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The Premier Magazine for the Building Transportation Industry in India


Issue 4, Volume 7



Bangladesh: The Emerging Market Elevcon 2014 Abu Dhabi’s Landmark Tower

Contents 8

ON THE COVER 28 Bangladesh: The Emerging Market


Elevcon Paris 2014


The Evolution of Elevcon

by Robert S. Caporale, MSc

by Dr. Lee Gray


Codes & Standards

Energy Code Development, Part Two by Dr. Albert So




Company Spotlight Japanese Quality Made in India by Sreekumar Nambiar





Determination of Loads Acting on Guide Rail Fixing Under Certain Loading Condition by Sühan Atay, Eren Kayaoğlu, Adem Candaş, C. Erdem İmrak, Sefa Targıt and Yusuf Z. Kocabal


Elevator Shaft Connections by Chris Gage


Elevator Emergency Operations by Samson Babu

by Ar. Mustapha Khalid Palash

FEATURES 42 Abu Dhabi’s Landmark Tower by Kaija Wilkinson


4th Quarter Issue 4, Volume 7

DEPARTMENTS 3 6 8 12 98 101 103 104

Guest Editors’ Overview Calendar Inside India News Regional News Product Spotlight Marketplace Source Directory Advertisers Index

Engineering Hoistway Dimensions and Construction by Dhimant Unadkat



India ™

ELEVATOR WORLD India is a quarterly magazine published by ­Elevator World Inc., Mobile, Alabama (U.S.) and Virgo Publications, Bangalore (India). Virgo Publications is a sister organization of Virgo Communications, the organizers for IEE – International Elevator & Escalator Expo. Elevator World, Inc. is the premier publisher for the international building transportation industry. Since the inception of ELEVATOR WORLD magazine in 1953, the company has ­expanded core products to include ELEVATOR WORLD India, an ­extensive network of websites, a bi-weekly e-mail newsletter (Elenet®) and the Source©, the most inclusive industry directory. Publishers – Anitha Raghunath, Ricia Sturgeon-Hendrick, T.Bruce MacKinnon International Publishing Co. – Elevator World, Inc. Indian Publishing Co. – Virgo Publications Editorial International Managing Editor – Angela C. Baldwin Indian Editorial Manager – Kanika Goswami EW Editorial Staff (U.S.) – Lee Freeland, Kaija Wilkinson, Hanno van der Bijl Indian Guest Editors – G. Raghu, Anitha Raghunath EWI Correspondents - Mohamed Iqbal Contributors – Ar. Mustapha Khalid Palash, Robert S. Caporale, MSc, Dr. Lee Gray, Dr. Albert So, Sreekumar Nambiar, Dhimant Unadkat, Süha Atay, Eren Kayaoğlu, Adem Canda, C. Erdem Imrak, Sefa Targit, Yusuf Z. Kocabal, Chris Gage, Samson Babu Printing, Distribution and Commercial Operations Commercial Directors – Anitha Raghunath and G. Raghu (India) – Patricia Cartee (U.S.) Advertising Sales and Marketing Anitha Raghunath and G. Raghu (India) – T. Bruce MacKinnon, Lesley K. Hicks, Scott O. Brown, Cleo Brazile (International) Brad O’Guynn (Marketing) Patricia Cartee (Education Products) Production and Internet EW Staff (U.S.) – Lillie McWilliams, Jessica Trippe, Tara Dow, Dan Wilson Administration Anitha Raghunath (India) Emma Darby (U.S.) ELEVATOR WORLD® and ELEVATOR WORLD India™ are registered trademarks and all rights reserved. Copyright© 2014. For permission to reprint any portion of this magazine, please write to the publisher at Elevator World, Inc., P. O. Box 6507, Mobile, Alabama 36660, USA or at Virgo Publications, Virgo House, 250 Amarjyoti Layout, Domlur Extension, Bangalore, India 560071. ELEVATOR WORLD India is published in the interest of the members of the elevator industry in India, to improve communication within that industry and to further continuing education of members of that industry. ELEVATOR WORLD India publishes articles by contributing authors as a stimulus to thinking and not directives. ELEVATOR WORLD India publishes this material without accepting responsibility for its absolute accuracy, but with hopes that the vast majority of it will have validity for the field. The ideas expressed therein should be tempered by recognized elevator engineering practices, standards, codes and guidelines. Publication of any article or advertisement should not be deemed as an endorsement by ELEVATOR WORLD India, ELEVATOR WORLD, the publishers at Elevator World Inc. or Virgo Publications. Printed by Sri Sudhindra Offset Process, No.27-28, 8th Cross, Malleshwaram, Bangalore - 560003, Karnataka, India. ELEVATOR WORLD India will be published quarterly in 2014: February 14, May 16, August 15 and November 14. Advertising and subscription information is available at

Guest Editors’ Overview Elevator Industry in India – All the Way Up by G. Raghu and Anitha Raghunath This year has been extremely eventful for the elevator industry. Its beginning saw a huge gathering at the International Elevator and Escalator (IEE) Expo in Mumbai in March, the fifth biannual event in the industry. When ELEVATOR WORLD India started in 2008, this corner of the building equipment industry was very small in India. Then a promising industry with an annual turnover of 32,000 units, this year saw 56,000 units sold. We expect the figure to reach 100,000 by 2018. In terms of technology, we have seen a steady upward curve for innovation, aesthetics and user convenience. Today, most have a destination-selection control product; current elevators are mainly run by gearless machines with flat, coated-steel belts; and cars have several new elements, such as touchscreens and glass car-operating panels. Of course, this growth coincides with a number of factors, the most significant being the real-estate boom in the country over the past few years. Apartments are everywhere, high rises are mushrooming and independent houses with two or more floors are also opting for residential lifts. In fact, a number of bigger builder brands have made residential lifts (a hallmark of luxury) a selling point. In this scenario, it is no wonder that the elevator industry in India has grown so much. In years past, leading international players dominated the Indian elevator industry, but today, many Indian companies are in the arena, as well. A number of smaller foreign companies and brands are also a part of the market now, capitalizing on the growing demand and setting up manufacturing units to cater to unique Indian conditions. The focus of EW India is also following this curve. Technical specifications in our articles are getting the attention of industry experts and buyers. Success stories of Project Spotlights have given a new dimension to the information available for the market players. We are now focusing on the demand side of the market, and greater emphasis is being placed on the perspective and requirements of the builders and architects, as well as the elevator manufacturers. Accordingly, we have opened a local editorial office that will cater specifically to India-focused articles. This initiative will ensure that the expertise, success stories and demands of the Indian industry are documented and shared with its players. This, we hope, will be our value addition to the Indian elevator industry. Continued

EW India has created an advisory board of veteran industry leaders to guide us on industry trends and issues, as well as help us keep abreast of the latest elevator technologies and innovative products. The board will also discuss key industry issues and work toward finding solutions for them.

Events Roundup

Keeping in step with our industry, we have also been conducting exclusive elevator events in India. Over the last decade, the IEE Expos have brought together stakeholders, facilitated trade, and showcased the latest elevator-industry products and innovations in technology for participants. In addition, we have also conducted three IEE Tech Forums in cities across the country. This has been our contribution to the growth of the industry in India. Early in 2015, the IEE Expo will step out of India for the first time. We shall be taking the expo to a neighboring country that is small in Gross Domestic Product but big on prosperity – Bangladesh, with its unique markets and fast-growing real-estate and construction industries. This market is highly conscious of quality and ready to pay a premium for design and style. Today, we can see a paradigm shift in real-estate trends, and an increasing number of high rises now dot the Dhaka, Bangladesh, landscape, increasing the demand for elevators in the country. Our friend in Dhaka, the globally acclaimed architect and designer (not to mention artist and painter) Ar. Mustapha Khalid Palash, principal architect and managing director of Vistaara Architects Pvt. Ltd., apprised us about the dynamic focus of Bangladesh’s construction industry, which is waking up from its somnabulance


ELEVATOR WORLD India • 4th Quarter 2014 •

and headed toward a major boom in the next few years. The elevator industry has the support of the governance; it is now becoming mandatory to install elevators in some buildings, according to Dhakan specifications. Given this extremely encouraging scenario, we decided to hold our IEE Expo in Dhaka on February 10-12, 2015. If there were ever a right time for elevator-industry players to enter this new market, this would be it. With the country expanding vertically, Bangladesh needs to be the preferred destination for all elevator, OEM and component brands globally. As real-estate costs increase, the market size is growing in number, as well as revenue, and it is ripe for healthy competition. It will be a perfect opportunity to showcase brands, interact with the right audience and explore partnerships in the global elevator industry. In Dhaka, we have been promised support from the Real Estate Housing Association of Bangladesh, a powerful group of prominent brands in the country’s building-construction and real-estate industry. With support and guidance from Palash, we intend to make this first-ever elevator industry event in Bangladesh a stupendous success in terms of business and networking opportunities. The IEE Expo and EW India stand testimony to our endeavor to promote the elevator industry in India, and now Bangladesh. The editorial team of EW India and Virgo Communications intend to contribute even more in the growth of the industry in the years to come.    đ&#x;Œ?


2015 February

World Lift Expo Kenyatta International Conference Centre Nairobi, Kenya February 5-7 For more information, contact sponsor Nexgen Group at website: International Elevator & Escalator Expo Bashundhara Convention Center Dhaka, Bangladesh February 10-12 For more information, contact organizer Virgo Communications at e-mail: info@ or website: www.


MADE Expo Fiera Milano Rho Milan, Italy March 18-21 For more information, contact organizer Diomedea at website: AsansĂśr Istanbul 2015 TĂźyap Fair Convention and Congress Center Istanbul, Turkey


ELEVATOR WORLD India • 4th Quarter 2014 •

Industry leaders will be meeting for the International Elevator & Escalator Expo on February 10-12 in Dhaka (photo by Soman).

March 26-29 For more information, contact organizer Istanbul Fair Organization Ltd. at email:


IAEC Forum Nashville, TN May 16-22 For more information, contact the International Association of Elevator Consultants (IAEC) at website: www.iaec. org.


NAEC Annual Convention and Expo Westin Boston Waterfront Hotel and Boston Convention Expo Center Boston, MA

September 28-October 1 For more information, contact the National Association of Elevator Contractors (NAEC)’s Amanda Smith toll free: (800) 900-6232, fax: (770) 760-9714, e-mail: or website: www.naec. org.


Interlift 2015 Augsburg Trade Fair Centre Augsburg, Germany October 13-16 For more information, contact organizer AFAG Messen und Ausstellungen GmbH at email: or website:    đ&#x;Œ?

Please visit us at: A11 & A12 – Hall # 1

Inside India News

Rail-Station Improvements Mumbai suburbs, Thane among locations to receive new equipment.

Historic CST station in Mumbai (photo by Joe Ravi, CC-BY-SA 3.0)

Indian Railways Aims for 400 Escalators at 172 Stations As funds become available, Indian Railways plans to install 400 escalators at 172 stations, Orissa Diary reports. Priority will be given to stations most heavily used by tourists. Already, 126 escalators have gone in at 56 stations, the government entity reports. One of the largest railway networks in the world, Indian Railways operates more than 40,660 mi. of track and more than 7,170 stations.

Johnson/SJEC To Supply 97 Units to Kochi Metro A joint venture consisting of India’s Johnson Lifts Ltd. and China’s SJEC Corp. has won the bid to provide 97 escalators at 22 stations that make up Kochi Metro Rail Ltd., The Hindu reports. The units are described as necessary to make the stations more user friendly, particularly for regular commuters and disabled persons, in turn ensuring the system is adequately used.

22 Elevators, 19 Escalators Approved by CR Board The Railway Board has approved a Central Railway (CR) plan to install 22 elevators and 19 escalators at numerous suburban stations, the Hindustan Times reports. There are currently nine escalators along the line – two each at Thane, Dombivli, Dadar and Kalyan and one at Vikhroli. Improvements, scheduled to be underway in the first part of 2015, include four lifts and four escalators at Dadar; three lifts and four escalators at Thane; four lifts and two escalators at Kalyan and four escalators at Lokmanya Tilak Terminus.

Eight-Plus Escalators on Tap for Mumbai’s Harbour Line Mumbai’s Harbour line is planned to see the installation of six escalators by June 2015, The Asian Age reported in September. Comparing the new platforms to those of the Central Railways (CR)


ELEVATOR WORLD India • 4th Quarter 2014 •

mainline station, those in this CR line will be broader, the source wrote. More escalators for additional stations between the Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (CST) and Mankhurd were expected to be announced this year, including a projected 17 in suburban CR stations. The historic CST rail station, built in 1887, is to get escalators itself, linking its entrance and a foot overbridge, The Free Press Journal reports. There are to be two escalators by December. One will be paid for by Central Railway (CR), while the other, leading to CST’s Platform 2, will be financed by Mumbai Railway Vikas Corp. As of the summer, nine stations on the CR had received escalators.

Escalators, Elevators to Help Pave Way for Hindu Pilgrimage In advance of next year’s Kumbh Mela Hindu pilgrimage, Indian Railway is making improvements at Nashik Road Railway Station, The Times of India reports. Work includes two new escalators each at platforms 1, 2 and 3, respectively, and elevators (which will replace escalators) at platforms 4 and 5. Installation was set to start when extension and widening of a foot overbridge, well underway in September, was complete. Nashik is among cities that host the celebration once every few years.

WR Joins MRVC in Trespass-Prevention Effort Western Railway (WR) is joining Mumbai Railway Vikas Corp. (MRVC) in an effort to curb trespassing across tracks that often result in accidents (ELEVATOR WORLD India, 2nd Quarter 2014), The Free Press Journal reports. While MRVC installed escalators and foot overbridges (FOBs) at 12 stations earlier this year to encourage use of FOBs, WR plans to implement a pilot project at one of the 12 stations in which it will install escalators, leading to a common FOB at all platforms. This, WR hopes, will result in optimum utilization of the FOB.

Toshiba Elevator Builds on India Partnership The partnership of Toshiba Elevator and Johnson Lifts to form Toshiba Johnson Elevators India (TJEI) in 2012 is yielding fruit in the form of 34 project orders as of summer, The Economic Times reports. Among TJEI’s notable projects is One Avighna Park in Mumbai, for which eight elevators were installed and commissioned. The units travel at a speed of 6 mps, making them among the fastest in India.

One Avigna Park in Mumbai (image from Avigna India Ltd.)

UT Striving to Lower Energy Consumption, Costs in India United Technologies’ (UT) integration of Otis, Carrier and its security and building-automation divisions is aimed at achieving energy and cost savings over the long term, particularly in the Indian market, Patrick Blethon, president of Otis Pacific Asia Area, said in an interview with Businessworld. He describes Indian customers as cost conscious but also aware that higher upfront “green” costs will pay off in the long term. He said bringing manufacturing closer to customers promises to lower costs and that, post integration, there are approximately 250 engineers in Hyderabad, and 70 each in Bangalore and Gurgaon, all of whom are working toward energy-efficient solutions.

Comfort Elevators Launched Comfort Elevators and Escalators Pvt. Ltd. ( has inaugurated its corporate office and headquarters in Bangalore at Shakthi Comfort Towers on K.H. Road. The new company has 12 employees and is backed by experienced technocrats and designers. Comfort intends to offer customized products and services, enabling comfortable mobility and aesthetic freedom to architects. Its management team is headed by Mohan Kumar B.T., who stated: Comfort Managing “We want to make a difference, in terms of product quality, in the India Director Mohan market. It is our aim to bridge the gap between promises and expectations of Kumar B.T. product quality and its actual supply. We intend to provide the quality and service we promise, using the world’s best components.” Kumar added that the “industry differentiator” will be to provide a single point of contact for every customer, instead of the customer needing to communicate with different teams within the organization.

Dan Elevators Wins Residential Contract Dan Elevators of Mangalore has been hired to provide 10 energy-efficient, high-speed elevators to Prince Palace, a cluster of 16-story-tall residential towers being developed by Mandavi Promoters & Developers in Udupi. The units will be equipped with closed-circuit television cameras, intercom and auto-rescue devices. Dan, which introduced Moris Italia’s hydraulic elevator to Kanataka, reports it has completed more than 600 elevators in Mangalore and Udupi, and is now focusing its Prince Palace is set to contain 364 homes and efforts on Kerala and Goa. cover nearly 3 acres.

Mitsubishi Electric Building India Factory Mitsubishi Electric plans to build an up-to-US$2-billion elevator/escalator factory in Vemagal, India, approximately 60 km from Bangalore, the Deccan Herald reports. The factory will reportedly take shape on 22 acres in what is described as an emerging industrial area. The development occurs on the heels of Mitsubishi establishing Mitsubishi Elevator ETA India Pvt. Ltd. in August 2012 and launching its NEXIEZ-LITE low- to mid-rise elevator line in India in April (ELEVATOR WORLD India, 2nd Quarter 2014).


ELEVATOR WORLD India • 4th Quarter 2014 •

Regional News

China Proves Big for Elevator Business Both foreign and domestic companies look to the world’s largest market to extract profits.

Elevators Gateway to China for Japanese Firms According to The Japan News, three major Japanese electronics manufacturers have boosted their presence in China through their elevator businesses. Approximately 60% of the elevators produced worldwide are being delivered to China for its growing number of high rises. To compete there with their U.S. and European rivals, Japanese companies have stressed their products’ ride quality and safety, in addition to their high speed, the source noted. Mitsubishi Electric, Toshiba and Hitachi are the Japanese elevator companies most avidly sought for this technology. “We want to increase orders for our products further by taking advantage of our product credibility and brand power,” Shoichi Adachi, chief of Mitsubishi Electric’s overseas sales section, said of the Chinese interest. By using railway-vehicle manufacturing technology, Hitachi has designed a capsule-shaped car intended to minimize air resistance. Mitsubishi Electric has developed a hoist mechanism for elevator cars based on a floppy-disk drive motor. Each company holds approximately 15% of the Chinese elevator market. The number of elevators delivered worldwide in 2013 totaled approximately 760,000, or 1.6 times the level of four years ago. It is expected to rise another 20% this year.

Mitsubishi Electric Expands Facilities, Capacity Mitsubishi Electric’s Chinese subsidiary Mitsubishi Electric Shanghai Electric Elevator Co. (MESEE) is spending more than US$21 million to expand its facilities in China, with a goal to double production to 20,000 units annually. In July, MESEE opened a US$6.5-million, 6,300-m2 factory focusing on elevator hall equipment, and by July 2015, it plans to open additional facilities to include a 25,500-m2 factory, development/engineering center and test tower. The investment in that portion of the expansion, which will bring MESEE’s Shanghai presence to four factories, is US$14.7 million. MESEE, which produces MAXIEZ elevators, notes China is the world’s largest consumer of elevators, with annual demand exceeding 500,000 units. That is expected to grow as urban development moves inland from coastal areas.

increase its stake in the company from 46% to 66% by 2017, in increments of 5% per year starting in 2014. With a presence in China since the early 1980s, Schindler established a joint venture with XJ Elevator in 2011. XJ designs, manufactures, installs and maintains elevators and escalators. Schindler anticipates XJSchindler to generate revenue in excess of CNY300 million (US$17.7 million) for 2014, and, pending approval, results will be incorporated into Schindler’s financial statements.

ThyssenKrupp Elevator Marks 50,000th Employee Milestone ThyssenKrupp Elevator has hired its 50,000th employee, Chen Haihui, a 21-year-old engineer who reflects the current trend of rapid urbanization in China. A graduate of one of ThyssenKrupp’s targeted Chinese training programs, Chen Haihui is a service technician in Chongqing, which has a population of 28 million, making it one of the world’s largest cities. ThyssenKrupp Elevator notes China is a main driver of global urbanization, with a projected 22 cities having more than five million residents by 2030. In response, the company has implemented rigorous recruitment, training and continuing-education programs in China, and expanded its Chinese presence considerably: since 2010, its number of branches has grown from 32 to more than 60. Likewise, it is hiring many young graduates, with more than a third of its employees 25 years old or younger.

Schindler Upping Its Stake in Chinese Company Schindler has inked an agreement with the majority shareholders of XJ-Schindler (Xuchang) Elevator Co. Ltd. to


ELEVATOR WORLD India • 4th Quarter 2014 •

Service technician Chen Haihui plans to pursue advanced training from ThyssenKrupp Elevator to attain a team leader position.

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Regional News

Residential Gates

Middle East Projects Abound Qatar and Dubai see strong construction participation. Schindler Qatar Wins 118-Unit Mall-Expansion Contract Schindler Qatar has been awarded a 118-unit contract by ALEC for the expansion of Doha Festival City shopping mall. The order consists of 52 machine-room-less elevators and 66 escalators/moving walks. Units will include panoramic and freight elevators, as well as energy-efficient escalators. Schindler Middle East praised Schindler Qatar for securing the contract in the midst of tough competition.

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Dubai’s Plans for World’s Tallest Office Tower Progress As of September, no renderings or heights had been released, but Dubai Multi Commodities Centre (DMCC) is moving forward Continued

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ELEVATOR WORLD India • 4th Quarter 2014 •

Regional News

Doha Festival City; image from

with plans to build a new high-rise commercial district, Burj 2020, slated to have as its centerpiece the world’s tallest office tower with the world’s tallest observation deck at its top, according to DMCC and The National. In September, DMCC announced the district’s project manager is Turner Construction Co., the same entity that oversaw construction of three of the world’s tallest towers,

including Burj Khalifa. Groundbreaking for the district is planned in 2015, and a master-plan design competition is underway. With two buildings under construction looking to seize the “world’s tallest office tower” title -- the Zhongguo Zun tower in Beijing at 528 m tall and the Ping An tower in Shenzhen, China, at 660 m tall -- Dubai’s proposed tower would have to be approximately 700 m tall, making it about 100 m shorter than the Burj Khalifa, which stands 828 m.

60-Story Dubai Tower to Start Construction

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ELEVATOR WORLD India • 4th Quarter 2014 •

Construction on Suites in the SKAI, a 60-story mixed-use tower in Dubai’s Jumeirah Village Circle, was set to start in September, bnc® reports. The cylindrical tower will house luxury hotel rooms and apartments featuring sky gardens, outdoor pools and Jacuzzis. Restaurants, bars, a fitness center and other amenities are also planned. In August, developer SKAI Holdings of Dubai said sales thus far had reached US$252.4 million on the project, which has an estimated value of US$366.7 million.

Dubai’s Mall of the World to Break Ground Soon Government-owned Dubai Holding announced in September that it plans to begin work on the Mall of the World early next year. This summer, it was appointing specialized consultants for the US$6.8-billion development. Planned for 180 million visitors annually, its first phase is to be comprised of the project’s retail aspects and be ready in three years. The entire development is planned to be built over 10 years, with funds raised gradually during that period. Launched in July, Mall of the World is a 48-million-sq.-ft., climate-controlled development expected to house the largest shopping mall and largest indoor theme park in the world. A glass dome that will be open during winter months is to cover the structure. Additionally, a “wellness zone,” a “cultural celebration district” and 100 hotels and serviced apartment buildings with 20,000 rooms will be included, according to Gulf Business.

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We Deliver the Experiences ! We intend to offer our products and services to cater the requirements of customers with satisfaction enabling comfortable vertical mobility. Our elevation systems are harnessed with advanced technology, considering Comfort & Safety as priority. Got enumorous appreciations for our Aesthetic Designs, service Diligence and products with Low Noise levels, Spaciousness, Cost Effectiveness, Low Maintenance and Durability. Our heaquarters is located at “Shakti Comfort Towers” KH Road, Bangalore with hands on expertise and excellence into serious work ethics.

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Regional News

Factories, Acquisitions and Partnerships A variety of companies are investing in facilities around the region.

Mitsubishi Electric Opens Quality & Manufacturing Center Demand for elevators and escalators in India and China is one of the reasons Mitsubishi Electric built its new, US$27million Quality & Manufacturing center at its Inazawa Works factory in Japan. Open since October 1, the facility enables Mitsubishi Electric to better test the quality and safety of components such as hoisting machines, circuit assemblies, ropes and brakes. The three-story facility comprises 5,800 m2 of floor space. The company states: “Expected benefits include strengthened effectiveness and efficiency of trialmanufacturing and verification operations, and accelerated lifestyle testing of products subjected to inhospitable conditions, such as varying temperatures and humidity, taking climate change into account.”

New Elevator Plant in Kazakhstan

Mitsubishi Electric’s Quality & Manufacturing

A Kazakh-Chinese joint venture, Sky Express Elevator KZ, has opened a factory just outside Astana, Kazakhstan, Tengri News reports. The facility has a capacity of 1,000 units per year and includes a


ELEVATOR WORLD India • 4th Quarter 2014 •

warehouse for spare parts. The multimillion-dollar plant will produce a range of units -- those capable of carrying only a few people to heavy-duty freight elevators that can lift 5000 kg. It will also produce custom panoramic elevators, escalators and moving walkways, as well as provide installation and maintenance. The new facility joins a recently built plant jointly run by Kazakhstan’s Irtish-Lift and Republic of Belarus-based MogilevLiftMash, which has produced more than 250 units thus far.

KONE Makes African Acquisitions KONE announced its acquisition of the elevator and escalator business of Marryat & Scott (Kenya) Ltd. and Marryats East Africa Ltd., its authorized distributors in East and Central Africa, in August. KONE believes the moves will help it expand its presence in the African market and improve the availability of its products and services in Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda and Tanzania. Marryat & Scott (Kenya) has operated in the African elevator and escalator market for more than 50 years and acted as KONE’s distributor in the country since 2003. Marryats East Africa has been KONE’s distributor in Uganda since 2003. Together, the companies employ more than 120 people. Pierre Liautaud, executive vice president and area director for KONE West and South Europe and Africa, commented on the deals: “Africa is urbanizing rapidly, and new housing and infrastructure-building projects are emerging as a result. This creates business opportunities for KONE.

These acquisitions are in line with our long-term business strategy, and we look forward to bringing reliable products and services to Kenya, Uganda and their neighboring regions.”

Hyundai Elevator Selects Sri Lankan Distributor Hyundai Elevator has selected Abans Engineering as its Sri Lankan distributor, Lanka Business Today reports. Abans will provide passenger, hospital, observation, machine-room-less, freight and car elevators, as well as escalators and moving walks, to clients in Sri Lanka, where “high-rise buildings and skyscrapers are reaching new heights.” Bob Jang, senior executive advisor for Hyundai Group, noted developers, engineers and builders are demanding faster and more technologically advanced elevators than ever before.

Otis, Fellow OEMs Focus on China Skyscraper Boom Otis, KONE and ThyssenKrupp Elevator are among OEMs focusing business efforts on the skyscraper boom underway in China, China News reports. Among Otis’ high-rise projects is a recent order for 103 units for the Skidmore Owings & Merrill-designed Tianjin Chow Tai Fook Binhai Center, a 530-m-tall, mixed-used building scheduled for completion in 2018. Tony Black, president of Otis Elevator Investment Co. Ltd. in China, noted that handling such major jobs not only generates profit, but also enhances brand recognition. China has become a “battlefield,” Zhang Lexiang of the China Elevator Association said, with both foreign and domestic OEMs vying for business.

Regional News

KONE Activity The Finnish OEM wins a number of contracts, in addition to certification in Singapore.

131-Unit Order in Indonesia KONE has won a 131-unit order for District 8, a mixed-used development in Jakarta, Indonesia, consisting of a mall and seven towers up to 250 m and 60 stories tall housing offices and apartments. The order includes 50 MiniSpaceTM and eight MonoSpaceÂŽ elevators, 28 TravelMaster escalators, 18 double-deck elevators and the PolarisTM destination-control system. During installation, four JumpLift elevators promise to reduce downtime, enhance safety and speed construction, thanks to temporary motor rooms inside the permanent hoistways.

KONE Elevators Receive SGBC Green Certification KONE’s N MinispaceTM and N MonospaceŽ elevators have received Green Label certification from the Singapore Green Building Council (SGBC). Introduced in 2010, the certification follows ISO 14020 international standards for environmental labeling and utilizes a multi-criteria, third-party approach. These KONE models are now recommended for Singapore Building and Construction Authority Green Mark-certified buildings. KONE states the certified models, launched in 2012, consume 60-75% less energy compared with typical KONE models of 2008.

105-Unit Order for Malaysia Tower KONE has been hired to provide 105 elevators and escalators to KL118, a 118-story, mixed-use tower in Kuala Lumpur expected to be the tallest in Malaysia upon completion in 2019. The order consists of 18 TravelMasterTM escalators, and 23 MonoSpaceŽ machine-room-less, 23 MiniSpaceTM, four JumpLift and 37 double-deck elevators, along with a destination-dispatch system. KONE’s energy-efficient units promise to help KL118 achieve Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design certification. A second phase of the project could comprise four additional towers. District 8 rendering

Roy W. Blain

Roy W. Blain passed away on August 5. Born in May 1932 in Salford, U.K., Blain lived in Ilford, U.K., until he was six years old. Then, he moved back north, where he later studied engineering at Salford Royal Technical College. After serving two years in the U.K. Merchant Navy followed by two years in the British Army, he pursued a career in industrial hydraulics in the U.K., Switzerland, Spain, the U.S. and, finally, Germany, where he founded Blain Hydraulics. Blain Hydraulics said of his legacy: “With customers and installations in more than 75 countries, Blain was a true pioneer and believer in the hydraulic elevator technology. A true gentleman and very good person at heart, he was a visionary who worked tirelessly in the hydraulic elevator industry for more than five decades. He also devoted considerable time and resources in the last few years [to] working on reforming English language by actively contributing to the Spelling Society in England and developing ‘Sayspel,’ which was very close to his heart.â€? Blain is survived by his wife, Anja, who has been the managing director of Blain Hydraulics and overseen the company for several years. She is expected to continue her leadership role in the company.     đ&#x;Œ?


ELEVATOR WORLD India • 4th Quarter 2014 •


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Hoistway Dimensions and Construction A look into hoistway design and how codes affect the structures

by Dhimant Unadkat The definition of a hoistway (lift well) is “a vertical opening through a building or structure in which elevators [or] material lifts travel, extending from the pit at the bottom to the underside of the roof or machine room above.”[1] Hoistway construction must comply with EN 81-1/2, which requires minimum safety clearances within the pit, headroom and hoistway to provide safety during lift installation and safe working conditions for lift maintenance and service personnel. These clearances are required to meet Conformité Européenne markings or as specified for a particular installation. Industry standard ISO 4190–1 provides guidance on minimum pit depth and headroom,

but since requirements may vary between different manufacturers and drive types, headroom and lift pit dimensions should be checked with lift manufacturers at an early stage of the design process. Guidance on hoistway sizes is provided in ISO 4190-1, although this standard deals with only elevators using automatic doors. Hoistway dimensions for any given application vary depending on door type and configuration, car size, rated speed, rated load and type of drive. Thus, space requirements should be established with a lift manufacturer/ expert/consultant, particularly for nonstandard lift sizes and arrangement, such as manual doors Continued

Examples of Nonstandard Hoistway Construction These building drawings are for understanding the hoistway only. Any buildings having these hoistway types are purely coincidental and unintentional. Right: Hoistway for a multistory residential tower with a higher speed (up to 1.75 mps)

Hoistway for a multistory residential building with a speed up to 1 mps


ELEVATOR WORLD India • 4th Quarter 2014 •

Hoistway for a tall residential tower with high speed (exceeding 2.5 mps)

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or nonstandard hoistway sizes due to space constraints in building construction. EN 81-1/2 includes requirements relating to hoistways containing one or more lift cars. The counterweight or the balancing weight of a lift shall be in the same hoistway as the car. The hoistway shall be separated from its surroundings by walls, floor and ceiling, or a sufficient space. In the case of a totally enclosed hoistway, in sections of the building where it is required to help prevent the spread of fire, the hoistway shall be totally enclosed by imperforate walls, floor and ceiling. The only permissible openings are for landing doors, for inspection and emergency doors into it, and inspection traps and vent openings for the escape of gases and smoke in the event of fire. For partially enclosed hoistways in which the structure is not required to help prevent the spread of fire (e.g., observation lifts in connection with galleries or atriums), the hoistway does not need to be totally enclosed, provided the height of the enclosure at places normally accessible to persons shall be sufficient to prevent such


ELEVATOR WORLD India • 4th Quarter 2014 •

persons being endangered by moving parts of the lift and interfering with the safe operation of the lift by reaching lift equipment within the hoistway, either directly or with handheld objects. Any glass used for hoistway enclosures within reach of persons must be laminated. All glass should incorporate marking, indicating the name of the supplier, type of glass and trademark. These should be visible when the glass is installed. Care should be taken when using glass to ensure that adequate contrast and visibility exists so passengers can detect its presence. Since the essence of an observation lift is to provide a visually pleasing installation, it is essential that early discussions on its use are held between the architect or designer and lift manufacturer/expert/consultant. Note that installation of lifts with partially enclosed hoistways should occur only after full consideration of the environmental/ location conditions.

Summary In spite of various guidelines and standards, hoistway dimensions given by manufacturers often vary, and nonstandard

hoistway constructions are not uncommon. It is imperative that the architects and developers affirm hoistway requirements and space during the initial design stages with lift manufacturers/ experts/consultants.

Reference [1] The Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers. CIBSE Guide D – Transportation Systems in Buildings

Dhimant Unadkat is Head of Operations – India for Soberman Engineering Co., a vertical-transportation consulting firm. He has held key management positions with Bharat Bijlee Ltd. (OlympusSchindler); Otis (India), Mumbai; and Ojaco Engg. LLC (Schindler Lifts), Abu Dhabi. He has been involved in designing, planning and executing vertical-transportation needs across India for the last seven years. Unadkat, an Electrical Engineering graduate more than 20 years in the lift industry, can be emailed at

Readers Platform

Bangladesh: The Emerging Market by Ar. Mustapha Khalid Palash The recent construction boom in Bangladesh, traditionally considered a slow mover, has made it a fast-growing market in the construction industry and those related to it. The market for elevators, an integral part of the modern high rise, is on its way to becoming a major one in the country. Formed as a new nation in 1971, Bangladesh saw slow development in the building industry during its first decade after independence. Prior to its independence and after the Partition of India in 1947, there were few buildings that required mechanical vertical transportation, as they were mostly walkups. Citizens of Dhaka first felt the need for mechanical lifts with the erection of the 11-story Hotel Intercontinental Building in the mid 1960s. Elevators were used in a few other low rises in the Motijheel business district, but they were very limited in number. During the late 1970s until the end of the 1980s (when the government took initiatives for constructing several sector corporations’ head offices), buildings could go up to 20 floors, transcending the usual limit. The trigger point for the construction industry to take off in Bangladesh was the late 1980s, when private real-estate developers came forward to meet the growing demand for residential buildings. Until the mid 1990s, the incorporation of lifts and escalators was focused on the mere necessity to climb a height beyond the declared walkups, particularly for buildings rising more than six floors. However, as the real-estate market grew and turned into a booming state in the late 1990s, it had become a trend that any building, whether residential or of any other type, must have elevators fitted in it. Prior to this, there was only one shopping center fitted with escalators, Continued


ELEVATOR WORLD India • 4th Quarter 2014 •

Opposite page, top to bottom: The Westin Dhaka, the tallest star-rated hotel in the city, and Nafi Tower, an example of the burgeoning high-rise commercial building market in Dhaka; this page, bottom right: The Shanta Western Tower, a modern office building; this page, other photos: Bashundhara City, where the large projects marked a turning point in the real-estate sector of Bangladesh. Using the largest number of elevators and escalators the country had yet seen, it has come to be a hallmark for a good elevator and escalator plan not only adding value to the customer experience, but also increasing the overall efficiency of a project.

• Issue 4, Volume 7 •


cum-family-entertainment center in Dhaka across 1.8 million sq. ft. I was commissioned as the architect for the project, with the highest liberty to design the property, starting from its program setting to incorporating all international standard amenities. An unprecedented number of elevators (26) and escalators (60) for the country were included in Bashundhara City Project. This was the beginning of the modern era in the Bangladeshi building industry and was a beacon to the real-estate sector, showing how the inclusion of elevators/escalators in number and size not only enhances the quality of the project, but also tremendously increases the efficiency of performances. The inclusion of elevators and/or escalators is no more a case of luxury, as realestate entrepreneurs of Bangladesh look at it. Thousands of elevators are now operating in the country, ranging from suburban towns to the capital city. Shopping malls in district towns are now even fitted with capsule elevators and escalators. Over the last two decades, the entire gamut for mechanized vertical transportation has dramatically changed and is expected to thrive more, as the government’s Building Construction Act indicates toward a vertical city to minimize land pressure. This may also entice a number of vendors (many without proper expertise and background skills) to jump into the market. This might cause safety issues for the people using them and jeopardize positive aspects. Therefore, it is, indeed, the right time for the government authority to think on the legislative issues relating to the safety of mechanized vertical transportation, forming an independent body to look into the matter on regular basis.

Top to bottom: The Siaam Tower office building in Uttara and the skyline of Mohakhali, one of the busiest places in Dhaka

and that was more as a public attraction, rather than for functionality. People were scared to ride on them, as they were prejudiced with the possibility of accidents. In 1998, the largest local construction conglomerate, Bashundhara Group, proposed constructing the largest shopping-


ELEVATOR WORLD India • 4th Quarter 2014 •

Ar. Mustapha Khalid Palash, FIAB, is principal architect and managing director for Vistaara Architects Pvt. Ltd. He is also vice-president of the Institute of Architects Bangladesh and president of the Architecture Alumni Association of BUET.

Codes & Standards

Energy Code Development, Part Two The conclusion of the series on the groundbreaking Hong Kong Energy Code discusses CoP technical details and issues. by Dr. Albert So Part One of this series (ELEVATOR WORLD India, 3rd Quarter 2014) discussed the history of development of the Code of Practice for Energy Efficiency of Lift and Escalator Installations (CoP) for elevators, escalators and moving walks in Hong Kong. The CoP is now incorporated in the combined volume Code of Practice for Energy Efficiency of Building Services Installation (BEC) published in 2012. Parallel development in Europe was also highlighted. Part Two will look into some technical details and issues of the CoP and its guidelines, together with a discussion on the benchmarking parameter suggested by your author some 10 years ago and a method to save energy for lifts. For clarity, “CoP” in this article refers to either the previous (2000-2011) editions or the part related to elevators inside the current BEC.

TGs on the CoP[1] To clarify clauses in the CoP and suggest mTo clarify clauses in the CoP and suggest means of compliance with them, a set of technical guidelines (TGs) were published in 2012 by the Hong Kong Electrical and Mechanical Services Department (EMSD). This article shall first discuss how CoP requirements could be met in a straightforward manner, while those issues which call for special considerations will be addressed later, section by section. Practically, not all types of fixed vertical- or horizontal-transportation systems inside a building are covered by the CoP or BEC. Some examples are given here, including mechanized vehicle parking systems, goods lifts, stair lifts, rack-and-pinion lifts and backstage lifts. Tables are provided in the CoP to govern the maximum electrical power consumption by traction lift

drives and hydraulic lifts (in kW) under different rated capacity (in kg) and rated speed (in mps) when the car is carrying full load and moving upward. For example, the limit of a traction lift with rated capacity between 1350 kg (inclusive) and 1600 kg (exclusive) and rated speed between 4 mps (inclusive) and 5 mps (exclusive) is 49.4 kW. When the rated capacity goes beyond 5000 kg, formulae (instead of prescriptive figures) to show the limit are available. In this case, users are required to perform calculation based on the formulae to arrive at the limit. For example, the equation for a lift with a capacity beyond 5000 kg and with rated speed range between 2 mps (inclusive) and 2.5 mps (exclusive) is given by: (Equation 1)

Having said that, some lifts are exempted from such a limit. Examples are super-highspeed lifts with a rated speed not less than 9 mps serving a zone higher than 50 stories (more than 175 m between top and lowest landings), lifts with a rated load at or above 5000 kg and a rated speed of 3 mps or above, firefighters’ lifts, and sky-lobby shuttle lifts serving only two principal stops. For hydraulic lifts, rated speed is not a condition, because they usually run slowly. For example, the maximum electrical power of a hydraulic lift with rated load between 3000 kg (inclusive) and 4000 kg (exclusive) is 92.2 kW. For escalators, the electrical power consumed by the drive when the escalator is carrying no load and traveling at rated speed is governed by a table under different nominal widths (600, 800 and 1,000 mm), vertical rises (in m) and rated speed. Three more conditions are imposed in Continued


ELEVATOR WORLD India • 4th Quarter 2014 •

terms of the function of an escalator: nonpublic service, public service and heavy duty. For example, the limit of a nonpublic service escalator with a nominal width of 1,000 mm, a vertical rise between 5 mps (inclusive) and 6.5 mps (exclusive), and a speed range between 0.6 mps (inclusive) and 0.75 mps (exclusive) is 3.23 kW. Hong Kong is an extremely densely populated metropolis, where the subway is very congested during rush hours. Heavy-duty escalators are needed to serve subway stations, which are defined in the CoP as follows: ♦♦ Operating continuously for a period of not less than 20 hr. a day, seven days a week with an alternating brake load of 100% full load for 1 hr. and at least 50% brake load for the following hour ♦♦ Not less than four flat steps at each landing ♦♦ Maximum deflection of supporting structure of the escalator not exceeding 1/1,500 of the distance between supports. ♦♦ Brake load given by multiplying the number of visible steps by 120 kg. ♦♦ Diameter of chain wheel not less than 100 mm. Moving walks with an inclination up to 6° are governed in terms of the length, width, rated speed, nonpublic service and public service. For example, the maximum allowable electrical power of a nonpublic service passenger conveyor with a width of 1,000 mm, range of length between 16 m (inclusive) and 20 m (exclusive), and range of speed between 0.6 mps (inclusive) and 0.75 mps (exclusive) is 4.703 kW. If the width is 1,000-1,400 mm, the limit is obtained by interpolation of figures found inside the table. The availability of lift park mode and automatic on/off of lift ventilation and air-conditioning during idling are straightforward, and do not need to be discussed here. For the air-conditioner, the CoP requires that once it is turned off, it cannot immediately be turned on, even when a passenger walks into the lift car. It is known that in some cities, the in-car illumination is also turned off when the lift is idle. Your author does not support such an idea, because the energy consumption of the lamps, (normally few tens of Watts only) inside the car is usually negligible, compared with the total idle consumption of the whole lift. Furthermore, most installations are still of the discharged type (fluorescent tubes, compact fluorescent lamps, etc.), which are not suitable for being turned on and off frequently due to their lifespan being inversely proportional to the number of on/off cycles. Nonetheless, LED lamps are getting more and more popular. If they are ever widely applied to in-car illumination, that would be another consideration. The final item to be discussed before we move on to special issues is the provision of metering facilities. Electrical parameters, including voltages, currents, total power factor, total harmonic distortion, energy consumption and maximum demand (in kVA) of lifts, escalators and moving walks, are to be measured in accordance with the CoP. A networked permanent meter equipped with each installation is perfect for this, as the owner and maintenance contractor can continuously monitor the lift performance remotely. But, if that is too costly, the provision for measurement is allowable. An electrical cubicle or junction box can be equipped on lifts to facilitate the ready connection and subsequent removal of a metering device. Such connection/ removal actions must not affect the normal operation of the lift by


ELEVATOR WORLD India • 4th Quarter 2014 •

any stoppage or disruption. For escalators and moving walks, landing plates or inspection doors have to be opened for connection/removal. Safety switches are required to stop the operation of escalators and moving walks once these plates or doors are opened.

Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) Electrical power quality is drawing top concern by the industry nowadays. The topic discussed is usually the quality of the supply voltage to a system or a device, which can be described by a set of parameters,[2 & 3] including: ♦♦ Voltage fluctuations (swell or sag) ♦♦ Voltage dips ♦♦ Voltage imbalance ♦♦ Power frequency variations ♦♦ Induced low-frequency voltages ♦♦ DC components in AC networks ♦♦ Radiated low-frequency phenomena ♦♦ Harmonics and inter-harmonics International standards[4 & 5] are available on power quality. While the concern is on voltage, readers may have heard much more about current harmonics. Why? Half a century ago, all electrical appliances (such as motors and incandescent lamps) were either resistive, inductive or capacitive in nature. These devices are considered passive, meaning that the current waveforms drawn by them are of the same shape as the voltage waveforms applied to them. AC voltage is usually either 50 or 60 Hz in frequency (f0) and generated with an intrinsically sinusoidal shape from the power plant. “Sinusoidal” refers to a waveform that can be uniquely described by the following equation:

(Equation 2) Electronic devices were becoming very popular in the late 1960s. Nowadays, it is quite difficult (though not impossible) to find a device that is still purely resistive, inductive or capacitive. Electronic (solid-state) devices are active in nature, meaning that their current and voltage waveforms are significantly different (no longer sinusoidal, as shown in Figure 1). To analyze its awkward shape, we can use the Fourier equation, which tells us that any periodic waveform, f(t), of any shape can be represented by a combination of an infinite number of sinusoidal waveforms: (Equation 3)

Figure 1: The sinusoidal current waveform of a single-phase rectifier


Here, n is called the “harmonic number,” and the fundamental refers to n = 1 (i.e., generally 50 or 60 Hz). For each n, there is a magnitude An and a corresponding phase shift øn. Here, A could be either voltage or current. In other words, the existence of higherfrequency components is used to describe waveforms that are not purely sinusoidal. While the concern is on voltage, the problem involves current. The source voltage from the generating plant is usually sinusoidal, but power has to be transmitted to the user through cables that constitute both the transmission and distribution networks. Such cables have resistance, inductance and capacitance. The effect of inductance increases as the frequency increases. Current drawn by an electronic device, if possessing harmonics, results in the existence of voltage drops across the cables at the respective higher frequencies. Again using the Fourier equation, the resultant voltage waveform at the point of common coupling (such as the supply point of a building close to the device) is no longer sinusoidal (Figure 2). In other words, current with substantial harmonics drawn by an active device can lead to a poor voltage waveform at the supply point, which is harmful to all other devices connected to a common coupling point. That is why current harmonics have to be mitigated.

must not go beyond 35%. Although the two equations have been taught in almost all Electrical Engineering schools around the world, I can assure my readers that they are impractical. No instrument ever constructed on Earth can measure a voltage or current to give an accurate value of THD based on the two equations. The trouble comes with the term infinity. Therefore, in the TG, THD is only measurable up to 31st harmonics (n = 31).

Total Power Factor Total Power Factor (TPF) is the ratio of the active power of the fundamental (in kW) to the apparent power that contains the fundamental and all harmonic components (in kVA). The “twowattmeter method” is a standard technique by which to measure the total active power of any three-phase, three-wired system. Wattmeter 1 measures the current of line 1, and the voltage between lines 1 and 2. Wattmeter 2 measures the current of line 3 and the voltage between lines 3 and 2. The active power values of the two wattmeters, when summed, give the total active power. Sometimes (in particular, when the three phases are not balanced), one wattmeter may give a large positive value, while the other one may give a low or even negative value. The sum is always the correct answer, and that is the beauty of this method. Any line could be any phase, irrespective of the phase sequence. There are two problems with existing lift drives. First, very often, there are only three wires connected to the drive from the three phases (no neutral wire). Second, it is very difficult to get a totally balanced supply to the drive (i.e., not all three line voltages and currents are equal). Fortunately, the “two-wattmeter method” is accurate enough, irrespective of voltage balancing or currents. As for apparent power, this has traditionally been defined in a three-phase system by the following equation:

Figure 2: Voltage distortion due to current harmonics

THD is one useful parameter to by which describe the seriousness of harmonic distortion is called, which is applicable to both voltage and current. Their definitions, also adopted in the BEC, are as follows:

(Equation 4)

Here, V1 and I1 are called fundamentals. In the CoP, tables give limits of THD for lifts, escalators and moving walks. For example, if the fundamental current of a lift, carrying full load and traveling upward, is between 40 A (inclusive) and 80 A (exclusive), the THD

(Equation 5) If voltages and currents are not balanced, which two phases should be selected for line voltage, and which phase should be selected for line current? A solution is at least offered in the TG, although the academic background is not strong enough. The average of three line voltages is treated as VL, and the average of three line currents is treated as IL. One final TPF point to mention is that it is possible to measure the TPF for traction and hydraulic lifts onsite, but impossible for escalators and moving walks, because the condition imposed is that the escalator or conveyor must be driving brake (full) load when the TPF is measured. It is possible to put dummy loads inside an elevator car but not on escalator steps. If dummy loads equal to the brake load are put on all visible steps of an escalator, it cannot start to run upward. If it is allowed to run downward, the dummy loads will shatter on the lower landing well before any measurement can be completed. After all, the escalator is not driving a full load if allowed to move downward with a dummy load on every visible step. So, the TG guides designers or consultants to estimate the TPF by theoretical computation, while real experiments could only be conducted in a factory (not onsite). Continued


ELEVATOR WORLD India • 4th Quarter 2014 •

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Project : Mindspace – Building no 12-B, Hyderabad Client : M/s. Sundew Properties Ltd. – SEZ (M/s. K Raheja Corp)

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Benchmarking Parameter of Elevator Energy Performance By going through the maximum allowable power consumption in the CoP of BEC of Hong Kong, as well as the specific energy consumed during a reference run of empty lift car per Europe’s VDI 4707 and ISO 25745, readers may conclude that at present, almost all energy codes available are focusing on the energy efficiency of the lift drives alone. Perhaps it is not well known that the intelligent supervisory controller of a lift system is actually responsible for overall energy efficiency. In the buildingautomation industry, it is commonly known as “good housekeeping.” A discussion on this issue is beyond the scope of this article, but I would like to quote the following analogy. For a room that only utilized 3 hr. a day, which approach consumes more energy: A 90%-efficient lamp operating 24 hr. a day or an 87%-efficient lamp operating only 3 hr.? The author has been promoting the inclusion of supervisory control into the consideration of energy efficiency for almost a decade, but the problem is the lack of a universally acceptable parameter that can take care of both the lift drives and dispatcher. A benchmarking parameter called J/kg - m was proposed by your author some ten years ago.[6 & 7] Coincidentally, it apparently bears the same dimension as the specific running energy of VDI 4707, but the concept is totally different. The latter figure is obtained by measuring the energy consumed by an empty lift running one reference cycle.

J/kg - m (also mentioned in CIBSE Guide D: Transportation Systems in Buildings 2010) deals with daily operation when the lift car is under normal load. The parameter can reflect the energy performance of a lift or bank of lifts, accounting for both the power consumption of the motor drive, as well as the intelligence of the supervisory controls. J/kg - m is now recommended in the TG as an emerging good engineering practice. Three parameters are needed to evaluate J/kg - m: total energy (ET) consumed within a fixed period of time (T), car load (W) and distance traveled (D). During T, an N number of brake-to-brake journeys is made by the lift car, each journey carrying W running D, irrespective of direction of travel. A brake-to-brake journey starts when the brake is released and ends when the brake is applied again.

(Equation 6)

Some previous measurements indicated that a very energyefficient elevator and its corresponding intelligent supervisory control could achieve 30 J/kg - m (the lower, the better). Readers are highly recommended to implement this parameter on their installations so a substantial database can be built. Throughout a 24-hr. day, J/kg - m could rise to a huge value during off-peak times, because a certain amount of energy has to be consumed while the traffic is extremely low (small W and small D). Therefore, the Continued

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average of a series of running windows, (say, with T = 2 hr.) and a running incremental interval (say, 15 min.) will give a fair result.

Counterweight Adjustment Method A method to save energy was developed and tested with success based on the proposed parameter.[7 & 9] At present, the counterweight setting is purely based on safety considerations, where good traction is available under both no- and full-load conditions. Usually, this setting is 50% of the rated capacity of the lift car. The method suggested allows a readjustment of the counterweight setting, within a safe range (say, 40-60%, depending on the type of roping arrangement). A series of experiments is first conducted to develop a database of energy consumption of a particular lift in terms of load (0/20/40/60/80/100%), zone (low/ middle/high rise), direction (up/down), distance of travel (one/two. . . floor jump/ full travel) and counterweight setting (40/45/50/55/60%). When the lift is under normal operation, data of every brake-to-brake journey, including time, car load, direction, distance travel and zone, are recorded by a central server. For, say, every two weeks, a computer simulation is performed to find the optimal counterweight setting for the past two weeks that corresponds to minimum energy consumption. If the traffic pattern remains more or less the same, that optimal counterweight setting could ensure the lowest energy consumption of the lift for the coming two weeks. After a year, the total energy profile of the particular lift is known, and the setting could be more intelligent, even with accurate prediction.

Conclusion The history of energy-code development related to lifts and escalators in Hong Kong and their parallel development in Europe have been introduced in this series. Technical details and issues within the Hong Kong energy code were also discussed. A generic benchmarking parameter to compare the energy performance of different types of elevators, irrespective of their rise, load

and speed, was proposed and explained. Statistically, a fair indication of whether a particular lift or group of lifts is energy efficient can be provided by taking care of both the drives and supervisory controls. A technique to save energy for lifts by readjustment of the counterweight setting is also mentioned. At present, energy codes are still not widely adopted worldwide (as opposed to safety codes). The author hopes these articles can help engineers draft or improve energy codes, or implement them in a better way by giving reference to the experiences from Hong Kong and Europe.

References [1] EMSD, Technical Guidelines on Code of Practice for Energy Efficiency of Building Services Installation, 2012. [2] Dugan R.C., McGranaghan M.F., Santoso S. and Beaty H.W., Electrical Power Systems Quality, 3rd Edition, McGraw-Hill Professional, 2012. [3] Fuchs E.F. and Masoum M.A.A., Power Quality in Power Systems and Electrical Machines, Elsevier Academic Press, Boston, 2008. [4] IEEE, Recommended Practices and Requirements for Harmonic Control in Electric Power Systems, Standard 591, 1992. [5] IEC, Electromagnetic Compatibility – Part 3-2: Limits for Harmonic Current Emissions, 2001. [6] So A., Cheng G., Suen W. and Leung A., “Elevator Performance Evaluation in Two Numbers,” ELEVATOR WORLD, Vol. LIII, No. 1, January 2005, p. 102-105. [7] Lam D.C.M., So A.T.P. and Ng T.K. “Energy Conservation Solutions for Lifts and Escalators of Hong Kong Housing Authority,” Elevator Technology 16: Proceedings ELEVCON 2006, IAEE, Helsinki, June 2006, p. 190-199. [8] Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers (CIBSE), CIBSE Guide D: Transportation Systems in Buildings 2010, p. 13-5. [9] So, A. and Wong, C.T.C., “Implementation of Counterweight Adjustment to Achieve Energy Savings”, Elevator Technology 19: Proceedings of ELEVCON 2012, IAEE, Miami, May 2012, p. 185-192.

Dr. Albert So is an executive board member and scientific advisor of the International Association of Elevator Engineers (IAEE). He is also the academic secretary for the IAEE HK-China Branch and honorary visiting professor of the University of Northampton in the U.K. He is based in Seattle.

Project Spotlight

Abu Dhabi’s

Landmark Tower A study in strategy and design by Kaija Wilkinson Situated on Corniche Road in Abu Dhabi overlooking Lulu Island and the Persian Gulf, the mixed-use Landmark Tower was built over a span of six years with architects, engineers and contractors – including those who designed, supplied and installed the skyscraper’s vertical-transportation system – paying the utmost attention to detail. The project involved companies and people not only in the Middle East, but around the world. Materials, for example, were procured from manufacturers in Italy, the U.K. and the U.S., according to K.G. Guna, manager, Training & Corporate Communications, ETA Melco Co., the Mitsubishi Electric partner that provided the building’s 20 elevators and four escalators. Landmark Tower stands 330 m tall and covers 158,000 m2. It houses 31 floors of offices, 28 floors of apartments, five levels of underground parking, a fitness center and restaurant. With 72 floors above ground, it is among the tallest buildings in a city of skyscrapers. A sky garden and pool are enclosed in a 60-m-tall towertop glass-andsteel structure, that, according to verticaltransportation consultant Hilson Moran, “glows like a pearl” when illuminated at night. With projects such as towers in London’s Canary Wharf business district under its belt, Hilson Moran is no stranger to designing complex systems for unique buildings. States Alan Cronin, divisional director, Vertical Transportation Group for the company: “With any development, the user experience is greatly influenced by [the] ability to move effectively through the building . . . . In a high-rise, mixed-use development, such as the Landmark Tower, the vertical-transportation strategy


ELEVATOR WORLD India • 4th Quarter 2014 •

Opposite page (top): Corniche Road winds along bike paths and beaches, with the city on the other side. Opposite page (bottom): Custom granite from Italy graces the cabs and hallways. Top: The client required a mockup of the escalator system before the actual one was installed. Above: A destination-dispatch system helps ease traffic flow.

is critical to achieving this, while providing a design that optimizes the floor-to-core area efficiency.” Landmark Tower is used by office workers, residents and retail employees, among others, so designing a verticaltransportation system for it required research, analysis and creativity, Cronin said. “We live in an era of high speed, immediacy and impatience, so maximizing efficiency and keeping journey times to a minimum were critical for quality of experience, safety and workplace productivity,” he noted. To enhance traffic flow and decrease frustration, residential and office elevators are separate. Passengers reach the verticaltransportation system by first entering garden terraces that lead to a public,

atrium-style lobby. Each set of elevators is designed to be as efficient, comfortable, safe and fast as possible, according to Hilson Moran. Along with a handicapped-accessible unit, residents use six vertically stacked high- and low-rise elevators, grouped in sets of three and serving floors 38-63, as well as basement level three, which contains parking reserved for residents, the health club, sky garden and restaurant. ETA Melco reports each unit has a capacity of 1275 kg, makes 30 stops and travels a distance of 283 m. Hilson Moran describes the 8-mps units as “the fastest [elevators] in the building and among the fastest anywhere in the region, allowing for shorter journeys for people returning home or using the leisure facilities.” Continued

• Issue 4, Volume 7 •


Above left: The atrium-style lobby features custom glass, stainless steel and plenty of natural light. Above right: Landmark Tower was designed by Pelli Clarke Pelli of New Haven, Connecticut. Right: Lighting ambience is created using a variety of methods and materials.

Office workers take an escalator from the ground to the lobby floor, where they take one of 10 elevators divided into two groups: five for floors 1-19 and five for floors 20-34. There is also a handicappedaccessible unit. A destination-dispatch system assigns each person a place in a lift, which, Hilson Moran states, minimizes wait time and overcrowding. “Overall, it means a smoother transition for people entering and exiting the building,” Cronin said, elaborating: “At Landmark, we identified user groupings at the outset and ‘stress points,’ such as the start and end of the working day and lunchtime, before creating appropriate arrival, circulation and departure strategies. Then, by implementing a destination-control system, we could control the flow of passengers, resulting in a more efficient building with lower operational costs and a smooth, seamless user experience.” A pair of 2200- and 4000-kg service elevators may be used by firefighters in an emergency, and Hilson Moran states its


ELEVATOR WORLD India • 4th Quarter 2014 •

evacuation program is designed to empty the entire building in approximately 30 min. ETA Melco reports safety features include fire-rated shafts, fire intercoms in service elevators, side emergency exits for 18 elevators, automatic announcements in English and Arabic and an emergency evacuation-control system that operates all elevators in all zones during a fire. Cutting a striking figure on the Abu Dhabi skyline, Landmark Tower was designed by Pelli Clarke Pelli of New Haven, Connecticut, which drew inspiration from a desert flower and the dodecagon (a polygon with 12 sides and 12 angles) seen

often in Islamic art and design. The building is part of a quickly growing area, and many individuals and entities were consulted during its construction. Guna said during peak construction several years ago, approximately 50 people were on site just to oversee vertical-transportation system work. In addition to Hilson Moran and ETA Melco, players included: ♦♦ Mubarak Saad Al Ahbabi, P., Eng., project leader, who has delivered several notable nearby projects, including the Emirates Palace hotel in 2006 ♦♦ Joint-venture general contractors Consolidated Contractors International

Top left: The tower overlooks Lake Lulu and the Persian Gulf beyond. Bottom left: Traction machines Below: Custom fluorescent lighting was procured from a U.K.-based manufacturer. Bottom right: ASCO 7000 Series Power Transfer Switch in the machine room

Co. SAL and Al Habtoor Engineering Enterprise Co. LLC ♌♌ Project manager and engineer E.C. Harris International Getting the vertical-transportation system just right was a meticulous process, according to all involved. Besides the standard inspections and approvals, the client also had rigorous requirements, such as needing to see a mockup of the escalator with finishes, such as glass and side lighting, prior to installation. For elevator installation, the false-car method was used. This method was a five-stage process that presented

challenges of its own, according to Guna. A consultant had to sign off on all elevator designs and suggested finishes, which included granite from Italy, cold cathode lamps, fluorescent lights, hand-winding units, anchoring systems and LEDs from the U.K.; air-conditioning systems from China; and trip counters from the U.S. Additional challenges included: ♌♌ Assembly of 16- and 11-mT traction machines in the machine rooms for the pair of service elevators ♌♌ Design and installation of the traction-machine hoisting beams in the machine room

♌♌ Installation of the guide rail and other equipment in a continuous 140-m-long “vertical tunnelâ€? that lacked openings ♌♌ Installation of the 4000-kg capacity service elevator with double safety to a height of 315 m, with 1,550 X 2,600 m doors ♌♌ Design, installation and approval of the steel shaft and glazing for the handicappedaccessible elevators Echoing the elegance of the glass artwork in the lobby by Alexander Beleschenko, whose work graces some of the world’s most highprofile buildings, cabin interiors boast customized glass finishes and operating panels. Custom acrylic lanterns are in all hallways, and all cabins are air-conditioned and have controllable lighting. The building’s exterior, Hilson Moran states, uses plazas towered by canopies to evoke the seafaring heritage of the Emirate. Inside and out, the company states, Landmark Tower presents “a true representation of unique Islamic culture.â€?   đ&#x;Œ? • Issue 4, Volume 7 •



Determination of Loads Acting on Guide Rail Fixing Under Certain Loading Condition Sühan Atay1, Eren Kayaoğlu2, Adem Candaş2, C. Erdem İmrak2, Sefa Targıt3 and Yusuf Z. Kocabal2 1 ITU. Graduate School of Sci Eng & Tech, Istanbul, Turkey 2 ITU. Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Istanbul, Turkey 3 ASRAY Lift Guide Rail Company, Gebze, Kocaeli, Turkey

This paper was presented at Paris 2014, the International Congress on Vertical Transportation Technologies, and first published in IAEE book Elevator Technology 20, edited by A. Lustig. It is a reprint with permission from the International Association of Elevator Engineers (website: This paper is an exact reprint and has not been edited by ELEVATOR WORLD. Key Words: Guide rail, rail fixing, T-clips, fasteners

Abstract In terms of provide safety and smooth travel, guide rails and their fixing components are essential elements of the complete elevator system. Loads acting on the guide rails and fasteners occur during the elevator car normal travel lead to bending and buckling (or tensile) stresses. In this study, numerical calculations are explained according to EN 81-1 for certain loading conditions. Stress and deformations occur on the fixing components (bolts and T-clips) are examined by experimentally. Finally, the results obtained from numerical calculation and test results are compared and discussed.1.


essential elements of a complete rail fastening system. Guide rails are, for safety reasons, the most important element of elevator systems. The basic functions of the guide rails and rail fasteners in the elevator system are to guide the elevator car and counterweight in their vertical travel, to minimize the horizontal movement of the car as much as possible, to prevent tilting of the car due to eccentric load, and also to provide safe stance and to stop the car during safety gear operation activated in case of free falling of the passenger car. Various forces occur during the elevator car travel, safety gear operation, and seismic activities upon on guide rails and rail fasteners. When guide rails are not mounted properly, especially during the operation of the safety brake guide rail brackets would be subjected to excessive loads. These forces on them lead to bending and buckling (or tensile) stresses effecting on fasteners and mounting elements. Review of literature about the topic shows that studies related with stress and deflection analysis of guide rails, brackets and steel T-clips generally remained limited to the computer environment (Atay 2013).

1. Introduction

2. Guide Rails, Brackets and Fasteners

Elevator systems are composed of many elements. Rail brackets and steel clips are used for fixing guide rails to shaft wall and provide the linearity of the guide rails. These are the

In this study, fasteners under certain loading conditions were concerned. Guide rails and complete rail fastening system are shown in Figure 1. • October 2014


M12 bolts and T3 T-bolts are suitable for T90 guide rails in accordance to the standards (Imrak and Gerdemeli, 2000).

3. Test Setup

Figure 1. Assembly of complete guide rail fixing system

Idea of examining the behaviour of elevator brackets and its connections under static and dynamic loads with an experimental study emerged from knowledge that obtained as a result of experimental stress analysis of elevator guide rails and finite element modelling and simulation studies in the Elevator (Lift) Technologies Laboratory, ITU Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, and an experimental set that is submitted by Dr. Merz from HILTI firm in the comprehensive articles (Merz 2008, 2010). Bracket connection system will make displacements or relative movements under the loads applied during tests. Loads on rail brackets and its joints that for fixing guide rails to wall of the elevator shaft, studied experimentally. In this case the brackets are mounted with pre-stressed bolts (Figure 3). Wherein by the application of transverse forces between the parts, a μFpre friction force, (Ffric) occurs. The theoretical principles of fasteners are given for making the mechanical joint effective (1).

Ffric = μFpre ≥ F/i or μFpre = c0 F/I


Where i is the number of bolts and c0 = 1.1 - 1.5 is the safety factor against sliding. From this equation, the force necessary to provide the joint can be found.

Those parts that make up the basic elements of the elevator system, examination of the behaviour of the different load cases, monitoring and new constructive measures to be taken to investigate an experimental set was designed and installed for the purpose. Experiments to be made by using this experimental set; with the basic elements of the elevator system is aimed to obtain tangible concrete data. For an experimental study on the guide rail brackets and its connections, possibilities within the experimental set system was designed and established with the support and contributions of the sponsor companies. The experimental set, designed, which was tried to have the qualities that will allow for compliance reports and research and investigation to be made more comprehensive in the future on a variety of guide rail brackets and its connections. This experimental set system consists of four main structures. These are carrier structural frame that is used to connect the elements to be tested in experimental studies, hydraulic power unit that provides variable loads to be applied, control-drive unit and sensors. The carrier structural frame is used to connect the experimental elements, which is made of St37 material, is a structure formed by the method of welding using profiles from T90 guide rails. The system designed to simulate elevator car loads applied during operation of an elevator was for the application of tensile and shear loads of a guide rail unit. A data acquisition and measurement equipment were used during the experimental studies. Test setup was designed for experimental stress analysis of complete guide rail fastening systems, brackets and fasteners were connected to the T90/B guide rails at the test tower in ITU Faculty of Mechanical Engineering (Figure 4). Available sensors and data acquisition system connected to the guide rail fasteners. Real time data were obtained by examining different loading conditions of the elevator test cabin. Tests were carried out in the test tower which is 7.3 m high. The purpose of the tests were to investigate the forces from the guide rail fasteners and brackets under different loading conditions of elevator cabin and interpret the results as experimentally.


Figure 2. Brackets and T-Bolts

Figure 3. Bolts under transverse loads

48 • October 2014

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Figure 4. The test tower in ITU Elevator Technology Laboratory

Figure 5. Data acquisition and signal processing system of the test setup

Figure 6. Donut type load cell used in experiments

USB sensor interface device is used to transfer data from sensors to the PC environment (DigiVision Software) (Figure 5). It has 16-bit resolution and allows up to 2500 measurements per second. Load measurement sensors are divided into two categories; these are tension and compression load cell and donut load cell (Figure 6). In this study donut load cells were used in order to investigate the compression loads on bolts. In the test, 8-person elevator cabin with empty and loaded (100% full) cases were investigated. Steel casting weights, each weighing 17.3 kgs, were used in the elevator cabin frame to ensure empty and full status (Figure 7). Brackets elements, made of St37 material, and were utilized at the test tower. Test results were taken from the ring type (donut) load cells placed on guide rail fasteners (steel clips) (Figure 8). During test car’s course, the forces applied on the brackets and the bracket joints were observed through donut load cells. In tests T90/B type standard guide rail was used. Guide rails were fitted to the base with four bearings and there is 2000 mm distance between the guide rail mounting brackets. Different test cases and configurations can be seen on Fig. 9. Bolts were fastened by different torques. These torques caused 3 different preloading conditions: 2000, 2500, 3000 N. Point zero calibrated in accordance to these pre-loads. Forces below pre-load values are negative and above these values are positive. Results can be found on section in Table 1 and 2.

4. Test Results and Conclusion

Figure 7. Elevator test car loading conditions

Figure 8. Donut type load cell used in experiments

The matter of seismic activities on the elevator systems is not a new discussion but it has come into question especially after Van Earthquake 2011 in Turkey. The improved safety aspect must be underlined in respect to structural safety and reliability during seismic activities. So this paper focused on seismic activity loads and their effects on guide rail fasteners. Thus brackets and bolts were subjected to loads similar to the case of seismic activities. As can be seen in Table 1 and Table 2, maximum load occurred on bolts is -470.6 N at Test-3 in 3000 N pre-load condition from C1 load cell. According to Eq.1 the force to untie this connection must be more than 7549-8088 N due to the standards (BS EN Continued

50 • October 2014

Vertical Transportation Technologies, Thessaloniki, p268-277.

6. Biographical Details Sühan Atay Mr. Atay received the BSc degree in Mechanical Engineering from ITU in 1995 and MSc degree in Mechanical Design from ITU in 2013. He is working as a Design Engineer. Eren Kayaoğlu has been employed as a research assistant in ITU since 2007. Mr. Kayaoğlu received the BSc degree in Mechanical Engineering from Yıldız Technical University in 2004 and MSc degree in Mechanical Design from ITU in 2009. He has carried out research into PhD thesis. He started to work in a project on Wire Rope Isolators (WRI). He is also a Member of Chamber of Mechanical Engineers in Istanbul, Turkey Adem Candaş has been employed as a research assistant in ITU. Mr. Candas received the BSc degree in Mechanical Engineering from ITU in 2010 and MSc degree in Mechanical Design from ITU in 2009 carried out research into PhD thesis.

Figure 9. Configurations of 3 different test cases

Load Cell



Test -1

Test- 2

Test -3

Pre Loaded

















































Table 1. Forces occurred on the bolts in empty car case [N]

Load Cell



Test -1

Test- 2

Test -3

Pre Loaded

















































Table 2. Forces occurred on the bolts in loaded car case [N]

ISO 898-1:1999). Comparison of these two values shows that safety factor is approximately 16.

Acknowledgement This document is supported by Machinery Promotion Group, Central Anatolian Exporters Union.

5. References [1] Atay, S. (2013). Experimental Stress Analysis Of Complete Rail Fastening Systems, MSc

52 • October 2014

Thesis, ITU Graduate School of Science Engineering and Technology, Istanbul. [2] BS EN ISO 898-1:1999, Mechanical properties of fasteners made of carbon steel and alloy steel — Part 1: Bolts, screws and studs [3] Imrak, C. E., Gerdemeli, I. (2000). Asansörler ve Yürüyen Merdivenler, Birsen Yayınevi, Istanbul. [4] Merz, M., (2010). Practical Stress Behaviour of Complete Rail Fastening Systems, ELEVATION Vol.68, p56-62. [5] Merz, M., (2008). Practical Stress Detection on Rail Anchors, Hilti Corporation, ELEVCON 2008, The 17th Int. Congress on

C. Erdem Imrak has been employed as a fulltime Professor in ITU. Prof. Imrak received the BSc, MSc, and PhD degrees in Mechanical Engineering from ITU in 1990, 1992 and 1996 respectively. He has carried out research into materials handling and especially lift systems. Currently his activities include: a Member of the IAEE; a Member of the OIPEEC, a Member of Chamber of Mechanical Engineers in Turkey; a Member of Steering & Consulting Committee of Asansör Dunyası Magazine and a Member of International Committee of Elevatori and Rapporteur from Turkey. Sefa Targit graduated from the Division of Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering at ITU. After graduation in 1982, he worked as the mechanical installations engineer in various construction companies and in 1992, he joined ASRAY and thus, the manufacturers side of the Lift Industry. He is currently a partner and the General Manager of ASRAY; Vice President of AYSAD (Turkish Elevator and Escalator Association); Board member of SEDEFED (Federation of Industrial Associations of Turkey). He is a member of the Board of Adviser in ITU, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Lift Technical Committee of Ministry of Industry; ELA Component Committee; MMO Turkey (Chamber of Mechanical Engineers), IAEE. He is a publishing advisor of the “Asansör Dünyası” Magazine published in Turkey. Yusuf Z. Kocabal has been employed as a lecturer in ITU since 1984. Mr. Kocabal received the BSc degree in Technical Education from Marmara University. He is also the chairman of the sport committee and the chief executive lecturer of technical drawing lessons in ITU Faculty of Mechanical Engineering.


Elevator Shaft Connections Your author examines which anchors are appropriate, as well as how they are selected, engineered and checked for safety. by Chris Gage In a fast-paced commercial environment, elevator companies have the challenging job of achieving long-term safety for their clients. Even under commercial pressure, safety often comes down to paying attention to both the major and less-conspicuous components and processes. Connection systems used in the elevator shaft may be seen by some as falling into the latter category. During new installations and maintenance, both drilled and cast-in-concrete connection systems are used to secure equipment to shaft structures. On the supply side, a variety of fastener manufacturers offer a wide range of

products with varying levels of performance and quality. So, some care has to be taken to ensure that products with appropriate performance and reliability are used. This is particularly the case for situations where reliable performance is an absolute must for long-term safety. Some of the most important of these connections are also subjected to dynamic loading. These include connections for elevator guide rails, divider beams and doors.

Dynamic Loading Dynamic loads rapidly oscillate between higher and lower levels. This is in contrast to Continued

JORDAHL T-bolts and hot-rolled, cast-in anchor channels provide adjustable positioning for anchoring guide-rail brackets and divider beams to concrete. JORDAHL hot-rolled channel profiles pre-welded to the divider beams allow fast and accurate anchoring of guide-rail brackets.


ELEVATOR WORLD India • 4th Quarter 2014 •

4000 lb. 3000 lb. 0

1 Load cycle

F0 = upper load Fu = lower load

JTA W 50/30

A dynamic load cycle varying by 1,000 lb. acting on a connection to a cast-in, hot-rolled anchor channel 5000 JTA W 55/42, JTA W 72/48


JXA W 53/34


JTA W 53/34

Load Range Delta F [lbs.]

3500 3000

manufacturing process of formed-steel shapes, such as the cast-in anchor channels used for elevator shaft connections, is critical to the long-term, dynamic performance of the connection. If anchor channels are cold formed, the area of material in the region where the profile bends becomes work hardened and more brittle. This is normally fine for static loading conditions, but in the case of dynamic loading, it can promote early fatigue in the material. Hot rolling produces anchor channels with a much more ductile material. Much of the in-built stress and accompanying brittle features of cold-rolled channels are not present in hot-rolled alternatives. Consequently, safer long-term dynamic-loading performance for critical elevator shaft connections is achieved using hot-rolled anchor channels. So, selecting connections in the elevator shaft is not just a matter of checking the static load


2500 2000

JXA W 38/23 JTA W 50/30


JTA W 40/22, JXA W 29/20

1000 500 0 20 000


100 000

1 000 000 Design Life (load cycles) N

Dynamic loading graph for a range of JORDAHL hot-rolled anchor channels showing permissible load variations according to the number of load cycles over the design life.

static loads, where the loading level remains constant. The rapid cyclical nature of dynamic loading is very hard on materials and, over time, can induce fatigue and eventual failure. Fatigue is induced faster as the cyclical load variation and number of cycles increases. Over the lifetime of an elevator, connections for guide rails, divider beams and doors can be subject to dynamic loading over millions of cycles. This means that, in order to avoid premature anchorage failure, care must be taken to ensure the connections used for these components are suitable for dynamic loading over the elevator’s anticipated lifetime.

The hot-rolled, cast-in anchor channel on the left is recognizable by distinctive square exterior corners, while the cold-formed profile on the right has large-radius bends.

Load type

Pair load

Load safety factor for dead load



Load safety factor for life load



Coefficient fatigue loads



Pair load distance


100 mm

Number of cycles



Load range


Dynamic fatigue loads

1,00 kN

Fire exposure

Typical guide-rail connections to cast-in, hot-rolled anchor channels

Anchor Channel Types In general, better long-term dynamic loading performance is achieved with materials offering higher ductility. This means the


ELEVATOR WORLD India • 4th Quarter 2014 •

Ng [kN]

Nq [kN]

Vyg [kN]

Vyq [kN]





Software is used to calculate suitable hot-rolled, cast-in anchor channels according to required design factors and the range of dynamic loading.

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JORDAHL Expert design software: the green arrows indicate longitudinal loading to the cast-in anchor channels as a result of side loading on the elevator guide rail. High longitudinal design loads in the range of 2500-8500 lb. per connection can be supported by the use of JXA W-style serrated anchor channels combined with matching JX-style toothed T-bolts (right).

performance of the connection. Normally, the design data of an anchor manufacturer will have to be checked to establish if the tested design life of the connection meets expected dynamic conditions. In the last few years, hot-rolled anchor channels with serrated lips have been developed to transform the design load capacity of anchor channels when loaded longitudinally in the direction of the opening in the channel. This can be particularly interesting to elevator designers who want to use adjustable connections that also accommodate high side loads applied to the elevator rail. Such load conditions are a common situation in designing for earthquakes. In these conditions, the counterweight rail, in particular, can encounter very high side loads. Quite often, counterweight derailments occur during major seismic events, and the resulting damage to the shaft, car and equipment can be considerable.

Cracked Concrete Research has shown that, in certain conditions, flexure is induced in structural concrete components, causing microcracks in the concrete. As a result, modern designs typically take into account the possibility of cracked concrete. Concrete cracks in the vicinity of the anchor will cause a weakening of the connection. The behavior of anchors in cracked concrete is largely dependent on the anchorage depth and head design. Typically, anchors with small head diameters will not perform as well as those with larger heads. Accounting for cracked concrete should be included in the anchor manufacturerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s design information.

Obviously, the anchorage condition can become more severe when wide cracks develop in the concrete as a result of flexure caused by severe seismic activity. One outcome of seismic testing for anchorage in safety-critical areas has been the development of special, long anchors with large head areas for hot-rolled, toothed anchor channels. These resulted from testing anchor channels positioned directly over wide cracks in the concrete. After preloading the anchor channels, additional cyclic loads were applied in tension and shear to simulate loading during a seismic event. Depending on the type of building and its location, elevator engineers may also need to accommodate severely cracked concrete in anchorage design.

Anchoring to Other Material The range of anchoring conditions faced by installation crews and designers varies widely. Connections to conventional concrete shafts may be needed. In other situations, anchorages to heavily reinforced, high-strength concrete shafts are required, particularly on tall or seismically designed structures. On other structures, the shaft wall may be made of concrete masonry units (CMUs) or brick. In some cases, elevator shaft connections have to be affixed to structural steel or a secondary steel framework. Connections to brick and CMU are a frequent problem. Although much progress has been made in drilled connection technology, the brick or CMU material is normally the weak point in the connection, particularly when loaded dynamically. Attempts to fill the voids of CMUs with concrete to improve performance often have variable results. Due to material and workmanship Continued


ELEVATOR WORLD India â&#x20AC;˘ 4th Quarter 2014 â&#x20AC;˘

Installing a concrete beam into a new masonry elevator shaft: hot-rolled anchor channel has been cast in to provide adjustable positioning for guide-rail connections.

Concrete beams in masonry walls allow fast and reliable guide-rail connections using T-bolt connections to cast-in, hot-rolled anchor channels.

variations, anchorage performance can be unpredictable, so this type of connection is difficult to engineer. With some predesign by the building’s structural engineer, a more reliable connection method can be introduced on new shafts by using concrete beams at the locations of the guide-rail brackets, divider beams and door connections. Beam positions are relatively easy to establish at the design stage, because, for a given specification of elevator, anchorage locations for most bidding elevator companies should be similar. Within the concrete beams, cast-in, hot-rolled anchor channels are used to provide a reliable, fast and adjustable method of anchoring to the masonry wall by the elevator installation team. Hot-rolled channel profiles can be similarly useful as part of a connection system to structural or secondary steel. In this application, channels are used without the additional anchors needed for connections to concrete. The raw profiles are simply welded to the steel structure, then protected from corrosion with a post-applied finish. Again, this method is best preplanned at the design stage and factory welded to minimize welding on the construction site. The material properties of the channels make hot-rolled profiles ideal for welding, and, combined with twist-in T-bolts, produce a reliable and versatile connection method for doors and guide-rail

brackets. Connections between divider beams and guide rail brackets are an ideal application for this sort of product.

(l-r) Typical T-bolt and hot-rolled channel profile: together, they form a versatile method of providing adjustable and reliable connections to steel.


ELEVATOR WORLD India • 4th Quarter 2014 •

Attaching to Concrete In addition to engineering performance, price, and ease of use, consideration for the safety of the installation crew is also an issue when selecting a connection system. There are three basic methods for attaching to concrete: ♦♦ Drilling holes for either resin anchors or expansion bolts ♦♦ Welding to embedded steel plates ♦♦ Bolting to anchor channels cast into the concrete. These methods have not only different technical and practical aspects governing their use, but also accompanying workforcesafety issues. Drilled bolts are often used in the elevator shaft for equipment and guide-rail connections. They can be deceptively Continued

Hot-rolled JORDAHL channel profiles welded to secondary steel provide secure positional adjustment for door-frame and guide-rail bracket connections.

simple in concept and perceived convenience. However, this method has some safety issues and practical problems. In addition to possible damage to concrete and structural reinforcement, drilling produces noise and dust, which research has shown to result in health safety risks. Exposure to silica dust and high noise levels associated with drilling are now well understood to be health risks in the industry, particularly in confined spaces, such as elevator shafts. A concrete worker installs hot-rolled anchor channels to the concrete formwork by nailing them in position. After removing the concrete formwork, the foam filler is removed prior to installing brackets and installing twist-in T-bolts to any position in the anchor channel. Hot-rolled JORDAHL anchor channels cast into the concrete shaft provide secure head and sill connections for door gears.

Less well publicized in the U.S. are the health risks to installation teams associated with prolonged exposure to vibrating hand tools, such as hammer drills. Hand/arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) or “white finger” is a progressively debilitating condition that can affect long-term users of power tools. Based on an increasing body of research over recent years, HAVS has already been the subject of legislation in Europe, establishing daily limits on construction workers’ exposure to power-tool vibration. In the U.S., there is no legislation yet. However, research on HAVS is internationally recognized, and safety recommendations from some North American agencies are starting to provide guidance on this issue that generally follows the European position. Onsite welding to steel components or steel plates embedded in the concrete walls of the elevator shaft also has to be closely monitored for safety. Welding fumes, very high heat, sparks, intense ultraviolet light and the possibility of electrocution are all health and safety concerns. Over time, accidents are likely with welding processes, unless they are in a controlled factory environment. By contrast, cast-in channel anchoring systems are easy for installation crews to manage from a health and safety perspective. Connections are made to channels previously cast into the concrete using twist-in T-bolts, with nuts that can be tightened with a simple wrench. No power tools are needed. No drilling or welding is required, so risks to the health and safety of installers are much reduced. Current applicable design codes for cast-in anchor channel connections are the 2012, 2009, and 2006 International Building Code® (IBC); the 2012, 2009 and 2006 International Residential Code® (IRC): American Concrete Institute International (ACI) 318 Appendix D; and the newly developed ICC-ES Acceptance Criteria for Anchor Channels in Concrete Elements (AC232).


ELEVATOR WORLD India • 4th Quarter 2014 •

T-bolts are tightened with a wrench or torque wrench.

The first cast-in anchor channel product evaluation report in North America was issued for JORDAHL® anchor channels in 2013 based on AC232, and the IBC, IRC and ACI codes by the International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials (IAPMO) organization (IAPMO Uniform ES Report #0293). Further product evaluation criteria for anchor channels are being developed by the ICC and are expected to be completed in the near future.  Chris Gage is a connection-technology veteran with 34 years of experience in cast-in anchoring technology. He has worked with elevator design professionals in North America, Europe and Asia. In addition to previous technical articles for ELEVATOR WORLD and EW India, he has also presented technical papers to the International Association of Elevator Engineers and at the International Elevator and Escalator Expo. He is currently Market Development Manager for JORDAHL and can be reached at chris.gage@ JORDAHL’s website is



Elevator Emergency Operations Recommended safety features and how to make an elevator fully compliant with the codes in effect are discussed.

by Samson Babu Passenger elevators play the most important role in vertical transportation within most buildings. The design and operational features of an elevator require thorough review for predicting the emergency conditions a passenger could face while traveling in an elevator and suitable methods to manage such emergency conditions. Various emergency operational features have been developed over the years to keep the passenger fully informed and assured of complete safety, and to rescue entrapped passengers. These features have been developed through user experience, and the development

of elevator safety codes, international building codes and life safety codes. This article discusses various emergency operational features recommended on modern elevators. It aims to apprise architects, engineers and owners of the importance of incorporating and procuring a fully compliant elevator and ensuring the safety of elevator users.

Essential Services in Emergency Conditions Any emergency condition would require the continued availability of a safe environment and effective communication means until the condition is resolved. For entrapped passengers, the provision of sufficient lighting, ventilation and communication means are very essential.

Emergency Power Supply Depending on its occupancy type, a building could be provided with various types of lowContinued

All centralized monitoring and communication systems require a protected power supply. These images show elevator supervisory systems that require an emergency power supply.


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voltage power-supply systems, such as “normal,” “essential” or “emergency (life safety)” power. In normal power, virtually all building services are connected to the city power supply. In the case of a citywide power failure, the systems that must function to retain the normal operation of the building should be provided with essential power, which is usually supplied by the generator. In emergency conditions (such as fire, earthquake and other evacuation scenarios), systems that must remain operational to carry out rescue operations are provided with emergency power, which is supplied from the generator but with multiple redundancy to protect the power-supply branch. Only a few preselected elevators (often, one from each group) are classified as essential systems, while firefighters’ and evacuation elevators must be pre-identified and provided with emergency power to successfully manage emergency scenarios. Centralized monitoring systems, communication systems, air-conditioning, pressurization, ventilation and lighting systems related to firefighters’ and evacuation elevators must also be connected to an emergency power supply so essential status information, control features and communication features will be available even in emergency conditions.

Local modification to factory-supplied lighting is not recommended.

In-Car Lighting Emergency lighting must be adequate for passengers to identify the car-operating panel and the intercom/alarm buttons. Emergency lighting is usually supported by a rechargeable battery. However, battery-level/charging-status monitoring is not often employed. In ideal cases, a battery-level warning indication/beep should be provided, and the starting of the traction machine must be prevented in case the battery charge level is lower than the minimum required. The same concept is adopted by a few manufacturers in the “brake release mechanism” of machine-room-less elevators. The mechanism is supported by a battery bank, and the battery charge level is monitored. Further elevator operation is prevented by the safety circuit in case the battery charge level falls below the minimum recommended. Alternatively, an “emergency light test” button could be provided in the control cabinet. This button enables quick verification of the proper functioning of an


ELEVATOR WORLD India • 4th Quarter 2014 •

emergency light. It disconnects main car lighting and connects emergency lighting at the press of a button. Modern elevator car decorations employ innovative car lighting. Architects prefer to have emergency lighting as part of main car lighting (instead of a separate emergency light bulb). The interior decoration takes priority, and, in the process, the factory-supplied emergency lighting is modified locally by installers using nonstandard components and circuitry. Reliability of such local solutions is questionable, and errors are not identified until a real breakdown happens.

In-Car Features for the Disabled While under emergency lighting, improved visibility and communication features are required for trapped passengers with disabilities. Complying to accessibility standards will help in meeting the requirements of the disabled. For example, push buttons with Braille and other tactile markings will help the visually challenged to identify the intercom/alarm buttons. A button with a response beep will assure the user of registering a call. Similarly, providing an induction-loop system will help deliver emergency messages to users with hearing difficulties. “Call-inprogress” and “speak now” indicators help the disabled effectively communicate with the external rescue service. Alarm button and microphone/speaker locations are critical. These must match the requirements of users in wheelchairs, in order to have a clear conversation. Alarm indication [When illuminated]

Emergency alarm Emergency alarm/call transmission mark registration mark (l-r) “Call-in-progress” and “Speak now” indicator illumination

Push buttons with tactile and Braille markings

In-Car Ventilation Car fans typically do not work when an elevator is in a powerfailure condition. This may make some trapped passengers have difficulty breathing. Natural ventilation slots are provided at the top and bottom levels of an elevator car to aid in air circulation. Continued

However, such ventilation slots are often blocked when elevator cars are covered with decoration panels. This could make air circulation impossible. Care should be taken not to block such ventilation slots on the elevator car shell.

Passenger Entrapment and Rescue Operations Even though modern elevator systems have become more reliable, passenger entrapment is one major emergency condition in which foolproof systems are necessary. Effective communication equipment is required to talk to the person(s) trapped inside the car, advise them of the rescue work in progress and instruct them during the rescue process.

Ventilation slots at the bottom level of an elevator car

In-Car Communication Systems Reliable communication systems are essential to raise an alarm, identify the location of an emergency and communicate emergency requirements clearly to an external rescue service. Intercom systems with battery-power backup must be provided with relevant audio/visual indicators to communicate the requirements clearly. On large projects with many elevators, each elevator car must be labeled clearly to correctly guide the emergency-service provider. A centralized emergency command center should be provided on large projects. All the elevator cars must be positively linked to the command center, and proper audio/visual alarm signals must be provided. Labeling each elevator is mandatory in order to identify an incoming call. Such centralized intercom systems are sometimes part of an elevator supervisory panel (watch board), which functions with a single-phase power supply point. Such systems must be pre-identified and connected to the emergency (life safety) power-supply circuit. In-car visual communication screens/indicators can also be employed to display emergency messages. If this is the case, it is especially important the messages are in local languages. Including an induction-loop system will help the hearing impaired to converse clearly with the external rescue service. Where a dedicated, 24/7 emergency management center is managed by the elevator manufacturer at the project’s location, an auto dialer should be installed to dial preprogrammed external service-station numbers. Auto dialers should be self monitoring to ensure proper operation at all times.

While decorating the elevator cars, care should be taken not to block the escape hatch, but to have an easily operable hatch on the suspended ceiling, too. 68

ELEVATOR WORLD India • 4th Quarter 2014 •

Centralized intercoms must be labeled for clear identification of the calling elevator.

A large supervisory panel with a centralized intercom system

When City Power Is Available Passenger entrapment can occur in both conditions: with normal power available or during the failure of normal power. The former could be due to an equipment malfunction, a defective safety circuit, etc. Elevator machines are generally provided with a “hand winding wheel/arm” for manual rescue. Hand winding shall be employed on smaller elevators with gear reduction systems. However, on large elevators, without gear reduction, the effort to turn and control the hand wheel is quite high, making it necessary to use electrical emergency operation means, located within the machine room. Continued

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Usually, a “hand winding wheel/arm” is removable. The wheel/ arm is located within the machine rooms, and it is installed on the machine only when required. Here, an electric safety device must be provided to disconnect elevator power during installation of the wheel/arm on the machine.

employed to temporarily provide generator power to every elevator for rescue purposes. This is done in a pre-determined sequence, one elevator after the other. While automatic generator power-transfer operation may work with smaller elevator groups, it will cause considerable concern with larger elevator groups. For example, consider a large, eightelevator group. If the generator power is to be transferred to eight elevators one after the other, the passengers trapped in the eighth elevator would have to wait for an extended time and will go through more trauma than the passengers trapped in the first elevator. Such operations and the time taken for rescue should be reviewed in detail. Accordingly, automatic rescue devices must be employed as the first choice.

Entrapment Due to Unmovable Car

Visual indicators being used to display emergency messages.

During City Power Failure

When the elevator car overspeed safety gear has been activated, the car becomes jammed on the guide rails, and it is no longer movable. Similarly, the drive sheave could become jammed due to a mechanical failure, after which the car is not movable. Under the circumstances, external rescue is carried out through the Continued

When city power fails, elevators are immediately stopped using the motor brakes, and the passengers are (at least initially) trapped inside the car. Many modern elevator systems employ “automatic rescue devices,” which supply battery power to open the brake and move the car to the closest landing.

A removable hand-winding arm with brake release lever

The battery charge level of the automatic rescue device should be monitored to ensure proper operation when needed. In case the battery charge level is below the minimum recommended, further elevator operation should be prevented by the electrical design. To verify the capacity of the automatic rescue device, it is recommended to move large-capacity elevator cars on battery power over long distances. Particularly in express elevator shafts, emergency-rescue openings are provided every 11 m, but their occurrence sometimes exceeds this distance. In such cases, the battery bank of the automatic rescue device should be sufficient to move the cars across these distances. Some elevator installations utilize “essential power” supplied from the generator to carry out automatic rescue. On large projects with many elevators, it is not possible to accommodate all the elevators within the generator power supply. Due to generator capacity limitations, it is usual that only a few elevators, at maximum, in any given building are designed to run under generator power. However, as opposed to “automatic rescue devices,” automatic generator power-transfer operation is


ELEVATOR WORLD India • 4th Quarter 2014 •

The emergency power-transfer operation switch on an elevator supervisory panel

Escape hatch on an elevator car roof permanently blocked by the car’s suspended ceiling

It is preferable for manufacturers to supply a standard landing door with a proven door-locking mechanism, rather than fabricating a custom-designed access door and its door safety lock. emergency escape hatch on the car roof. Even though the EN 81-1 code does not clearly state that an escape hatch is mandatory on passenger elevators, the possibility for a car to become stuck between two landings is possible, making an escape hatch necessary. Without an escape hatch, the elevator shell would have to be forcibly breached to gain access to the trapped passengers. EN 81-1 recommends a minimum size of 500 X 350 mm. It is, however, mandatory to provide an escape hatch if the elevator has been designated as a firefighters’ elevator. The required hatch is larger in size (500 X 700 mm) unless the car’s capacity does not exceed 630 kg, in which case a smaller 400- X 500-mm hatch is allowed. Even if an escape hatch is provided by the elevator manufacturer, the interior decoration of the car and the suspended ceiling may permanently obstruct the hatch, rendering it unusable. While decorating the elevator cars, care should be taken not to block the escape hatch, but to have an easily operable hatch on the suspended ceiling, too. For express elevators with nonstop zones, emergency doors must be provided every 11 m. Such openings should be properly interlocked with the elevator safety circuit to prevent elevator operation in case an emergency-access door is opened. Ideally, these specifications are the same for elevator landing doors. It is preferable for manufacturers to supply a

standard landing door with a proven door-locking mechanism, rather than fabricating a custom-designed access door and its door safety lock. Alternatively, car-to-car rescue can be employed, provided there is an adjacent car available within a maximum horizontal distance of 750 mm. However, there is a possibility that there are separator (divider) beams between the two cars in rescue position. The rescuer and the person(s) being rescued may be required to cross/climb over the beams and rails in the way. This is a risky condition and must be handled appropriately by the rescue team.

Firefighters’ Emergency Operation As a standard of the Firefighters’ Emergency Operation procedure, all the elevators are provided with Phase 1 recall (i.e., to recall all the elevators to the main exit floor) in the case of smoke-detector activation from the elevator lobby, hoistway and machine room. The elevators are then parked at the exit floor to prevent further usage by the public. On each building project, designated firefighters’ elevators (Phase 2) are identified and connected to protected emergency power-supply systems and centralmonitoring systems at the fire command center. It must be noted here that the life safety code NFPA 101 requires that all new elevators be provided with firefighters’

Typical arrangement of a Phase 2 Firefighters’ Emergency Operation unit

emergency operation (Phase 2) requirements. Firefighters’ elevators are then utilized by the emergency personnel in Firefighters’ Operation Phase 2. Firefighters’ elevators should be connected to protected emergency power-supply systems and central monitoring systems at the fire command center. The NFPA 5000 Building Construction and Safety Code requires that all high-rise buildings have a fire command center wherein the essential status of elevators is monitored, along with the Phase 1 recall switches and emergency power-transfer operation switches. Firefighters’ elevators should be well protected against water to keep them in working condition for an extended period during a firefighting operation. Water discharged through firefighting hoses and sprinkler systems could enter the firefighters’ elevator’s shaft through the landing-door openings. It is recommended to raise the door thresholds with a slope and introduce large floor drains to remove the excess water. For the firefighters’ elevators, it is recommended to waterproof (IPX3 protection at a minimum) electrical components within a 1-m distance from landing doors. All pit electrical equipment within 1 m of the pit floor should be provided with IP67 protection. Suitable water-level sensors must be installed in the elevator pits to ensure the water level in the pit does not rise more than the level of a compressed buffer.

Emergency Power Transfer Operation Due to limitations in generator power, only a preselected elevator(s) is provided with generator power. In such cases, the International Building Code requires this power be transferable to any other elevator(s) within the same group. This helps improve redundancy. In case the preselected elevator(s) is unable to run due to a malfunction, the available emergency power is transferred to another elevator(s) within the same group so the rescue/ firefighting operation can still be carried out. The design of low-voltage electrical distribution systems must accommodate the emergency power transfer operation Continued


ELEVATOR WORLD India • 4th Quarter 2014 •

A typical fire command center

and include such suitable electrical hardware as automatic transfer switches. The elevator controllers will also require identification signals to differentiate between normal and emergency power supply.

Earthquake/Seismic Emergency Operation Buildings in seismically active regions must be provided with seismic detection systems and, if desired, primary (P-) wave detection systems. Seismic detection systems should be placed in the lowest position of the elevator shaft (i.e., the pit floor). These systems detect the ground acceleration (tremors) of an earthquake. The system interfaces with the elevator controllers. Upon activation beyond the preset trigger value, the elevator, if it is at a landing, is removed from service until the seismic activation is reset. If the elevator is in motion, its speed is stopped, and it is moved slowly to the nearest landing, avoiding moving toward the counterweight. Seismic acceleration due to an earthquake can also disturb the main power supply. Elevators must be provided

Floor drains in an elevator lobby

A typical counterweight derailment switch

with automatic rescue devices to avoid passengers’ entrapment within the car. Seismic detection systems should be provided with enough standby battery power supply for 24 hours of operation. The system should be self monitoring, and its interface with the elevator controller must be verified every 24 hours. It is recommended to install displacement switches on counterweights. These are activated in case the counterweight is dislodged from its position between the guide rails. If an elevator moves when the counterweight has come out of the guide rails, it could come into contact with the car. A loosehanging counterweight could also damage other shaft equipment, ropes and cables. When activated, the displacement switch prevents normal operation of the elevator.

P-Wave Sensor Operation P-waves travel faster and are less destructive than secondary (S-) waves. P-waves are detected by the seismic sensors. S-waves travel slower but cause greater destruction. Detecting P-waves could aid in safely offloading elevator passengers and parking the elevators until the destructive secondary waves pass

through the building’s location. Seismic sensors detect extremely small accelerations due to the P-waves. Both the seismic detection switches and the seismic sensors could be integrated with the elevator supervisory panel at the fire command center to provide relevant alarm.

High-rise towers more than 200 m and slender towers more than 150 m tall may require building-sway emergency operation. Building-Sway Emergency Operation High-rise towers more than 200 m and slender towers more than 150 m tall may require building-sway emergency operation. Depending on the location of the building, the built mass of the tower and the elasticity of the structure, a high-rise tower may move under high wind conditions. Long-lasting earthquakes can also cause such buildings to vibrate laterally, causing them to sway. Such movement sets the tower in oscillation on its own frequency. Elevator equipment on such towers (especially compensating ropes, governor ropes and main suspension ropes) face the risk of oscillating (excitation under resonance) with the building. When the frequency of the tower’s movement resonates with the frequency of the ropes and cables, the amplitude of the oscillation grows and could build to dangerous levels. High amplitude of oscillations could cause the

A Seismic Switch, Inc. ground motion detector Continued


ELEVATOR WORLD India • 4th Quarter 2014 •

rope and cables to slam against other shaft equipment and become entangled. During the design stage, a building’s sway properties should be identified and simulated, along with the elevator equipment’s sway properties. Zones that cause resonance are to be identified and marked as risky. Ideal parking positions for the elevator (that do not cause resonance) are identified.

Elevators must be provided with many emergency-operation features to ensure the complete safety of passengers. Structures that require building-sway emergency operation must be provided with appropriate sensors, such as those for wind speed and building sway to detect a tower’s movement beyond the preset threshold value. When a building-sway detector is triggered, depending on the severity, an elevator’s operational speed is reduced, and/or calls to risky zones are not accepted, and/or the elevator is moved to the safe zone and parked, out of service, until the building-sway trigger is cleared.

Illustration of building and rope sway

A sample compensation rope motion graph (x-axis = lateral; y-axis = vertical)

Conclusion Elevators must be provided with many emergency-operation features to ensure the complete safety of passengers. They must also be provided with emergency features that reduce and/or prevent damage to the installation itself. Architects and engineers, with the help of a specialized elevator consultant, should carefully evaluate project requirements and identify the implications and consequences of deleting any emergency operation. Requirements must be clearly identified early in the planning stage, and negotiations must be made between the architects, engineers and project owners to include the maximum amount of safety and emergency operations to safeguard users and the elevator installation from the dangers that can be presented in emergency scenarios. Samson Babu is technical director at VTME Vertical Transportation Systems Consultants in Dubai. He is a mechanical engineer specializing in vertical-transportation systems and façadeaccess equipment. Following his graduation from Anna University in Chennai, India, in 1994, he worked on many projects in the Indian and Persian Gulf markets. Babu is currently involved in the construction of several high-rise towers and hotel projects in the Persian Gulf. He can be contacted at email:


ELEVATOR WORLD India • 4th Quarter 2014 •

Company Spotlight

Japanese Quality Made in India Fujitec India keeps close eye on the Indian market as it lays the groundwork for growth.

by Sreekumar Nambiar Japan is one of the largest sources of foreign direct investment in India, and Fujitec India Pvt. Ltd. is a prime example of that investment being used in India for the Indian market. For the longest time, India was seen as dependent upon imports for technology. Over the past few decades, however, this perception has changed. Many strong global brands have set up shop in India, recognizing its vast market, advanced technical resources and business-friendly environment. Fujitec India, which commenced production of elevators and related components in 2010 at Mahindra World City, near Chennai, is one such example. Founded in Osaka, Japan, in 1948, Fujitec Co. Ltd. has operational headquarters in the Americas, Japan, South Asia, East Asia and

Company headquarters


ELEVATOR WORLD India • 4th Quarter 2014 •

Europe. With a network of 11 high-tech manufacturing facilities, including the latest in India and several sales/service offices, the company states its focus is on safety, innovation and quality. Fujitec’s worldwide organization includes four R&D/engineering centers in Japan, Singapore, China and the U.S. In Japan, Fujitec’s flagship “Big Wing” facility houses a 560-ft.-tall research tower – among the tallest of its kind in the world. The facility is focused on developing cutting-edge technology and integrating all phases of product development, design and manufacturing. Here, Fujitec’s trademark high-speed elevators undergo rigorous testing prior to installation.


framework as Fujitec’s global production facilities and provides global equipment standards for elevators serving the Indian market. Completed several years ago, phase I of the factory includes of a corporate office, a production area, an engineering center, a showroom and a training center, and is equipped with the latest technology to produce up to 3,000 units per annum. The Fujitec Training Center, boasts the latest classroom facilities and training towers, and is designed to produce qualified installers and service personnel. “In keeping with the global philosophy of Fujitec, we are totally focused on manufacturing quality products that are supported by world-class service quality, here in India, as well,” states M.K. Panicker, managing director of Fujitec India. Fujitec India obtained ISO: 9001-2008 certification in 2012. The company’s maintenance and service department, with centers in all operating areas in India, carries out preventive maintenance using technicians and engineers trained in Japan. It also has engineers from Fujitec Japan, who are stationed in India. The regional headquarters in Singapore maintains the central stores for South Asian service operations, stocking spare parts valued at up to US$3 million and servicing more than 25,000 units. A central store for India in Chennai maintains spare parts for Indian operational requirements, while satellite stores in regional operating areas in India help meet service demands.

Fujitec escalators installed at Fujitec Training Centre.

Fujitec India technicians undergo training at Fujitec Training Centre factory.

Fujitec also has 10 manufacturing facilities. Its R&D facility in China is located in the Song Jiang Industrial Zone in Shanghai and has approximately 1.6 million sq. ft. This space is utilized for parts and components procurement. The facility receives imported components for Fujitec India’s high-end product, KYUTO e.

The Indian Arm In 2004, Fujitec launched its Indian operations, a wholly owned subsidiary of its business in Japan. The first operations, including marketing, installation, testing

and equipment commissioning, started in Mumbai. At that point, the product line consisted of elevators, escalators and moving walks. To cater to an expanding market, operation has grown to branch operations at Chennai and Pune (2004), Bangalore (2007), Coimbatore (2009), Hyderabad (2010), Cochin and Mangalore (2011), and, most recently, the National Capital Region (NCR) (2013). In 2010, Fujitec India launched its production facility at Mahindra World City, near Chennai. The factory, built on 39,100 m2, is designed on the same

Global Brand, Local Products Fujitec maintains a strong focus on local market requirements. After many months of research, the company launched KYUTO, its flagship product for India. KYUTO’s extended range filled a void in the market, since there were very few companies manufacturing units in the 2-3 mps speed range typically used in high-end commercial projects and luxury hotels in India. A few years ago, customers who identified this new technology as a requirement for their high-end projects had to select an overseas manufacturer. When Fujitec launched the KYUTO e, this Continued


ELEVATOR WORLD India • 4th Quarter 2014 •

Vivanta by Taj, Amritsar

Fairfield by Marriott, Belgaum

Hotel Radisson, Faridabad

Sheraton Hotel, Bangalore

Hotel Holiday Inn, Chennai

TOSHIBA JOHNSON ELEVATORS [INDIA] PVT. LTD. Head Office: 602, 6th floor, C & B Square, Sangam Complex, 127, Andheri Kurla Road, Andheri [East], Mumbai-400 059. Tel: +91-22-6191 1600 / 1601, Fax: +91-22-6191 1649 MUMBAI I CHENNAI I NEW DELHI I GURGAON I BANGALORE I HYDERABAD I AHMEDABAD I KOLKATA I JAIPUR Website:

The shop floor of the Fujitec factory in Mahindra World City is taken up by KYUTO e elevator components, which are manufactured quickly to keep pace with increasing demand. segment of the market had the convenience of dealing with a Japanese company based in India. Today, KYUTO and KYUTO e are being installed in many high-end residential projects around the country for such builders as Ascendas, Prestige, DLF, Tata, Pancshil, Mahindras, Unitech, RMZ, Mantri, Salarpuria, Hiranandani and Rahejac. Fujitec has also taken a substantial share of the hotel business with installations in major chains, including Marriott, Four Seasons, Le Meridien and Hyatt. The shop floor of the Fujitec factory in Mahindra World City is taken up by KYUTO e elevator components, which are manufactured quickly to keep pace with increasing demand. In the high-speed segment, Fujitec is supplying elevators of 6 mp to Kingfisher Towers Bangalore, which, when installed, will be the fastest elevators outside of the Mumbai market. Although Fujitec is relatively new to the Indian market, its management consists of industry veterans led by M.K. Panicker,

In India, Fujitec is supplying the fastest elevators outside of the Mumbai Market for Kingfisher Towers Bangalore, where a 6-mps unit will be installed. who has nearly 40 years of industry experience and is ably supported by Chief Operating Officer Shakir Ahmed, who is in charge of the organization’s operations. Fujitec is rapidly expanding its base in India. Its latest branch opened in the NCR in 2013, and the company has aggressive plans to expand to the rest of the country over the next few years. Sreekumar Nambiar is head of Sales and Marketing for Fujitec India and part of the company’s senior management team. With more than 18 years of sales and marketing experience, he has held key management positions with Atlas Copco, Otis and Fujitec.


ELEVATOR WORLD India • 4th Quarter 2014 •



Paris 2014 Novotel Paris Tour Eiffel Hotel hosts well-organized elevator-industry technical conference in its 20th year. by Robert S. Caporale, MSc The nearly continuous rainfall that occurred during the week of July 7 in the beautiful city of Paris did little to dampen the spirits of the 200 attendees of the 2014 Elevcon Congress. As it poured throughout most of the city, elevator-industry members from 26 nations trickled into the Novotel Paris Tour Eiffel Hotel during the weekend prior to the event, with most making arrangements to enjoy the sights, sounds and exquisite cuisine of the worldrenowned, elegant fashion capital of the world. Situated on the left bank of the Seine River that winds its way through the heart of Paris and within walking distance of the Eiffel Tower and its historic Otis elevators, the Novotel was the perfect place to hold the elevator industry’s premier technical conference. Registration for the event and exhibit booth setup commenced on Monday, and the three-day conference got underway the following morning.


ELEVATOR WORLD India • 4th Quarter 2014 •

Left: The head table with (l-r) local government official Mr. Laloux, Rick Pulling, Ami Lustig, John Inglis and Bertrand Rotagnon Bottom: Theater-style seating in the conference hall provided each attendee with visibility in the well-equipped room.

The conference was masterfully organized by Joseph Stier and his son, Gil. The program was arranged, coordinated and kept on track by International Association of Elevator Engineers (IAEE) Conference Chairman Ami Lustig. The hotel facilities were second to none, and the conference hall was the best your author has seen during his 20 years of covering elevator-industry events. Readers will see in the accompanying photos that the theater-style seating gave all attendees terrific visibility of the presentations from any location in the room. The event got off to a prompt start with a welcoming presentation by IAEE President John Inglis. He pointed out that the structure and elevators of the Eiffel Tower, a world-renowned icon for the elevator industry, were among the significant technical innovations of the 19th century. In keeping with this theme, Inglis emphasized that Elevcon provides the opportunity for attendees to learn about and gain confidence in elevator-industry innovations.

He also emphasized that these events offer excellent opportunities to meet with the premier elevator-industry experts to learn how to maintain the level of safety for which the industry has become known, and to consider how to deal with challenges. Lustig also welcomed attendees and presented a brief rundown of the conference schedule, while offering his view of the current state of the industry. Lustig indicated that modular construction of buildings was on the rise in many areas of the world, and its effect on the elevator industry is going to be huge. Citing major high-rise buildings in Asia and North America being built in this manner, Lustig stated this method of construction is extremely cost effective and the elevator industry must be prepared to embrace this innovative method of construction by providing conveying systems that can be readily coordinated with and installed in such buildings. Lustig closed his presentation by providing recognition and gratitude to event sponsor Otis for its support and invitation to Continued

â&#x20AC;˘ Issue 4, Volume 7 â&#x20AC;˘



hold the event in Paris. With that, the conference speakers were introduced, and Elevcon got underway. Otis’ Rick Pulling provided a rundown on the Eqho Tower elevator modernization in the wellknown La Défense business district of Paris. After providing the building’s elevator specifications, he played a video of the hoisting of four new gearless machines to the top of the building by helicopter in record time. This certainly whetted the appetites of the attendees and gave them all the more reason to look forward to the upcoming field trip (see sidebar p. 89) with eager anticipation. Pulling indicated that when construction of the Eiffel Tower was originally announced, most Parisians thought it had “no chance” of ever being completed. He compared this to similar sentiments expressed by some people in the elevator industry when the first Elevcon was proposed and pointed out that, like the Eiffel Tower, “We are here today at the 20th ‘no chance’ Elevcon conference.” This was a fitting tribute to the event’s organizers and participants. The next speaker was Dr. Lee Gray of the University of North Carolina. An elevator-industry historian and researcher, Gray presented the history of the Elevcon events and provided an interesting statistical analysis of the makeup of the conference attendees throughout the years. (See the following article, “Elevcon 1986-2012”.) Following Gray’s presentation, the technical sessions got underway, using what has become the typical Elevcon format of presentations and panel discussions (see sidebar on p. 87). Papers presented were among the best Elevcon’s Continued


ELEVATOR WORLD India • 4th Quarter 2014 •


Papers Presented ♦♦ “Elevcon 1986-2012” by Dr. Lee Gray ♦♦ “Super High Rise Propulsion Technology” by Z.J. Piech ♦♦ “The Articulated Funiculator” by Fritz King, Lars Hesselgren, Peter Severin, Patrik Sveder, David Tonegran and Sirpa Salovaara ♦♦ “Adjustable Double Deck – The Efficient Traffic Solution” by Elena Cortona and Frankie Schmid ♦♦ “Sharing Elevator Capacity: Exploring the Unused Potential of Stacked Mixed-Use High-Rise Buildings” by Jochem Wit ♦♦ “A Quasi-Dynamic Model for Energy Consumption Analysis in Lifts” by Ivan Echeverría, Fernando Arteche, Mateo Iglesias, Alfredo Gómez, José Alberto Roig and Pedro González ♦♦ “Determination of Loads Acting on Guide Rail Fixing Under Certain Loading Condition” by Sühan Atay, Eren Kayaoğlu, Adem Candaş, C. Erdem İmrak, Sefa Targıt and Yusuf Z. Kocabal ♦♦ “Early Application of Underground Funicular ‘Tunnel’ in Istanbul” by Kayaoğlu, Candaş, Kocabal and İmrak ♦♦ “Effect of 2011 Van Earthquake on the Elevators” by İmrak and Ferhat Çelik ♦♦ “Elevator Industry – Asian Involvement” by K. Rajah Venkatraman ♦♦ “Evolution of Elevator Doors for EN 81-20/50 Compliance” by Valentina Pinelli and Thomas Lernet ♦♦ “Transforming the Lift Space from a Square Box to an Exciting Environment” by Lazaros Asvestopoulos, Andreas Zapatinas, Triantafyllos Fournaris and Christina Kotikosta ♦♦ “Use of Elevators During Emergencies” by David McColl ♦♦ “Elevators for Fire Service Access and Occupant Evacuation” by John Antona ♦♦ “Comparison of Concepts for Evacuation Lifts” by Ashiqur Rahman and Wim Offerhaus ♦♦ “Proper Qualifying of Elevator Brakes” by Johann Eberle ♦♦ “The New Standard EN 81-77 – Lifts Subject to Seismic Conditions” by Paolo Tattoli ♦♦ “The Global Relevance of Performance Based Codes” by Louis Bialy ♦♦ “Impact of EN 81-20 and EN 81-50 Standards” by Esfandiar Gharibaan ♦♦ “An Evolution of Elevator Passenger Grouping” by Theresa M. Christy

♦♦ “The Use of Numerical Methods to Evaluate the Performance of Up Peak Group Control Algorithms” by Lutfi Al-Sharif, Mohamed Hussein, Moh’d Malak and Daoud Tuffaha ♦♦ “Elevator Dispatching” by Richard D. Peters ♦♦ “Simulation, Validation and Analysis of the Energy Consumption of Elevators” by Ingo Pletschen, Stephan Rohr and Ralph Kennel ♦♦ “An Effective Energy-Saving Elevator” by Kazuhiko Takasaki, Ryo Ootsubo, Junji Takeda and Shuichi Nojima ♦♦ “Energy Storage and Recovery System for Lift” by Sebastiano Acquaviva ♦♦ “Rigid Chain Technology for Elevators” by Said Lounis, Iain Forbester, Bill Koons and Eric Michaut ♦♦ “Door Technology for High Rise Applications” by Giuseppe De Francesco ♦♦ “System Analysis and Architecture Methodologies to Drive Innovative Electrical Systems” by Daryl J. Marvin, Dang V. Nguyen, Peter Herkel and Dirk H. Tegtmeier ♦♦ “Modular Systems Replace Welded Support Structures” by Michael Merz ♦♦ “Up-Peak Roundtrip Time in Theoretical Calculation, Traffic Simulation and Reality” by Janne Sorsa and Marja-Liisa Siikonen ♦♦ “Analytical, Numerical and Simulation: Six Methods for Evaluating the Elevator Round Trip Time” by Al-Sharif, Ahmad M. Abu Alqumsan and Ahmad T. Hammoudeh ♦♦ “Analysis of Possible Two Dimensional Elevator Traffic Systems in Large Buildings” by Dr. Albert So, Al-Sharif and Hammoudeh ♦♦ “Group Management Control that Improves Transport Capability and Enhances Energy Efficiency” by Tomoaki Maehara, Takahiro Hatori, Akiyuki Tsuboi, Takehisa Nishida, Keiichi Aida and Toshifumi Yoshikawa ♦♦ “Service Lifts in Wind Turbines: ‘Which Safety Rules are Applicable?’” by Carl van den Einden ♦♦ “HERIOS: Remote Monitoring and Control Systems for Elevators” by Tooru Katou, Ryouichi Sakai and Yasuyuki Nanba ♦♦ “Risk Potential of Safety Gears – Inspections with Test Weights Show a Lack of Clearness!” by Tim Ebeling ♦♦ “Advantages of Implementing M2M and Cloud Services in Retrofitted Elevators” by Guy Gotlieb ♦♦ “Usage of Voice Recognition inside an Elevator and Its Benefits” by Eleftherios Parageorgiou, Nikolaos Stratigakis and Lazaros Asvestopoulos

• Issue 4, Volume 7 •




Opening Reception

Seventeen exhibition stands were present throughout the entire event.

20-year history has seen. Presented papers are included in their entirety in Elevator Technology 20, Proceedings of Elevcon 2014, edited by Lustig, available at and www.

Opening Reception In recognition of the 20th anniversary of Elevcon, sponsor Otis provided an Opening Reception that allowed time for attendees to mingle and get better acquainted with each other, while enjoying good food and beverages in a relaxed atmosphere.

Poster Sessions To better accommodate the large number of papers submitted for presentation, provisions were made for some papers to be


ELEVATOR WORLD India â&#x20AC;˘ 4th Quarter 2014 â&#x20AC;˘

presented by their authors during Poster Sessions. As shown in the accompanying photos, a number of these sessions ran simultaneously with conference coffee and lunch breaks.

Conclusion As Elevcon drew to a close and the eventâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s attendees, sponsors and organizers were recognized for making it a success this year, it was announced that during the IAEE General Assembly meeting, Lustig had been elected President of IAEE, and Inglis had been appointed to the position of president emeritus of IAEE. With that, safe travels were wished to all, and Elevcon 2014 was brought to a close. The next Elevcon will be held in 2016 in Spain and sponsored by ThyssenKrupp Elevator. â&#x20AC;&#x201A; đ&#x;&#x152;?

Photo courtesy of

Visit to the by Jean de Fontenay

Eqho Tower

The Eqho Tower (formerly the Descartes Tower) was built in 1988. The edifice takes the form of a parallelepiped extruded on the medium half cylinder. It includes 41 levels and rises 140 m to contain 89,000 m2 of offices, in addition to its 1,200 parking spaces. Its vertical-transportation solution (Otis Elevonic elevators manufactured by Otis France and 2-hr. fireproof doors) is organized around three elevator groups placed on either side of the building’s half-cylinder structure. The curve of the half cylinder’s hollow façade illuminates the horizontal walkways connecting the lift groups. The tower housed the offices of IBM Europe until November 2009. In 2011, real-estate company ICADE, a subsidiary of the French Public Caisse des Dépôts, invested in the complete restructuring of Eqho Tower with architects B. Hubert and M. Roy. Elevator modernization consulting was performed by Lerch Bates France. This included a renewal of the building’s façade and was completed at the end of 2013. In it, Otis France replaced all machine-room and hoistway equipment, in addition to all elevators’ 2-hr. fireproof doors. The company also installed its Compass destination-control system on all passenger elevators and supplied two scenic elevators in the atrium. Otis cleaned out the residual asbestos in the elevator hoistways, and the old elevators and escalators were dismantled. In June 2014, KPMG signed a 12-year lease for the rental of 40,468 m² of offices.

Equipment included: ♦♦ Three passenger elevator banks (20 elevators with AC, variablefrequency [VF], regenerative drives with speeds of 1.6, 4 and 6 mps) ♦♦ Two service elevators with AC, VF and regenerative drives at 2000 kg capacity and 1.6 mps speed ♦♦ Two scenic elevators at 1275 kg capacity and 1.6 mps speed ♦♦ Three Otis Gen2® units and a dumbwaiter ♦♦ Supply and maintenance of five to seven jobsite elevators to transport workers and material As it was difficult (particularly in terms of personnel safety for all trades) to hoist the new elevator machines through halls, hoistways and corridors to the top-floor machine rooms, Otis France hoisted the 10 gearless machines for the high banks and the two service elevators onto the building’s roof terrace with a special Puma helicopter able to carry 6 mT. Special authorizations had to be obtained from EPAD (Etablissement Public de la Défense), the French Traffic Police and the French Air Traffic Regulation Direction. The hoisting operation was made in 40 min.

Jean de Fontenay is senior product manager at Otis Europe EHRD/Paris la Défense. He may be contacted at email:

Top: Following modernization, the building was renamed Eqho Tower and handed over with two environmental qualifications: French H.Q.E.(R) Renovation and Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Very Good. Its dynamic exterior transformation is seen here, (l-r) before and after. Top right: All machines were hoisted onto the roof terrace by helicopter. • Issue 4, Volume 7 •



Nice, France


Karlsruhe, Germany


Rome, Italy


Evolution of Elevcon

by Dr. Lee Gray

The constitution of the International Association of Elevator Engineers (IAEE) includes the following concise statements concerning its purpose and goals: “The rapid growth of the building industry and associated technologies demands parallel growth in the field of vertical transportation. Both the freight and passenger elevator industry need qualified engineers in the field whose knowledge keeps pace with technological and scientific developments. The IAEE will provide a forum for the exchange of information and experience vital for training and education. “The aims of IAEE are summarized as: 1) The definition and promotion of vertical transportation* engineering as a specialized profession 2) The promotion of international standards 3) The encouragement of higher professional standards throughout the industry 4) The promotion of scientific and technological expertise 5) The cooperation between members *The term vertical transportation includes escalators.”


ELEVATOR WORLD India • 4th Quarter 2014 •


Vienna, Austria

#6 #7

Barcelona, Spain

Hong Kong


Amsterdam, Netherlands

These principles have guided the paper and presentation selection, as well as the organization of all Elevcon meetings. Therefore, it is appropriate to utilize these principles as a critical filter or lens through which to view and assess the purpose, impact and importance of the 18 Elevcon meetings that occurred between 1986 and 2012.

A Forum for the Exchange of Information and Experience Elevcon 1, held In Nice, France, in February 1986, established a pattern for all subsequent meetings in its organization and content. This inaugural event included a diverse set of presentations delivered by an equally diverse set of speakers. The papers were published in a single volume following the meeting. (At all subsequent Elevcon meetings, the publication of the proceedings has coincided with the event, making papers readily available to meeting attendees). The meeting’s 34 papers were written by authors from 14 countries who represented 17 companies (elevator manufacturers and consulting firms), four universities, four governmental agencies and one magazine. While the goal of assembling an “international” collection of papers was partially achieved in the diversity of the authors’ nationalities, the meeting had a decidedly European bias – only three of the 14 countries were non European: Israel, Japan and the U.S. Each country was also not “equally” represented in the number of papers delivered; thus, their presence varied considerably (Table 1). Thus, while only three non-European countries were present, their representatives delivered approximately 30% (11 of 34) of the Number of Papers 1 1 1



Czechoslovakia Finland France

Technical University of Prague KONE Lift Group Ascinter Otis


Piraeus Graduate School of Industrial Studies


Israel Italy Japan Poland Sweden Switzerland Switzerland Netherlands U.K. U.K. U.K. U.K. U.K. U.K.

S. Lustig Consulting Engineers Elevatori/IGV Mitsubishi Electric Corp. University of Mining and Metallurgy Swedish Council for Building Research Beringer Hydraulik Schindler Management AG Tebodin Lift Design Partnership Lift Innovations Ltd. Rubicon Technical Services Health and Safety Executive Wessex Regional Health Authority University of Manchester

1 1 3 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 1 1 1 1


University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology


U.S. U.S. U.S. U.S. U.S. West Germany West Germany West Germany

BIW Cable Systems Lerch, Bates and Associates Inc. Siecor Corp. United States Elevator Corp. Principal Safety Engineer, California Orenstein and Koppel AG R. Stahl Switchgear Independent Consultant

1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1

Table 1: A breakdown of papers presented at Elevcon 1

Australia Austria Canada China Czech Republic Czechoslovakia East Germany Finland France Germany Greece Hong Kong

Hong Kong SAR Hungary India Israel Italy Japan Jordan Netherlands Poland Portugal Principality of Liechtenstein Russia

Singapore South Korea Spain Sweden Switzerland Netherlands Turkey U.K. U.S. West Germany

Table 2: Countries represented at Elevcon 1-Elevcon 19

meeting’s presentations. The involvement of individual authors also varied: V. Quentin Bates, Michael Godwin and Dr.-Ing. Joris Schroeder each delivered two papers. Finally, there were also five co-authored papers, two of which employed a pair of authors; one that employed a team of four authors; and two that employed teams of five authors. The latter two groups produced the papers delivered by Mitsubishi Electric Corp. Thus, although this was the only Asian company represented at the meeting, its efforts embraced a total of 12 engineers who comprised the three teams that produced the company’s papers. This detailed examination of Elevcon 1 illustrates the organizers’ attempt to assemble an international group of speakers and authors and their varying levels of success. Elevcon 2 (1986) followed a similar pattern – only four of the 13 countries that contributed speakers were non European: Australia, Israel, Japan and the U.S. Once again, Mitsubishi Electric was the only Asian participant. Elevcon 3 (1990) marked a distinct turning point in the IAEE’s effort to expand the event’s international scope – six of the 12 countries that contributed speakers were non European: Australia, Canada, Israel, Japan, Jordan and the U.S. Equally noteworthy was the increased presence of Asian companies. In addition to Mitsubishi Electric, representatives from Hitachi Ltd., Ryoden Service Co. Ltd., and Toshiba Corp. also presented papers. The common practice in Japanese companies of engaging teams of authors also resulted in a higher level of diversity among the meeting’s contributors: 15 of the 36 authors represented Japanese companies. In fact, 21 of the contributing authors represented non-European countries, and 13 of the meeting’s 30 papers were delivered by these authors. The slow but steady increase of international Elevcon speakers and authors has continued since 1990. In 1992, representatives from China and Hong Kong presented for the first time; this was followed by India (1993), South Korea (1996), Turkey (1998) and Singapore (2001). During this same period, the number of European countries participating also increased, and, to date, 34 countries have contributed speakers to Elevcon (Table 2). Included in this list are, of course, three former countries: Czechoslovakia, East Germany and West Germany. Hong Kong’s status has also changed, and it is now typically referred to as “Hong Kong SAR,” reflecting the city’s semiautonomous relationship with China. The increasing international character of the meetings’ presenters was further enhanced by the decision to hold Elevcon meetings outside of Europe (Table 3). Continued

• Issue 4, Volume 7 •



Shanghai, China

#11 #9

Zurich, Switzerland


#12 Milan, Italy


Berlin, Germany

It is of interest to note that the tables here do not include countries from South America. While there may be IAEE members from South America, it is intriguing that the continent has not contributed papers to be presented. Finally, it should be noted that the authors of the 586 papers presented between 1986 and 2012 represented more than 225 different companies, universities and other organizations. Thus, the Elevcon meetings have clearly achieved the goal of becoming a meaningful industry forum “for the exchange of information and experience vital for training and education” (IAEE Constitution).

A Specialized Profession The published Elevcon proceedings constitute a unique body of evidence that permits an examination of the papers’ authors as constituting a “specialized” professional group. This evidence consists of over 400 author biographies, the biographies of board members that appear in select proceedings, and the authors’ corporate, academic and institutional affiliations. The content of the biographies also reflects the personality of the individual authors through what has been included or emphasized. This is particularly interesting in cases where authors have contributed papers to multiple Elevcon meetings, which permits a comparative reading across several years. In a few cases, this reading reveals the presence of students or younger engineers who utilized their participation at Elevcon as an important aspect of their professional development. A careful reading of these biographies also reveals a subtle change that occurred from Elevcon 1 to Elevcon 19. Since 1986, there has been a gradual increase in the number of younger participants, versus that of industry veterans.


ELEVATOR WORLD India • 4th Quarter 2014 •

The presence at Elevcon of “industry veterans,” “mid-career,” and “younger/entry-level” members of the vertical-transportation industry raises interesting questions about the differences between generations of engineers. Many members of the “older generation” who participated in the first Elevcon meetings attended traditional mechanical or electrical engineering programs, began their careers in a variety of fields and eventually found their way into the world of vertical transportation. A few members of the next generation (today’s industry veterans) had the opportunity to pursue specialized university programs in elevator engineering, such as the program developed by Dr. Gina Barney at the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology. However, while other specialized programs have been developed over the years, such as the MSc in Lift Engineering at the University of Northampton, the majority of emerging elevator professionals attended traditional engineering schools. A key difference between these and past programs is the presence of industry members who often serve as adjunct faculty or lecturers. This may account for what appears to be an increasing number of graduates who enter the verticaltransportation industry immediately following the completion of their degrees and what appears to be an increase in the number of thesis/dissertation projects concerning vertical transportation. The presence of a dedicated “specialized” professional group is also indicated by the fact that 25% of authors have participated in two or more Elevcon meetings. Dr. Albert So has the distinction of having contributed the most papers: he participated in 13 Elevcon meetings from 1992 to 2010. A similar strength of commitment is found in an analysis of the Elevcon steering committees. Between 1986 and 2012, 55 people served on the various steering

committees, and 15 (almost 30%) served on two or more committees. Those with service on five or more steering committees include Sefa Targit (five), Dr. Lubomír Janovsky (six), George W. Gibson (eight), Barney (nine), So (12), John Inglis (13) and Ami Lustig (17). Barney served as chair of the steering committees of the first nine Elevcon meetings (1986-1998), and Lustig has served on every steering committee since 1988 and has served as their chair since 2000.

International and Professional Standards It would, perhaps, be reasonable to claim that the overall quality of the majority of Elevcon papers is such that they represent a broad survey of professional standards for the period from 1986 to 2012. However, while a review of the 5,761 pages of the published Elevcon proceedings does reveal broad professional themes, concerns and sustained interests, the presence of clearly articulated “international standards” is less obvious. While the word “standards” has different definitions, for purposes here, it will be defined in terms of vertical-transportation codes or similar regulations. The importance of codes and code development is evident in the author biographies that accompany many of the papers: numerous authors highlight their membership (and leadership) on regional, national and international code committees. However, this professional engagement rarely found its way into Elevcon meetings: only 5% (approximately 30) of the 586 published papers focused on the topic of codes. This small code-related set includes papers that address the unique code requirements of specific countries or settings, papers that address the development of European code standards and papers that attempt to address global code issues. The first group consists of papers that address codes and regulations in the former East Germany, Hungary, Hong Kong, India, Italy, the Netherlands, Singapore, Spain, Turkey, the U.K. and Vietnam. These papers are, perhaps, the most interesting because they typically touch on the history of local code development, and that code is often discussed in the context of European or North American standards. The second group – papers that concern the development of a European standard code – constitute a more cohesive set of papers. However, while some of the authors attempt to embrace a broader or more global perspective, it is difficult not to perceive these papers as primarily representing an internal, Eurocentric conversation. The third group, composed of only five papers, attempts to address the prospect of global standards. This final group of code papers is intriguing because the first paper was presented at Elevcon 3 (1990), the second at Elevcon 11 (2001) and the final three at Elevcon 19 (2012). The first paper, “A Review of Code Variations in Europe, USA and Australia,” was written by Inglis. In his introduction, he observed, “It has always been of great concern, both to the suppliers and installers of lifts, why there is so much difference between the codes of one country and that of another.” He concluded his brief comparison of European, American and Australian codes with the optimistic statement, “It would be hoped that sometime in the future, the International Organization for Standardization will deal with the technical aspects of lifts.” In 2001, a team of authors (Hoi Sang Kouk, So and S.K. Liu) presented “On the Idea of Performance Based Lift Codes,” which extended Inglis’ initial global examination and examined the possibility of utilizing the concept underlying performance-based

fire codes to create universal lift codes for Europe, Asia, Australia and the U.S. In 2012, following another 11-year hiatus, three papers appeared that addressed the topic of international standards: “Elevator Certification Processes – Global Approach and Regional Certification” by Dirk Schroeter and Carsten Schumann, “OnGoing Activities in Elevator Energy Codes, Standards and Classifications” by Richard Fargo, and “Trends in Safety Codes and Standards for Elevators and Escalators” by Esfandiar Gharibaan. Each of these papers utilized comparisons of various national elevator and energy codes to drive their respective arguments. Elevcon meetings have thus included a small selection of papers on codes, some of which have touched on the need for and possibility of developing international standards. During this same period, papers have focused on what might be termed regional international standards, such as the development of a European lift code. It is difficult to determine the effectiveness or relevance of these collected papers in establishing a meaningful foundation for the articulation of a global elevator code. Nonetheless, the fact that three papers concerning global regulations appeared in 2012 provides evidence that the prospect of achieving this goal has, perhaps, been revived once again.

The Promotion of Scientific and Technological Expertise More than 700 authors have been involved in the production of the 586 papers presented at the past 18 Elevcon meetings. These authors were employed or associated with more than 225 different public and private entities: elevator manufacturers, consulting firms, universities, government agencies, etc. And, as was observed above, the authors represented more than 30 countries, from North America to Europe to Asia. This broad level of industry engagement effectively demonstrates the success of these meetings as important venues for “the promotion of scientific and technological expertise” (IAEE Constitution). A survey of these papers’ topics reveals current industry interests and concerns. The Continued

Elevcon 1 Elevcon 2 Elevcon 3 Elevcon 4 Elevcon 5 Elevcon 6 Elevcon 7 Elevcon 8 Elevcon 9 Elevcon 10 Elevcon 11 Elevcon 12 Elevcon 13 Elevcon 14 Elevcon 15 Elevcon 16 Elevcon 17 Elevcon 18 Elevcon 19 Elevcon 20

1986 1988 1990 1992 1993 1995 1996 1997 1998 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014

Nice, France Karlsruhe, Germany Rome, Italy Amsterdam, Netherlands Vienna, Austria Hong Kong Barcelona, Spain Shanghai, China Zurich, Switzerland Berlin, Germany Singapore Milan, Italy Beijing, China* Istanbul, Turkey Beijing, China Helsinki, Finland Thessalonica, Greece Lucerne, Switzerland Miami Beach, USA Paris, France

*Elevcon 13 was cancelled due to the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) Table 3: Elevcon locations • Issue 4, Volume 7 •


#13 & 15


Beijing, China

Helsinki, Finland


Thessalonica, Greece


Istanbul, Turkey sustained and continued investigation of some topics (such as traffic analysis) also illustrates how approaches to problems have changed over time and how many of the fundamental questions remain the same. This survey also clearly reveals that the computer, and its application and use in almost every aspect of verticaltransportation design and analysis, has been the most important topic addressed from 1986 to the present. The importance of Elevcon papers to the profession and to the promotion of new ideas is revealed in several different ways. The first may be considered as a type of internal intellectual consumption. Beginning with papers produced for Elevcon 2, authors have consistently cited papers produced at previous Elevcon meetings. This internal consumption of ideas has allowed authors to position their contributions within the context of past meetings and extend arguments and conversations initiated by their predecessors. A second means of promotion is the publication of the Elevcon proceedings, which meeting attendees receive, and which are often added to corporate libraries and archives. The third form of promotion is the external consumption of Elevcon papers. This occurs through the republication of Elevcon papers in industry trade journals such as ELEVATOR WORLD, Lift Report, Elevation and Elevatori. Readers of these magazines are well aware of the important role these publications play in bringing Elevcon papers to a wider audience. Finally, these papers are also often referenced on and occasionally accessible from corporate websites. One important potential audience for Elevcon papers and proceedings that has, perhaps, been less effectively pursued is undergraduate and graduate engineering students. A brief survey utilizing First Search-OCLC’s Worldcat database reveals that 25 university libraries currently list Elevcon proceedings in their catalogs. The internationality of these libraries – Australia, Canada, China, Germany, Hong Kong, Ireland, Israel, Singapore, Switzerland, Taiwan, Turkey, the U.K. and the U.S. – suggests


ELEVATOR WORLD India • 4th Quarter 2014 •

Elevcon proceedings have an effective international distribution and, thus, a reasonable presence in university libraries. However, further investigation reveals 12 libraries have only one volume of proceedings, seven libraries have two to four volumes, and six libraries have six to eight volumes. While this search cannot claim to be comprehensive, it appears to reveal that no university library currently holds a complete set of Elevcon proceedings and that most libraries offer their patrons only minimal access to this rich archive of material. A possible future IAEE initiative could involve the digitization of all of the Elevcon proceedings in order to more easily provide them to engineering libraries, thus increasing student access.

Conclusions and Possible Future Projects This article primarily presents the outlines of a set of parallel investigations that deserve greater attention and that should be more fully pursued. This pursuit is necessary, because these investigations will shed important light on the history of vertical transportation over the past 28 years and the critical changes that occurred in the transition from the late 20th to the early 21st century. Therefore, this conclusion focuses on suggestions for future investigations and contains far more questions than answers. These questions will also be used to highlight topics not addressed in this paper but which deserve attention. This historical overview has focused almost exclusively on the authors of the papers that provided the primary intellectual content for Elevcon meetings. It would have also been interesting to examine the complete rosters of all attendees for each Elevcon. For example: Elevcon 1 reportedly had 272 attendees from 25 countries, and Elevcon 2 had approximately 70 attendees from 18 countries. It would be interesting to know which countries (and companies) were represented at each meeting. This information could then be compared to the speakers’ profiles to more fully understand the impact and international outreach of the meetings. The history of the planning and organization of the Elevcon meetings is equally important. This investigation would include


Lucerne, Switzerland

and international corporate organizations and production/design processes might yield some interesting insights. Finally, the various affiliations of the university-based authors prompt questions regarding research that may have occurred at their respective universities and which theses or dissertations may be resting on library shelves waiting to be rediscovered. As promised at the beginning of this section, readers of this “conclusion” will have observed that, thus far, no obvious concluding remarks have been offered – the focus has remained on “possible future projects.” This is because the articulation of these projects and the prospect of their pursuit (or of prompting others to pursue them) is, perhaps, the most important result of this investigation. The most exciting thing about attempting to write a history of Elevcon from 1986 to 2012 is that it resulted in a broad, critical outline, which, in turn, has resulted in a new opportunity to fill in the gaps and attempt to complete the story.



Miami Beach, U.S.

explorations of the decisions behind meeting locations and the role of manufacturers exhibitions. A critical aspect of this topic is the history of Elevcon’s founders and their vision for creating this event. Both of these topics would require access to meeting minutes and related materials (letters, etc.). The development of detailed biographies of Elevcon founders and steering committee members would also be an important project. This would permit insights into the world of vertical transportation prior to Elevcon, as well as the changes that occurred as a result of the event. Of course, the history of Elevcon is also integrally connected to the founding and history of the IAEE. This is also a history that deserves attention. The rationale behind its creation, its leadership, and its growth and trajectory from 1986 to the present would be important aspects of this story. Additional topics for future study were uncovered while researching Elevcon proceedings. The corporate affiliations of the authors included three primary groups: manufacturers, suppliers and consultants. The latter group is of particular interest. The contributions to Elevcon by the members of elevator consulting firms are evident throughout the proceedings. The evidence indicates that the presence of these firms was well established by 1986, and that their members were often recognized as authorities in the field of vertical transportation. This prompts questions about the origins of the modern elevator consulting firm and its changing role in the 21st century. Authors affiliated with elevator manufacturers also prompt questions due to the way in which these affiliations were described in the authors’ biographies. Between 1986 and 2012, authors gradually shifted from simply identifying their association with a company (i.e., listing the company name) to identifying the specific R&D section or other specialized division within the company. This raises questions about corporate organizational structures, product research and development and manufacturing processes. A comparative examination of the history of regional

I want to express my thanks to Elevator World, Inc. for its generous support and willingness to loan me several volumes of Elevator Technology, Proceedings of Elevcon and reports on the events, which aided in the completion of this investigation.

References [1] G.C. Barney, Editor (1986). Elevator Technology. Ellis Norwood Ltd., Chichester. 354p. [2] G.C. Barney, Editor (1988). Elevator Technology 2: Proceedings of Elevcon ’88. International Association of Elevator Engineers. 232pp. [3] G.C. Barney, Editor (1990). Elevator Technology 3: Proceedings of Elevcon ’90. International Association of Elevator Engineers. 280pp. [4] G.C. Barney, Editor (1992). Elevator Technology 4: Proceedings of Elevcon ’92. International Association of Elevator Engineers. 317pp. [5] G.C. Barney, Editor (1993). Elevator Technology 5: Proceedings of Elevcon ‘93. International Association of Elevator Engineers. 280pp. [6] G.C. Barney, Editor (1995). Elevator Technology 6: Proceedings of Elevcon ’95. International Association of Elevator Engineers. 246pp. [7] G.C. Barney, Editor (1996). Elevator Technology 7: Proceedings of Elevcon ’96. International Association of Elevator Engineers. 302pp. [8] G.C. Barney, Editor (1997). Elevator Technology 8: Proceedings of Elevcon ’97. International Association of Elevator Engineers. 142pp. [9] G.C. Barney, Editor (1998). Elevator Technology 9: Proceedings of Elevcon ’98. International Association of Elevator Engineers. 304pp. [10] A. Lustig, Editor (2000). Elevator Technology 10: Proceedings of Elevcon 2000. International Association of Elevator Engineers. 344pp. [11] A. Lustig, Editor (2001). Elevator Technology 11: Proceedings of Elevcon 2001. International Association of Elevator Engineers. 240pp. [12] A. Lustig, Editor (2002). Elevator Technology 12: Proceedings of Elevcon 2002. International Association of Elevator Engineers. 352pp. [13] A. Lustig, Editor (2004). Elevator Technology 14: Proceedings of Elevcon 2004. International Association of Elevator Engineers. 352pp. [14] A. Lustig, Editor (2005). Elevator Technology 16: Proceedings of Elevcon 2005. International Association of Elevator Engineers. 280pp. [15] A. Lustig, Editor (2006). Elevator Technology 16: Proceedings of Elevcon 2006. International Association of Elevator Engineers. 416pp. [16] A. Lustig, Editor (2008). Elevator Technology 17: Proceedings of Elevcon 2008. International Association of Elevator Engineers. 448pp. [17] A. Lustig, Editor (2010). Elevator Technology 18: Proceedings of Elevcon 2010. International Association of Elevator Engineers. 464pp. [18] A. Lustig, Editor (2012). Elevator Technology 19: Proceedings of Elevcon 2012. International Association of Elevator Engineers. 408pp.

Dr. Lee Gray is associate dean for the College of Architecture at the University of North Carolina-Charlotte with a specialty in architectural history. He is also curator of, created by ELEVATOR WORLD. • Issue 4, Volume 7 •


Elevator Industry Educational Resources ELEVATOR WORLD offers a variety of educational materials that can help you gain the knowledge and skills needed to execute a job properly and safely. These materials provide great opportunities for training employees, self-study and/or field reference. You can choose from books, posters, CDs or software covering topics including:








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Product Spotlight

Technology Expands Capabilities Safety equipment, specialized AC drives and LCD displays

Advanced AC Drives

LCD Display for Elevators

Avire has launched a new LCD display, the E-Motive iS2. It combines RSS-feed technology, wireless connectivity and ecologically friendly features. The fullcolor TFT display is available in five sizes, ranging from 10.4-21.5 in. Its high processing capability allows it to handle high-definition video content and images. The product also offers wireless access to content updates, as well as monitoring, diagnostic and elevator-car surveillance functions. Dimming, LED backlit technology and a scheduler for screen power management all reduce its power consumption, improving lifespan and satisfying “green” ratings.

Invertek UK now offers AC drives manufactured specifically for the elevator industry. Its second-generation OPTIDRIVE™ elevator drive is designed to provide smoother carriage control in both geared and gearless applications. It features open-loop permanent-magnet (PM) motor control. The current model offers compact external dimensions to simplify installation and optional incremental/EnDat/Sincos encoder feedback interfaces that enable compatibility with a wide range of induction and PM motors. Invertek’s motor control includes five independent S-ramps and a dedicated motor-holding brake-control algorithm for fine tuning. Its short floor operation reduces carriage travel time, while a motor-switching frequency up to 32 kHz is to ensure quiet motor operation. It also incorporates a “Safe Torque Off ” function as standard and such additional features as “Intelligent Rescue Mode.” It is available in four sizes in a choice of IP20 or IP55 models, and comes with onboard Modbus RTU and CANopen as standard.

Hydraulic Lift Safety Valves

London-based Apex Lifts is offering gate lock valves in an effort to minimize cases in which technical faults have occurred and hydraulic lifts have descended with the doors open. The company states that in the unlikely event a valve fails or develops a significant leak, there is a risk the electrical re-leveling may be unable to cope, which can cause the lift to move with the doors open. The solenoid-operated product is available for any make or model of hydraulic lift. It works by de-energizing and closing when the lift arrives at floor level (when instructed to do so by the lift controller), ensuring the car stays put as passengers disembark and enter it.


ELEVATOR WORLD India • 4th Quarter 2014 •

Elevator World India Marketplace

Prathmesh Talekar Works Manager 91-9221314013 91-9167094841

â&#x20AC;˘ Issue 4, Volume 7 â&#x20AC;˘


Elevator World India Marketplace


Tech Electron

Plot no 11 R. N. 1136 Bharat Nagar, Bandra Kurla Complex, Bandra (East), Mumbai - 400 051 Mobile No : +91 9969424711 / 9322818148 Email : Website :


ELEVATOR WORLD India • 4th Quarter 2014 •


ELEVATOR WORLD India Source Directory This section serves as a resource for the industry and consists of current Elevator World India advertisers and their website addresses. For detailed information

on each company, please visit Contact Anitha Raghunath at or TBruce MacKinnon at for more information.

ADCO Controls


Web Site:

Web Site:


Hydro-Pneumatic Techniks

Web Site:

Altenmo Technologies Pvt. Ltd Web Site:


The Future of the Elevator and Escalator Market in India to 2018

Web Site:


indonesia lift & Escalator expo Web Site:

Web Site:




City Lifts (India) Ltd. Web Site:


Inova Automation Pvt Ltd Web Site:

INVT Electric India Private Limited Web Site:

jade elevator components Web Site:



Web Site:


Eletech Industries

Web Site:





Langfang Conference and ExhibitIon Co., Ltd.

Web Site:

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Web Site:


EXCELLA Electronics Web Site:



Web Site:

Laxmi Mech. & Eng. Company Web Site:



Web Site:

M.A.N Industries

GMV India – Component Manufacturing and Trading Pvt. Ltd.


This new report includes an overview of the industry, demand forecasts, key drivers and trends, new capacity & expansion, trends in the components market, trends in the maintenance and modernization market, technological aspects, profile of select major players, import trends and an understanding of the regulatory issues. The current study will focus on 30 cities, cover trends and growth in high rise buildings, and provide an economic and demographic profile of India.


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Hephzi Elevators International Co. Pvt. Ltd.

Marazzi (jiangsu) elevator guide rail co., ltd.

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View an informational brochure & table of contents at:

• Issue 4, Volume 7 •



OTIS Elevator Company [India] Limited


Web Site:

Web Site:

Web Site:




Web Site:

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SafeLine Group


Web Site:

Web Site:

Web Site:



Tecno doors PVt. ltd.

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Web Site:

Web Site:

Monitor S.p.A



Web Site:

Web Site:

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Sematic Elevator Products India Pvt Ltd

Toshiba Johnson Elevators India Pvt. Ltd.

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Monteferro S.p.A. Web Site:


NBSL Elevator Components Co. Ltd. Web Site:

Neptune Marketing Web Site:

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Soberman Engineering Web Site:

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Oleo International

Suzhou Great Elevator Co., Ltd.

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Advertisers Index ADCO Controls..........................................................75 AFAG Messen und Ausstellungen......................49 Altenmo Technologies Pvt. Ltd............................59 Bharat Bijlee Ltd........................................................79 Blain Hydraulics Gmbh...........................................13 Canny Group Co., Ltd................................................ 1 City Lifts (India) Ltd..................................................61 Comfort Elevators & Escalators Pvt. Ltd............17 Dan Elevators.............................................................76 EEST - Elevator & Escalator Safety Trust............99 Eletech Industries.....................................................82 Elevator World............................6, 96, 103, Cover 3 Escon Elevators Pvt. Ltd.........................................47 Esquire Engineering Co...................................22, 23 EXCELLA Electronics................................................25 Express Lifts Limited................................................57 Formula Systems Ltd...............................................38 Giovenzana International BV...............................53 Hephzi Elevators International Company Pvt Ltd.................................................. 9 Hitachi Lift India Pvt. Ltd........................................37 Hydro-Pneumatic Teckniks...................................77 Inditech Systems Pvt Ltd......................................... 4 Inova Automation Pvt Ltd.....................................55


ELEVATOR WORLD India • 4th Quarter 2014 •

Jade Elevator Components............................33, 71 Jayashree Encoders Pvt Ltd..................................41 Johnson Lifts Private Limited................................. 5 Jupiter Enterprises...................................................66 Kinetek.........................................................................21 Larsen & Toubro Limited........................................31 Laxmi Mech. & Eng. Company.............................26 Leo’s Elevator Components Marketing Pvt. Ltd..............................................15 Marathon Group.......................................................16 Marazzi (Jiangsu) Elevator Guide Rails Co., Ltd............................................73 Montanari Giulio & C. Srl........................................63 Monteferro SPA.........................................................35 NBSL Elevator Components Co., Ltd..................83 Neptune Marketing.................................................82 Otis Elevator Co. (I) Ltd.................................Cover 2 Physical Measurement Technologies................65 Schindler India Pvt. Ltd..........................................69 Schmersal India Pvt. Limited................................27 Sematic S.p.a....................................................Cover 4 Shanghai BST Electric Co., Ltd..............................67 Sharp Engineers........................................................11 Soberman Engineering..........................................40

Suzhou Great Elevator Co, Ltd.............................39 Tak Consulting Private Limited......................... 100 Tecnolama...................................................................19 Torin Drive India Private Limited.......................... 7 Toshiba Johnson Elevators India Pvt. Ltd........81 Virgo Communications & Exhibitions Pvt. Ltd...................................................................97 Wittur Italia Holding SRL........................................51 Woodfold Mfg Inc.....................................................14 Marketplace Arya Lift Sansthan Apex Elevators Axis Industries Pvt Ltd. Bhamra Engineering Works Essential Lights Icon Control System Innovision Maha Lifts Mundapat Engineers Enterprises Nocee Elevators (P) Ltd. Tech Electronics The Elevator Factory Xecom Information Technologies Pvt. Ltd

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Elevator World India 4th Quarter 2014  
Elevator World India 4th Quarter 2014