable DTMF transmission.

2N LiftIP Lift IP represents a new-generation VoIP cabin communicator built on top of the same platform as the 2N IP Intercom family and equipped with auto-dialer functionality. The underlying software is optimized and tested in many installations and integrates with the My2N cloud and its services. New LiftIP hardware keeps the same form factor as the analog Lift1, which means that COP and TOC units will fit within the same space (flush panels with or without button). A compact unit for surface installation is under development and will be launched later.

2N LiftGate The purpose of the 2N LiftGate is to provide data connectivity for IP devices in or on the elevator cabin. It is basically an LTE router customized for the elevator environment. It uses LTE data (dual SIM is also supported) as its primary connectivity method, but there is also wide-area network port that facilitates backup connectivity via the customer’s router. LiftGate is equipped with two output relays, two inputs, two antennas and a four-port switch for connecting other IP devices, such as a machine-room phone or lift controllers with Ethernet support. Batteries provide backup for two shafts. LiftGate also eliminates obstacles that have, in the past, impeded the connection of cabin devices to VoIP. It accomplishes this by using DSL technology to carry Ethernet over two-wire systems, which means that a pure IP solution can be installed in older elevators as easily as in brand-new ones, because there is no need to change the traveling cable. The two-wire system delivers Ethernet to a small car-top box called the LiftGate cabin switch, which has four Ethernet ports (two are power over Ethernet [PoE]), plus a 12-V output for emergency lighting.


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This technology allows various IP devices to be installed in the lift cabin. Typical configurations use LiftIP as the cabin communicator (preferably the Axis IP camera, due to regulatory requirements in the U.S.) and the 2N IP Access unit that allows passengers to choose certain floors after swiping a radio frequency identification card, or near-field communication or Bluetooth activation by smartphone. A port can even be used for a lift-monitoring system. LiftGate connects to My2N cloud the same way EasyGate does, so all advantages of remote configuration, auto provisioning, SIP proxy, one-click installation and more are valid for LiftGate and LiftIP. Marek Loucky is a product manager responsible for emergency communication systems of 2N Telekomunikace a.s. He held various positions in the telecommunications industry before joining 2N.


Response to “Voluntary Egress Elevators” Your author feels important points need to be presented regarding emergency evacuations. by Giuseppe Iotti The article “Voluntary Egress Elevators: Enhancements to the 2004 CTBUH Guideline” by Johannes de Jong (ELEVATOR WORLD, December 2019) was quite interesting, but there are points that deserve to be discussed in his description of the situation in Europe. The first is the author’s interpretation of the purpose of the document CEN/TS 81-76, on lifts for the evacuation of disabled occupants from buildings. He seems to take for granted that the use of these lifts should be supervised by firefighters, but firefighters often complain about this because it distracts them from their main task, which is to save the building, thus also saving the occupants. In my opinion, this is a misunderstanding, because the text of the standard identifies other figures — “evacuation assistants,” apart from firefighters — who should supervise the operation of these facilities in the event people with disabilities must be evacuated. This trained staff is understood to reside in the building. This is why they should intervene at the first warning, presumably before the firefighters have arrived.

It might be that firefighters feel this interferes with their duties because these lifts are not available to them, as perhaps they would deem appropriate. However, in a building with lifts that can be used for the evacuation of the disabled, I think there also should be lifts compliant with EN 81-72 (that is, “for firefighters”), which are intended only for use of firefighters. If this type of lift is not available, it should be the building designers’ responsibility — not dependent on the fact that the document CEN/TS 81-76 exists and is more or less valid. Regarding the EN 81-72 standard for firefighter lifts, we see that it requires 630 kg as the minimum capacity of the cabins, a rating judged as too scarce by some fire departments. We all know the average height of tall buildings in Europe is lower than that in other areas, particularly the Far East. In most cases, the height is such that the firefighters can intervene from outside with their ladders, which, in many cases, is preferable for their own safety. For the most part, firefighter lifts are not even installed in these buildings, though, in any case, this depends on national or local regulations.

This chart accompanied Johannes De Jong’s article “Voluntary Egress Elevators: Enhancements to the 2004 CTBUH Guideline”. Your author believes an interpretation of the chart warrants interjection of some observations.


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PUBLIC SAFETY In cases where the height of the In a very tall building populated to evacuate the buildings under building is such as to make the circumstances that would have allowed by thousands of people, presence of firefighter lifts necessary, it. (In this case, I did not consider it it is up to the building designers to actions that offer a great ability necessary to provide exact figures and incorporate an adequate system of lifts times, because the scale of such acts of to prevent catastrophes should terrorism inhibits the ability to make that, presumably, takes into account the actual needs of safety, so that the precise general considerations.) take precedence over those intervention of firefighters will be A more “classic” case occurred in aimed at addressing such quick and effective. EN 81-72 gives only 2010, when a 28-story residential events — even if corrective minimum standards, which should building under renovation in Shanghai not be interpreted as a loophole that actions are taken into account, caught fire. The building housed about allows less investment in building 440 people, and the fire claimed 58 including the installation of lifts victims — 13% of the occupants. We safety. I then come to the article’s very could say the evacuation was relatively suitable for evacuation. interesting Figure 5, which shows successful, considering the fire had estimates of the evacuation times by stairs or by elevators, in broken out on the 10th floor. Among other things, the building two hypotheses of adopted elevator systems. We can deduce housed many elderly. from this figure that, up to 50 floors, and up to 100 people per In São Paulo, the 24-story building Wilton Pais de Almeida floor (which means a maximum population of 5,000 people), caught fire in 2018, and collapsed within 90 minutes. Though evacuation times are lower using the stairs with both built in 1968, by the time of the fire, the structure had degraded hypothesized elevator systems. to the point that it was abandoned, and occupied only by In such a high-rise building, for people with limited homeless people. Of the 372 people inside, only seven died. The mobility, there should be one or more means, regardless of evacuation — presumably using the stairs, since a building in compliance with CEN/TS-76, that can take them out safely. This such a state of disrepair was unlikely to have working lifts — should be accomplished without supervision from firefighters was almost total. (as they may not be able to intervene immediately because they In the case of the Grenfell Tower in London, 365 people have to focus on something else), but instead from “assistance resided in the 24-story residential building (15 per floor, on teams” of building residents specifically trained for this. The average) when a fire broke out, claiming 72 lives. The fire technical solution for these teams to work within the necessary started in a fourth-floor apartment that was separated from the time should be the use of “protected elevators,” which are well common space by a fire-resistant door. The tower’s lifts lacked illustrated in the article. special fire-protection features and were unsuitable for De Jong then makes an interesting examination of tallevacuation; the building had only one stairwell; and there was building evacuation times on which I offer an observation. We no centralized alarm system. There was only one entrance/exit Continued are fortunate that there have been very few truly catastrophic events in tall buildings. We must give credit to the designers and builders, as well as to the firefighters and rescue teams who have responded to emergencies, often displaying heroism in their efforts. In some cases, however, the design and construction of the building proved to be lacking. This lack of concrete experience makes it difficult to evaluate the actual evacuation times of buildings. Practice tests are worth little: I remember seeing a video showing an evacuation test of the Petronas Towers during which people paraded out of the building and even smiled. On the other hand, a realistic exercise cannot be organized, because if people were to behave almost like in a panic — assuming it could be realistically done — they would risk accidents and injuries. In the most tragic case, 9/11, about two-thirds of the occupants of the World Trade Center Twin Towers managed to save themselves by leaving the buildings before they collapsed, which can be considered a success. The remaining occupants who died were either on the floors directly hit by the aircraft, or above the affected floors and, presumably, could not have used any means of evacuation. It is, therefore, impossible to make exact evaluations of how long it would have taken for everyone Grenfell Tower © Carcharoth, (CC BY-SA 4.0)

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PUBLIC SAFETY door; fire extinguishers had not been maintained for years; and there were no sprinklers. Firefighters promptly arrived and asked the occupants to stay in their apartments. Smoke quickly spread to the stairwell. This prevented many occupants from using the stairs. In any case, they were told to stay in their apartments, which were considered protected. With great difficulty, the firefighters climbed the stairs and managed to save some of the people who were still in their apartments. The order to abandon the “stay put” strategy was given almost 2 hr after the start of the fire, and from then only 36 people were saved. Apart from the Twin Towers, all these cases occurred in relatively short (24-28-story) buildings with relatively low populations. Figure 5 accompanying de Jong’s article, however, does not make significant assumptions about these evacuation times, as there are no cases shown in which the buildings have fewer than 50 occupants per floor. It can be assumed that buildings with heights and populations of this order can, under “normal conditions,” accommodate a complete evacuation in less than a quarter of an hour, mostly by using stairs. The point, however, is incidents of the kind discussed here almost always occur under non-normal conditions. Above all, these buildings were in less-than-optimal conditions — in two cases, economic housing with insufficient safety conditions, and in the Brazilian case, an officially abandoned building. The fact that, with few exceptions, catastrophic events have occurred mostly in relatively short buildings, rather than in the world’s more-than-3,000 true skyscrapers with heights greater than 150 m, obviously derives from the fact that there are many more of the former, but also because the latter are almost never cheap constructions, so investments in safety must be there — especially against the risk of fire. Among these safety measures is a system of stairs and elevators that allow the entire population of the building to be evacuated within a reasonable amount of time. We can discuss what is “reasonable,” but I don’t think it should exceed 1 hr. Considering Figure 5 of de Jong’s article, the table tells us that buildings with a population of more than 4,000 people and more than 40 floors cannot ensure an evacuation time within 1 hr using only stairs. However, ensuring that a lift system considered adequate is able to function during a catastrophic event for at least 1 hr (and, thus, contribute to an evacuation strategy) does not seem easy. Therefore, in a very tall building populated by thousands of people, actions that offer a great ability to prevent catastrophes should take precedence over those aimed at addressing such events — even if corrective actions are taken


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In cases where the height of the building is such as to make the presence of firefighter lifts necessary, it is up to the building designers to incorporate an adequate system of lifts that, presumably, takes into account the actual needs of safety, so the intervention of firefighters will be quick and effective. into account, including the installation of lifts suitable for evacuation. Preventive actions of this kind are, for example, applicable to the seismic case, possibly adopting EN 81-77 for the lifts, but, above all, the building should be designed to withstand a seismic event. If the building does not collapse, then, as we say in my language, “All the saints help.” In particular, among the possible dangers to be considered are acts of terrorism, such as in 9/11, although their “if,” “where” and “when” cannot be predicted. Let us think of the September 14, 2019, attack on the Saudi Aramco refinery by missiles or drones: fortunately, its object was not a high-rise building populated by people, so perhaps it should be defined more as an economic guerrilla act than as “classic” terrorism. It is true that insurance companies will not cover the risk of war, but this is not a good reason to design buildings that, by their nature, are particularly vulnerable in the face of such risks. From this point of view, one wonders how safe very high buildings can truly be and if it is important to give these risks more consideration beyond the economic and prestige advantages that come with building so tall. In the context of the whole building, it is important to be aware of how effective lifts can be when used as accessories to stairwells in evacuating people within reasonable times, no matter which technical choices are made regarding their protection and mode of operation. Giuseppe Iotti earned a degree in Electronic Engineering in 1982 and has served on the UNI (Italian standardization body) elevators committee for more than 20 years, chairing the subcommittee dedicated to safety of existing elevators. He has represented UNI as a technical expert in the CEN/TC10, attending the meetings of Working Groups 6 (fire issues), 10 and 1. He has also represented the Small Business Standards organization in the European Commission Lifts Working Group. He is a regular contributor to the Elevatori and Sviluppo Impresa (ANACAM) magazines on various subjects.

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VT industry converges on Mumbai for eighth IEE Expo to discuss the latest developments with an eye toward the future. by Vijay Pandya C. Baldwin It has been said, “There is nothing to fear but fear itself,” and nothing exemplified this adage more than the exhibitors and visitors who gathered in Mumbai, India, for the 2020 edition of the International Elevator and Escalator (IEE) Expo. Taking place February 27-29 — while concerns about the spreading coronavirus were dominating news headlines — Hall 1 of the Bombay Exhibition Center witnessed stakeholders of the verticaltransportation (VT) and real estate industries coming together to conduct business pretty much as they always have. IEE Expo 2020, organized by Messe Frankfurt Trade Fairs India Pvt. Ltd., was the eighth edition of the event and recorded 7,512 business visitors during its three days. Mandated precautions restricted the presence of certain exhibitors and visitors from overseas, but those gathered were quite positive about the industry’s prospects and optimistic about its future. In fact, many of the visitors opined that it felt like stepping into quite a different place altogether, far removed from the fears of infection. With participation from countries like India, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain and Turkey, the biennial show hosted 135 companies showcasing an array of high-end solutions to help leverage the progressive sector of building technologies. VT industry members, true to their nature, provided the ambiance of a safe haven where strangers were, as

always, welcomed with warm smiles. While showcasing the latest solutions for VT, discussions focused on high rises getting even taller, plus the correlation between them and rapid advances in elevator technology. IEE Expo 2020 opened with the traditional lamplighting ceremony by eminent members from the government and elevator industry, including Dhirajkumar S. Pandirkar, chief engineer, Maharashtra Housing & Area Development Authority (MHADA); S.R. Nalavade, superintendent engineer, energy department, Government of Maharashtra; Sebi Joseph, chairman, elevators & escalators division, Indian Electrical and Electronics Manufacturers Association (IEEMA) and president, Otis (India) Ltd.; Nakul P. Mehta, vice chairman and managing director, Bharat Bijlee, Ltd.; R. Rajaraman, vice president, Bharat Bijlee; Sandeep Shah, assistant vice president and head, commercial contract and procurement, Omkar; T.D. Joseph, business head, Confederation of Real Estate Developers' Associations of India-Maharashtra Chamber of Housing Industry (CREDAI-MCHI); and Raj Manek, executive director and board member, Messe Frankfurt Asia Holdings Ltd. The dignitaries highlighted the latest elevator market trends from global and domestic perspectives. Topics like geographical product affinity, customer outlook, reasons for market growth and details on the current real estate scenario were shared. A sign welcomes visitors.


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Honoured guests and dignitaries open IEE Expo 2020 with the traditional lamp-lighting ceremony.

Dhirajkumar S. Pandirkar shared that the industry will get added impetus by government housing schemes like Pradhan Mantri Awaz Yojna (PMAY) for the affordable-housing sector. The target for the scheme is 1.9 million houses, and its support and smooth vertical mobility requires the development of the VT sector. With many infrastructure projects in the line, technologically advanced elevators and escalators have become a necessity in the country. Concluding his speech, he added, “I hope all the participants and visitors gain optimum industry insights and business prospects during the next three days of the show.” S.R. Nalavade stated, “With the amount of infrastructural progress [Mumbai] is witnessing, we are expecting many lift installations.”

Key brands at the show included Arkel, Akis Motors, ADCO, Bharat Bijlee, Butkon Asansör, Blain, Canny Elevator, Çelik Ray, EC India, Epic Elevators, Fermator, Genemek India, Inova Automation, Giovenzana, Kinetic, MAS Industries, Marazzi, Montanari, Mahabali Steels, Mayr, Mona Drive, Sigma, Sicor, Raloe India, NBSL, Tectronics and Ziehl-Abegg. The show floor featured high-quality advancements and solutions by companies including IndiTech Systems, EPIC Elevators, Delta PD Pumps, Spectra Controls, ISTS Inc., Rudraksha Electricals, KY Industries, RITEOHMS (R.B.E. Electronics), Tedra Automotive Solutions and Bestomech Industries. There were live demonstrations of technologies like solar ELOS (a solar generator for elevators), hydraulic elevators for passengers and goods, pneumatic elevators, smart elevator control panels with cloud connectivity and more. Tectronics Engineers witnessed a good response to their indigenous gearless traction machine and introduced five products: the 24-pole RTG 24P Series for passenger capacity up to 12; the 32-pole RTG 24P Series for passenger capacity up to 16; the 16-pole RTG 32P Series for capacity up to 1.6 T; a home lift machine and a six-passenger belt machine. The company has launched an application for Android and iOS users within the Indian elevator market that enables people to know more about their machines, such as through technical details with drawings, and offers product-filter options such as load and speed. It also provides a direct contact for sales and service inquiries. Continued

A buzz of activity at the sign-in desk 2020/2 Issue 103 • ELEVATOR WORLD UK


The ELEVATOR WORLD India booth was popular with visitors.

Day two of the show witnessed a series of seminars and panel discussions throwing light on important topics, like the Indian elevator market, future design and developments of energy-efficient gearless permanent-magnet synchronous machines for elevators, safety updates for the sector and guide rails. Visitors included OEMs, government officials from the infrastructure department and component suppliers. Decisionmakers from the procurement and technical departments of OEMs Schindler India Pvt. Ltd., KONE India Pvt. Ltd., Otis India Ltd., thyssenkrupp Elevator India Pvt. Ltd., Fujitec India and Toshiba Johnson Elevators (India) Pvt. Ltd. visited the component manufacturers and suppliers to gain knowledge and source technologies to help assemble the need-of-the-hour elevators.


www.elevatorworlduk.com • 2020/2 Issue 103

With participation from countries like India, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain and Turkey, the biennial show hosted 135 companies showcasing an array of high-end solutions to help leverage the progressive sector of building technologies.

Ko Tanaka, managing director, Mitsubishi Elevator India Pvt. Ltd., said, “I was very impressed by all the exhibitors participating at the show. I have gained a lot of insights about the new developments in the industry, and our company intends to utilize this opportunity to strengthen our products.” Bharat Bijlee’s Mehta said: “We have seen this show getting bigger and bigger. The profile of companies who visit and exhibit have evolved, and there’s a much wider interest and cross-section of people who attend to understand the new developments in this edition. Our main goal was to be able to showcase our products, know what’s happening around us and meet companies we can develop business contacts with. I must say, the show has been a fruitful experience.” The strategic partnership with CREDAI-MCHI attracted many from real estate. Mukesh Jaitley, director, The Wadhwa Group, noted: “As buyers, people just look at the finished product and don’t know [which] technicalities go inside creating the product. But this edition has given us in-depth insight about the components used to assemble the elevators. During my visit, I liked a [small motor] by Epic Elevators. . . and we plan to be in touch with them for future developments.” The next IEE Expo is planned for 2022 at a date to be announced.

Organizers made sure security was a top priority. 2020/2 Issue 103 • ELEVATOR WORLD UK



Impact of Cultures on Elevatoring Differences between norms in the U.S., U.K. and elsewhere are explored. by TAK Mathews

This article was first presented at the 2018 International Elevator and Escalator Symposium in Istanbul. For more information on December 7-8, 2020’s event in Amsterdam and to participate, visit www.elevatorsymposium.org. In 1853, Elisha Graves Otis, with his “all safe, gentlemen” proclamation changed the skylines of global cities. Since then, most of humanity has greatly depended on elevators for conducting their daily lives. Decades back, experts — mainly from the U.S. and U.K. — had painstakingly established scientific traffic-analysis approaches to elevatoring for buildings. Initially, the traffic analysis required equally painstaking manual calculations. Even with the introduction of powerful proprietary and non-proprietary traffic-analysis programs, the basic approaches have remained robust and stood the test of time. The inputs for these traffic analyses were bolstered with norms and rules of thumb well-detailed in publications like George Strakosch’s Vertical Transportation Handbook, Dr. Gina Barney’s Elevator Traffic Handbook or CIBSE Guide D. These inputs were based on data and experiences gathered by the experts from their own surroundings. This article will highlight some of the differences between the norms that have roots in the U.S., U.K. and other parts of the world. It will also establish the importance for designers to consider the impact of cultural differences in traffic analysis and elevatoring. Man has always had tall aspirations — the oldest reference being the biblical reference to the Tower of Babel — but it took until 1853 and Otis’ “all safe, gentlemen” proclamation for this aspiration to take shape. Technological and material limitations and human frailties related to vertical transportation (VT) continue to be the real challenge to tall aspirations. Companies continue with their research to overcome these limitations. Some of the outcomes of the research have been speed increases — with the fastest elevator now operating at 20 m/s — and the introduction of carbon-fiber suspension means. Though product and component advancements are publicly heralded, what is less acknowledged, even within the industry,

Background to Elevatoring Science Barney states, “The acceptance of traffic design methods has been slower and has only become universally accepted since the early 1970s.” The 1977 formulae proposed by Barney and S.M. Dos Santos form the basis for traffic-analysis calculations derived from inputs from Basset Jones (1923) and Joris Schroeder (1955). Since then, the introduction of computer-based traffic analysis and simulations has brought rapid progress. While some elevator companies have proprietary traffic analysis and simulation programs, the non-proprietary Elevate program, created by Dr. Richard Peters, is probably the industry benchmark. While the availability of computer programs has eased the process of traffic analysis and planning of elevators, any tool is only as good as the person who uses it. Peters issues a clear warning to users of Elevate: “Elevate is an extremely powerful traffic-analysis tool. However, it will not make the user an elevator traffic-analysis expert.” Barney states, “The results obtained need to be tempered with a great deal of working experience of existing buildings in order to ensure satisfactory design results.” Expanding on Peters’ and Barney’s warnings, designers also need to recognize that any result is only as good as the assumptions and input that go into the analysis — “garbage in, garbage out.” Unfortunately, with very little information available, designers depend on Barney and Strakosch for establishing the input without recognizing that their suggestion is not reflective of global trends dependent on individual cultures and living habits.



Low Income

1 Bedroom




2 Bedroom




3 Bedroom




Table 1


is the R&D involved in the science of elevatoring, which includes the planning and selection of elevators. This is evident in that, while most countries have clear standards and codes for the technical requirements for elevators, like ASME A17.1, EN 81, JIS 4301, IS 14665, etc. — barring a few countries, like the U.K., with CIBSE Guide D, and India, with the National Building Code (NBC) of India — there are no guidelines or minimum requirements for elevatoring.

www.elevatorworlduk.com • 2020/2 Issue 103




1 Bedroom

2 to 3


4 to 5

2 Bedroom

3 to 4



3 Bedroom

4 to 5

5 to 6


Table 2

Residential Buildings One of the major variations from the norms suggested by experts, vis-à-vis prevailing trends, is with residential buildings across the globe. It is also the building type that would be the most affected by variations in culture and living habits.

Residential Population Barney recommends the occupancy factors in Table 1 for residential buildings, which are presumably based on experiences from the U.K. Strakosch, on the other hand, suggests 1.5-1.75 people per bedroom for downtown apartments and 1.75-2 people per bedroom for development apartments. Downtown and development apartments are not differentiating categories in other countries. In contrast, the NBC of India 2016 recommends the occupancy factors shown in Table 2. Your author’s experience from other Asian cities is that the residential population of those areas is somewhere between Strakosch’s recommendation and recommendations set out by the NBC of India.

Service Staff The notable exclusion from Barney’s population suggestion, as well as Strakosch’s suggestion for residential apartments, is the numerous service staff that would be attached to an apartment in the Indian subcontinent and, to a lesser degree, across other parts of Asia. The NBC of India suggests apartments could have a floating service of 0.5-1 per bedroom. Larger apartments could also have resident service staff. In your author’s experience, the service staff could outnumber the residents at luxury apartments. If the apartment building insists on segregation of owners and service staff, the elevatoring requirement would increase.

Peak Traffic in Residential Buildings Barney states that, for a residential building, the afternoon 5-min, two-way traffic condition is the most demanding. However, in Indian cities, as would be the case in many other Asian cities, the most demanding traffic would be in the morning. The traffic would be predominantly down-peak when the school-/college-going children and working adults would be departing to their places of study or work.

Shopping Habits Most shops in urban India grow their business on the commitment of door delivery of their products. Even vegetables or US$0.10 worth of medicines can be ordered over the telephone. It is taken for granted that eggs, bread, milk and newspapers will be delivered to your doorstep.

With Amazon having singlehandedly rewritten shopping trends, door delivery of goods is becoming the norm across the globe.

Zomato and Uber Foods While food deliveries around the world have been mostly limited to pizzas, metro cities in India have had a successful food-delivery system. Zomato, Uber Foods and numerous other food-delivery apps are professionalizing the food-delivery process and making it the only survival option for even finedining restaurants. It would not be surprising if even Michelinstarred restaurants follow suit. Incidentally, Mumbai’s 125-year-old dabbawallah or tiffinwallah manual process, with an error rate better than one in 16 million, probably laid the foundation for today’s fooddelivery systems. Unlike most other home deliveries, food poses a specific challenge in that it has to be received and not left at the door or with the concierge.

Funerals In contrast to funerals being a funeral-home affair in the Western world, in India, the last journey is invariably from one’s home. Even if the death happens elsewhere, including overseas, it is customary for the body to be brought back home, where family and friends visit to pay their last respects. The above are some variations in elevatoring requirements that can have a dramatic impact on the elevatoring requirements for an apartment. Your author has witnessed this at a number of buildings — in particular, a complex consisting of buildings with more than 60 floors designed by an international architect. At the time the author’s firm was hired, the architect had completed the schematic design based on traffic-analysis results probably derived from assumptions suggested by Strakosch. The final detailed design called for 50% more elevators, was delayed by about a year and included huge amounts of rework.

Impact of Religious Practices Your author was involved with elevatoring design for a project that primarily consisted of low-end housing for a particular community. As the elevatoring design progressed, one of the members from the community pointed out that the peak for their housing would be during the 30 min before prayer times and when their religious leader would address the community, requiring the population to rush down. The initial design for this predominantly low-income group was based on a handling capacity of 5% and had to be revised to a higher handling capacity. Your author was also involved in the design of their worship centre. The elevatoring requirement was primarily for more than 5,000 women who had segregated space on an upper Continued

2020/2 Issue 103 • ELEVATOR WORLD UK


TRAFFIC ANALYSIS floor. While escalators would have been the most logical solution, with the long, flowing garments worn by the women, it was decided that elevators would be the safer alternative. The required handling capacity was achieved by providing extremely large elevators. A casual talk with a member of the community revealed the challenge they faced in their existing center was in retrieving their footwear after prayers. The challenge then shifted from just elevatoring to a process that ensured women being discharged from the elevator would disperse before the arrival of the next elevator. However, from a religious perspective, the Sabbath elevator is probably the most complicated elevatoring problem. Pilzer states, “A Sabbath elevator is an elevator that works in a special mode, operating automatically as a way to circumvent the prohibition of operating electric switches, on the Sabbath.” Pilzer goes on to state that these elevators can be found in Israel and other countries like the U.S., Canada, Ukraine, England, France, Argentina and Brazil. Yet, elevatoring experts who have traditionally originated from the U.S. and England do not address this requirement. The available publications on the subject do not provide necessary guidelines.

Hospitals There is a significant difference in elevator requirements for hospitals in the Western world, vis-à-vis those in Asia. It is a cultural expectation in India that an average patient in a hospital will be visited by family, friends and even colleagues. Even though the visitors might not be allowed inside the patient room, it is not uncommon to find numerous people hovering around to provide moral support to the immediate family and patient. Even an outpatient would be accompanied by immediate family and/or friends. The patient-to-visitor ratio could be anywhere up to 1:4. The doctors, nurses and support staff would be at least four per bed. The ratios in some other Asian countries are not significantly different. In contrast, Barney suggests a population estimate of four per bed space, including hospital staff. There are many world-class hospitals in India, designed by international experts, that are excellent in every respect, except in the adequacy of the elevators.

Hotels Hospitality industry expectations grossly vary between Western countries and countries from the East. International hotel chains, when operating in the East, provide a significantly higher level of service than what they would at their properties in the U.S. or Europe. For instance, while in Western countries, the concept of bellboys is rare. In most countries in the East, bellboy service is provided as standard. The same trend can be seen for room service, as well as valet services.

Feng Shui and Vastu Shastra Feng shui, the ancient Chinese system that governs spatial arrangement, and Vastu Shastra, the Hindu science of architecture, have an impact on the placement of elevators. For instance, feng shui experts discourage the main door facing the elevator door, which is echoed by Vastu Shastra experts. Vastu


www.elevatorworlduk.com • 2020/2 Issue 103

Shastra discourages placement of elevators in the northeast and southwest corners of the building. While Vastu Shastra discourages mirrors in elevators, feng shui appears to be neutral, as long as the basic requirements of shape, size and location are maintained. As more owners become sensitive to feng shui and Vastu Shastra on their properties, there are buildings sold as being feng shui or Vastu Shastra compliant. Complying with the requirements of these experts could create additional challenges to the positioning of a building’s VT system as elaborated on by Strakosch.

Conclusions To conclude, Barney’s statement, “The results obtained need to be tempered with a great deal of working experience of existing buildings in order to ensure satisfactory design results,” cannot be emphasized enough. With most countries not having published guidelines for elevatoring, designers who work without borders need to understand the cultural nuances and lifestyles of the occupants of their buildings. They need to identify those specific details that could impact their assumptions and input, as well as the interpretations of the results and output. After all, elevatoring is all about facilitating the lives of people and cannot be achieved without including them.


[1] Barney, Gina and Al-Sharif, Lutfi. Elevator Traffic Handbook Theory and Practice 2nd edition, Spon Press, London (2016). [2] CIBSE Guide D: Transportation Systems in Buildings, Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers, U.K. (2015). [3] Fruin, John J. “Pedestrian Planning and Design,” Elevator World, Inc., Mobile, AL (1987). [4] Mathews, TAK and Raghavan, Nalini. Vertical Transportation Configuration – Design Approach and Traffic Analysis Theory, Journal of the Indian Institute of Engineers, Volume 88, April 2007, India (2007). [5] Mathews, TAK and Raghavan, Nalini. “Cultural Challenges to Elevatoring – Case Study India, Elevator Technology 19,” Proceedings of Elevcon 2012, International Association of Elevator Engineers (2012). [6] National Building Code of India, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, India (2016). [7] Pilzer, David. Tall Buildings and the Sabbath Elevator, CTBUH Research Paper, New York (2015). [8] Peters, Richard. Elevate 8 Manual, U.K. (2010). [9] Powell, Bruce A. “An Alternate Approach to Traffic Analysis for Residential Buildings, Elevator Technology 17,” Proceedings of Elevcon 2008, International Association of Elevator Engineers (2008). [10] Strakosch, George R and Caporale, Robert S. The Vertical Transportation Handbook, John Wiley & Sons, New York (2010). [11] Feng Shui Simple Cures (fengshui-simplecures.blogspot.com). [12] The Encyclopedia on Vastu Shastra (vaastu-shastra.com).

TAK Mathews has more than three decades of experience in the vertical-transportation industry. Mathews is a representative on the P-4 panel of the ET25 committee constituted by the Bureau of Indian Standards for rewriting elevator and escalator codes. He is the convener of panel CED 46:P16 for writing codes for lifts and escalators for the National Building Code of India.



EN-81 & Lift Maintenance Online Training Courses Elevator World has partnered with Liftinstituut Solutions to bring the industry quality online training courses geared toward the EN-81 standard and lift maintenance. All courses are conducted by Liftinstituut Solutions, one of Europe’s leading vertical transportation consultancy organizations. The training sessions take place through the WebEx platform and supplemental visuals such as photos and videos are used by the instructor to help validate understanding of the subject. Participants are always welcomed to ask questions and provide feedback during the sessions.

Online Training Courses EN 115-1: 2017: This course focuses on new items in the 2017 standard in addition to working principles and requirements for installation, design and safety of escalators and moving walks. EN 81-20: This course covers main installation and safety requirements used for hydraulic and electric elevators among other important features. EN 81-70s (70, 71, 72, 73): This course features all of the mentioned standards in detail along with the most updated requirements. Lift Maintenance: This training module provides information on how to perform maintenance on electric, hydraulic and machine room-less lifts.

For more information visit:

ELEVATORBOOKS.COM Elevator World’s Online Bookstore Choose the “Online Training Courses” category

Elevator World UK

Property Managers Guide to Lift Maintenance Companies




ADDRESS: Unit C1 Chaucer Business Park, London and Watery Lane, Sevenoaks, TN15 6YT surrounding areas TELEPHONE: 0203 657 9840 Southern 143 Satchell Lane, (Southampton Office) Southampton SO31 4HP TELEPHONE: 0203 657 9840 EMAIL: info@elevatorsltd.co.uk WEBSITE: www.elevatorsltd.co.uk ENQUIRES: Richard Cohen

21 Broadgate, Broadway Business Park, Chadderton, Oldham OL9 9XA TELEPHONE: 0161 688 6500 EMAIL: info@ansaelevators.co.uk WEBSITE: www.ansaelevators.co.uk ENQUIRIES: Gary Kennedy, John Taylor & Alex Greenhalgh COMPANY PROFILE: ANSA Elevators Ltd are an independent lift maintenance and installation company operating in the UK. ANSA are committed to meeting and exceeding our customer’s needs and expectations. We currently have offices in Manchester and Rugby. Since our inception in 1999 we have achieved a wide reputation for excellent quality of workmanship, technical ability and excellent value for money. This is bolstered by full compliance with the globally recognised standards ISO9001(Quality Assurance), ISO14001(Environmental), OHSAS18001 (Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series), The Lift Regulations 2016 (Schedule 12) along with accreditations with Constructionline, Safe Contractor and CHAS. ANSA are active members of LEIA, CIBSE Lift Group and The Lift Academy (sponsors). We possess a wealth of engineering experience and an immense fund of lift knowledge. We can ensure the highest standards of service and guarantee you will always be able to speak to a member of staff who is both knowledgeable and keen to help. Our field engineers and technicians are fully experienced on all makes and manufacture of lifts; this together with our task based maintenance regime ensures our customers lifts operate safely with optimum performance and reliability. All ANSA vehicles are fitted with NAVMAN vehicle tracking systems to manage calls and breakdowns with optimum efficiency and minimum impact to customers. Our bespoke PDA system provides immediate data transfer and ensures information from site including engineers reports, part requisitions and where required, image files. SCOPE OF SERVICES: • Planned Preventative Maintenance bespoke to your requirements and budget • 24 hour/365 day fully manned response teams • Live call logging and instant digital documentation • GPS vehicle and engineer monitoring • Thorough Examination Report Management • Stabilisation of troublesome and erratic lift service • Programmed and reactive repair work • Major modernisation and refurbishment from design to handover • New Installations including Design and Build Projects • Condition Reporting and budget planning overviews • Compliance Surveying, reporting and budgeting including all requirements to meet The Equality Act 2010 • Traffic analysis and people movement studies GEOGRAPHIC COVERAGE: Scottish Borders to the Midlands region and from the West to East Coast.


www.elevatorworlduk.com • 2020/2 Issue 103

COMPANY PROFILE: Elevators Ltd have been providing lift services across the UK for over 17 years and we’re now one of the most successful lift companies in the country. We work with a huge variety of clients on both commercial and residential lifts. Leaders in installation, modernisation and servicing of all types of goods and passenger lifts. We also provide disabled access equipment to the highest quality and safety standards around, alongside a whole range of efficient car parking solutions. Over the years our highly skilled team have built a reputation as leaders in customer focused service committed to quality and safety. At Elevators Ltd we believe in an honest partnership with our clients, providing quality Lift engineering solutions from maintenance and refurb to major installation projects, Elevators Ltd constantly deliver. Following our steady growth since 2002 and recently opening our Southampton Office. We maintain passionate and committed to our loyal customers look forward to our continued expansion. SCOPE OF SERVICES: • New Lift Installations • Lift refurbishment • Lift Repairs • Platform Lifts • 24/7 breakdown cover • Planned preventative maintenance • LOLER examinations • Car park lifts and car stackers ACCREDITATIONS: Safe Contractor, Exor, Construction Line QUALITY ASSURANCE: ISO 9001:2006, OHSAS 18001 Members of the Lift and Escalator Industry Association (LEIA)




WEBSITE: www.jacksonlifts.com

Midshires Business Park, Smeaton Close, Aylesbury, Bucks. HP19 8HL 01296 397100 01296 397600 sales@gartec.com / service@gartec. com / spares@gartec.com WEBSITE: www.gartec.com

COMPANY PROFILE: With the expertise to service and repair all makes of platform lift, make Gartec your first call. Since our foundation in 1994, Gartec has become one of the longest established platform lift specialists in the UK. With more than 25 years’ experience, we have installed more platform lifts than any other company. Our own platform lifts, designed and manufactured by our partner Aritco, embody all the characteristics traditionally associated with Scandinavian engineering: durability, reliability, quality and style. Being part of the Aritco Group, Gartec is also the natural choice for sales, service and repair of the entire range of Aritco platform lifts. We have built a reputation as the leaders of the platform lift industry, and we continue to lead it by pro-actively shaping the market via innovation. We offer a comprehensive range of lifts, lift accessories and maintenance options for a wide variety of commercial and domestic applications. To ensure the quality maintenance of over 8,000 Aritco platform lifts in the UK, Gartec directly employ a team of specifically trained service and maintenance engineers. Gartec is also renowned throughout the industry for our exceptionally high standards of after-sales care. SCOPE OF SERVICES: • New installations, consultancy and site surveys. • Compliance – Offering assistance to building owners and designers to meet with obligations under building regulation Part M and the Equality Act (formerly the DDA). • Service packages – We offer a comprehensive range of service packages, with options to suit each individual customer’s circumstances. • LOLER Inspections – Platform lifts used by personnel as a part of their daily duties fall under LOLER guidelines and must be subject to a thorough examination every six months. • Spares – Gartec supply Aritco & Vimec platform lift spare parts, with same/next day delivery. We have a dedicated spares service team ensuring your order will be delivered on time. Ordering is quick and easy online via our website – spares@gartec.com. • Emergency assistance – All customers have access to our 24-hour breakdown line. • CPD certified – we offer CPD certified presentations, half-day workshops and seminars. QUALITY ASSURANCE: ISO 9001/ISO 14001/OHSAS 18001 GEOGRAPHIC COVERAGE: Nationwide.

EMAIL: sales@jacksonlifts.com OFFICES: London and The Home Counties London office 020 8293 4176 london@jacksonlifts.com Midlands and North Wales

Birmingham office 01543 626850 lichfield@jacksonlifts.com

South West

Bristol office 0117 957 4601 bristol@jacksonlifts.com


Bournemouth office 01202 871333 wimborne@jacksonlifts.com

South Wales

Cardiff office 0292 010 4042 cardiff@jacksonlifts.com


Glasgow office 0141 404 5458 glasgow@jacksonlifts.com


Manchester office 01706 695610 manchester@jacksonlifts.com

North East

Newcastle office 0191 406 0909 newcastle@jacksonlifts.com

PROFILE: The UK’s largest independent Lift, Escalator and Cradle maintenance organisation. We operate in every business sector throughout the UK with end users and all major vertical transportation consultants. Full details of our extensive services see www.jacksonlifts.com SCOPE OF SERVICES: Maintenance and repair of all makes of lift, escalator, cradle and disabled access equipment. 24/7 Emergency callout service. Lift, escalator and cradle modernisation, upgrade and adaptation. Supply and installation of new traction, hydraulic and MRL lifts. Supply and installation of new eco-Escalators. Supply and installation of stair lifts, platforms, wheelchair lights and flex lift solutions. ACCREDITATIONS: ISO9001 - ISO14000 - ISO 50001 - OHSAS 18001 – Lift Regulations Schedule 12

2020/2 Issue 103 • ELEVATOR WORLD UK


Elevator World UK

Property Managers Guide to Lift Maintenance Companies





Melville Court, Spilsby Road, Harold Hill, Essex, RM3 8SB TELEPHONE: 01708 373999 FACSIMILE: 01708 375660 WEBSITE: www.piplifts.co.uk ENQUIRIES: Paul Masterson or Clifford Smith

Watt Close, East Portway, Andover, Hampshire SP10 3SD TELEPHONE: 01264 343777 EMAIL: contact@stannah.co.uk WEBSITE: www.stannahlifts.co.uk

COMPANY PROFILE: PIP Lift Service Limited was formed in 1992 to provide its clients with a unique and comprehensive range of tailored services to meet their individual requirements. Over the years, with large investments in personnel, training and technology, PIP Lift Service Ltd has grown steadily with the vast majority of its work coming from existing clients. Due to these investments, PIP Lift Services maintain lifts Nationwide.

We have been making products to move people and goods since 1867. Today, we are the UK’s leading independent supplier of lift products supplying passenger and platform lifts, goods and service lifts, escalators, moving walkways, related lift services and of course, stairlifts. We are proud of our engineering heritage, the fact that we are still a family run business five generations on and we’re proud of the strong values and ethics that guide us.

LIFT MAINTENANCE: We are able to maintain all types of lifts to the highest standard, bespoke service agreements can be offered as well as the standard levels which cover basic routine maintenance to fully comprehensive cover. PIP Lifts programmed maintenance cycles are designed to minimize breakdowns, ensure safety and to protect your capital investment. Our aim is to be the first choice lift service provider.

NEW PRODUCTS & REPLACEMENTS: Our products carry our name proudly, by choosing a Stannah product you know you can rely on our expertise and engineering capability through design, installation all the way to service and maintenance. Whatever the lifting equipment, no matter the size, from a small passenger lift to a heavy-duty goods lift - we can help.

Our service includes: • 24 hour / 365 day service. • Free no obligation estimates. • Legislative and safety advice. • Free annual surveys. • Planned maintenance system covering all makes of lift. • Fully Computerised management. • Dedicated Repair crews with fully stocked vans. MODERNISATION: This is another area of expertise for PIP, delivering efficient, effective solutions to architects, builders, developers and owners. Designed to minimize builder’s work and interface with all makes of lifts. Our range includes • Control panel replacement • Drive / performance improvements • Car interior upgrades. • Door equipment update • Health & Safety upgrades. • D.D.A. improvements. • Health & Safety works • All works in accordance with the latest British Standards. NEW LIFTS: Design and build facilities for architects, developers and building owners in accordance with the latest legislative Standards, particularly where New Lifts are required in existing buildings. QUALITY ASSURANCE:

BS EN ISO 9001:2008 BS EN ISO 14001:2004

PIP Lift Service quality policy provides our clients with an all encompassing professional service which is committed to quality delivering total peace of mind. We endeavour to meet customer requirements by continually monitoring customer satisfaction and perception through management review meetings. GEOGRAPHIC COVERAGE: NATIONWIDE


www.elevatorworlduk.com • 2020/2 Issue 103

QUALITY ASSURANCE: ISO 9001 certified by BVC.

LIFT SERVICE, MAINTENANCE & REPAIR: With more than 92,000 lifts on our service portfolio, our 11 service branches offer local support and services wherever you are in the UK. Our 300+ engineers work on all types of lifts, escalators and moving walkways, not just our own Stannah products. We know how important it is to keep your lifting equipment in tip-top condition, so we undertake full preventative maintenance services to ensure maximum performance. We manage large lift portfolios for some of the UK’s best-known brands, including over a thousand lifts for Network Rail. We provide the same high level of customer service to our domestic customers. With our stairlift customers secure in the knowledge that they’ll see a friendly face for their service visit. For any lift repair services, you can rely on Stannah for 24/7 services all year round. LIFT REFURBISHMENT, MODERNISATION & REMOVALS: From a small refurb to a large scale modernisation, we work to keep disruption to an absolute minimum, providing advice and working safely and with you throughout the project. Whether you are looking to restore heritage lifts to their previous glory or to modernise older lifts to comply with the current standards and regulations, we can help. BULK & INDIVIDUAL SERVICE CONTRACTS: Whether it is for the safe operation of a single lift or to manage a large portfolio across multiple localities, we give you complete peace of mind. Regardless of your portfolio size, we are here to help you meet your lift responsibilities. In 1867, Joseph Stannah started the business in Bankside, London, making cranes and hoists to move dockside goods. We’re still a family business, and by remaining a resolutely independent business we have been quietly successful. At the heart of our work is a simple promise, to be ‘always true to our word’. This reflects the way we go about business, to be ready to meet today’s challenges yet unashamedly focused on the values of quality and service that Joseph was passionate about all those years ago.



Elevator World UK (EWUK), formerly Elevation, is a quarterly publication solely focused on the United Kingdom lift industry. EWUK is published in multiple formats including print, web-based digital edition, and through the Elevator World app on Apple and Google Play stores. Collectively, EWUK has a readership of 3,500 industry professionals within the UK and surrounding regions. The magazine is published in English and supported by a free monthly email newsletter and website to keep the local industry up-to-date and informed.



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• Advertisers’ Index • Calendar • Editor’s Overview • Letters • Grapevine – Around the Industry • Marketplace • Property Managers Guide to Lift Maintenance Companies

REGULAR FEATURED COLUMNS: • Consultant's Voice – by Colin Craney of SVM Associates • Contract Matters – by Jonathan Hawkswell of Hawkswell Kilvington Partnership LLP • Management Matters – by Mark Woods of Statius Management • Safety Matters – by Dave Cooper of LECS (UK) Limited





Focus on Emerging Technology

January 20

January 27

2Q 2020 * ISSUE 103 * APRIL-JUNE

Focus on Residential Lifts and Accessibility

April 6

April 13

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October 2

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Advertisers Index

AFAG Messen und Ausstellungen....................................... 21 Blain Hydraulics GmbH..............................................................43 China Elevator Association...................................................... 29 C.E. Electronics Ltd......................................................................... 13 Digital Advanced Control Ltd........................................... 3, 27 Emmegi UK........................................................................................ 35 Hawkswell Kilvington..................................................................89 Hydroware (UK) Limited............................................................. 17 IMEM ......................................................................................................... 11 Kapok (1988) Limited.................................................................... 19 LECS (UK) LTD.................................................................................... 61 Montanari Giulio & C. Srl................................................ Cover 3 NAEC........................................................................................................ 23 National Lift Tower........................................................................ 85 NDC Elevator Drives......................................................................... 1 SafeLine Group AB............................................................Cover 4


SMV Associates................................................................................ 59 Statius Management................................................................... 67 Symposium on Lift & Escalator Technologies........... 33 Syntium Lift Parts.............................................................. Cover 2

EW UK Newsletter A monthly newsletter focused on the U.K. market.

Taylor Lifts............................................................................................... 7

EW New York Newsletter

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2020/2 Issue 103 • ELEVATOR WORLD UK


And Finally...

The 60-Second Interview: Andrew Renwick Our quick-fire interview section questions prominent people in the lift industry about a range of industry-related matters.

In this issue, we have a short interview with James Edge, general manager of Total Parking & Lifting Solutions Ltd. in Kent.

HOW DID YOU START YOUR CAREER IN THE U.K. LIFT INDUSTRY? John Emery and Jeff Nokes of Liftec Lifts Ltd. employed me as a trainee lift mate. I completed my NVQ 3 and then went onto work on various blue-chip projects during my 11-year employment with Liftec.

WHAT IS YOUR VIEW OF THE FUTURE OF MODERNISATION IN THE U.K. LIFT INDUSTRY? It is sad to say that the modernisation side of our industry is diminishing due to machineroom-less lifts. Removing equipment like guides that are not worn and are of a higher quality than what it is being replaced with, in some cases, is not ideal.

WHAT ARE YOUR VIEWS ON TRAINING IN THE LIFT INDUSTRY? The industry needs better regulation on training and qualifications to be a lift engineer.

WHAT IS YOUR OPINION OF MAINTENANCE COSTS BEING TENDERED IN THE INDUSTRY? It is pushing the price of each unit down to a price at which the company cannot afford to have the engineers onsite long enough to carry out proper service. Ultimately, the customer gets a great price but not the service they would have received at the correct cost.


www.elevatorworlduk.com • 2020/2 Issue 103

IF YOU COULD CHANGE ANYTHING IN OUR INDUSTRY, WHAT WOULD IT BE? I would like to see apprenticeships being available to the next generation of lift engineers.



GEARLESSrange For new installations or complete modernizations. Reduced width: 204 mm for narrow spaces Load range 630 - 1000 - 1250 kg



For all the gearless range dedicated to new installations or complete modernizations: steel or plastic coated ropes, reduced size and use in both machine room and roomless situations. Available with central or cantilevered sheave.

Safety starts with quality


Europe’s best-selling independent lift emergency telephone system with over 100 000 sold units. Pioneering lift safety manufactured in Tyresö, Sweden since 1995. – Connect up to six voice stations – Wireless configuration – GSM & PSTN in one – Available with 4G VoLTE – Fulfils EN 81-28 and EN 81-70


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