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The Premier Magazine for the Building Transportation Industry in India

Issue 3, Volume 9


Wittur India Asansör Istanbul 2015 The State of Rapid Transportation

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Contents 28


Wittur India by Kanika Goswami



Company Spotlight

Elevator Integration Solutions from INVT by Vashdev S G



Open Communication Protocols for Elevators, Part 1 by Dr. Albert So

Environmental Issues

The Importance of Sustainable Building by Kanika Goswami






Risk Potential of Safety Gears by Tim Ebeling

Market Trends A Desire for Luxury by Kanika Goswami The State of Rapid Transportation by Kanika Goswami

Public Safety

48 EEST Safe-T Rider Program


by Kanika Goswami

Technology Elasticity Behavior of Elevator Ropes by Dr.-Ing. Andreas Franz and Dipl.-Ing. Konrad Stahr




FEATURES 22 Harshal Control Systems by Kanika Goswami 36 Asansör Istanbul 2015 by John Gale 61 ELA Conference 2015 by John Gale


3rd Quarter Issue 3, Volume 9

3 4 6 12 96 100 103 104

Editor’s Overview Calendar Inside India News Regional News Product Spotlight Marketplace Source Directory Advertisers Index





ELEVATOR WORLD India is a quarterly magazine published by ­Elevator World Inc., Mobile, Alabama (U.S.) and Virgo Publications, Bangalore (India). Virgo Publications is a sister organization of Virgo Communications, the organizers for IEE – International Elevator & Escalator Expo. Elevator World, Inc. is the premier publisher for the international building transportation industry. Since the inception of ELEVATOR WORLD magazine in 1953, the company has ­expanded core products to include ELEVATOR WORLD India, an ­extensive network of websites, a biweekly e-mail newsletter (ELENETŽ) and the SourceŠ, the most inclusive industry directory. Publishers – Anitha Raghunath, Ricia Sturgeon-Hendrick, T.Bruce MacKinnon International Publishing Co. – Elevator World, Inc. Indian Publishing Co. – Virgo Publications Editorial International Managing Editor – Angela C. Baldwin Indian Editorial Manager – Kanika Goswami EW Editorial Staff (U.S.) – Lee Freeland, Kaija Wilkinson, Hanno van der Bijl EWI Correspondent - M.J. Mohamed Iqbal Contributors – John Gale, Vashdev S G, Dr. Albert So, Tim Ebeling, Dr. -Ing Andreas Franz, Dipl. -Ing Konrad Stahr Printing, Distribution and Commercial Operations Commercial Directors – Anitha Raghunath and G. Raghu (India) – Patricia Cartee (U.S.) Advertising Sales and Marketing Anitha Raghunath and G. Raghu (India) – TBruce MacKinnon, Lesley K. Hicks, Scott O. Brown, Cleo Brazile (International) Brad O’Guynn, Caleb Givens (Marketing) Patricia Cartee (Education Products) Production and Internet EW Staff (U.S.) – Lillie McWilliams, Jessica Trippe, Tara Dow, Dan Wilson Administration Anitha Raghunath (India) Emma Darby (U.S.) ELEVATOR WORLDŽ and ELEVATOR WORLD India™ are registered trademarks and all rights reserved. CopyrightŠ 2015. For permission to reprint any portion of this magazine, please write to the publisher at Elevator World, Inc., P. O. Box 6507, Mobile, Alabama 36660, USA or at Virgo Publications, Virgo House, 250 Amarjyoti Layout, Domlur Extension, Bangalore, India 560071. ELEVATOR WORLD India is published in the interest of the members of the elevator industry in India, to improve communication within that industry and to further continuing education of members of that industry. ELEVATOR WORLD India publishes articles by contributing authors as a stimulus to thinking and not directives. ELEVATOR WORLD India publishes this material without accepting responsibility for its absolute accuracy, but with hopes that the vast majority of it will have validity for the field. The ideas expressed therein should be tempered by recognized elevator engineering practices, standards, codes and guidelines. Publication of any article or advertisement should not be deemed as an endorsement by ELEVATOR WORLD India, ELEVATOR WORLD, the publishers at Elevator World Inc. or Virgo Publications. Printed by Sri Sudhindra Offset Process, No.27-28, 8th Cross, Malleshwaram, Bangalore - 560003, Karnataka, India. ELEVATOR WORLD India will be published quarterly in 2015: February 6, May 18, August 18 and November 17. Advertising and subscription information is available at

Editor’s Overview Ring in the New, Honor the Old by Anitha Raghunath Elevators came to India about a century ago, and the oldest of them is still in use at The Raj Bhavan in Kolkata (ELEVATOR WORLD India, 3rd Quarter 2014). We have come a long way in 100 years. There has been growth throughout the industry. We have seen new technologies, brands and global players enter this blossoming marketplace. We have also witnessed component manufacturers enter the market, expand the product line, increase the scope of products manufactured in India, compete with foreign companies and generally cross boundaries we could only have dreamed of 50 years ago. This growth has been impacted by many factors in the country’s volatile environment. Spiking economic growth over the last three decades has caused a massive increase in luxury housing. This has added impetus to the luxury-living market as bespoke elevator designs and functionalities are being preferred by the rich. Today, we have suppliers in India that manufacture exclusive lifts for pricey, classy homes and high-end buildings like hotels. We have reached a level where simply manufacturing elevators and their components is no longer the objective. The industry is now engaged in setting and meeting higher standards of aesthetics and technology. At the same time, the civic infrastructure of the country has completely transformed city skylines. Airports, malls and metros have had a huge role to play in this. It has made the elevator industry sit up and start catering to the growing riding public. The Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) has put technical, as well as safety- and civic-minded operational specifications in place, and the major suppliers have meticulously followed them in metrostation projects throughout the country. We spoke with the electrical director of the DMRC, and the story makes for an interesting read. All of these trends have only been possible due to a strongminded elevator community in pockets across India. Veterans of the industry have led the market to where it is today against all odds: global competition, technological constraints and, of course, regulations that did not open up the economy until the 1990s. In this issue, we speak with some veterans of the industry to understand where they came from and where they think we are headed. Their insights will be priceless, paving the way for a better tomorrow. We would appreciate more input on this going forward. If you know of old timers who could contribute from their years of experience in the elevator industry, let us know by emailing   đ&#x;Œ?


2015 September

NAEC Annual Convention and Expo Westin Boston Waterfront Hotel and Boston Convention Expo Center Boston, MA September 28-October 1 For more information, contact the National Association of Elevator Contractors (NAEC)’s Amanda Smith toll free: (800) 900-6232, fax: (770) 760-9714, email: or website: www.naec. org.


Interlift 2015 Augsburg Trade Fair Centre Augsburg, Germany October 13-16 For more information, contact organizer AFAG Messen und Ausstellungen GmbH at email: or website:

2016 March

IEE Expo 2016 Bombay Exhibition Centre Mumbai, India March 17-19 For more information, contact Virgo Communications at email: vashdev@ or naveen@virgo-comm. com, or visit website:


INELEX 2016 International Izmir Fair Center Izmir, Turkey April 7-10 For more information, visit website: www. ISO TC 178 Plenary and Working Groups Meeting Sydney, Australia April 11-16 For more information, contact the


ELEVATOR WORLD India • 3rd Quarter 2015 •

IEE Expo 2016 will take place in Mumbai on March 17-19.

International Organization for Standardization (ISO) at website: www. Eurasia Lift 2016 Istanbul CNR Expo Fair Center Istanbul, Turkey April 20-23 For more information, visit website: aspx?ff=1.


World Elevator & Escalator Expo 2016 China National Exhibition and Convention Center Shanghai, China May 10-13 For more information, visit website: www.


Euro-Lift 2016 Kielce, Poland October 18-20 For more information, contact Targi Kielce S.A. at email:  đ&#x;Œ?

Industry leaders will gather in Izmir, Turkey, for INELEX 2016 on April 7-10.

Inside India News

Business Moves and Transitions India targeted by international players; new general manager appointed over region.

ThyssenKrupp Elevator Plans for Smart Cities Since the Modi government in India announced its intention to build 100 “smart cities” in the country (ELEVATOR WORLD India, 2nd Quarter 2015), there has been hectic planning afoot to prepare the necessary infrastructure and technology. The new government intends to build cities that will have better facilities,

connectivity and environment, along with much higher standards of living. This concept intends to make urban areas much more livable and economically viable for the industry. The plan is to make urbanization beneficial, instead of a resources drain. This is especially important because of the rapid pace of urbanization in the country: by 2025, India is expected to have 25 mega cities with a population of more than eight million and four mega regions, each hosting

a population exceeding 15 million within 10 years. The plan involves the construction of new commercial and residential towers to optimize space utilization, cost efficiency and ecological expectations. Since the smart-cities concept is already being adopted in most countries, architects and planners around the globe face these challenges, and elevators are a key component in overcoming them. Continued


ELEVATOR WORLD India • 3rd Quarter 2015 •

Geared traction machine

ThyssenKrupp intends for its TWIN and Double-Deck elevator systems (EW India, 3rd Quarter 2014) to meet these modern-day challenges. Their speed and energy efficiency, coupled with intelligent traffic-control systems that automatically optimize traffic and reduce empty runs, are set to make the smart cities better places to live. Whether two cars are running independently in the same hoistway (TWIN) or placed on top of each other in a single cage frame (Double-Deck), each system has its own advantages and brings the technology the market needs to meet the challenges of creating a better urban India.

Mitsubishi Electric is making a multibillion-U.S.-dollar investment in Bangalore with its new factory and test tower.

Mitsubishi Elevator Announces Bangalore Factory, Test Tower


ELEVATOR WORLD India • 3rd Quarter 2015 •

EHC Global has added Ted Hornbein to its staff as general manager, Asia Pacific, which includes India, effective September 1. Fluent in Mandarin Chinese, Hornbein has more than 20 years of business management experience in manufacturing. His skills include managing cross cultures and bringing about new market penetration. EHC China Chairman Ron Ball said bringing Hornbein onboard promises to be instrumental to the company’s ongoing success as it pursues growth opportunities throughout the region. Stationed in Shanghai, Hornbein will oversee the Indian market along with Patrick Bothwell in Canada, Sales director of EHC Global. Hornbein

Citing strong domestic demand of 47,000 units in 2014, Mitsubishi Elevator India Pvt. Ltd. in May announced plans to build a 25,400-m2 factory and 41-m-tall test tower in Bangalore. The factory, capable of producing 5,000 units annually, is expected to become operational in July 2016. The project builds on Mitsubishi Electric’s existing presence. The company began selling elevators in India through distributors in 1995, and established a company in Chennai in August 2012 to handle sales, installation and maintenance. In April 2014, it launched its NEXIEZ-LITE elevator model for low- to mid-rise buildings in India (EW India, 2nd Quarter 2014). With a particular focus on NEXIEZ-LITE, Mitsubishi Electric aims to increase its competitiveness in terms of price and delivery time with the new factory, which will include an installation and maintenance field-training center.

EHC Global Taps Hornbein to Lead Asia Pacific Region

Inside India News

Elevators, Escalators for Rail Stations Delhi, Kerala and Tamil Nadu headline biggest changes.

36 Units for Stations in Kerala, Tamil Nadu Indian Railways plans to install 20 escalators and 16 lifts at 11 stations in Kerala and adjoining Nagercoil, Tamil Nadu, The Hindu reported. In late May, seven escalators at four stations and one lift at Chengannur Station were in operation, two escalators each at Thiruvananthapuram Central and Kottayam were undergoing trials, and 16 escalators were being procured. The 36 new units are in addition to these. The improvements will bring the number of escalators at Thiruvananthapuram Central to six. Two lifts each are set to be installed at Thrissur, Aluva, Ernakulam Junction, Chengannur, Kollam Junction and Nagercoil Junction. Three lifts are going in at Thiruvananthapuram Central, and one is planned at Ernakulam Town.

Thiruvananthapuram Station

Major Vertical-Transportation Upgrade for Delhi Stations The six busiest railway stations in Delhi are getting a major vertical-transportation upgrade, with 39 units set to be installed by the end of 2015, The Times of India reported. Eighteen escalators and 21 elevators have been approved. In June, the six stations had only eight escalators. The plan consists of eight escalators and six elevators at New Delhi, two escalators and six elevators at Delhi Station, four escalators and three elevators at Hazrat Nizamuddin, two escalators and two elevators each at Sarai Rohilla and Sahadra, and two elevators at Anand Vihar.


ELEVATOR WORLD India • 3rd Quarter 2015 •

Charbagh Railway Station, which boasts magnificent gardens, was completed in 1923. Today, it is one of the busiest in India (photo by Mohit).

8 Escalators, 5 Lifts for Charbagh Station in Lucknow Charbagh Railway Station in Lucknow had been set to get eight escalators and five lifts, The Times of India recently reported. The vertical transportation was set to join other amenities such as Wi-Fi and automatic ticket vending, which officials hoped to have in place by July. Elevators were planned for platforms 1, 2/3, 4/5 and 6/7 and escalators at the first-class waiting hall and platforms 2/3, 4/5 and 6/7.

Southern Train Stations Getting Attention As of June, Southern Railway planned to build 16 lifts in the Thiruvananthapuram division. It also intends three foot overbridges at Thrissur, Kottayam and Kollam. Burgeoning train traffic at Tirupati Railway Station has pushed plans for constructing a new entrance on the southern side of the facility. Though long in the works, progress there is now being made with the state government handing over 1.83 acres of private land to the railway. Other land has also been requested. Ascending escalators are to be installed at platforms 4 and 5, and extra trains are to be accommodated.

Two Lifts, Two Escalators for Erode Station Two lifts and two escalators will be commissioned at the Erode Junction in the Salem Railway Division, The Hindu reported. The move was in response to a request by Erode official N. Sivanesan. The vertical-transportation improvements were among upgrades including water coolers, identification cards for disabled people and automated ticket machines at various locations within the railway system that were announced during a Railway Users Consultative Committee meeting in May.

Legal Musings Lift safety and high-rise code considered for Uttar Pradesh, nation.

Ghaziabad Petitioner Wants Legal Oversight of Lifts

A man in Ghaziabad has filed a petition calling for the state government in Uttar Pradesh to provide greater oversight of lift installation, maintenance and licensing, The Times of India reported. The petitioner said recent accidents have brought attention to the problem, and residents of high-rise apartment buildings are in particular danger. He would like to see Ghaziabad, Noida and Greater Noida have guidelines such as those in neighboring Delhi and Haryana, and to comply with National Building Code lift standards.

Indian High-Rise Standard Considered

The Bureau of Indian Standards plans to make progress on a code for tall buildings this year, which may allay some experts’ concerns about the lack of an Indian building code for high rises. According to Sangeeta Waj, technical director at global design firm AECOM, most buildings in India use the minimum structural safety standards prescribed by the government, The Economic Times reported in April. “Our codes offer the lowest level of earthquake safety protection. We are designing for one-fifth the intensity that might hit a particular earthquake zone,� Waj said. The situation is considered more urgent in northern India, especially in the National Capital Region, which falls under Seismic Zone 4. Getamber Anand, president of construction body Confederation of Real Estate Developers Association of India and managing director of ATS Infrastructure, a Noida-based real estate firm, countered: “IS 1893 is the Indian code revised in 2002 after [the] Gujarat earthquake duly considering the structural failures witnessed. The present buildings are being designed based on IS 1893, and it provides design for even 30 stories and above.�

Chennai Accident Highlights Escalator Safety Needs A June accident in which a child lost three fingers as a result of his hand becoming stuck in a shopping mall escalator in Chennai highlights the need for better regulation of and safety precautions for escalators and moving walks, The Hindu reported. Vertical-transportation experts noted the Tamil Nadu Lifts Rules Act of 1997 does not include rules for escalators and moving walks. For that reason, questions regarding liability and compensation resulting from such accidents remain unanswered. Suggestions include requiring property owners who install escalators to have their equipment inspected and licensed regularly, đ&#x;Œ? and restricting elderly citizens and children from riding.   

• Issue 3, Volume 9 •


Regional News

Industry Trends Focus shifts in China as growth slows, and OEMs look to other areas.

OEMs Face Decline in China BloombergBusiness reported in June that weakening orders for elevators in China may indicate that major manufacturers may “experience a similar plunge in local demand as the miningequipment industry.” Bloomberg Intelligence said the Chinese market, the world’s largest for new elevators, grew the least since 2000 last year due to the country’s slowing real-estate sector. Newly built residential prices “have fallen at an accelerating rate in 2015 and are accompanied by declines in new floor space started,” the source noted. The analysis said the weak demand may spur consolidation in the global elevator industry. It added that Schindler, KONE, ThyssenKrupp Elevator and Otis maintenance sales in China have also grown less than new equipment sales, partly because these services are mainly provided domestically. That obscures their long-term prospects and has decreased their average earnings before interest and taxes margin by 1.8% since 2010, to 13.7% last year. China accounted for approximately 70% of global elevator orders last year, and the major elevator producers have doubled Asia-Pacific sales on average since 2010.

escalator maintenance business growing by approximately 25% each year, and KONE already has a significant installed base there. To lay the groundwork, KONE plans to add 1,000 employees this year to its Chinese workforce of 12,000, as well as add sales, service and training locations.

UT Predicts Growth in Malaysia Otis parent United Technologies Building & Industrial Systems (UT) foresees 14-16% growth in Malaysia in 2015, and factors such as urbanization and the need for modernization are the drivers, Continued

KONE Shifts Focus in China to Service


KONE is shifting its focus in China, its largest market that accounts for 40% of new orders and 30% of global sales, from new orders to service in light of a weakening construction boom, Forbes reported. In 2015, KONE saw 5% firstquarter growth in China, versus 15% and 23% growth in 2014 and 2013, respectively. Operating as Giant KONE in a joint venture, the company saw two-thirds of its 154,000 units produced go to China in 2014. That reflects the vertical-transportation market as a whole: China purchased nearly 70% of the 815,000 units produced worldwide in 2014. Managing Director of KONE China William B. Johnson points out that China is 10 times the size of the world’s second-largest elevator market, India. Still, he is optimistic about KONE’s new service-oriented approach and hopes to significantly boost its current serviceaccount market share from 10%. Analysts foresee China’s elevator/


ELEVATOR WORLD India • 3rd Quarter 2015 •

Maybank Tower (photo by Calvin Teo)

Bernama reported. UT Malaysia and Brunei Managing Director Charles Lim noted current government is pushing for continued economic development, which is expected to sustain momentum in the construction sector. UT has a new headquarters in Puchong, Malaysia, where it markets its various products – elevators, escalators, fire-security and air-conditioning systems – together under one roof. Otis has had a presence in Malaysia since 1920 and, to date, has supplied more than 2,000 units in Malaysia, including at the Petronas Towers, Kuala Lumpur Tower, Sunway Pyramid shopping mall, Petaling Jaya Trade Centre and The Intermark. Recent modernization projects include the vertical-transportation system in the Maybank Tower in Kuala Lumpur, where Otis first installed lifts 27 years ago.

Chinese Elevator Output, Exports Revealed in Report Trends in Chinese elevator output, exports and revenue generation are covered in a new report from ReportstackTM. New elevator output is continuing to grow, but at a slower pace, with more than 700,000 units produced in 2014, an increase of approximately 12% from a year ago. In 2013, the annual growth rate was 18%. Chinese companies such as Shenyang Brilliant Elevator and Canny Elevator have increased the proportion of service revenue during 2010-2014, from 9.1% to 20.1% and 3.7% to 8.5%, respectively. Driven by effective economic development initiatives, the pace of exports continues to gain momentum, with China exporting 68,000 units of elevators and escalators in 2014, representing a year-over-year growth rate of 13.1% from 20072014. In the first quarter of 2015, China exported 16,793 units, an increase of 12.9% compared with a year ago.

57-Story Chinese Skyscraper Takes Shape in 19 Days Implementing modular construction, a 57-story glass and steel skyscraper in Changsha, China, was built in a total of 19 days, The Guardian reported. Chinese firm Broad Sustainable Building built the mixed-use Mini Sky City in two spurts – completing the first 20 floors last year and the remaining floors in early 2015 after it sped its pace from two to three floors per day. Broad now hopes to build the tallest building in the world, 220-story Sky City in Changsha, using the same technique. Critics contend such construction lends itself to bland architecture, while companies such as Broad tout its efficiency and safety. A company official told Wired in 2012 that safety attributes extend to the elevator industry: bases, rails and machine rooms are built at the modular factory, which eliminates the risk of a technician falling down a shaft, with finished cars dropped into the shaft by crane. Broad told ELEVATOR WORLD there are 16 elevators in Mini Sky City.


ELEVATOR WORLD India • 3rd Quarter 2015 •

Regional News

Contracts Future world’s tallest and metro transit generate jobs in Saudi Arabia, Philippines.

Elevator Installation Begins at Kingdom Tower KONE announced it has begun the elevatorinstallation process in the future world’s tallest building, Kingdom Tower in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia (EW India 3rd Quarter 2014). Pre-engineering for the system’s guide rails is expected to be finished by the end of 2015, at which point guide-rail and car installation may commence. The system will consist of 57 elevators and eight escalators. KONE’s lightweight UltraRopeTM (EW, EW India, 3rd Quarter 2013) will support what promises to be the world’s fastest and highest double-deck elevators. The more than 1-km-tall Kingdom Tower is expected to be complete in 2018. Mounib Hammoud, CEO of owner/developer Jeddah Economic Co., opined: “Building the tallest tower in the world is about human ingenuity and the strength of the materials used. Based on this premise, KONE is . . . capable of delivering what we need at the Kingdom Tower – specifically, the capability of traveling at a speed of over 10 mps with double-deck elevators to reach the highest livable floor in the world in 52 s. In addition, the high-speed elevators will rise 660 m to the observation deck, making it the world’s highest elevator rise.”

Jardine Schindler Lands Transit Contract in Philippines Jardine Schindler has been awarded a US$490-million contract to refurbish 12 escalators in stations within Manila, Philippines’ elevated mass-transit system, Rappler reported. As the units’ exclusive distributor, Jardine Schindler has the rights to rehabilitate them. Another 34 escalators manufactured by Mitsubishi Electric are also set to be refurbished, part of a US$26.75-million Department of Transportation and Communications project designed to make public transit, including train stations, more efficient and user friendly.


ELEVATOR WORLD India • 3rd Quarter 2015 •

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Regional News

CTBUH Goings On Nonprofit announces contest winners, new study.

2015 Best Tall Buildings Winners, Finalists The Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) has announced winners and finalists from four regions in the world in its 2015 Best Tall Buildings Awards contest. Panelists observed that winning designs fit remarkably into their environments, with several boasting forward-thinking, environmentally conscious features such as vegetation-covered façades. An overall winner will be announced during CTBUH’s 14th Annual Awards Symposium and gala dinner on November 12 in Chicago. Regional winners and finalists are: ♦♦ Americas: Winner, One World Trade Center, New York City (NYC); finalists: Baccarat Hotel & Residences, NYC; Torres Virreyes, Mexico ♦♦ Asia and Australasia: Winner, CapitaGreen, Singapore; finalists: Phoenix, Melbourne, Siamese Ratchakru, Bangkok; SkyTerrace @ Dawson, Singapore; Sunrise Kempinsky Hotel, Beijing; Swanston Square Apartment Tower, Melbourne ♦♦ Europe: Winner, Bosco Verticale, Milan, Italy; finalists: Evolution Tower, Moscow; Leadenhall, London; Malmö Live, Malmö, Sweden; Police Headquarters & Charleroi Danses, Charleroi, Belgium

One World Trade Center, NYC; ©James Ewing


ELEVATOR WORLD India • 3rd Quarter 2015 •

CapitaGreen, Singapore; ©Capita Land Ltd.

Bosco Verticale, Milan, Italy; ©Paolo Rosselli

EHC GLOBAL Partners with AKE in Turkey

Burj Mohammed Bin Rashid Tower, Abu Dhabi; ŠFoster + Partners

♌♌ Middle East & Africa: Winner, Burj Mohammed Bin Rashid Tower, Abu Dhabi; finalists: Al Hilal Bank Tower, Abu Dhabi; B.S.R. Towers, Tel Aviv, Israel

Research Explores Japan’s Tall Buildings CTBUH has released Tall Building in Numbers – Japan: A History of Tall Innovations, the latest in a research series that includes interactive graphics boasting a wealth of data. The Japan study includes a rich history of tall-building construction and innovations driven by the island nation’s densely populated metropolises and propensity for earthquakes. For further information, visit

Turkish company AKE has partnered with EHC GLOBAL as the Oshawa, Canada-headquartered escalator handrail manufacturer’s Turkish distributor. Like EHC’s other global partners, AKE will also license handrail-splicing technology from EHC. AKE also manufactures its own escalators and will begin installing EHC handrails on new ones in its factory. EHC GLOBAL Director of Sales Patrick Bothwell commented:  “Our business model sees EHC tie up with local partners in key markets to offer more timely deliveries by putting resources in the local market to complete final endless manufacturing of handrails. There are several profiles of handrail, but more challenging is that each escalator requires handrails of a different finished length. This means that final manufacturing can’t be completed until the order is received. Pushing the splicing/jointing work downstream into the local market means that we can reduce the need to ship endless product direct from our factories in Canada, Germany or Shanghai. “Having local partners also means that we can offer field splicing – that is, completing the endless handrail joint on the escalator. This reduces the time and effort required on site to change our handrails. Handrails are bulky and expensive to ship, so there are logistical advantages to consolidating imports of products and finishing the manufacturing process locally on a just-in-time basis.�

Turkey Leads Europe in Elevator Deaths by a Wide Margin Approximately 75%, or 32, of the 43 fatal elevator accidents in Europe over the past three years occurred in Turkey, BugĂźn quoted a national official as saying. Director of the Elevator Control Center of the Union of Chambers of Turkish Engineers and Architects Berkay EriĹ&#x;, who revealed the statistic, said Turkey has less than 1/10th of Europe’s elevators – 400,000 out of 5.5 million. He said progress has been made since an elevator-inspection program began in 2012, when the number of “red-flaggedâ€? elevators was between 75-80%. đ&#x;Œ? Today, that has dropped to 50-60%.   

The Metropolitan Government Building in Tokyo; photo by Markus LeupoldLÜwenthal • Issue 3, Volume 9 •


Company Spotlight


ELEVATOR WORLD India • 3rd Quarter 2015 •

Harshal Control Systems With a focus on service and customerbased engineering and technical solutions, the components manufacturer has succeeded by following an unusual path. by Kanika Goswami

The turnover of the group of companies increased from INR60 million (US$947,000) in 2009-2010 to INR400 million (US$6.3 million) in 20142015. Opposite page, left: Demonstration cabins at ThyssenKrupp Elevator India; right, top to bottom: a demonstration cabin with a false ceiling and stainless-steel finish; entrance to the Wada factory Above: A demonstration cabin with a five-sided glass enclosure

Harshal Control Systems Pvt. Ltd. is an elevator components manufacturer based in Mumbai. Its parent company, Echar Enterprises, was founded by Ashok Nakman in 1982 as a fabrication business with only two engraving machines, its main product being nameplates and labels. After a successful marketing pitch to Otis, Echar bagged its first order for engraving aluminium faceplates. Eventually, orders added up, and that gave an impetus to manufacture entire landing operating panels with black pop-up push buttons. This association with Otis continued and later gave birth to another company, Echar Engineering Pvt. Ltd. In 1995, through H-Square Enterprises, it won its first job to equip an entire unit for Otis India. Later, two more units by the names of Venus Engineering Co. (2000) and Fab-Tech Engineering (2005) were formed to cater to Otis business. “Our association with Otis is more than 25 years old and still growing,” says Harish Nakman, Harshal Control Systems director. Ashok Nakman was simultaneously working on the designs of the fixtures as the company’s customer base reached 200. This caught the attention of companies like Bharat Bijlee Ltd. (since acquired by KONE) and provided an opportunity for Echar to set up a complete manufacturing and assembly line for car and landing operating panels, including harness assembly. In 2009, Ashok Nakman extended the company’s elevatorindustry product line on a new 2.2-acres area on the outskirts of Mumbai. Facilities included the manufacturing unit for Harshal Control Systems. The main idea was to manufacture cabins, door panels, and car and counterweight frames. Harish reminisces: “We installed state-of-the-art imported machines from Amada of Japan, and Trumpf of Germany. With hi-tech computernumerical-control (CNC) machines and [a] 32,000-sq.-ft.-area shop floor, we were able to grab attention of companies like Emerson Network Power (I) Pvt. Ltd. and ThyssenKrupp Elevator India.” With the business growing and keeping the expansion in mind, Harshala Mihir Desai and Harish, daughter and son of Ashok, joined the family business in 2010. The former had an MBA in Human Resources, and the latter had BE and MS degrees from the U.S. This added professionalism to the business, and facilitated its steady growth. Continued

• Issue 3, Volume 9 •


The present Harshal Control Systems was incorporated in 2004 as a strategically diversified company in the field of precision sheet-metal components. The company manufactures elevator fixtures and accessories with a “customer-first philosophy.” In Harish’s words: “This has earned us an enviable customer-base list with prized and premier companies like Otis, ThyssenKrupp, Bharat Bijlee Ltd., Godrej Interio, Emerson Network Power India Pvt. Ltd., Kabra, CPS and [a] host of other leading companies and 200 other customers in the elevator industry. The demand for our products has grown manifold and is rising at an accelerated pace. Therefore, the company has a clear focus on achieving and sustaining global leadership with a vibrant and performance-driven environment with excellent opportunities for all-around growth. We incorporate proven logistics expertise and [the] latest innovative designs before they are apparent.” The company’s strength is its ability to integrate professional management, ethical practices and sophisticated technology for enhanced performance. Its knowledge of the market, gained from three decades of operation in the Indian elevator industry, helps it provide good customer service. Harish elaborates: “We optimize and customize operations for maximum efficiency and overall cost savings, improved customer service, reduced risk and lower capital expenditure. Ergonomics are worked out to achieve the best at minimal inventory cost, so as to offer the best competitive prices. Our most important capital is the perfect synergy of employee competence and the effective use of global knowhow through our own R&D and practical application. We believe that once your sight is set upon your destination, the thirst to overcome challenges comes naturally, and this same thirst takes you beyond the ordinary.”

Market Evolution and Challenges Harshal Control Systems started its relationship with ThyssenKrupp in 2010 with a contract for 50 cabins and 300 doors per month. That volume grew to 150 cabins Continued


ELEVATOR WORLD India • 3rd Quarter 2015 •

Opposite page, top to bottom: A batch oven; the welding area; a Trumpf punching machine, all in the Wada factory This page, above: A landing call button on display at the International Elevator & Escalator Expo 2014 This page, top right and center right: An Amada bending machine in the Wada factory This page, bottom right: An Amada punching machine in the Wada factory

• Issue 3, Volume 9 •


The future for Harshal Control Systems is bright, and Harish says the market is opening up like never before. and 1,500 doors by 2015. In addition, there was the business of supplying cabins and doors to 50 more customers around India — cabins with capacities of four to 26 and goods-lifts cars with capacities of 1-5 mT. Its car sizes are manufactured as big as 3 X 6 m.

Products and Projects

Above, top to bottom: the Wada factory’s assembly area; the machinery area of the Wada factory

Harshal Control Systems produces: ♌♌ Cabins: MS, stainless steel and designer/special finish ♌♌ Doors and frames: ACO, ATO, swing doors and manual telescopic ♌♌ Glass cabins: rear side, two side, three side and capsule lifts ♌♌ Glass doors: “Full Visionâ€? and “Big Visionâ€? ♌♌ Car and counterweight frames ♌♌ Pit ladders Echar Enterprises and companies in the group (excepting Harshal Control Systems) produce: ♌♌ Push buttons ♌♌ Car and landing operating panels ♌♌ Displays: seven segment, dot matrix and LCD ♌♌ Limit switch assemblies ♌♌ Guide clips ♌♌ Emergency alarms and fireman switches ♌♌ Thimble sockets In 2014, Harshal Control Systems partnered with NBSL

Elevator Components Co., Ltd. (China). In addition to cabins and fixtures, Harshal Control Systems started supplying NBSL components, including door systems, overspeed governors, guide shoes and gearless machines. In 2015, it started supplying guide rails from Sunrise Elevator Parts Ltd. (China). Sunrise is a major supplier of guide rails to Otis, Schindler, KONE and Fujitec in China.

The Future The future for Harshal Control Systems is bright, and Harish says the market is opening up like never before: “The future plan is to provide [a] complete elevator solution to the customer. The customer [will be able to] find the complete kit, which includes cabins, guide rails, machines, doors, controllers, fixtures, ropes and others under one single roof, which will further reduce his cost. With the elevator industry growing, our group company plans to grow further, and as part of expansion, we are setting up another plant in the Navi Mumbai area, which should [be] ready to go by February đ&#x;Œ? 2016.â€?  

Timeline 1982: Echar Enterprises Pvt. Ltd. founded in Mumbai as a manufacturer of elevator fixtures. 1994: Echar Engineering Pvt. Ltd. begun as a manufacturer of light and medium fabrication and supplier of limit switches. 1995: H-Square Enterprises started as a trader of elevator kits and manufacturer of elevator display cards and switches.


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2000: Venus Engineering Co. incorporated as a manufacturer of light and medium fabrication and sheet-metal components. 2004: Harshal Control Systems formed as a trading unit. Projects like the Synergy, MRG 500 and MRG 1000 were developed at its factory. 2005: Fab-Tech Engineering Co. started as a manufacturer of medium

fabrication and supplier of car-top railing, pit ladder and other products. 2009: Harshal Control Systems builds a manufacturing unit on 2.2 acres Wada, India, 50 km from Mumbai. 2014: Harshal Control Systems’ manufacturing facility is L2 certified by Otis’ Q+ audit and starts supplying elevator components to Otis Bangalore.

Environmental Issues

The Importance of Sustainable Building Pavitra Sriprakash (PS), chief designer and director of The Global Design Studio of Shilpa Architects Planners Designers Pvt. Ltd., talks to ELEVATOR WORLD India (EWI) about the trend toward building green and how elevators fit into the equation. by Kanika Goswami Pavitra Sriprakash’s work has been Indiafocused since 2008. She has designed projects across India and delivered projects in the U.S., Norway, Japan, China and Kuwait as part of Shilpa’s International Urban Design Studio. She is director of Nirmana Realty Investments, a global hedge fund that has investments in emerging markets’ infrastructure and early-stage Silicon Valley technology companies. An expert on sustainability, she has completed research at Columbia University on sustainable programmatic

landscapes and the interface between architecture and landscape design in planning urban spaces. She holds a master’s degree in Architecture and Urban Design from Columbia and is head of the Chennai chapter of the Columbia University Alumni Association. EWI: Shilpa has always had a focus on green and sustainable architecture and has been a steering member of the Indian Green Building Council (IGBC). Tell us about the green-building initiative in India.


Practicing what it preaches: Shilpa Architects’ headquarters in Chennai is itself Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design Platinum certified.


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PS: The IGBC was established by the Confederation of Indian Industries in 2001. Exhibitions, seminars and educational programs are organized to spread awareness about sustainability and environment protection. As part of Shilpa’s commitment to sustainability, we were among the Indian delegation to USGBC Greenbuild in Chicago in 2007. Today, sustainability goes beyond ratings. There are many options for certification from bodies such as the U.S. Green Building Council, the IGBC and Green Rating for Integrated Habitat Council. At Shilpa, our focus is on holistic sustainability -- the concept of having sustainable practices for energy efficiency, as well as the human quotient -- with socioeconomic sustainability in all the environments we design and build. EWI: How much value do architects place on elevatoring a building? PS: Our cities are growing due to rapid urbanization, which is driving the need for denser developments and taller buildings. There are many studies showing that density in urban environments is more sustainable than urban sprawl, which leads to wasted infrastructure resources. In the not-so-distant future, elevators will replace lengthy roads and cul-de-sacs. Now, an elevator is a standard part of any commercial or residential building that is two floors or taller. It finds usage apart from transporting people and helping them access different levels of the building, such as the early stages of construction for transporting materials and freight. In residential buildings, there is a trend toward “higher is better,� so people automatically opt for a higher floor, which drives the need for an elevator. Buildings with elevators usually have longer-term value, where the elevators are an added feature; hence, architects place importance on the design and placement of elevators. However, location and intended usage of elevators usually determine the design of their interiors and exteriors. EWI: Do you think India has an adequate green-building initiative? What do you think needs to be done in that regard? PS: The primary goal of various green initiatives is to help our planet survive! As we consider the growth of the Indian real-estate and construction sector, the number of certified/to-be-certified buildings is trivial. The public sector, central and state governments are the biggest builders of infrastructure. They are engaging actively with green initiatives to make India more sustainable, but there are other areas green initiatives can encompass. For example, some rating systems exclude “points� for using local artisans and local materials, thereby neglecting the largely unorganized sector which represents a large segment of our population and workforce.

“ �

In the not-so-distant future, elevators will replace lengthy roads and cul-desacs. 30

ELEVATOR WORLD India • 3rd Quarter 2015 •

EWI: Can you share some experiences of the challenges you have faced when working on green buildings? PS: Almost all clients now request a green building, with the possibility of applying for a rating for their efforts. The advantage is that people understand that they have to be careful and cognizant while designing or choosing materials for their building to ensure the features and materials contribute to points for the desired rating. Yes, there is an initial capital investment required for a green-rated building, but the payoff in the long run is definitely worth it. It becomes a challenge if the client is only focused on the short term and not willing to wait for long-term returns. EWI: As far as elevators are concerned, what do you, as an architect, look for in a project? Do you plan the building with an adequate emphasis on safe elevators and escalators? PS: Comfort and safety of a building’s occupants are the first


Yes, there is an initial capital investment required for a green-rated building, but the payoff in the long run is definitely worth it.


aspects we consider. We design and choose products and materials that will help ensure the wellbeing of the people who use the space. This obviously extends to elevators and escalators. We also look at the utility of elevators and escalators before selecting and allotting space for them. Most elevators in the market today are equipped with safety features to help ensure zero accidents. Features like multiple steel cables, which can individually hold the total weight that the elevator can carry, are becoming increasingly available. Elevators are programmed to perform automatic safety checks, with alarms and signals sent to the control room to check any problems. Energy efficiency is also a parameter we consider when specifying elevators, including methods to generate power from the mechanical movement. EWI: How do you design for elevators in smaller spaces such as homes, boutique offices and retail stores? PS: First, a detailed usage study needs to be conducted to determine an elevator’s final use before starting to design and incorporate one. In residential projects, especially single-family homes, elevator retrofits are becoming more common. Since the lift car is a small, confined space, strategies to make the lift car look bigger are always preferred. Choosing lighter-colored flooring or installing mirrors on the sides are strategies commonly employed by designers. Elevators in retail stores are very useful areas for further branding. In such boutique applications, a glass elevator that is transparent and, therefore, less visually intrusive, is always đ&#x;Œ? preferred.   

Market Trends

A Desire for Luxury Economic trends point to greater demand for high-end elevators in India. by Kanika Goswami


India’s population is growing, and its people are getting richer, which is creating an ideal environment for luxury housing and, in turn, high-end home elevators. After describing the factors contributing to the trend, ELEVATOR WORLD India sat down with Ashish Goyal of Sigil Elevators in Pune, who believes luxury home elevators’ time has come in India, thanks to a growing middle and upper class. The trend is evident in partnerships such as the one between Moris Italia and Monteferro India (EW India, 4th Quarter 2013) formed specifically to cater to this emerging market. India has an urban population equal to the populations of the U.K. and U.S. combined. In addition, about 10 million people move into urban centers each year in India. The housing and realestate pattern is highly influenced by this rapidly growing urban population and its earning potential. Today, thanks to earnings of the urban middle class, the Indian economy is set to become the fifth largest in the world, up from 12th. In this scenario, there are great expectations of the urban affluent class. The number of families earning more than INR1 million (US$15,738) a year will increase to represent approximately 2% of India’s population, compared with approximately 0.2% today. In number terms, there will be 24 million more people than the current population of Australia. Today, this market’s consumption stands at 7% of the Indian market. In 2015, it will touch approximately 20%. In this economic stratum,

A modernist design

the luxury housing segment saw about US$30 billion worth of construction, spread across 182 projects with 25,000-plus units among them in 2012. India’s higher-income population is expected to approach 3.5 million by 2018, more than tripling. This will certainly push up demand for luxury housing.

The Indian economy is set to become the fifth largest in the world, up from 12th. What do these figures mean to the elevator industry? In the next 10 years, the real-estate market will increase fivefold. This will provide unprecedented opportunities to related sectors – construction companies and facilities manufacturers, architects and builders. While there are no statistics directly linking this increase in spending power with spending on Continued


ELEVATOR WORLD India • 3rd Quarter 2015 •

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Elevators as a Commodity

(l-r): Finishes such as marble, wood and glass are popular; reflective surfaces and mirrors help open up a cabin’s space.

India’s higher-income population is expected to approach 3.5 million by 2018, more than tripling. luxury real estate, there is no doubt spending on the components of a luxury home, office or other building will increase. The high-end sector that has homes with prices in excess of INR30 million (US$472,032) will create demand for the finest construction quality and concepts. Top locations, great facilities, designs, safety and security are among customer demands. One of the most significant areas will be safe, secure, well-designed elevators. Although the technology stays the same, elevators for high-end homes and buildings have certain qualities that distinguish them from those in regular highrises. How does the high-end home elevator market look today? Goyal states: “It’s a limited market, and I do not think there [are] any researched statistics on it. But, my gut feeling is that this segment will be about 2-3% of the complete elevator segment in the country.� Sigil produces elevators it considers premium in terms of features, aesthetics and technology. Goyal opines:


ELEVATOR WORLD India • 3rd Quarter 2015 •

“A custom process has been developed to meet the demand for such products, starting with adapting design to customer demands, innovation, precise manufacturing and zero tolerance for incorrect installation. All this is part of our standard operating procedure.� Buyers of premium homes in India are very discerning. Although there is always customization depending on a home’s theme and specific architectural requirements, some high-end elevator styles are particularly in vogue. According to Goyal, these include those with ancient Roman, Islamic, Gothic, Renaissance, Baroque, neoclassical, early modern and postmodern appearances. Customization also occurs with different brands in line with regional market needs and cultural forces. For homes upwards of INR30 million (US$472,032), it is definitely a buyer’s market for elevators. The builder must be cognizant of not only elevator quality but also its security and safety features and how its design fits with the rest of the home. Sigil strives to help ensure this fit by

While the luxury-elevator industry in India is in its nascent stage, certainly in terms of volume, Goyal sees another trend in the elevator industry. Two decades ago, elevators were a service, used simply to transport people vertically. They were also legislatively categorized as a service. With the entry of global brands into India on a much bigger scale, however, they became more of a commodity. In organizations such as those in the hospitality industry, a certain number of elevators serviced a certain number of rooms on every floor; hence, it was a customized solution. But, with more business opening the market to bigger global brands, it slowly became a commodity, manufactured via processes that can be replicated. While quality may not have suffered, the whole process lost its focus on customization and became an assemblyline product like any other. This detracts from the cellular organics of the industry, which, Goyal feels, may not be a very healthy trend. While quality may not suffer in the short run, turning away from customized space, design and functionality may lead to mass production of lifts. Essentially, the damage is to smaller, domestic companies that understand customers’ needs and are willing and capable of fulfilling them. But, a production line makes products cheaper, which is why many of the global brands ate into the indigenous manufacturers’ market over time. India follows global trends, but Goyal feels certain scenarios in the sociocultural-biological-political anterior may soon change the environment. In fact, there is change around the corner. The value of custom-made elevators that fulfill specific requirements is just being realized, and skill in craftsmanship is fast gaining value as the Indian middle and upper middle classes grow. Manufacturers such as Sigil will reap the benefits and continue to maintain that elevators are products associated with a classy building. In the long term, the objective of a high-end elevator installation is to provide luxury and ease of use.    đ&#x;Œ?

Dynamic Events

title deck


Asansör Istanbul 2015

Growing trade show attains a global scale in Turkey.

by John Gale Asansör Istanbul 2015 was held in the four new halls at the Tüyap Fair Convention and Congress Center on March 26-29. The venue now has two excellent hotels just a few steps away from the halls. This adds convenience for both visitors and exhibitors, and, indeed, one of the hotels had direct access to the exhibition entrance lobby. The new halls have great headroom, which allows exhibitors to display full-scale working lift systems and bodes well for future industry exhibitions here. Attendees could see lift equipment ranging from individual components to complete systems. The Turkish industry is very close to the European Union (EU) in many ways, and AYSAD (Turkish elevator association) is a full member of the European Lift Association, so, as would be expected, the products exhibited are influenced by the European Directive on Lifts and CEN codes. The Asansör Conference reflected this and had key working group members giving informative presentations and seminars. Importantly, there is also a visionary element to Asansör, and a significant part of this was the International Lift Design Contest (see sidebar). This was the sixth such event and had the theme “New Lifts for Passengers and for Passenger & Freight in Existing Buildings.” A selection of entries was displayed in the main exhibition hall, and the winners were presented with their awards during the evening gala.



ELEVATOR WORLD India • 3rd Quarter 2015 •

Clockwise from top left: The busy Turkish construction market was apparent; key figures in the local lift sector cut the ribbon to open the event and share some opening thoughts with invited guests; (l-r) Ercüment Hizal, Nihat Ergün, Sefa Targit and Adnan Köşker; (l-r, from center) T.Bruce MacKinnon and Ricia Sturgeon-Hendrick of Elevator World, Inc.; and Bülent Yilmaz of ELEVATOR WORLD Turkey pose with booth guests; a selection of International Lift Design Contest entries displayed in the main exhibition hall

• Issue 3, Volume 9 •


Lift Design Awards and Conference by John Gale

Lift Design Awards Asansör Istanbul’s conference and “Lift Design Awards” have become important parts of the overall event. It is crucial for the wellbeing of the industry that relevant and creative new solutions that facilitate people moving in architecture are encouraged and supported. To that end, the aforementioned contest and its awards are included as an integral part of the whole event. The winners of this sixth edition, which tasked entrants to design “New Lifts for Passengers and for Passenger & Freight in Existing Buildings,” were announced and presented at the gala on the first evening of the exhibition (March 26). The awards were presented by Ercüment Hizal and Sefa Targit, who stated that the selection had been very difficult to make and that the entries titled “Panoramya” and “Blade” were the two winning ones. The young designers of these entries were Hilal Kurt and Merve Aynur, and Pinar Simsek and Emre Caglar, respectively. Congratulations were extended to them as they were invited up to the stage to receive the prize money and a hearty round of applause.

Conference The Asansör Istanbul Conference was a two-day event, with the first day being international, complete with simultaneous translation. The topics for this session cover issues at a European level. The second day is devoted to national lift topics and industry overviews. Here, the experiences of key lift people can be shared with a wider audience that will benefit many active in the industry at a national level.

Day One


Selcuk Dikmen, a very experienced lift professional, chaired the opening day of the 2015 conference. This started with a presentation by Ebru Gemici Loukas from VDMA (German mechanical engineering association) titled “Industrial Statistics of Lifts and Escalators.” The speech focused on the recorded lift industry statistics for 2011–2013. After a general look at the overall European lift-industry statistics, Gemici Loukas concentrated on the state of accident reporting across Europe and how difficult it has been to collect consistent figures. However, the emerging statistics being collected are becoming more reliable. Every year, the process is better understood, and the figures can be used in a more meaningful way. As for the reported accidents in 2013, Gemici Loukas showed that for the 18 reporting countries, 835 cases had been recorded -- 17 fatal, 144 serious and 674 minor. These figures were interrogated in great depth and certainly help identify the key areas where safety can be improved.


ELEVATOR WORLD India • 3rd Quarter 2015 •

The second presentation was “Standards and Risk Assessment” by Paolo Tattoli, a member of CEN Technical Committee 10/ Working Group 1. Its illustrations showed the procedure and gave the audience insight into the workings of risk assessment. Tattoli used the example of a knife on a table to show the level of risk this situation presented. Following this intriguing example, the risks connected to designing, installing and using lifts in seismic areas was considered. The final session of the day was jointly given by Esfandiar Gharibaan and Wolfgang Adldinger. This showed how and why the new EN 81-20/-50 standard had been formed and when it will be fully implemented. This comprehensive presentation not only gave the audience a general overview, it also illustrated detailed criteria. The implementation of this standard is important, but another key factor for all to consider is Directive 95/16/EC on Lifts, which comes into effect in April 2016. Both presenters stressed that this was very soon, and companies should be very aware of that implementation date.

Day Two Sefa Targit, president of AYSAD (Turkish elevator association), chaired day two of the conference. He introduced Ercüment Hizal, Adnan Köşker and Nihat Ergün, who formed the panel of experts. Keynotes below give an overview of the topics the panel discussed. Ergün, Turkey’s former Minister of Industry & Technology, stated that the country’s wealth is “above the ground and not under it.” He explained that “to increase this wealth, [the] public authority relies mainly on our industrialists and entrepreneurs.” He then added that there is a law that has been debated in Parliament that will hold provincial administrations and local governments responsible for any lift accidents. Hizal stressed that Turkish industrialists are not able to grow and create their own brand: everybody wants to be “a boss”; therefore, partnerships are not fostered. Also, R&D activities are not highly valued: copying is preferred over creating individual, original designs. Köşker, mayor of the industrial city of Gebze, said that those in charge of performing yearly lift controls are not adequately trained, nor perform uniform auditions. Confusion over which codes and standards are required is still a major problem. There is a real value in these small conferences, and it was good to see that the exhibition committee allowed time to run its two sessions during the main exhibition. This is always difficult to arrange and ensure an audience can be enticed away from the attractions and hospitality of the stands. As the main exhibition becomes larger, however, the challenge of attracting the audience becomes harder. Certainly, the Lift Design Contest and the conference both have high value and are expected at the next Asansör Istanbul event, which will take place in 2017.

Opposite page, top to bottom: The concurrently held conference was well attended; (l-r) Ebru Gemici Loukas and Paolo Tattoli; (l-r) Esfandiar Gharibaan and Wolfgang Adldinger

Some key companies at the exhibition were also showing a visionary side to their design activities and had prototypes and concept products for visitors to see, which again showed that the Asansör exhibition is more than a simple showcase and is growing in sophistication and ambition. Asansör Istanbul has developed progressively since its first iteration in 1992 at the center of the “Old World” where East meets West. The exhibition has always been colorful, and this 14th edition was just that, with flags, banners, floral bouquets, dramatic lighting and well-displayed products. The outcome of Selahattin Durak’s stepping down from the Istanbul Fair Organization (IFO) following the 2013 event and Tarsus’ joining IFO and AYSAD as organizer of the show was unclear. However, a positive influence was noticed, with the expo apparently moving on seamlessly, enabling more exhibitors and visitors to enjoy the numerous stands in the comfort of new halls with great facilities.




IFO Managing Director Zekeriya Aytemur invited a number of key figures in the lift sector to open the event by cutting a ribbon and sharing some opening thoughts with invited guests at a podium set in the busy entrance hall. Those helping him open the expo included Turkish Deputy Minister of Science, Industry and Technology Dr. Davut Kavranoğlu; President of AYSAD Sefa Targit; President of ELA Philippe Lamalle; and Erol Erbirer, a founding member of AYSAD who had worked in the industry for more than 60 years. Four halls were used for this 2015 event, with an exhibition floor area totaling some 50,000 m2. More than 434 exhibitors from 28 countries enjoyed good headroom, with stands arranged with broad, carpeted aisles between. This allowed good sightlines and comfortable viewing opportunities. This is an important feature of the Asansör fair, and the committee insisted that no enclosed stands would be permitted. “National Pavilions” grouping companies from Germany, Italy and China were included. These pavilions helped with the logistics and cost effectiveness of exhibiting for many companies. However, most larger international companies chose to have their own exhibition booths or be featured in a display in a partner’s or agent’s stand. Most lift products at the exhibition were components, but there were also new systems and prototypes. The components included lift cars, door operators, geared and gearless machines, safety gears, hydraulic pumps, electronic valves, ropes, belts, control panels, guide rails, guides, freight lifts, etc. Panoramic cars were in abundance, and it was clear that companies had the intention of supplying these products for the large and stillgrowing Turkish shopping-mall market. Complete lift packages including hydraulic, traction and pneumatic systems could be found. Traction systems had the most diverse arrangements, utilizing steel ropes with geared or gearless machines, Continued

• Issue 3, Volume 9 •


Exhibition Hall


ELEVATOR WORLD India • 3rd Quarter 2015 •

Exhibition Hall

• Issue 3, Volume 9 •


Dinner for the Press by Sofia Antoniadou

KLEEMANN held a dinner for the industry press on March 26 at the Tüyap Palas. It brought together representatives from the largest industry magazines, both locally and globally, affording an opportunity for discussing current industry issues and relaxing in an elegant and friendly setting. Lazaros Asvestopoulos, commercial director of KLEEMANN and Apostolos Kalyvas, general manager of KLEEMANN Asansör, KLEEMANN’s subsidiary of 14 years in Istanbul, welcomed the guests. They also had the chance to announce the company’s new 6,500-m2 logistics center in Istanbul and presented its plans to firmly establish itself in the markets it is in, and further develop and expand its presence to new targeted markets worldwide.

belt suspension and/or transmissions and machines mounted in a variety of positions. Asansör Istanbul also caters to contractors, specifiers and supply companies operating in the countries that border the Black Sea and the Southern Mediterranean, including the Persian Gulf and Middle East regions. Visitors and specifiers from these countries were much in attendance and actively looking for all types of lift and escalator packages. Also, European installation companies were there looking at the possibility of sourcing more products from Turkish manufacturers. The great deal of equipment designed, manufactured and supplied from the EU and globally reflected the fact that Turkey is now a major international lift market. The Turkish lift and escalator market requires a great deal of understanding, and independent lift consultants are certainly going to be needed to mediate between the lift supplier/service company and the owner, whether the latter is public or private. The expo was a great success from many points of view. Visitor numbers were logged at 28,278 from 88 countries. The great strength of Asansör Istanbul is that it gives options for products that can be used in the mass market. Equipment on show is not intended to supply supertall buildings, travel extremely fast or have the most sophisticated control. It is about the everyday needs of lift companies and users working in the built environment. The Turkish lift industry has worked hard to build on this reality and shown that much is possible. ELEVATOR WORLD India and your author look forward to seeing which changes happen over the next few years. Asansör Istanbul 2017 will surely tell another story regarding the lift industry, and we will be there to see just what that story is. John Gale is a third-generation veteran of the lift industry. He has worked as a photographer and contributor for ELEVATOR WORLD since 1986, primarily covering meetings, congresses and trade shows. In 1999, he co-designed Moving People from Street to Platform, a book on the vertical-transportation equipment in the London Underground.

(l-r) Fabio Liberali, editorial manager of ELEVATORI; Lazaros Asvestopoulos, commercial director of KLEEMANN; Apostolos Kalyvas, general manager of KLEEMANN Asansör; and Sturgeon-Hendrick, MacKinnon and Brad O’Guynn of Elevator World

The expo was a great success from many points of view. Visitor numbers were logged at 28,278 from 88 countries. The great strength of Asansör Istanbul is that it gives options for products that can be used in the mass market. 42

ELEVATOR WORLD India • 3rd Quarter 2015 •

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Company Spotlight

Elevator Integration Solutions from INVT A Chinese company rides the innovation wave.

by Vashdev S G The elevator market, world over, is fast outgrowing the singular-component supply stage. The future is all about integrated elevatorcontrol solutions. One of the bigger players in this new frontier is China’s INVT. INVT was one of the earliest companies to provide integrated elevator-control solutions. Today, it is one of the top three elevator-controlsystem manufacturers in China. The company set up base in India in 2006, with operational branches across major cities and residential sales managers in other locations. Being excited to participate in the country’s growth strategy, it

has set up branch offices in Mumbai and Bangalore to develop the elevator business in India. INVT products are also available in Poland, Italy, Portugal, Romania, Bulgaria, Greece, the Netherlands, Turkey, Iran, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Dubai, South Korea, Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Myanmar and Bangladesh. INVT offers two kinds of elevator solutions: the elevator inverter CHV180 to support geared and gearless machines, and the EC100 and EC160 elevator integrated controllers for geared and gearless machines. The company specializes Continued


ELEVATOR WORLD India • 3rd Quarter 2015 •

Email: Web:

Toll free nos 1800 - 209 - 5438 (Any Landline/ Mobile) 1899 – 22 – 5438/ 5538 (MTNL/ BSNL)

For 15kW and below

With a strong presence in more than 60 countries, the company is constantly expanding its global base directly and indirectly through distributors and large machine builders across all major industrial markets. in manufacturing V3F drives, integrated elevator-drive systems, programmable logic controllers, servos, touchscreens, industrialcontrol equipment, new energy technologies, rail traction, servo and motion-control systems, and energy-management and building-intelligence systems, to name a few. INVT products are certified with continuing education, TĂœV SĂœD, ISO 9001 and 14001, and OHSAS standards.  With an annual turnover of more than US$200 million, INVT has four factories located in Shenzhen, Shanghai, Suzhou and Xi’an. It is the country’s largest exporter of drives. With a strong focus on R&D, the company has been instrumental in developing


ELEVATOR WORLD India • 3rd Quarter 2015 •

For 18.5kW and above

advanced, high-quality drives and has achieved tremendous growth. It went public in 2010 and has been consistently listed as “A-Categoryâ€? stock. In 2014, it had a 3% market share for integrated elevator systems in the Turkish elevator market. It has partnered with KONE Turkey, KLEEMANN in Greece and HISA in Vietnam. INVT owns more than 550 patents, with 13 subsidiaries and an overall staff of 1,100 at the Shenzhen headquarters and 1,600 staff members around the globe in 31 offices supporting sales, technical issues and repairs. With a strong presence in more than 60 countries, the company is constantly expanding its global base directly and indirectly through distributors and large machine builders across all major industrial markets. Focusing on designing and manufacturing high-quality independent drives and integrated elevator-drive systems, INVT enjoys a leadership position in China.  đ&#x;Œ?

Public Safety

EEST Safe-T Rider Program Driving citizen awareness on the safe use of elevators, escalators and moving walks by Kanika Goswami ELEVATOR WORLD India (EWI) had a conversation with Stephen D’Souza (SD), director of Field Operations, Otis India, and Sebi Joseph (SJ), managing director, Otis India, to get their perspective on the Elevator Escalator Safety Trust (EEST)’s activities. EWI: How did Otis India become involved with EEST and integrate its program with its own culture? SD: Safe-T RiderŠ – EEST’s safety-awareness program supported by Elevator World, Inc.; Otis India; and other elevator companies – is a module designed to train people on the safe and effective use of elevators, escalators and moving walks. Launched in 2008, this program was first initiated in schools. Otis India partnered with EEST and moved this program forward in 2010. As of today, Safe-T Rider has reached more than 42,000 schoolchildren across India. The well-received program has picked up momentum, extending to housing societies, corporations, mall personnel, fire-brigade personnel and government officials. With its success outside of schools, the Safe-T Rider awareness program has been made available to approximately 8,000 adults. EWI: What would you say drives the program, that even kids enjoy it? SD: The interactive module encourages participants to ask questions and have a discussion about elevator operation and safe usage. To make the program interesting, sessions also incorporate a quiz, which engages participants. To add a bit of excitement to the module, sessions are concluded with an awards ceremony, wherein certificates are given to schoolchildren who have successfully completed


ELEVATOR WORLD India • 3rd Quarter 2015 •

the training. Coloring books on safety topics keep children interested, while allowing them to learn the safety dos and don’ts. EWI: How is Otis India supporting EEST and what should we expect as we traverse the road ahead? SJ: At Otis, safety is our highest priority. Through Safe-T Rider, we want to spread our “safety firstâ€? message to the passengers riding our lifts. EEST, under the guidance of TAK Mathews, has made this possible. People who receive this training go on to become safety ambassadors and spread the word on its importance. We are confident this knowledge, once implemented, will help develop a culture of safety in the country. Essentially, the program is comprised of safety tips of which people are already aware. Safe-T Rider brings this know-how to the forefront and emphasizes its importance, which, in turn, helps us remain safe when riding an elevator, escalator or moving walk. As a program, Safe-T Rider is monitored closely at the regional level in Otis to ensure we reach a wide base of users. Apart from main metros, we are paying equal attention to smaller cities. We are very proud to be associated with EEST and Elevator World and are honored by the recognition we received in 2014 for our efforts in promoting the Safe-T Rider program đ&#x;Œ? throughout India.  

Market Trends

The State of Rapid Transportation Lifts, escalators in Indian metros and monorails discussed.

by Kanika Goswami The first metro in India came to Kolkata in 1984. The next to arrive was the Delhi metro, India’s first modern metro, after the Chennai Mass Rapid Transit System started operations in 2002. In Gurgaon, it started in 2013, and last year, it was Mumbai’s turn – Mumbai Monorail, which opened in 2014, the first monorail in India. That same year, the prime minister approved the Union Urban Development Ministry’s proposal to implement metro rail systems in 50 cities in a bid to improve their transportation infrastructure. The union government has decided to invest approximately INR5 trillion (US$78.7 billion) in the initiative.

After completion of its Phase III network by 2017, the Delhi metro will become the biggest user of escalators and elevators in the world.

(India) Ltd. worked in a partnership with L&T Metro Rail (Hyderabad) Ltd. to provide 670 units for the Hyderabad Metro Rail Project. They supplied the environmentally friendly 520 NPE-L escalators designed for public transportation and heavy traffic demands. For elevators, Otis’ Gen2® Premier with Gen2® flat-belt system was used.

Specifics Overburdened escalators and elevators are a common sight. To meet the large passenger volume of Indian transit stations, the elevators and escalators need to meet certain specifications. Johnson Lifts shared the specific requirements metro officials had laid down for lifts in the stations: Continued

Overview Currently, 15 cities have seen metro operations, while the rest are still under planning or structuring. With smart planning and technology in place, the rapid-transportation system in India is well on its way to becoming a major citizen convenience. All major stations include lifts and escalators. They are called to run efficiently 20 hr. a day, day after day, month after month, to transport consistently heavy crowds. These units were supplied by some of the leading elevator brands in the country: Johnson Lifts, which worked on the Chennai metro stations; Otis, which worked on the Delhi and Hyderabad metros; and Schindler, supplier of the elevators and escalators in the Mumbai metro. Specific instructions for most of these came from the Delhi Metro Rail Corp. (DMRC), which is overseeing most of these projects. Otis


ELEVATOR WORLD India • 3rd Quarter 2015 •

Figure 1: DMRC project Phase III, first section


♦♦ Elevators provided with fire-rated landing doors, fire-retardant and halogen-free cables, and fire/smoke detection systems are required to operate during fires. ♦♦ The problem of man-trap and safetyrelated requirements during power failure are completely addressed. Automatic landing and door controls with passenger sensors, automatic rescue systems and manual rescue devices are included. Telephone communication is provided for connecting passengers in the lift with control room and technicians. ♦♦ Techniques employing automatic diagnostics and rapid repair facilities; use of interchangeable, modular components provided to optimize troubleshooting ♦♦ Signage and displays are to cater to all passengers, including handicapped persons. ♦♦ Elevators shall have minimum maintenance with minimum or no impact on the train services. Routine and scheduled maintenance periods are limited to non-operational maintenance hours during the night or, if essential, during off-peak periods. ♦♦ Centralized, network-based remotemonitoring system for lift operation and maintenance feedback and automatic maintenance-call generation systems are in considerable demand in metro applications. ♦♦ Elevator systems shall conform to established and governing standards of the Electricity Act and Rules; applicable local authority rules; Indian Standards (IS) including IS 14665, 15785, 15330, 7759 and IS 1860; and additional global safety standards like EN 81 and NFPA 130. Adds Anoop Kumar Gupta, director (Electrical), Delhi Metro Rail Corp. (DMRC): “The foremost requirements for elevators and escalators in the metro stations were that all stations of DMRC have escalators, elevators and tactile tiles to

These units were supplied by some of the leading elevator brands in the country: Johnson Lifts, which worked on the Chennai metro stations; Otis, which worked on the Delhi and Hyderabad metros; and Schindler, supplier of the elevators and escalators in the Mumbai metro. guide the visually impaired from station entrances to trains. Secondly, all elevators conformed to [the] ‘Accessible India Campaign’ [of the] Department of Social Welfare, Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi. DMRC has extra functionality for public safety and extra loads.” Gupta explains that other standard elevator specifications for metros are: ♦♦ All elevators are capable of operating at 180 motor starts per hour for 20 hr. per day, seven days a week. ♦♦ Motors used are not to have less than 85% efficiency, include class-F insulation and be designed for 110% of rated load. ♦♦ Fire-resistant landing doors suitable for 2.5 million operations ♦♦ As a safeguard against entrapment of objects in door gap of elevator, a door profile is provided in each elevator door to ensure the gap is not more than 5 mm. ♦♦ All buttons used are “jumbo size,” a minimum of 50 mm X 50 mm. Also, “big size” position indicators are used for easier floor identification. ♦♦ Scratch-resistant stainless-steel sheets are used for car and architrave panels to avoid vandalism. ♦♦ Ground-level elevator equipment is pilfer proof. ♦♦ Surge suppressors are used to avoid surges in the power supply. ♦♦ Elevator auto-call registration facility for two floors ♦♦ Landing-door bypass is under implementation. ♦♦ SMS-based monitoring system ♦♦ Redundant rescue system ♦♦ Ride-comfort-level monitoring ♦♦ Minimum clear door opening of 900 mm and handrails at height of 900 mm from floor for wheelchair-bound passengers. Wheelchair reversal is assisted by half-height mirror on rear wall of car.

♦♦ Push buttons used in DMRC lifts are getting text in Braille and raised symbols and illuminated feedback. ♦♦ A tactile floor path to the lifts is provided during civil construction for visually impaired passengers. ♦♦ Uninterruptible power supply (UPS) ♦♦ A lift announcement system for information of car position ♦♦ Battery-operated automatic rescue device (ARD) to facilitate rescue of stranded passengers in the lift ♦♦ Conformal coating on printed circuit board (PCB) in the lift shaft as per IEC 60068 to ensure proper environmental protection and minimize PCB failures ♦♦ ARD battery health monitoring feature ♦♦ ARD operation is checked for leveling accuracy of within 10 mm. ♦♦ Next-landing feature Johnson Lifts met these requirements, but it was by no means an easy task. Says V. Jagannathan, executive director: “Design and specifications were considered strictly as per requirements and detailed document procedures followed for design of elevator systems. The design philosophy, specification requirements, methods and calculations [were] reviewed and approved by [a] senior design team. These documents [were] subjected to client review and approval. In addition, all major and critical components were verified with design life requirements, along with reliability and maintainability aspects. The system safety design was considered with safety hazard and failure mode, effects and criticality analysis.” The elevator control systems were specially designed to meet technologically advanced feedback-mechanism, remotemonitoring and automatic-rescue operations. Essential sensors and measurement devices were incorporated to minimize safety risks. When elevator components suppliers were selected, experience, technical knowhow and Continued


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production capabilities were all taken into consideration. Their credentials were reviewed, as was their quality system and conformity to standards. Final designs were verified with type-test certification from third-party inspection. In special cases, type tests were conducted at manufacturing facilities and accredited laboratories. A complete prototype of the elevator was assembled in a test tower. Detailed inspection and tests were carried out to confirm meeting of requirements, and these prototype in-depth inspections and reviews were witnessed by representatives from clients. The interface requirements were formulated with the help of interface documents, drawings, mock-ups and isometric views for easy communication with all interface stakeholders. The elevators in metro stations are generally designed for a running time of at least 20 hours a day. Gupta informs us that the escalators need to be heavy duty, assuming all are running on full load. There are a couple of other things that are taken into account, like regenerative braking. For handicapped people, the code itself speaks of the provisions – handrail, mirror and sufficient space inside the car for a wheelchair. The lifts have front-opening automatic doors. The presence of an ARD is generally a given. In the case of a power failure, it should be able to operate on battery, and the lift automatically goes to the nearest landing with an announcement to prevent people inside from panicking. If ARD fails, an electric rescue device (ERD) needs to be in place, Bhuradia explains:


ELEVATOR WORLD India • 3rd Quarter 2015 •






“In this case, all our lifts are connected to a remote-monitoring system that we are installing in the control systems. It gives a real-time status of the lifts: identifying which one is running, which is faulty, which has undergone power failures. . . besides that, there is a telephone in each car parallel connected to [the] control room and maintenance access panel. We can reach out whenever there is a problem. In case there is a trucking, and the ARD will not work, the passenger can make a call that will go to the control room, which is fully manned [during] working hours. We have added one more feature: ERD. [If it] doesn’t work, there is manual rescue. Our main concern is minimum time to clear rescue.” Other technical specifications Johnson offered are: Elevator drive system is considered with latest permanentmagnet motor and veriable-voltage, variable-frequency drives designed for higher-than-rated output and efficiency norms. Bearings in the system are considered for long life with lifetime sealed bearings. Roping is designed with steel cores for a high safety factor. Drive systems are designed for low temperature rise, coupled with high ingress protection and high insulation resistance to meet severe environmental conditions. Elevator machine supports and car frames are ruggedly designed and hot-dip galvanized for corrosion resistance, considering high usage and long service life. The elevator is designed and developed in-house, produced indigenously, except for critical outsourced components. Continued

♦♦ Elevators are provided with 3D sensors, point sensors and load cells to monitor elevator usage. The software control system also includes energy-saving controls.

Challenges Elevators The elevator industry faces some unique challenges in mass rapid-transit systems. More than 25% of elevators in the Delhi metro transport more than 500,000 people per annum, with some exceeding 1 million. With that volume increasing, any dislocation of services or passenger entrapment invites adverse public criticism. Each elevator is required to provide a minimum service level of one million operations per annum. In metro applications Metro Rail Experience in India Kochi Metro: 97 escalators New project Rapid Metro ILFS Project: 27 escalators and 20 lifts Project commenced for operations. Jaipur Metro Rail (DMRC): 39 escalators and 42 lifts Supply complete, project is in execution stage. Chennai Metro: 296 escalators and 122 lifts Project is in execution stage. Bangalore Metro: 181 escalators 69 units in operation, balance in execution DMRC: 292 escalators (79 stations) Project in operation, DLP maintenance completed.

Data provided by SJEC and Johnson Elevator Specifications Item



Gearless motor with machine room or machine room less


1-1.25 mps


13 passenger/1000 kg Max load: 400 kg (other 8,20,26 passenger lifts)

Design life

Elevator Specifications Operating Devices

Protection Devices

Safety Devices

1. Full-length COP 2. Firefighters’ control & switch 3. Call button & position indicator 4. Lift announcing system 5. Car fans 6. Intercom telephone 7. Car position indicator/display 8. Hall lantern & arrival gong 9. Auto/attendant mode 10. Fault/data history 11. Remote monitoring system 12. Braille buttons (50 mm square or round) 13. Car handrail (3 sides) 14. Mirror 15. Auto fan & light on/off 16. Overload detection 17. Overload indication 18. Battery operated emergency light & alarm 19. MAP at top landing 20. VVVF for door motor drive 21. Pit ladder 22. Lighting, pit & headroom 23. Regenerative drive

1. Phase protection 2. Brake monitoring 3. VVVF drive protection 4. Door nudging device

1. Automatic rescue device 2. Manual brake release 3. Load weighing device 4. Door safety 2D/3D curtain 5. Overspeed governor 6. Car safety gear 7. Counter weight safety 8. Car buffer 9. Counterweight buffer 10. Car overtravel protection 11. Car releveling 12. Car door lock safety 13. Landing door lock 14. Pit stop switch 15. Cartop barricade

180 motor starts per hour 30 years design life @1 million operations per annum @ 4 million door operations per annum

Fire rating

Two hours fire-rated landing doors for SS (with vision panel)


1600 W x 1400 D x 2300 H below false ceiling, SS finish

Car door

1000 W x 2100 H, center-opening power doors, SS/glass

Safety factors

12 ropes

Drive system

PM motor: 180 starts per hour, 82-85% efficiency, IP 41, class F VVVF drive

Electrical ingress protection

IP 55 for panels and limit switches

Ride comfort

0.5 mps2 acceleration/decleraton 2 mps3 jerk 20 pk-pk gal vertical vibration 12 pk-pk gal lateral quake

Leveling accuracy

+ 5 mm

Noise level

max 55 db

with two landings, this leads to four million door operations per year. These operations are required with severe conditions like high ambient temperature and dust, especially for unsheltered elevators from ground to concourse levels. They need to have a design life of 30 years, with no replacement of major components necessary for 20 years. Maintenance requirements call for routine and scheduled maintenance carried out monthly and detailed inspections and maintenance carried out quarterly and annually. In addition, elevators at metro stations need to be energy efficient, with efficient and/or regenerative drive systems, LED lights, and controls for optimum power saving. They should have a maximum utilization of indigenous materials and local skills specified with conformity with required quality levels. Documented procedures conforming to ISO 9001 are required. This includes following safety and environmental standards with certification in accordance with ISO 14001 and OHSAS 18001. The documentation includes hazard analysis, risk elimination and control measures. Continued


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♌♌ Skirt guard to prevent sarees or any other garments from getting stuck in any part of escalator ♌♌ Emergency-stop switches are provided at top, bottom and middle locations in escalators. ♌♌ Escalator announcement system for instructing passengers on safe riding


Figure 2: DMRC project Phase III, first section

The elevators in the metro stations have been fitted with heavyduty traction motors for enhanced reliability. In addition, an emergency alarm is provided in the station control room and customer-care room for quick rescue of entrapped passengers, with an emergency alarm at each landing. The doorsill section is made of stainless steel to bear more load for hanging pit lifts, and additional overspeed governors are provided for counterweight.

Delhi metro was recently adjudged third-best metro in the world. Adds Gupta, “DMRC is a world-class organization and pioneer in expanding the metro rail system in India. I assure you that DMRC is one of the best [metros] in [the] world. Our metro system is unique in its features.â€? DMRC officials are satisfied by the work done by its Indian suppliers. As Gupta maintains, “Yes, internationally producing manufacturers such as KONE, Otis, Schindler and ETA–Melco, and domestically producing manufacturers, such as Johnson are well aware of our specifications, [and] they are also able to meet our requirements.â€? After completion of its Phase III network by 2017, the Delhi metro will become the biggest user of escalators and elevators in the world. A total of 1,033 escalators and 1,024 elevators will be in đ&#x;Œ? DMRC’s kitty.  

Escalators A safe escalator is a necessity in a metro station. Johnson’s escalators ensured: ♌♌ Four flat steps at top and bottom landings and comb lights to guide passengers stepping in and out ♌♌ Running escalators at 0.2 mps for energy savings if no one is there for 2 min. and running them at two speeds (i.e., 0.5 and 0.65 mps) in normal running conditions ♌♌ Yellow marking on the escalator steps to identify the safe area for standing on them, along with three emergency-stop switches at top, middle and bottom ♌♌ Skirt safety switch and comb safety switch to trip the escalator if foreign material is entangled between the combplates and skirt/ moving steps. ♌♌ Protection devices for broken step chain, handrail, overspeed, anti-reverse and electrical surges The needs of a safe escalator for public use, according to DMRC, were: ♌♌ Escalators are designed for heavy-duty, semi–outdoor application. ♌♌ Four flat steps at both upper and lower landings for smooth rides ♌♌ Energy-saving device to save more than 30% of normal escalator energy used during no-load operation ♌♌ Handrail finger guards provided at entry points to newels to avoid objects entering the gaps between handrails and newels ♌♌ Green light in pits to demarcate the moving and non-moving parts of the escalator. ♌♌ UPS-backed comb lighting to facilitate entering and exiting


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1,033 Escalators

1,024 Elevators

Figure 3: DMRC elevator and escalator numbers following completion of its Phase III project in 2017


The Paris skyline


Conference 2015 Lifts in the European energy landscape, new Lifts Directive discussed in Paris. by John Gale The European Lift Association (ELA) Conference 2015 was held on April 28 at Le Palais des Congrès de Paris, an internationally styled conference hall in the heart of Paris completed in the 1970s. The 200 delegates attending the ELA conference were comfortably housed in one of the satellite rooms within the modernist building. Here, they were greeted by ELA Secretary General Jean-Pierre Jacobs and the ELA team. ELA President Philippe Lamalle then welcomed guests and members. He explained this was his last conference as ELA president (see sidebar on pg. ??) and how pleased he was to be in his home city and have such a turnout of experts. Lamalle talked about how increasing population, life expectancy and urbanization will shape the world in which we live, including the lift industry. He explained the conference would be divided into two parts, with the morning focusing on the European energy scene and the afternoon on the new Lifts Directive 2014/33/EU.

The first session consisted of four presentations providing an overview of the energy situation in Europe. Policy OfficerEuropean Commission, Directorate General for Energy Marcos González Álvarez introduced delegates to the objectives of the new Lifts Directive 2020/30/EU and how to fulfill its requirements at a national level. Álvarez showed the different ways of achieving the objectives and described the role of the lift sector. Professor Aníbal Traça de Almeida from Universidade de Coimbra, who has been a key influence regarding energy consumption, then updated delegates on the E4 project, a study of the energy efficiency of lifts and escalators. The study also looked at what has happened since the introduction of the initiative, which was originally presented at the ELA Conference 2009 in Berlin. Vincent Detemmerman from the European Construction Industry Federation gave a presentation on the state of the European construction market.


• Issue 3, Volume 9 •


Jacobs Lamalle Mille Pirralha


Almeida Alvarez Bosoni Casquisco Detemmerman

Angelo Bosoni, chairman of ELA’s Quality, Safety, Environment and Education Committee, gave an update on where the industry is headed regarding energy-efficient equipment. He shared that the ELA’s working group for Product Category Rules (PCRs) for lifts has finalized a simplified PCR that was out for comment. It is anticipated it will be published in September. He reiterated that ELA wants lift and escalator requirements to be incorporated into national Energy Performance of Buildings Directives (EPBDs), and observed that Denmark is ahead of the curve, as it has had energy efficiency for lifts as a requirement in its building regulations since January 2014. Portugal and France are also moving in the right direction, but more slowly, he noted. A panel session concluded this part of the conference, and lunch was served. The afternoon featured two workshop sessions. The first covered energy, and the second discussed Lifts Directive 2014/33/ EU. To set the scene for the first, Bosoni gave ELA analyses of and views on the European energy regulatory framework. This was followed by two presentations introducing the audience to the implementation of laws and regulations covering energy use and management in Portugal and France. José Pirralha and Manual Casquisco praised Almeida, stating he has been one of the key driving forces for verticaltransportation energy efficiency in Portugal. Key dates for this initiative’s next steps are: ♦♦ September 2015: Preparation of an online platform to register and issue energy labels for lifts and escalators should occur. Financing of energy audits for existing lifts in nonresidential buildings should be arranged, drawing from an EU$400-million (US$453.9million) energy-efficiency fund.

It was noted companies need to record and document all components and provide new product labeling.


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♦♦ January 2016: Procedures and enforcement of the energy-labeling scheme for lifts and escalators should occur. Pierre Mille described the situation from a French perspective, which reflected much of the Portuguese experience. He added that lifts had only recently been included in a building’s energy audit. Certification processes and certificates, such as the White Certificate process, encourage compliance with the EPBD and promote energy efficiency, he said. The second workshop looked at Lifts Directive 2014/33/EU, with the first presentation given by Esfandiar Gharibaan. This was an overview and introduction to the directive in which Gharibaan stressed there is only one stage to go before the directive becomes operational. The new directive will be transposed and applied beginning in April 2016. It was noted there is no transition period. Birgit Weidel from the European Commission gave a presentation looking at the directive from the commission’s point of view. Key elements included: ♦♦ Obligations of all companies and bodies involved in the supply and distribution chain ♦♦ Stronger rules for Notified Bodies ♦♦ Improved market surveillance and development of tools and procedures to facilitate it ♦♦ Implementation of uniform terminology to help facilitate a more consistent application of the directive It was noted companies need to record and document all components and provide new product labeling. The commission realizes this would have a considerable cost implication for the industry. However, improvement in traceability and scope will be significant. From April 20, 2016, any component placed on the market will need: ♦♦ Adapted technical documentation with reference to the new directive ♦♦ A new Declaration of Conformity set out as template Annex 11 ♦♦ Names of the lift-equipment installer and safety-component manufacturer/ importer ♦♦ Type/batch/serial number ♦♦ Traceability and a monitoring system

During the panel session, it became apparent that the full extent of the certification has not been fully realized.

In closing, Weidel identified the next steps that need to occur nationally by April 19, 2016. These include re-notifying the Notified Bodies, publishing revised guidelines and starting evaluation of the Lifts Directive. Veronique Spreadbury then gave the ELA’s perspective on the directive, which reinforced many points regarding its certification, traceability and monitoring. The main changes brought about by the recast are that member states are obliged to ensure effective market surveillance and reinforce accreditation and notification of the Conformity Assessment Bodies. Importantly, there are specified operating principles for Notified Bodies, including proof of independence from economic operators. Spreadbury explained that product surveillance applies to all economic operators — installers, manufacturers, distributors, importers and authorized representatives. These operators must create traceability, monitor for nonconformity, take corrective action and inform national authorities of their findings. The final presentation was given by Christian de Mas Latrie, who discussed implementation of the directive. This has many bureaucratic implications, which calls for transparent relationships and reporting. De Mas Latrie explained how definitions and interpretation of nonconformity are important. Reporting time for any safety risk should be immediate, so the extent of that risk can be analysed. The point of contact between the economic operator and national authority needs to be clear, and a reasonable period should be required for a response. During the panel session, it became apparent that the full extent of the certification has not been fully realized. Significantly, not only individual safety components but also composites of those components need to be certified. This extra certification requirement will result in additional, significant costs for the industry. The conference was very important, as many codes and standards that will have a great impact on the European verticaltransportation industry are changing. What is covered by law, what is a recommendation, what is the hope for the future — these are some of the issues delegates will continue to ponder.

Top to bottom: (l-r) Esfandiar Gharibaan, Veronique Spreadbury and Birgit Weidel

John Gale is a third-generation veteran of the lift industry. He has worked as a photographer and contributor for ELEVATOR WORLD since 1986, primarily covering meetings, congresses and trade shows. In 1999, he co-designed Moving People from Street to Platform, a book on the vertical-transportation equipment in the London Underground.

The sign-in table at ELA Conference 2015 Delegates listen to presentations.

• Issue 3, Volume 9 •



Elasticity Behavior of Elevator Ropes Demands are increasing due to a variety of factors. by Dr.-Ing. Andreas Franz and Dipl.-Ing. Konrad Stahr Increasing building/traveling heights, high-usage levels and modern system designs are among the factors increasing the demands on the physical properties of elevator suspension ropes. The trend toward saving cost and energy by reducing the size and weight of moving masses in regard to dynamic loads (e.g., drives and rotating parts) and static loads (e.g., cabs or car enclosures) further moves the operating point of modern suspension ropes into lower rope load ranges. An important consideration, in addition to rope minimum breaking force and rope service life (or bending fatigue performance) is the elasticity behavior of a rope under load. Rope elasticity is directly related to the compressive deflection of the cab under load, and thus has a significant impact on the behavior and performance of the elevator installation (e.g., adjustment of leveling control, energy demand in multiple starts of the drive, service life and wear of drive components). Thus, it is directly related to the total cost of ownership, as well as the subjective perception of the passenger about system comfort (e.g., car movement during loading and unloading, releveling of cab, offset of hoistway landing and cab sills). In overall elevator-system design, it is necessary to consider the elasticity behavior of the suspension ropes by making certain reasonable assumptions. This article will summarize possibilities for determining the rope

Rope elasticity is directly related to the compressive deflection of the cab under load, and, thus, has a significant impact on the behavior and performance of the elevator installation.

modulus of elasticity according to current standards, describing characteristic phenomena regarding rope stiffness and reviewing the stiffness-optimized product options from the Gustav Wolf GmbH product portfolio.

Axial Modulus of Elasticity Procedures and instructions for determining a rope’s modulus of elasticity in the longitudinal (axial) direction for wire ropes can be found in the International Standard ISO 12076,[1] as well as in the German technical guideline VDI 2358,[2] which has been revised in this regard. The test parameters of both sources already vary widely, so the guidelines have not yet fully penetrated production, market and application. There also exist, depending on the region, numerous user-specific approaches to determine the axial elasticity/stiffness, which takes into account the prevailing load of the wire rope in the application on a test basis. The approaches to the pre-loading of the rope sample, as well as minimizing the rope’s inherent setting behavior (the components of the rope compress under load, which normally is a short-term phenomenon and stops soon after installation), already differ greatly between application requirements, as do clamping and testing conditions. This setting behavior can be pronouncedly different depending on rope design. Figure 1 illustrates the different approaches regarding the considered load area. In all approaches, the rope’s longitudinal modulus of elasticity is to be understood as the gradient of the force-elongation diagram, which is mostly calculated as a secant modulus between two single points of axially applied load (see dots in same color for respective approach of calculation). The force-elongation behavior of every rope is always nonlinear, and it differs for loading and unloading (see green lines in Figure 1). Continued


ELEVATOR WORLD India • 3rd Quarter 2015 •

EN 81-20 and EN 81-50 are changing the elevator and components world like nothing before. They are opening new markets and opportunities. The interlift 2015 is the first trade fair worldwide to present these new solutions.

Elevator trade fairs show elevator technology. Only one shows the global market: interlift – The World of Elevators 13th - 16th October 2015 | Messe Augsburg | Germany Information and guest tickets online:

Technical sponsor: VFA-Interlift e.V. n n Organiser: AFAG Messen und Ausstellungen GmbH n

Figure 1: Comparability and load ranges to determine the rope modulus of elasticity in the longitudinal direction by means of the characteristic tension-strain relationship for wire ropes

Therefore, a secant or tangent modulus will always be a linear assumption/ simplification of this behavior, which will be adequate for certain ranges of axial load. In Figure 1, by comparing the different slopes/pitches of the respective lines between two loading points (same color means same approach of calculation), it is clearly evident that sharply varying moduli may be derived for the same rope. Moreover, as a rule of thumb, the rope modulus may be understood as rising with the amount of rope force related to the rope’s breaking force. The differences in rope modulus may be illustrated by comparing the curve pitches directly after parallel translation (see the upper left corner of Figure 1). It should be noted that the three calculated rope moduli of elasticity mentioned in Figure 1 may differ from 60,000 N/mm2 to 110,000 N/mm2. Keeping in mind that exactly the same rope evaluated is represented by this figure, it becomes evident that just a statement on rope stiffness in regard to modulus does not necessarily reflect the behavior of the elevator car under load. Often utilized as a measure of rope performance, Figure 1 intends to show the incomparability of different approaches of calculation and the importance of stating how the modulus of elasticity is being determined for the actual rope product by the rope manufacturer, user or third party. To determine the elongation/stiffness behavior in the application itself, it is


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useful to evaluate the load and timedependent behavior of the respective rope under different application-related conditions. For elevator ropes, a close coordination between rope users and manufacturers is helpful. Gustav Wolf can provide its customers the necessary elongation and elasticity characteristics based on application parameters provided by the customer.

Time-Dependent Behavior of Axial Modulus of Elasticity The rope modulus is not a quantitative value that is constantly available

immediately after installation of the rope. Instead, the rope structure is subject to a setting behavior. After the setting has taken place, specific rope stiffness is constantly present in a certain load range. The fact that a rope labeled “pre-stretched” is used has no significant influence on this behavior. Knowledge with respect to time dependency and the expression of this phenomenon for different rope types and designs is crucial to the design and evaluation of elevator behavior for the elevator manufacturer. Figure 2 illustrates the rope elastic modulus between 2% and 10% of the rope’s minimum breaking strength (range of typical load conditions for elevator ropes conforming to Figure 1) as a function of the number of axial load cycles. All elastic moduli were related to the final adjusting value of the respective type of rope so that quantitative differences regarding the rope modulus of elasticity of the rope types evaluated (Figure 4) at this point are deliberately not considered. Clearly visible is the dependence of the adjusting modulus of elasticity as a function of cycles of axial load for the different rope designs. While suspension ropes with natural and synthetic fiber cores initially exhibit a significantly reduced rope stiffness and, therefore, modulus (about 50-60% of the final modulus) and comparatively slowly approach their final Continued

Figure 2: Longitudinal modulus of elasticity in the work area of elevator ropes depending on the number of cyclic applications of axial load

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stiffness, after just a few load cycles, the full-steel ropes reach their final rope stiffness. The full-steel wire ropes also already exhibit a rope stiffness of about 80-90% of the final stiffness in the first load cycle. Differences can be seen both in the type of fiber core (natural versus synthetic), as well as in the type of rope structure (compaction versus parallel lay). For suspension ropes with natural fiber cores, no significant influence of compaction of the outer strands could be identified in terms of dynamic behavior regarding rope modulus of elasticity. In ropes with high-strength synthetic fiber cores, the setting behavior can be more pronounced, so a longer setting period may be necessary. Of course, the results shown in Figure 2 are dependent on the actual cyclic load applied in testing or application.

Figure 3: Performance of Gustav Wolf ropes in terms of ropes’ axial stiffness, minimum breaking force and bending fatigue lifetime

Stiffness-Optimized Rope Designs The worldwide trend toward construction of higher buildings requires longer elevator ropes. With it, the elongation, respectively, of the axial modulus of elasticity in the specific operating range of the utilized ropes takes on a bigger impact. In elevator applications, steel wire ropes with fiber core constructions of 8 X 19 Seale or 8 X 19 Warrington are commonly used. To the extent demands on ropes increase, there is a concurrent availability of more and more special ropes with eight or nine strands and full-steel cores. Most commonly, ropes with natural fiber cores exhibit a lower axial modulus of elasticity and, therefore, stiffness than ropes with full-steel cores. However, for ropes with fiber cores, this characteristic feature may be increased. On the one hand, this can be reached by a flattening of the outer wires/strands as carried out for Gustav Wolf CompactTracTM[3] with a substitution of the natural fiber cores by a high-modulus, high-strength synthetic fiber core as with Gustav Wolf HyTrac.TM[4] Figure 3 summarizes the performance of Gustav Wolf ’s rope types in terms of the ropes’ axial stiffness, minimum breaking force and bending fatigue lifetime to better provide for application-specific use. The result of application-oriented R&D in response to the increased demands of


ELEVATOR WORLD India • 3rd Quarter 2015 •

Figure 4: Gustav Wolf’s Trac series consists of (l-r) CompactTrac, HyTrac, PowerTrac and TopTrac.

elevator systems can be found in Gustav Wolf ’s Trac series, consisting of the CompactTrac, HyTrac, PowerTrac™ and TopTrac™ (Figures 3 and 4). All Trac series ropes distinguish themselves by exhibiting improvements in the following areas: ♦♦ Minimized rope elongation and respectively higher rope modulus of elasticity ♦♦ Longer rope service life due to more bending cycles ♦♦ Improved wear resistance due to the enlarged contact area of the outer strands ♦♦ Reduced rope diameters based on higher breaking forces With the Trac series, Gustav Wolf has developed a new generation of elevator ropes which distinguish themselves with improved stiffness behavior, longer service life, improved system performance and, most importantly, a higher level of customer satisfaction. They should be considered as a solution for the everincreasing demands of elevator systems

and, in particular, for high-rise installations.

References [1] ISO: ISO 12076:2002, “Steel Wire Ropes Determination of the Actual Modulus of Elasticity,” 2002. [2] VDI: Verein Deutscher Ingenieure (VDI): Richtlinie VDI 2358 - Drahtseile für Fördermittel, Beuth Verlag GmbH, 1984. [3] Wolf E. Franz, A., “Rope Development for Elevators,” ELEVATOR WORLD, March 2006. [4] Franz, A., “Development of Hybrid Rope for Elevators,” EW, July 2012.

Dr.-Ing. Andreas Franz has been employed at Gustav Wolf GmbH since 1998 as technical manager, Steel Wire Rope. He earned his Doctorate in Engineering from the Dresden University of Technology. Dipl.-Ing. Konrad Stahr has been employed at Gustav Wolf GmbH since 2013 as manager, Quality Assurance & Product Development. He earned his degree in Engineering from the Clausthal University of Technology.

Company Spotlight

Wittur India The global brand considers India the place to be. by Kanika Goswami

by Kanika Goswami


Wittur Group is one of the world’s largest independent suppliers of components and systems for the elevator industry. Its portfolio includes elevator doors, safety components, gearless drives, cabins, car frames and counterweight frames. India’s burgeoning elevator market attracted the


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brand to the country three years ago, and the venture has been successful since. Speaking on the entry of Wittur in India, R. Sumanth, managing director, Wittur Elevator Components India Pvt. Ltd., says: “India is the second-largest market for elevators in the world, followed by China. The market is growing 10-13%. The urban population was 377 million as per [the] 2011 census, and this [number] is expected to grow to 590 million by the end of 2030. This will translate to vertical growth in cities that are starved of construction

spaces. [The] estimated urban housing shortage was close to 19 million units in 2012. The building industry that will close this gap will be the target for the elevator market, too, and this will be the biggest driver for the growth of the brand in India.” Wittur is present in more than 50 countries with 10 production plants and sales offices. With the corporate motto “Safety in Motion,” the group focuses on safety in the elevator industry and continuously looks at ways to improve the

safety performance of its products. In addition, aesthetics are increasingly important in elevators and end users are becoming more demanding for designs and technologies that ensure these. “The increasing enforcement from statutory bodies is driving up quality levels across the entire industry,” Sumanth adds. “To cater to the demand foreseen from global and regional manufacturers, Wittur decided to enter the Indian market.” The company is ISO 9001 and 14001 certified and has a facility equipped with modern computer numerically controlled equipment for sheet-metal work, assembly lines and test equipment for assembling elevator components.

Products Wittur India has been operational since mid 2012 now with an advanced production facility in Chennai that currently manufactures car and landing doors, and cabins. Its portfolio includes complete kits for new installations and modernizations, as well as home lifts. Its first offering was the MDS1 door system, which has been well received in the country, and several thousand of these are in use all across the country. Sumanth elaborates: “Wittur decided to enter with basic door systems, initially, as this is a major share in the component business, and over the years, has added framed glass doors, heavy-duty multi-panel doors, modular car systems, etc. We will grow our portfolio based on market needs. We aim to be the market leader in the region and also be the most preferred supplier of components with full capability to design and manufacture as per the market needs in the region. “In 2012, we started with just two variants of the door, but as we grew closer to our customers and understood their needs, we [produced] more than 40 variants [of] our doors, including vision panels, framed glass doors and [a] variety of unique finishes. Also, we have introduced the MCS1 range of cabins in India, which cater to the middle and high end of the elevator markets. The cabins with glass panels are under development and, very soon, will be introduced in the market.


Opposite page, top to bottom: The administration building; a worker on the assembly line This page, top to bottom: A worker using a bending machine; a meeting in the concern room; an engineer using design software; finished products on display

• Issue 3, Volume 9 •


“The highlight of the MDS1 product is its ease of installation and maintenance. The sturdy packing that has been designed to suit Indian conditions ensures that no transit damages occur. These are two-panel doors with a range of openings between 700 and 1200 mm and heights between 2000 and 2200 mm, with both center- and telescopic-opening door options. A limited range of framed-glass variants [is] also available. Customers across the country have been using these doors for two years now and are very happy with [their] performance. In addition, a globally tested and proved Hydra range of multi-panel doors [is] available for heavy-duty applications and for openings larger than 1200 mm.� The MDS1 door system is fully compatible with the MCS1 cabin systems and minimizes overall installation times. Several features are built into the system to simplify and speed up erection. By the end of this quarter, the brand plans to introduce its own car frames, which can service the market up to speeds of 2.5 mps. “Sooner than later, we plan to supply full machine-room-less kits to our customers from India,� Sumanth adds.

Challenges and Opportunities Supplying to more than 300 customers across the country is a big challenge in itself, but the biggest challenge the brand faced was ensuring customer satisfaction. Sumanth very strongly feels that

Above: The safety room


ELEVATOR WORLD India • 3rd Quarter 2015 •

customers’ perception is the company’s reality, so Wittur India endeavors to make a customer, rather than a sale. To achieve this, it took such initiatives as having the technical support team as part of the sales team to ensure all customers had adequate post-sales support in training and installation, available physically and locally across the country. The other initiative was to supply the products to the customers’ doorstep by taking responsibility for their transportation and the liabilities involved. “We are happy that our customers have appreciated our initiatives by giving us more business. We will continue to do the right things [to] make it easy for our customers to do business with us,� Sumanth adds. With the recent call of the Indian government to encourage the “Make in India� concept for industries, many brands like Wittur stand to gain market ground. The program, as the company perceives it, is designed to facilitate investment, foster innovation, enhance skill development, protect intellectual property and build best-in-class manufacturing infrastructure. Like several other sectors, the elevator industry will also benefit from this. Sumanth cites the government’s development of the Delhi-Mumbai Industrial Corridor (DMIC) as one initiative that will benefit Wittur. The manufacturing and investment destination will utilize the 1,483-km-long, highcapacity western Dedicated Railway Freight Corridor as its backbone. The objective is to increase the share of manufacturing in the gross domestic product of the country and create smart sustainable cities, where manufacturing

will be the key economic driver. The project is featured in KPMG’s “100 Most Innovative Global Projects� and is what Sumanth calls “one of the world’s most innovative and inspiring infrastructure projects.� Twenty-four manufacturing cities are envisaged in the prospective plan of the DMIC project. In the first phase, seven cities are being developed, one each in the states of Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat, and two in Maharashtra. Five other corridors have been conceptualized: Bengaluru-Mumbai Economic Corridor; Amritsar-Kolkata Industrial Development Corridor; Chennai-Bengaluru Industrial Corridor; East Coast Economic Corridor; and Vizag-Chennai Industrial Corridor. Sumanth comments on the big govenrnmental projects: “Due to anticipated higher local content stipulations from the infrastructure sector, we are getting enquiries from existing customers and potential customers [on] our [ability] to manufacture products that have been traditionally imported by them, and this will set us thinking in terms of new investments.�

People Wittur’s vision statement is “ Wittur should be a place where people are proud to work.â€? The same philosophy applies at Wittur India, where the company provides necessary training to teams and individuals, and promotes a customeroriented work culture in the company. Sumanth concludes: “Our vision is to be the market leader and most preferred supplier of elevator components to the elevator industry in India and neighboring countries, with full capabilities to design and manufacture as đ&#x;Œ? per market needs.â€?  


Risk Potential of Safety Gears Inspections with test weights show a lack of clearness. by Tim Ebeling Henning GmbH & Co. KG, Germany This paper was presented at Paris 2014, the International Congress on Vertical Transportation Technologies, and first published in IAEE book Elevator Technology 20, edited by A. Lustig. It is a reprint with permission from the International Association of Elevator Engineers (website: This paper is an exact reprint and has not been edited by ELEVATOR WORLD. Key Words: Testing the safety gear, safety inspection, inspection with test weight, alternative testing systems

Abstract It is a preferred practice all over the world to test the safety gear with weights when elevator systems are placed on the market. And the justification is a reasonable one: during these tests all components are subjected to a mechanical stress test so that faults made during the installation and structural deficiencies are brought to light. But in a worst-case scenario – an emergency stop in free fall with full load – this test is only able to provide a verification of the effectiveness of the safety gear in a very limited manner or not at all. The same applies to any recurring inspections to be carried out at specified intervals. This has not only been proven by numerous practical examples, it can also be easily verified physically. In the meantime several alternatives to the traditional inspection are available allowing a much safer and meaningful inspection of safety gears to be carried out without the use of weights.

1. Introduction The justification to test safety gears with weights, a preferred practice almost all over the world when elevator systems are placed on the market, is a reasonable one. During these tests all components are subjected to a mechanical stress so that faults made during the installation and structural deficiencies are brought to light. But in a worst-case scenario – an emergency stop in free fall with full load – this test is only able to provide a verification of the effectiveness of the safety gear in a very limited manner or not at all. The same applies to any recurring inspections to be carried out at specified intervals. And this has not only been proven by numerous practical examples, it can also be easily verified physically. In the meantime several alternatives to the traditional inspection are available allowing a much safer and meaningful inspection of safety gears to be carried out without the use of weights.

2. Initial Situation 2.1 Requirements to be met by elevator safety gears Nearly all currently existing safety standards for elevator systems require safety gears to be able to safely decelerate a fully loaded car to a complete stop in a free fall situation. Depending on the applied standard different deceleration limits are specified which may not be deceeded or exceeded. In many countries minimum or maximum sliding distances are specified instead of deceleration limits, the length of the skid marks Continued


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of the safety gear on the rails being measured, which, of course, physically corresponds to the deceleration achieved. Usually this has to be verified when the system is put on the market and during recurring inspections (for example in parts of Europe every 2 years, in North America every 5 years).

2.2 Testing the safety gears using test weights Since Elisha Graves Otis presented his revolutionary elevator safety brake during the 1854 World Expo in New York, suspension ropes of elevator systems are usually no longer deliberately cut to prove the effectiveness of the safety gear. Instead the car is packed with its rated load, accelerated in downward riding mode before the safety gear is triggered at the rated speed or tripping speed of the overspeed limiter. The decelerations achieved are either measured during the process or subsequently derived from the sliding distances measured on the guide rails. When the measurements meet the requirements of the appropriate safety standard and the mechanical equipment of the elevator system shows no signs of damage, the safety gear is regarded as having passed the test.

2.3 Testing the safety gears without the use of test weights When new elevator systems are placed on the market, the safety gears are tested with test weights nearly all over the world, except in Austria where a loophole in the European standard that will be closed soon allows the effectiveness of safety gears to be verified using substitute measurements by means of specialised electronic test systems. For over 20 years recurring inspections of safety gears in Germany have usually been carried out without the use of test weights. Instead electronic testing systems are utilized which measure the forces of the safety gear and derive their effectiveness for the elevator system in question. With the 2013 edition of the A17.1 (USA) and/or B 44 (Canada), these testing systems may now also be used in North America for recurring inspections.

3. Physical Correlations During Safety Gear Tests When looking at the preferred practice for testing the safety gear by packing the car with the rated load and bringing it to a halt in an overspeed or rated speed situation, it immediately becomes apparent that an important requirement to be met by safety gears is not tested at all: the safety gear’s effectiveness when

Figure 1. Forces in an extremely simplified elevator model the moment the car makes an emergency stop. FCW — forces resulting from the counterweight; FS — deceleration force of the safety gear; FFC — weight force of the fully loaded car; x — braking distance


ELEVATOR WORLD India • 3rd Quarter 2015 •

decelerating a fully loaded car to a complete stop in a free-fall scenario! This requirement is intended to warrant that even in the most unlikely event of an overall suspension rope failure none of the passengers are being hurt or killed. The difference between the requirement and the practical test is also physically substantial since it neglects all forces resulting from the counterweight when suspension ropes do exist. Parts of the weight force of the counterweight (FCW) act on the car through the suspension ropes in the same direction as the deceleration force of the safety gear (FS). In other words: the counterweight supports the safety gear in compensating the weight force of the fully loaded car (FFC). This support does not exist in the worst case when suspension ropes no longer exist. The following illustrations of an extremely simplified model show the forces at the moment the car makes an emergency stop during a practical test with test weights and when it makes a stop in a free-fall situation. One may assume that the moment the safety gear is tripped the forces FCW of the counterweight are practically zero since the counterweight which is accelerated upwards continues to move upwards because of its intertia and that therefore the ropes between the counterweight and car would slacken for a moment. Exactly at that moment in time the practical test would be equal to the actual requirement of a free-fall stop. But this is not the case at all as has been proven by numerous practical measurements. Decisive factors preventing this are the ropes acting as long springs which first have to slacken again depending on their spring constant. Since the actual decelerating process only lasts a few milliseconds, this is something that happens extremely seldom. (solid: acceleration, hatched: load in suspension ropes, dotted: speed) Time T1: Acceleration: 0.0 m/s² Force: 28 kN Speed: -1.3 m/s Time T2: Acceleration: 2.3 m/s² Force: 11 kN Speed: -0.7 m/s Time T3: Acceleration: -0.7 m/s² Force: 2 kN Speed: 0.0 m/s Illustration 2 clearly shows that the force in the suspension ropes is


continuously reduced (hatched curve) during the entire safety gear operation (T1-T3). At the beginning of the safety gear operation the force is 28 kN. At time T2 when the car has already been decelerated to half the tripping speed of the overspeed limiter, it is still 11 kN and at the end of the safety gear operation it is still 2 kN. Neglecting this force would mean a calculated deceleration of the fully loaded car in a free-fall situation of 12 m/s² (~ 1.2 g). But this result is incorrect! In reality a free-fall scenario would yield a deceleration of merely 3 m/s² (~ 0.3g) which would prevent serious personal injury in this elevator system. Empiric experiments have shown that these influences stemming from the counterweight during safety gear trials with an empty car and averaged throughout the duration of the actual safety gear operation correspond to about 50% of the weight force of the fully loaded car. And the influence is even stronger with a fully loaded car since the decelerations achieved at the car and thus the deceleration difference between the counterweight and car are substantially smaller. The model presented in illustration 2 has the following movement equation:


in which the acceleration and the forces depend on the time. In the following, simplified average values during the safety gear operation are examined at the interval Dt between tstart and tend, the same designations being used, for example:

Figure 2. Force and acceleration measurements the moment the safety gear is triggered (T1 to T3), the forces from the counterweight (hatched) clearly influence the safety gear operation

This yields an average safety gear force with an empty car of: (2)

The effective stopping distance in the optimum deceleration phase is calculated from the mean deceleration and the speed v at the start of deceleration by a double integration: (3)

The safety gear force for a car packed with the rated load mrl then amounts to:

(4) Assuming that the safety gear force during a downward ride of a car with only a small load or of an empty car is at least not smaller than the one of a fully loaded car, these two forces can be regarded as being equal FS,E = FS,F and can be used to calculate the deceleration by the safety gear at rated load. This procedure is allowed since the theoretical deceleration force of the safety gear depends neither on the initial speed nor on the car load. These parameters only affect the resulting stopping distance and deceleration. A better presentation is given by showing the forces resulting from the counterweight as a multiple a of the car load: und A few transformations then yield the deceleration by the safety gear with a rated load: (5) These equations allow two interesting conclusions to be drawn: 1) The deceleration of the car is highly dependent on the forces resulting from the counterweight. As already mentioned earlier, the average forces resulting from the counterweight often correspond to half the weight force of the fully loaded car. When this is entered in equation (4), it becomes apparent very quickly that this substantially influences the decelerations and/or the length of the sliding distance. The results of these characteristics are clearly bettered by the influences of the counterweight than they would be improved in a worst-case scenario with ruptured ropes. 2) Equation (5) clearly shows that it is possible to use the deceleration during the safety gear operation with an empty car to determine the deceleration and thus also the sliding distance for a fully loaded car in a free-fall situation when the weight and the rated load of the car and the counterweight forces are known. This element is used by the electronic testing systems referred to earlier and will be dealt with once again later.

4. Effects of the Counterweight on the Inspection Statement It is now of interest to apply these reflections to the current common practice of inspecting safety gears with test weights, requiring a difference to be made between inspections carried out Continued


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before elevator systems are placed on the market and recurring inspections.

4.1 Inspecting the safety gear before the system is placed on the market When the system is placed on the market one can hopefully assume that the real weights of the counterweight and car conform to the design criteria on the basis of which the safety gear has been selected. It must further be assumed that the system has been installed correctly and that for example the counterweight or car guides do not jam which would impermissibly support the safety gear in deceleration. The selected safety gear has also generally passed a type examination and so has proven that it is capable of decelerating the specified loads down to a complete halt even in a free-fall situation without certain deceleration thresholds being exceeded. But if one takes a look at the two principal testing criteria specified in safety standards all over the world and knowing the influence stemming from the counterweight, some obvious weak points cannot be ignored

4.1.1 Testing criterion: measurement of the sliding distance An inspection principle such as the one specified in the North American ASME A17.1-2010/CSA B44-10 for example is decelerating the fully loaded car running at overspeed to a complete stop using the safety gear followed by a measurement of the sliding distance using the marks on the guide rails. In ASME A17.1-2010/ CSA B44-10, Table 2.17.3 “Maximum and minimum stopping distances for Type B car safeties with rated load and Type B counterweight safeties”, a minimum and/or maximum limit is specified that needs to be reached. For cars with a rated speed of 1.25 m/s for example the standard specifies a tripping speed of the overspeed limiter of 1.7 m/s, a minimum stopping distance of 150 mm and a maximum stopping distance of 675 mm. If one then uses equation (4) to calculate the average force of the safety gear which is in the end evidenced at tripping speed and maximum stopping distance, a car with an empty weight of 2300 kg and a load of 1100 kg resulting in FS,F = 40633 N – FCW,F . In contrast there is a force of 33354 N in a free-fall scenario which would make this car crash. It is absolutely clear that the force FCW,F produced by the counterweight must not exceed 7279 N because this would prevent the safety gear from decelerating the car. This merely corresponds to 22 % of the weight force of the fully loaded car. In this system that really exists in North America the counterweight influence is nearly 50 %. This yields the frightening result that although the effectiveness of this safety gear in accordance with the valid standard about the determination of the slide distance is theoretically correct, this fully loaded cabin could not be brought to a complete stop in case of a free-fall scenario.

4.1.2 Testing criterion: measuring the deceleration The other testing criterions for example specified in the European standard DIN EN 81-1:2010-06 in chapter 9.8.4 for brake safety gears are limit values for a deceleration in a free-fall situation (regardless of the actual load) of at least 0.2g and maximum 1.0g.

This is tested by bringing the car with 125 % of the rated load to a complete stop. Here, too, the problem is that the test is never carried out with cut suspension ropes and that the counterweight influences are unknown. So this testing criterion, too, does not allow a statement to be made about the effectiveness of the safety gear in a free-fall situation. Under certain aspects this may lead to the same disastrous conditions described under the sliding distance testing criterion. The remarks made with respect to the test with weights prior to placing the system on the market illustrate that the effectiveness of the safety is actually not comprehensively tested since the counterweight influences are not known. In the end one has to rely on the quality of the work carried out by the installation company, on the type examination of the safety gear and first and foremost on the correctness of the calculated weights of the counterweight and car.

4.2 Recurring safety gear inspection In principle recurring inspections of safety gears are governed by the same principles already mentioned for inspections prior to placing systems on the market. But now the influential factor time is added. The elevator system may have been modernised in the meantime. This often goes hand in hand with an increase of the car weight. The company carrying out the modernisation has usually restored the counterweight balance by increasing its weight. As such the forces resulting from the counterweight may have increased when the safety gear is inspected so that the test result is even less useful for proving the safety gear’s effectiveness. Depending on the servicing condition and the time the elevator system was been in operation there may be wear on the safety gears, guides, etc. In some cases this is another factor that contributes to an increase of the forces resulting from the counterweight.

5. Inspecting the Safety Gear Using Electronic Test Systems As shown by the equations it is possible to determine the deceleration of a fully loaded car in a free-fall scenario from the deceleration of the safety gear tested with an empty car provided the counterweight influences are known. This principle is based on the fact that the force of a brake and thus of the safety gear develops independently of the weight to be decelerated or its speed. For elevator systems this means that the safety gear must be fully engaged and in this condition must always apply the same deceleration force. This deceleration force can be determined by measuring the car’s deceleration and the forces resulting from the counterweight during the safety gear operation. Once this deceleration force is determined, it is easy to calculate the average deceleration of the elevator in a free-fall situation for any random load and initial speed. Modern electronic testing systems therefore consist of two principal components: an acceleration sensor mounted on the car and force sensors measuring the forces in the suspension ropes immediately above the car during the safety gear operation. Then the equations referred to earlier are used for the calculation of the safety gear’s effectiveness. Since these systems are in use in Germany and recently also in North America numerous elevator Continued


ELEVATOR WORLD India • 3rd Quarter 2015 •

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systems have been identified in which the safety gear’s effectiveness could not be verified although they had been inspected at recurring intervals in the past, but with test weights and without knowing the counterweight influences. The physical superiority of this measuring principle with respect to a possible statement about the effectiveness of the safety gear is obvious. Another factor often neglected needs to be added: an important argument for inspections with test weights is the installation and material quality test carried out at the same time in form of a mechanical elevator system stress test. Any shortcomings are revealed by a visual inspection after the safety gear operation ends up in distorted cars, destroyed internal panellings, etc. But it applies to an even greater extent to the test without test weights. Since the deceleration force of the safety gear is the same in this test as in the test with weights, decelerations are much higher and the stopping distance is much shorter. The clearly higher and more abrupt deceleration therefore also causes a substantially higher mechanical stress for the elevator system. A stress which in a worst-case scenario with for example only one passenger needs to be endured.

6. Summary This paper has made it clear that a test of the safety gear using test weights and without determining the influences of the counterweight does not allow a statement to be made about the effectiveness of the safety gear, neither before it is placed on the market nor during recurring inspections. In Europe for example the requirement specified in EN81 with respect to deceleration limits in a free-fall situation is not tested. Surely the increase of the safety level is one of the reasons why the current 2013 edition of the North American elevator standard A17/B44 has permitted electronic testing systems, if only as an option. Inspections using test weights are still allowed and are even mandatory prior to placing the system on the market. Since inspections without test weights are also accompanied by a substantial mechanical stress test for the elevator system, it must be allowed to question the justification of the safety gear inspection using test weights and to ask if the use of electronic testing systems does not provide a much higher level of reliability and safety.

7. Biographical Details Tim Ebeling has been employed since 2003 as head of development with Henning GmbH & Co. KG. In this capacity he has established the R&D center in Braunschweig (Germany). A team of employees is now working there on the development and production of electronic and measurement components for lifts. Since 2012 the author is also managing director. One of his particular focal points is the measurement technology. Especially in this area the author looks back on many years of experience in the development of acceleration and rope load measuring systems. The author’s professional goal is to enrich the elevator market with innovative elevator components and opposing the increased cost pressure in the elevator industry through the development of efficient đ&#x;Œ? sustainable and labor-saving components.  


ELEVATOR WORLD India • 3rd Quarter 2015 •

Association for Growth and Support Registered Office : WZ-1656A, Nangal Raya, New Delhi-110046 Innovation


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Open Communication Protocols for Elevators, Part 1 Applications in elevator systems for the popular LonTalk standard are discussed. by Dr. Albert So Compatibility, interoperability, interchangeability, and open and standard protocols have been the hottest terminologies in the building-automation industry over the past three decades. Traditionally, protocols used by elevator supervisory controllers have been proprietary in nature, but there have been more recent developments in various standards. In Part 1 of this article, the science of open protocols is discussed, followed by a quick review on different open protocols used in building automation. One popular standard, LonTalk, with applications in elevator systems, will be discussed in detail.

What Are Communication Protocols? A computer network, wired or wireless, is defined as a group of computers and other devices connected together to exchange information and share resources. One approach for organizing networks is called “client/server,” where one computer serves the storage and processing needs of all the other nodes (devices), called “clients,” on the network. Another approach is called “peer-to-peer computing,” in which every computer or device on the network can act both as a client or server. “Network topology” refers to the layout of computers on a network. There are three common topologies: star, ring and bus. In building automation, devices are often computers by themselves. Humans use languages to communicate with each other; networked computers exchange data based on standard rules called “protocols.” Each message transmitted by a networked computer has an exact meaning with an intention to

stimulate a response from the receiver. Hence, the protocol must define the syntax, semantics, synchronization of communication and others. As computers are not as clever and flexible as humans, protocol must be standardized. An analogy is that protocol for communication is similar to programming languages for computation. There are various features of a protocol, including but not limited to data format, address format, address mapping between schemes, routing, detection of errors due to transmission, acknowledgement of correct messages, timeouts and retries, direction of information flow, sequence control and flow control.

International Standard on Networking The Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) provides a framework for both designing networking systems and explaining how they work. This model is the only internationally accepted framework of standards for communication between different systems made by different manufacturers. The goal is to create an “open systems” networking environment, in which any vendor’s computer or microprocessor system, connected to any network, can freely share data with any other computer system on that network or a linked one. Here, “open systems” provide such features as interoperability, portability and open software standards. Any vendor or manufacturer has the right to adopt an open system onto its device. Most of the dominant communications protocols used today comply with this OSI model. It should be borne in mind that OSI is Continued

• Issue 3, Volume 9 •


TCP/IP, Open Building Information Xchange (oBIX), Konnex, LonWorks and BACnet. Besides the last two (which will be discussed in more detail in parts one and two of this series, respectively), the others will only be briefly introduced. X10, developed in 1975, is a classical protocol for communication between electronic devices used mainly at home. Signals are injected into the power line as 120-kHz bursts, feeding an individual device during the zero-crossing points of the voltage waveform. However, only one bit is transmitted at each zero crossing, making this a very low-speed protocol. However, it is good enough for turning lamps on and off, or, at most, dimming them. Wireless X10 devices have since become available. Modbus has its roots in the OSI Layer Purpose Services late 1970s. In 1979, Standard objects and types, configuration properties, file programmable-logic-controller 7: Application Application program transfer, network services, etc. manufacturer Modicon 6: Presentation Data interpretation Network variables, application messages, foreign frames, etc. published the Modbus 5: Session Remote actions Dialogue, remote procedural calls, connection recovery, etc. communication interface for a End-to-end acknowledgements, service types, package 4: Transport End-to-end reliability sequencing, duplicate detection, etc. multidrop network based on a Unicast and multicast, destination addressing, packet routing, master/client architecture. (A 3: Network Destination addressing etc. multidrop bus has all Media access and Framing, data encoding, cyclic redundancy check, media 2: Data link components connected to the framing access, collision detection, etc. same circuit, and a process of 1: Physical Electrical interconnection Media-specific details, receiver type, physical connection, etc. arbitration determines which device can send information.) Table 1: The OSI model The physical layer of the Layer 1 provides the most basic connectivity in terms of the Modbus interface is flexible. It was originally on RS-232 but later physical media, which could be copper electrical wire, or radioon RS-485 to allow longer distances, higher speeds and the signal or fiber-optic cable. Devices like repeaters and hubs operate possibility of a true multidrop network. Modbus is often used to on this layer. Layer 2 is concerned with procedures and protocols connect a supervisory computer with a remote terminal unit in for operating the communications lines, responsible for logical link supervisory-control and data-acquisition systems. Every Modbus control, media-access control, hardware addressing, error message has the same structure (Table 2), which is rather generic detection and handling. Layer 3 determines how data is transferred across different control protocols used in building and home between computers by addressing routing within and between automation. Modbus was applied in elevator systems for sensing individual networks. Routers, which operate on this layer, receive a floor, car and door switches,[1] detecting car position optically, indicating floors and interfacing variable-voltage, variablepacket, analyze the destination address and route it. Layer 4 frequency drives. However, objects, features and functions of defines the rules for information exchange and manages end-toelevator systems are not specified by Modbus. Therefore, the end delivery of information within and between networks. Layer 5 application is still proprietary. is concerned with dialogue management, establishing and managing software process sessions. A device can simultaneously communicate with many other devices by assigning each Field Description connection its own session. Layer 6 provides a transparent Device address Address of the receiver communications service by masking the differences of varying data Function code Code defining message type formats between dissimilar systems. It could be regarded as a Data Data block with additional information translator between different types of data representation. It also Numeric check value to test for communication Error check encodes and deciphers encryption. Layer 7 contains functions for errors particular applications services, such as file transfer, remote file Table 2: Message structure of Modbus access, virtual terminals, etc. C-Bus, originally developed by Clipsal of Australia, is mainly for Not all open protocols are implemented with all seven layers, home automation -- lighting control, in particular. Different from and very often layers are melted together or collapsed. X-10 (which operates on a power line), C-Bus needs a dedicated Commonly Used Building-Automation Open extra-low-voltage (only up to 36 VDC) unshielded twisted-pair Communication Protocols (such as category-5) cable, and its effective length is much longer There are many open communication protocols popularly than that of X-10, up to 1 km. Wireless C-Bus devices are also adopted in building automation, such as X10, Modbus, C-Bus, available. digital addressable lighting interface (DALI), CANbus, ZigBee, only a model, however -- a framework but not a protocol. That means that even though two products may fully comply with the OSI model, they may not be able to freely communicate with each other, unless some agreements have been made during the design stage. The model consists of seven layers. Each layer has specific functions and provides services for the layer immediately above it. Each time a data packet is received by the hardware, every layer processes the packet and submits it to the layer above. Layers 7-4 deal with end-to-end communications between the message source and the message destination, while layers 3-1 deal with network access (Table 1).



ELEVATOR WORLD India • 3rd Quarter 2015 •

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levator ride quality is a first indicator of the quality of design, installation and service. The EVA-625 has become the International Standard for the absolute measure and analysis of ride quality and vibration & sound. The EVA system includes powerful analytical software tools to fully analyze all aspects of the elevator mechanical and control system. The highly accurate response of the EVA system, and the powerful analysis capabilities offered by the EVA Elevator/Escalator Analysis Tools software, allows rapid identification of problem areas so that corrective actions can be targeted quickly and precisely. The EVA EVA-625 system uniquely provides the ability to measure the vibration and sound that people feel and hear, yet allows analysis of the broad-band vibration and sound that is the result of the function of all dynamic aspects of the elevator system. Problems with roller guides, rail joints, motor control systems, and other dynamic elements can be identified in minutes. Quality of installation and service can be improved dramatically. The EVA system and accessories are designed to be robust and easy to operate. The system includes high resolution sensors and data acquisition system, all necessary cables, one year warranty and the industry standard EVA Elevator/Escalator Analysis Tools software, all at very low cost.


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DALI is another well-known control network. In the past, electronic ballasts and dimmers for lamps were controlled by a 0-10-VDC signal. With DALI, IEC 60929 (old version) or IEC 62386 (current version), a controller can monitor and control every lighting device on the network by means of a bidirectional data exchange. Group and scene broadcast messages are available to simultaneously address several devices at the same time, up to 64 in a standalone network. A dedicated bus with a fixed data transfer rate of 1.2 kbps is required. The Controller Area Network (CAN) protocol is an ISOdefined standard (ISO 11898) for serial data communication at bitrates up to 1 Mbps. It was initially developed for the automotive industry but has become a popular bus in industrial automation. It is a two-wire, half-duplex (communication is bidirectional but unidirectional at any time), high-speed network system well suited for high-speed applications using short messages. The CAN protocol defines the first two layers of the OSI model, and there are four different message types (or frames) on a CANbus: data, remote, error and overload. Of course, the mostly common messages found on a CANbus are of the data-frame type. CANbus was applied in elevator control to deal with dispatching and energy savings.[2] But, again, objects, features and functions of elevator systems are not openly specified by CAN; the application is still proprietary. As wireless control networks are in demand because of the popularity of Wi-Fi (IEEE 802.11 family of standards), a technology based on IEEE 802.15, called ZigBee, was developed in 1998. Standardized in 2003, it uses small and low-power digital radios. ZigBee devices can transmit data over long distances by passing it through intermediate devices, thus creating a mesh network without a centralized control or high-power transmitter/ receiver. Now, ZigBee, with a standard data rate of 250 kbps, has been implemented in building-automation devices, mainly sensors, which can be freely placed in the room, because they require only a low data rate but have a long battery life and secure networking. Another wireless technology, Bluetooth, is mainly for a personalarea network, not suitable for building automation. TCP/IP, perhaps the most well-known protocol in the world, actually refers to three types of protocols: Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), Internet Protocol (IP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP). The U.S. Advanced Research Project Agency developed the first version of TCP in 1973. The first formal standard, version 4 (IPv4), was created in 1980. The TCP/IP model uses four layers, merged from the seven-layered OSI. They are the network-access layer (OSI physical and data-link layers), Internet layer (OSI network layer), transport layer (OSI transport layer) and application layer (OSI session, presentation and application layers). IP is responsible for interconnecting different local-areanetwork technologies, creating a virtual network that allows all devices to communicate with each other as if they were on the same network. In IPv4, the IP address is a 32-bit binary number, while IP version 6 (IPv6) uses a 128-bit address (eight groups of 16 bits each). There are two versions of transport-layer services: UDP, an unreliable but efficient and fast transport protocol, and the TCP, a full-featured, connection-oriented transport protocol with

flow control, and acknowledged transmission and retransmission mechanisms. TCP guarantees reliable and in-order delivery of data from sender to receiver. Unlike TCP, UDP supports packet broadcast (sending to all on a local network) and multicasting (sending to all subscribers). Common network applications that use UDP include the Domain Name System and such streaming media applications as Voice Over IP. Though unpopular, some building-automation devices are now implemented on TCP/IP. oBIX, almost completed but still under development, is an industry-wide initiative to define Extensible Markup Language (XML), which is both human and machine readable, versus the commonly used HyperText Markup Language (HTML). XML is a web-services-based mechanism for building-control systems. The purpose is to define a standard web-services protocol to enable communications between building mechanical and electrical systems, and enterprise applications at a higher level. This protocol will enable facilities and their operations to be managed as full participants in knowledge-based businesses. The three most popular and widely accepted open protocols for building automation may be Konnex, LonTalk and BACnet. In the 1990s in Europe, there were three popular network technologies: Batibus, European Installation Bus (EIB) and European Home System (EHS). In the late 1990s, they merged to form the Konnex Association, an organization that represents an open, royalty-free, platform-independent standard for home and building control, approved as both a European (EN 50090 and EN 13321-1) and worldwide standard (ISO/IEC 14543). The Konnex protocol uses only five of seven OSI layers, excluding the session and presentation layers. Major components of a Konnex network are Bus Interface Modules and Bus Coupling Units.

LonWorks The LonWorks system, developed by Echelon Corp. of San Jose, California, is a networked automation and control solution for markets including the building, industrial, transportation and home ones. The protocol itself is called LonTalk and is certified as national and international standards ANSI/CEA 709.1, IEEE 1473-L, EN 14908 and ISO/IEC 14908-1. According to Motorola’s LonWorks Technology Device Data Book: “LonWorks technology is a complete platform for implementing control network systems. These networks consist of intelligent devices or nodes that interact with their environment and communicate with one another over a variety of communications media using a common, message-based control protocol.”[3] In a LonWorks network, no central control or master/slave architecture is needed. Intelligent control devices, called nodes, communicate with one another using the common LonTalk protocol. Each node contains embedded intelligence that implements the protocol and performs control functions. In addition, each node includes a physical interface (transceiver) that couples the node microcontroller (neuron chip) with the communication medium. Each neuron chip has a unique 48-bit neuron identifier (ID) burned into the hardware, which is a special feature of LonWorks. A device can broadcast this ID across the network to let the network-management tool assign a logical address to commission the device. Continued


ELEVATOR WORLD India • 3rd Quarter 2015 •


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LonWorks supports multiple communication media, such as twisted pair, power line, coaxial, infrared, optical fiber and radio frequency, and LonTalk can be channeled through TCP/IP[4] with the help of a device. The most fundamental medium involves the use of 16-AWG unshielded twisted-pair cables with a data rate of 78.1 kbps, either in free or bus topology. The highest rate can reach 1.25 Mbps (still on twisted pairs) but in bus topology only.

Figure 1: Format of a functional LonMark block

The key elements of LonWorks are network variables (NVs) and configuration properties (CPs), together forming functional blocks (Figure 1). A network variable could be any datum (temperature, a

switch value, an actuator position setting, etc.) a particular device-application program expects to get from other devices on the network (an input NV) or expects to make available to other devices on the network (an output NV). NVs are the virtual (fictitious) connections between devices over the network. CPs are like virtual dual in-line package switches on hardware for the user to select particular modes of device operation. They provide standards for documentation and for network message formats used to configure the operation of a device or functional block. If different vendors adopt their own NVs and CPs, devices cannot be interoperable. So, a governing body, LonMark International, acts as the police to enforce standards, and promote and advance the business of efficient and effective integration of open, multivendor control systems utilizing ISO 14908-1 and related standards. LonMark publishes standard network variable types (SNVTs), standard configuration property types, standard functional profile templates, standard enumeration types and standard program IDs, and certifies products. Only network variables of the same type of two devices can be linked together for interoperation. Therefore, it is of the utmost importance that devices are manufactured to standard functional profiles by vendors for full interoperability. A predefined structure of a functional block for a particular type of device, defining all mandatory network inputs and outputs of a specific function and such configuration properties as rates, limits and defaults, is called a standard functional profile. Having said that, a vendor is still allowed to add optional network inputs/outputs and configuration Continued

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ELEVATOR WORLD India • 3rd Quarter 2015 •

properties to a device beyond LonMark requirements, thus designing its own control algorithms and functional software within the device.

Though ModBus and CANbus have been employed in elevator systems, they are still considered proprietary, because the objects and messages for communication of different manufacturers are not open to the general public. One popular standard, LonTalk, was discussed in more detail. Standard network variable types and standard function profiles for use in elevator systems have been highlighted. They are open protocols, as different manufacturers can integrate them in their control systems. In Part 2 of this article, another popular standard, BACnet, will be discussed, as your author has been involved in the development of some specific objects for elevators.

References [1] Shabarinath, B.B. and Gaur, N. “Modbus Communication in Microcontroller Based Elevator Controller,” Proc. 2013 Int. Conf. on Control, Automation, Robotics and Embedded Systems, IEEE, Jabalpur, India, Dec. 2013. [2] Jian Chu and Qing Lu. “Research on Elevator Intelligent-Card Control System Based on CAN Bus,” Prof. 2012 Int. Conf. on Systems and Informatics, IEEE, Yantai, China, May 2012. [3] Tiersch, Friedber. LonWorks Technology: An Introduction, -2. Aufl. –Erfurt: Desotron-Verl.-Ges, 2002. [4] Shahnasser, H. and Wang, Q. “Controlling Industrial Devices over TCP/IP by Using LonWorks,” Proc. Global Telecommunications Conference, Sydney, 1988.

Figure 2: LonMark functional profile of a hall lantern: “UpHall” indicates an up-traveling car, and “DownHall” indicates a down-traveling car; “nvi” means an input network variable of the type “SNVT_switch.”

For applications in elevator systems, the following standard functional profiles are available but not limited to: ♦♦ Elevator access controller ♦♦ Elevator indicator ♦♦ Elevator position indicator and message display ♦♦ Elevator hall lantern (Figure 2) ♦♦ Elevator arrival gong ♦♦ Elevator car-direction lantern ♦♦ Vertical/conveyor transportation-system interfaces ♦♦ Elevator fire-systems port ♦♦ Vertical/conveyor transportation communication devices ♦♦ Elevator voice announcer Existing SNVTs are often employed within these functional profiles. For example: ♦♦ Floor name is given by “SNVT_str_asc,” which is a character string up to 30 characters. ♦♦ Directions of travel (“UpCar” and “DownCar”) are given by “SNVT_switch,” which is mainly a Boolean function indicating on and off but with grey levels. ♦♦ Car position is given by SNVT_count, which is an “unsigned long” of 2 bytes in size with a minimum value of 0 and maximum value of 65536. Other SNVTs, such as “SNVT_motor_state,” “SNVT_power,” “SNVT_amp” and “SNVT_elec_kwh,” can also be used in an elevator system.

Conclusion The science of open protocols has been discussed, followed by a quick review on different open protocols used in building automation.


ELEVATOR WORLD India • 3rd Quarter 2015 •

Dr. Albert So is an executive board member and scientific advisor of the International Association of Elevator Engineers (IAEE). He is also the academic secretary for the IAEE HK-China Branch and honorary visiting professor of the University of Northampton in the U.K. He is based in Seattle.

Product Spotlight

New Products, Tools and Certification A variety of new releases ranges from brake regulations to an IPL platform.

❮ Safety Brakes Get Electronic Torque Regulation

A new intelligent braking torque control module on Mayr GmbH + Co. KG’s ROBAstop® safety brakes makes it possible to decelerate devices and machines evenly and gently. If, however, the system detects the operating conditions and converts this information into a default signal for the new control module, electronic braking torque regulation is possible. In this way, machines can be decelerated gently and adapted to the respective system requirements. Furthermore, the new braking torque regulation makes it possible to compensate for negative influences on the braking torque consistency in applications requiring a constant braking torque within narrow tolerance limits. The new, intelligent switching device is operated with 24- or 48-VDC voltage and can control brakes with a coil nominal current of 10 or 5 A. Brake rotor clamping force can be specified to 25%, 50% or 75% of the nominal spring force by means of two digital inputs. Overexcitation time can be automatically adjusted, and neither microswitches nor proximity sensors are necessary. Finally, the device takes possible wear reserves into account and can recognize unpermitted high temperatures. Its dimensions are 30 mm high, 69 mm wide and 103 mm long.

Online Planning/Design Tool

The new Schindler Plan is an online planning and design tool for elevators, escalators and moving walks. It is intended to guide users through simple, intuitive steps for configuring and creating drawings and specifications for architects and specification writers, who can download or email job-specific designs in the form of CAD drawings, BIM models or specifications. Users can find the mobility solution that best fits their needs after answering job-specific questions concerning aspects like travel height/distance, speed, capacity, elevatordoor type options, power-supply needs, finishes/fixtures and seismic provisions.



ELEVATOR WORLD India • 3rd Quarter 2015 •

â?Ž Signaling Products for Extreme Environments

The MICRONOR MR380 Fiber Optic ESTOP and MR382 Fiber Optic U-Beam Sensor are fiber-optic signaling products for use in harsh or hazardous environments, from mines to wind turbines to petrochemical plants. The MR380 series offers ESTOP Functional Safety compliance with a SIL1 rating, and the MR382 series is a general-purpose photo interruption/slot sensor typically used as a gear-tooth speed sensor, edge detector or proximity sensor. The products consist of a passive optical sensor that links to a remote DIN-rail-mounted controller module via an industry standard OM1 62.5/125 multimode fiber optic link up to 2,500 m. The company calls the sensors and optical links “rated inherently safeâ€? and immune to electromagnetic interference, radiofrequency interference, lightning, high-voltage discharges and ground loops.  đ&#x;Œ?


ELEVATOR WORLD India • 3rd Quarter 2015 •



SIL 3-Certified Industrial Controllers

Toshiba Corp. has announced that its Unified Controller nv-safety Series type1s industrial controller range has received IEC 61508 (2010) (SIL 3) certification for functional safety from German international certification organization TĂœV SĂœD. Toshiba’s new controllers support functional safety and shift user systems from operation mode to safety mode in the event of an accident, reducing the risk of danger. The company states that if used in combination with other certificated safety devices, such as emergency shutdown systems and electric locks, they can raise the level of functional safety. IEC 61508 is the basic international standard defining functional safety requirements for equipment and environments, including elevators. Its guidelines define three safety integrity levels (SILs) for evaluating product and safety functions, with SIL 3 as the highest for factory automation systems.

Redesigned Inclined Platform Lift (IPL)

Butler Mobility Products has redesigned its IPL platform to achieve what the company calls “a sleek, modern look.� In addition to a curved platform control tube, the floor plate is now coated, textured and nonslip. The thickness of the folding ramp has been increased from 0.125 to 0.16 in. to provide more stability for entering and exiting the platform. The platform sides have also been redesigned to incorporate a 1/4-in.-thick solid platform side with an integrated angle bracket. The added thickness of the new plate is intended to be more durable, especially when the client is using a powered wheelchair. Since “standard� angle brackets are no longer used, every platform side is designed for a particular stairway. Having the angle bracket integrated into the platform side allows ease of installation when installing the platform, since the angle of the platform side plate is true to the angle of the stairway. The undercarriage of the platform frame has also been modified to complement the redesigned platform sides. The frame structure has been strengthened by going from the use of a 1-1/2- X 1-1/2- X 3/16-in. angle frame to a 1-1/2- X 3/16-in. square tubing undercarriage frame. Finally, five new earth-tone colors are offered as standard.

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• Issue 3, Volume 9 •


Elevator World India Marketplace



This book provides a basic overview of elevator systems, equipment and technology. It is a must have for elevator salespersons, new hires in the i­ndustry or anyone who wants a better understanding of elevator technology. Includes: • Common Elevator Terms • Codes & Publications • Types of Elevators • Elevator Driving ­Machines • Control – Operation – Drives • Machine Space and Equipment • Hoistway Equipment • Pit and Equipment Including Safeties • Elevator Doors and Gates • Escalators & Moving Walks. New in this 3rd Edition are updated images, industry terms and definitions as well as updated information on codes, publications and associations within the industry. Available in Print or PDF. To purchase within India, please contact:

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ELEVATOR WORLD India Source Directory This section serves as a resource for the industry and consists of current Elevator World India advertisers and their website addresses. For detailed information

on each company, please visit Contact Anitha Raghunath at or TBruce MacKinnon at for more information.



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Advertisers Index ADCO Controls...........................................................79 AFAG Messen und Ausstellungen.......................65 Altenmo Technologies Pvt. Ltd.............................47 B&B Battery (India) Co. Private Ltd........................ 9 Bharat Bijlee Ltd.........................................................15 Blain Hydraulics Gmbh............................................33 Canny Group Co., Ltd...............................................93 City Lifts (India) Ltd...................................................55 Delhi Elevator Association.....................................85 Escon Elevators Pvt. Ltd..........................................51 Esquire Engineering Co....................................74, 75 Eurasia Lift....................................................................99 EXCELLA Electronics.................................................27 Express Lifts Limited.................................................95 Formula Systems Ltd................................................92 GEN Elektromekanik San. ve Tic. Ltd. Sti...........19 Giovenzana International BV................................73 Hephzi Elevators International Company Pvt Ltd.....................................................................77 Hydro-Pneumatic Teckniks....................................53 Inditech Systems Pvt Ltd........................................54 INVT Electric India Private Limited......................83 Jade Elevator Components....................................49 Jayashree Encoders Pvt Ltd..................................... 5 Johnson Lifts Private Limited..........................................................Cover 2


ELEVATOR WORLD India • 3rd Quarter 2015 •

Jupiter Enterprises....................................................14 Kinetek..........................................................................67 Langfang Conference and Exhibition Co., Ltd.............................................................................57 Lubi Electronics............................................................ 8 Marazzi (Jiangsu) Elevator Guide Rails Co., Ltd.............................................................................35 Monteferro India Guiderails and Elevator Parts Pvt Ltd.........................................91 Neptune Marketing..................................................94 Physical Measurement Technologies.................89 Purna Elevator & Escalator Solutions Pvt Ltd.....................................................................29 Schindler India Pvt. Ltd...........................................45 Sematic S.p.a.....................................................Cover 4 Shanghai BST Electric Co., Ltd...............................69 Sharp Engineers.........................................................81 Tak Consulting Private Limited.............................97 Tangent Technologies..............................................13 Tecnolama....................................................................31 Tectronics Engineers................................................43 Torin Drive India Private Limited........................... 7 Toshiba Johnson Elevators (India) Pvt. Ltd.............................................................16, 17 Virgo Communications & Exhibitions Pvt. Ltd....................................................................60

Wittur Italia Holding Srl...........................................59 Woodfold Mfg Inc......................................................84 Yaskawa India Private Limited................................ 1 Elevator World Products India Opportunities..................................................86 Elevators 101, 3rd Edition.................................... 102 ELEVATOR WORLD Digital Newsstand Editions................................................................ 103 Educational Resources..................................Cover 3 Marketplace Apex Elevators Arya Lift Sansthan Axis Industries Pvt Ltd. Bamrah Steel Products Pvt Ltd Eletech Industries Icon Control System Innovision K2 Engineers Mundapat Engineers Enterprises Nocee Elevators (P) Ltd. Tech Electronics The Elevator Factory Universal Heat Transfer

Elevator Industry Educational Resources ELEVATOR WORLD offers a variety of educational materials that can help you gain the knowledge and skills needed to execute a job properly and safely. These materials provide great opportunities for training employees, self-study and/or field reference. You can choose from books, posters, CDs or software covering topics including:








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MADE IN INDIA FOR INDIA. The best way to know a country is working in it, with its people. That’s why Sematic decided to fully serve the Indian market from the inside, with a sales and manufacturing structure, based in Pune. Here Sematic creates solid, reliable lift systems with high-quality doors, designed to ďŹ t in seamlessly with any installation environment. Solutions available to match any need, from the basic to the highly complex one. To grow in India, with India.

Sematic Elevator Products India Pvt Ltd Indospace AS Industrial Park Building No. D1, Gat No. 341, Village Mahalunge Off. Chakan - Talegoan Road, Chakan, Taluka - Khed, Pune - 410501 (Maharashtra) Tel No: + 91 2135 666 901

Elevator World India 3rd Quarter 2015  
Elevator World India 3rd Quarter 2015