Page 1

3RD QUARTER 2014

The Premier Magazine for the Building Transportation Industry in India

ELEVåTOR WÅRL­D India

Issue 3, Volume 7

ELEVATOR WORLD INDIA KARENG/2008/24064

Cover:

ThyssenKrupp Elevator’s Green Elevator Technology WEE Expo 2014 Otis India

www.elevatorworldindia.com


92% It’ssuccessful! Top results for 515 interlift exhibitors: 69 % rate their participation as “very good” or “good”, 23 % as “satisfactory”*.

73% It’sdecisive! No other lift trade fair has such a high proportion of visitors who are involved in investment decisions: 73% have sole responsibility for decisions or are involved in an advisory capacity*.

Meet The World: interlift 2015 13 - 16 October Messe Augsburg | Germany www.interlift.de

68% It’sunique! 68% of the 18,900 visitors only use interlift to find out about innovations on the world market*.

* interlift 2013

Messe- und Congressberatung Herbert Dirr, Hamburg

Professional sponsor: VFA-Interlift e.V. ■ www.vfa-interlift.de ■ Organiser: AFAG Messen und Ausstellungen GmbH ■ www.interlift.de


Contents 24

ON THE COVER 38 ThyssenKrupp Elevator’s Green Elevator

Technology PMS gearless machines, regenerative drives, DSC and more are part of

company’s strategy for its elevators to save energy. by V. Gurumoorthy

FEATURES 50 From One World to Another by Kaija Wilkinson 58 74

WEE Expo 2014 in Guangzhou by Peng Jie

Otis India by Lee Freeland

COLUMNS

42 82

66

Codes & Standards Energy Code Development, Part One by Dr. Albert So Developments in EN 81-20, 81-50 and Related Standards reprinted from Liftinstituut Magazine

3rd Quarter Issue 3, Volume 7

2014

74

Environmental Issues

32

Calculating, Quantifying and Reporting “Green” by Sascha Iqbal and Nikolay Minkov

Market Trends

52 78

3 6 8 10 18 24 92 93 95 96

Elevator Industry Looking to Rise High by Srini Vuruputur The Elevator Industry in India by Shanker Gopalkrishnan

DEPARTMENTS Guest Editor’s Overview Comments Calendar Inside India News Realty Update Regional Industry News Product Spotlight Marketplace Source Directory Advertisers Index

Engineering Layered Zoning for Tall and Slender Buildings by Pieter J. de Groot

ELEVåTOR WÅRLD India

58


ELEVåTOR WÅRLD

India ™

ELEVATOR WORLD India is a quarterly magazine published by ­Elevator World Inc., Mobile, Alabama (U.S.) and Virgo Publications, Bangalore (India). Virgo Publications is a sister organization of Virgo Communications, the organizers for IEE – International Elevator & Escalator Expo. Elevator World, Inc. is the premier publisher for the international building transportation industry. Since the inception of ELEVATOR WORLD magazine in 1953, the company has ­expanded core products to include ELEVATOR WORLD India, an ­extensive network of websites, a bi-weekly e-mail newsletter (Elenet®) and the Source©, the most inclusive industry directory. Publishers – Anitha Raghunath, Ricia Hendrick, T.Bruce MacKinnon International Publishing Co. – Elevator World, Inc. Indian Publishing Co. – Virgo Publications Editorial International Managing Editor – Angela C. Baldwin EW Editorial Staff (U.S.) – Lee Freeland, Kaija Wilkinson, Hanno van der Bijl Indian Guest Editor – Shanker Gopalkrishnan EWI Correspondent - Mohamed Iqbal Contributors - Peng Jie, Dr. Albert So, Liftinstituut, Pieter deGroot, Sacha Iqbal, Nikolay Minkov, Srini Vuruputur, Tripathi Abhilash Printing, Distribution and Commercial Operations Commercial Directors – Anitha Raghunath and G. Raghu (India) – Patricia Cartee (U.S.) Advertising Sales and Marketing Anitha Raghunath and G. Raghu (India) – T. Bruce MacKinnon, Lesley K. Hicks, Scott O. Brown, Cleo Brazile (International) Brad O’Guynn (Marketing) Patricia Cartee (Education Products) Anitha Raghunath Production and Internet EW staff (U.S.) – Lillie McWilliams, Jessica Trippe, Tara Dow, Dan Wilson Administration Anitha Raghunath (India) Emma Darby (U.S.) ELEVATOR WORLD® and ELEVATOR WORLD India™ are registered trademarks and all rights reserved. Copyright© 2014. For permission to reprint any portion of this magazine, please write to the publisher at Elevator World, Inc., P. O. Box 6507, Mobile, Alabama 36660, USA or at Virgo Publications, Virgo House, 250 Amarjyoti Layout, Domlur Extension, Bangalore, India 560071. ELEVATOR WORLD India is published in the interest of the members of the elevator industry in India, to improve communication within that industry and to further continuing education of members of that industry. ELEVATOR WORLD India publishes articles by contributing authors as a stimulus to thinking and not directives. ELEVATOR WORLD India publishes this material without accepting responsibility for its absolute accuracy, but with hopes that the vast majority of it will have validity for the field. The ideas expressed therein should be tempered by recognized elevator engineering practices, standards, codes and guidelines. Publication of any article or advertisement should not be deemed as an endorsement by ELEVATOR WORLD India, ELEVATOR WORLD, the publishers at Elevator World Inc. or Virgo Publications. Printed by Sri Sudhindra Offset Process, No.27-28, 8th Cross, Malleshwaram, Bangalore - 560003, Karnataka, India. ELEVATOR WORLD India will be published quarterly in 2014: February 14, May 16, August 15 and November 14. Advertising and subscription information is available at elevatorworldindia.com.

Guest Editor’s Overview Communication Promotes Industry Growth by Shanker Gopalkrishnan India is now a major market for elevators, and the annual order book of the industry is expected to exceed the 100,000 units mark within the next five years. The density of the country’s urban population is inexorably increasing, and, consequently, most of the country’s cities are witnessing vertical growth. By 2035, nearly 50% of the country’s population (roughly 750 million) will need to be housed in urban areas, and the elevator industry will be one of the major beneficiaries of this migration to urban areas. In this context, as the guest editor of this issue, I want to focus on the urgent need for the elevator industry in India to communicate effectively with its end-use customers and the government. In previous issues of this magazine, guest editors have covered several aspects of safety in elevators and dwelt upon the need for effective government policies in setting up standards and creating a strong framework for licensing and inspection. Any accident involving an elevator or escalator results in a negative image that engulfs not merely the manufacturer of the equipment, but the entire industry. The elevator industry in India needs the collective wisdom of its leaders to address these issues and, more importantly, articulate the same to the public at large and the government. Every week, we see large newspaper advertisements from developers and builders for villas and apartments that boast of swimming pools, gymnasiums, power backups, shopping centers, etc. We seldom find a reference to the elevator, which is a key determinant of safety and peace of mind for residents. Most buyers focus on flooring materials, sanitaryware for the bathrooms, built-in furniture, etc. In general, tenants of new apartments are seldom well informed about the functioning of elevators and the safety systems that need to be put in place. Elevator consultants and architects play a key role in determining the right specifications for large apartment complexes or high-rise buildings in the upper end of the price band. However, in almost all other instances, it is the builder/ developer who makes the final decisions on the elevator specifications (including safety systems). Even though the use of the manual collapsible gate has been banned for some time now, we hear that these are still being installed in some smaller cities. The ultimate answer lies in consumer awareness, and, if you have a group of potential apartment owners who are well informed on Continued


the working of elevators, you may well find that the developers begin to pay heed to their voice. A major source of consumer dissonance is the post-warranty maintenance of the elevator. One has observed that in many smaller apartment blocks, the building society or the residents’ association switches over to a local service provider on the grounds of cost. Often, such service providers do not have the requisite competencies to service an elevator, nor access to genuine spare parts. Thus, the licensing of service providers through regulation is a key issue that needs to be addressed. The task of communication is not easy, as the industry has to address both the central and state governments. It is time that all the constituents of the industry come together on a common platform to lobby the government for tighter standards, stricter safety norms and licensing of service providers. There are many other industry groups that lobby effectively with the government, as there are strong associations that represent them; the elevator industry needs to follow suit. Finally, this brings me back to the point that the elevator industry needs to communicate effectively with the users of elevators, as well as the government, to secure unfettered growth for the future. Shanker Gopalkrishnan is president of Madras Consultancy Group.

EWI Services How to Contact EW India • Elevator World: 354 Morgan Avenue, Mobile, Alabama 36606, USA; phone: (1) 251-479-4514; fax: (1) 251-479-7043; e-mail: sales@elevatorworld.com or editorial@elevatorworld.com. • Virgo Publications: Virgo House, 250 Amarjyoti Layout, Domlur Extension, Bangalore, India 560071; phone: (080) 25357028/9; fax: (080) 25357028; e-mail: info@virgopubli cations.com. News, Press Releases and Article Submissions • Submissions to be considered for publication should be sent to angie@elevatorworld.com or editorial@elevatorworld. com. Editorial space is non paid; material is accepted based on newsworthiness or educational value and may be edited. Advertising • Contact Anitha Raghunath at (080) 25357028/9 or anitha@ virgopublications.com in India. Contact T.Bruce MacKinnon at (1) 251-479-4514, ext. 20 or tbruce@elevatorworld.com in the U.S. EW Educational Bookstore • For educational books, posters, CDs, DVDs and videos, visit website: www.elevatorbooks.com.


Comments Speed Correction

We have gone through the 2nd Quarter 2014 issue of ELEVATOR WORLD India and found that “Mitsubishi Electric Rolls Out New, India-Targeted Line” on page 12 mentions the product has a speed of 105 mps. Is it possible for it to be that high? AR. Chinnaraju Training Center Johnson Lifts, Ltd. chinnaraju@johnsonliftsltd.com While it’s quite possible elevators may one day reach such speeds safely, we’ll have to wait a while, yet. The correct speed is 105 mpm. We regret any confusion our typo caused. . . . Editor

New Venture Kudos

I recently read about Elevator World, Inc.’s acquisition of Asansör Dünyasi (ELEVATOR WORLD, June 2014). Congratulations and best wishes. Please send a copy of this magazine to me. Arun Aggarwal arun@apexelevators.com

Congrats on the acquisition of Asansör Dünyası in Turkey — very good move. More than 2,000 elevator companies are in Turkey, as are many local manufacturing companies, from big brands to local brands. The manufacturing methods of the local brands are mainly based on the copy-and-paste method. The elevator units per year demand is 20,000-25,000 units at present, and this will increase, as there is great potential in Istanbul and other cities. High-segment elevator units constitute up to 20%. ELEVATOR WORLD in Turkey, in both languages, will be of great success technically, as well as commercially. I went there in April for an elevator-market survey and found that Dubai is just 4.3 hr. from Istanbul and 4 hr. from Ankara. I wish you all the best in the new endeavor. Mohamed Iqbal EW Correspondent Managing Director, Toshiba Elevator Middle East jmiqbal@toshibaelevator.ae Congratulations on the acquisition of Asansör Dünyası. It is wonderful to see how my number-one, most-favorite magazine in the world is growing. I wish all the very best to you all at EW with the new endeavors. John Faure Manager Field & Quality Assurance Department, Mitsubishi Electric US, Inc. Elevator/Escalator Division john.faure@meus.mea.com I have just received the official news on Elevator World’s acquisition of the Turkish magazine Asansör Dünyası. Congratulations to Publisher Ricia S. Hendrick and all the Elevator World family! We understand this involved a great effort on T.Bruce MacKinnon’s part, and we know Hendrick must be very proud of her son. He is an intelligent, hard worker and full of energy to start new projects. He can very well honor the legacy of Elevator World’s leaders. We are happy to publicize this news in Subir y Bajar’s “International News” section. Carmen and Luis Maldacena u1malda@satlink.com Congratulations on the impressive news about the purchase of Asansör Dünyasi. Turkey is a great country and a major market. I will publish the news in our next issue with pleasure. Salvador Beltrán Director ASCENSORES y Montacargas

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ELEVATOR WORLD India • 3rd Quarter 2014 •

SBN


SBN@sbnprensatecnica.com


Calendar

2014 August

ExpoElevador 2014 SĂŁo Paulo, Brazil August 12-13 For more information, contact organizers at email: expoelevador@gmail.com or website: expoelevador.com.br. Indonesia Lift & Elevator Expo Jakarta International Expo Kemayoran, Indonesia August 14-16 For more information or to register, visit website: www.ina-liftelevator.com.

The Wittur exhibit at a past ExpoElevadore

September NAEC Annual Convention and Exposition Henry B. Gonzales Convention Center and Grand Hyatt San Antonio San Antonio, TX September 8-11 For more information, contact the National Association of Elevator Contractors’ (NAEC) Amanda Smith at phone: (770) 760-9660, fax: (770) 760-9714, e-mail: amanda@naec.org or website: www.naec.org. CTBUH International Conference Grand Hyatt Jin Mao Shanghai, China September 16-19 For more information, contact Patti Thurmond at email: pthurmond@ctbuh. org or the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) at website: www. ctbuh.org. CNR Lift Fair Istanbul, Turkey September 25-28 For more information or to register, contact expo representatives at website: www.cnrexpo.com.

October

European Lift Congress Stuttgart, Germany October 7-8 For more information, contact host Technical Academy of Heilbronn e.V. at

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ELEVATOR WORLD India • 3rd Quarter 2014 •

email: tah@hs-heilbronn.de or website: tah.hs-heilbronn.de. International Lift Safety Expo Korea 2014 Coex Seoul, South Korea October 28-31 For more information, contact organizer Coex at phone: (82) 2-6000-1058, fax: (82) 2-6000-1333 or email: lift@coex.co.kr.

2015 February

International Elevator & Escalator Expo Bashundhara Convention Center Dhaka, Bangladesh February 10-12 For more information, contact organizer Virgo Communications at e-mail: info@ virgo-comm.com or website: www. virgo-comm.com.

March

MADE Expo Fiera Milano Rho Milan, Italy March 18-21 For more information, contact organizer Diomedea at website: www.diomedea.it.

April AsansĂśr Istanbul 2015 TĂźyap Fair Convention and Congress Center Istanbul, Turkey April 9-12 For more information, contact organizer Istanbul Fair Organization Ltd. at email: asansor@ifo.com.tr.

  May

IAEC Forum Nashville, TN May 16-22 For more information contact the International Association of Elevator Consultants (IAEC) at website: www.iaec. org. Interlift 2015 Augsburg Trade Fair Centre Augsburg, Germany October 13-16 For more information, contact organizer AFAG Messen und Ausstellungen GmbH at email: interlift@afag.de or website: www.interlift.de.    đ&#x;Œ?


Inside India News

Transitions and Hires KONE, ThyssenKrupp and Avire appoint experienced leaders.

Sharma

KONE Names Sharma EVP of Asia-Pacific and Middle East KONE has appointed Neeraj Sharma executive vice president (EVP), Asia-Pacific and Middle East, effective September 1. Managing director for KONE India since 2009, Sharma has more than 30 years of experience in industrial engineering, previously serving as regional general manager, Energy Services, at GE Energy. With his new position, Sharma becomes a member of the KONE Executive Board, reporting to KONE President and CEO Henrik Ehrnrooth.

Tax Ruling Reversed in Elevator Companies’ Favor By a 4-1 vote, the Supreme Court has reversed a 2005 KONE tax ruling that companies involved in elevator manufacture, supply and installation may be taxed on all aspects of a contract, including service, Business Standard reports. The reversal means only equipment sales may be taxed. Labor, installation and maintenance may not. Elevator manufacturers had petitioned for the reversal after various states began levying sales taxes following the 2005 decision.

ThyssenKrupp Elevator India Hires Vishnani

Vishnani

Bharat Vishnani joined ThyssenKrupp Elevator India on May 1 as its managing director. According to the company, his arrival is part of an effort to manage its continued growth in the Indian market. In his new role, Vishnani will drive the profitability and organizational efficiency by providing strategic direction and overall guidance to his functional leaders in achieving financial and nonfinancial targets. ThyssenKrupp Elevator believes Vishnani will complement its existing organization and help it be the most customer-centric elevator company in India. Vishnani has an electrical engineering background and has spent nearly 30 years in the elevator industry handling various functions covering all operational facets of the business. Prior to joining ThyssenKrupp Elevator, he worked with other elevator companies in India and the Persian Gulf countries.

Joshi Joins Avire as Regional Sales Manager

Joshi

Rajeev Joshi has joined Avire as regional Sales manager for India, Africa and the Middle East. His initial efforts include marketing Avire’s line of safety and security products to OEMs. Avire anticipates demand for these products to grow as their respective markets build and upgrade infrastructure. Joshi’s background includes sales and business development experience in the textiles, chemicals and electronics industries. He holds a bachelor’s degree in Manmade Fiber Technology from Kanpur University and an MBA in International Marketing from Symbiosis Institute of Business Management in Pune, India.

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ELEVATOR WORLD India • 3rd Quarter 2014 •

Most Elevators Reportedly Fixed at Pune Hospital Six of eight elevators at Pune Municipal Corporation’s (PMC) Kamala Nehru Hospital had been repaired as of late April, mid-day reported. Two had previously been fixed, leaving six that were out of service prior to the late April work on four units. Coming on the heels of a report in mid-way blasting PMC’s lack of lift maintenance, the April repairs represent a new focus on proper lift maintenance at Kamala Nehru and other hospitals within the system, PMC Deputy Municipal Commissioner Vijay Dahibhate said.


Project: Hotel Holiday Inn, Chennai Brigade Enterprises Ltd.

Project: Emerald Isle, Powai L & T Realty Ltd.

Project: Forum Atmosphere, Kolkata Forum Projects

TOSHIBA JOHNSON ELEVATORS [INDIA] PVT. LTD. Head Office: 602, 6th floor, C & B Square, Sangam Complex, 127, Andheri Kurla Road, Andheri [East], Mumbai-400 059. Tel: +91-22-6191 1600 / 1601, Fax: +91-22-6191 1649 MUMBAI I CHENNAI I NEW DELHI I GURGAON BANGALORE I HYDERABAD I AHMEDABAD I KOLKATA JAIPUR Website: www.toshiba-india.com/elevator.html

Project: Orion East Mall, Bangalore Brigade Enterprises Ltd.


Inside India News

Residential Contracts Hitachi and KONE granted projects in Mumbai.

Hitachi to Provide 14 Units for 72-Story Nathani Heights Hitachi has been selected to provide 14 high-speed, intelligent elevators to the 72-story Nathani Heights residential tower, planned in Mumbai. The order includes four 6-mps units equipped with earthquake-operation functionality, enabling them to quickly deliver passengers to the nearest floor in the event of an earthquake. There will also be a 4-mps, panoramic glass lift, which Hitachi said will be the fastest of its kind in India. The system will utilize destination selection control to speed traffic flow and ease congestion. Nathani Heights is scheduled for completion in 2016.

KONE to Supply 29 Units to Mumbai Residential Tower KONE has been selected to provide 29 elevators to the 358-m-tall Worli Tower B, the residential component of a Nathani Heights two-tower project in Mumbai designed by Kohn Pedersen Fox, India Blooms reports. The order consists of 24 MiniSpaceTM and five MonoSpace® units, including panoramic, freight and vehicle elevators. The E-LinkTM monitoring system promises to enhance availability and traffic flow, while a radio-frequency identification card system will offer added security. Installation is expected in late 2015.

Teknix Partners with SRH to Serve India Bangalore-based Teknix Elevators Pvt. Ltd., formerly Delta Elevators, has partnered with SRH GmbH of Germany to serve the quickly growing, high-speed, high-end elevator market in India. Units with speeds of up to 8 mps will be manufactured at SRH’s China factory, which also includes an R&D center, customer service department and 108-m-tall test tower. Teknix will provide installation and maintenance, with a focus, the partners state, on “safety, reliability and quality as per German, European Union and ANSI standards.”

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ELEVATOR WORLD India • 3rd Quarter 2014 •


Inside India News

Developments in Transportation New escalators make life easier for commuters and tourists.

Shimla Escalators to Enhance Tourist Experience Officials in Shimla, a popular tourist destination, plan to install three escalators at key locations to improve navigability, The Times of India reports. A study found escalators would be most useful at Lakkar Bazaar at The Ridge, and at a pair of locations along Mall Road. Proposed as a public-private partnership, the escalator project could lead to additional installations if the first three are well received, Assistant Commissioner Naresh Thakur said. Shimla leaders are also in talks with the French government about establishing a light rail system in the city.

New Escalators to Ease Traffic at Old Delhi Station Northern Railway has inaugurated two new escalators at Platform 16 at Old Delhi Railway Station, the Business Standard reports. Platform 16 is heavily used, with trains such as the Kaifiyat, Mussoorie, Unchahar and Shalimar expresses passing through. Commissioned in June, the units have a 9,600-passenger-per-hr. capacity and 0.5-mps speed. They are designed to slow when traffic is light and stop when it is nonexistent to conserve energy. The units are among approximately 100 being installed at various busy railway stations throughout India.

Escalator Enhances Tambaram Station An escalator was recently installed at Southern Railway’s Tambaram station, making it unique among stations in the Chennai area, The Hindu reports. While there is an escalator at Egmore serving long-distance train travelers, Tambaram offers the first escalator for commuters. The escalator connects with a foot overbridge and platform 1A. Escalators are also anticipated for platforms 6, 7, 8 and 9. Approximately 200,000 commuters pass through Tambaram station each day.

Kochi Aims to Install Foot Overbridges with Escalators In the spring, officials in Kochi, India, said they planned to complete the first of what they hope will be several foot overbridges with escalators at busy intersections in the city, The New Indian Express reported. The initial system was planned at Marine Drive, where it was hoped ascending and descending escalators would be installed at each end of the walkway, for a total of four escalators. If funding is available, authorities plan to install additional systems.

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ELEVATOR WORLD India • 3rd Quarter 2014 •

The Ridge area in Shimla


Inside India News

Accidents in Pune From long delays to fatalities, safety concerns require everyone’s participation and vigilance.

Four Year Old Succumbs in Elevator Accident A four-year-old boy died as a result of his head becoming stuck between the wooden door and the grille of the elevator in the Pune apartment building in which he lived, The Times of India reported. Apartment residents and authorities said the unit was regularly inspected and maintained prior to the April 10 accident, and was in good working order. The child had traveled to the ground floor of the building with his grandfather and attempted to take the elevator up by himself when the accident occurred. Maharashtra Lift Safety Rules state children younger than 12 must be accompanied by an adult, a rule elevator inspector Pravin Bhise said is often ignored. The elevator remained closed in the wake of the accident as authorities continued to investigate.

Courthouse Elevator Mishap Reflects Bigger Problem The May entrapment of four people in an elevator in District and Sessions Court in Pune reflects a larger problem of outdated, frequently malfunctioning units there, the Pune Mirror reported. During the recent incident, a lawyer and three litigants were trapped for more than 30 min. Lawyers who work in the building said there have been seven such incidents in the past month and more than 40 in the past year. The three elevators were installed in the mid 1990s. The Pune Bar Association has lodged a formal complaint, and the Public Works Department, which is responsible for the units’ upkeep, sent a modernization cost estimate to court administrators. As of May, it had not yet heard whether an upgrade is in store.

Fall Down Shaft Fatal for 65-Year-Old Man A 65-year-old Aurangabad man died as a result of falling five floors down an elevator shaft in a residential complex in Pune, The Times of India reported. The accident happened on June 11. Firefighters attributed the mishap to faulty machinery that allowed a collapsible gate to open into the shaft. A housing official said the elevator received regular maintenance and that there had been no prior complaints about the collapsible door inadvertently opening. The Public Works Department said it planned to look further into the incident, emphasizing the importance of regular inspections and maintenance, which are required by law.

IEE Expo Dates Announced Virgo Communications & Exhibitions (P) Ltd. of Bangalore, India, has announced dates for its next two annual International Elevator and Escalator Expos (IEEs). Next year’s show will take place in Dhaka, Bangladesh, at the Bashundhara Convention Center on February 10-12, 2015. The following IEE is scheduled for the Bombay Exhibition Centre in Mumbai, on March 17-19, 2016. For more information on or to participate in either, visit website: www. ieeexpodhaka.com.    đ&#x;Œ?

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Inside India News

Realty Update New government, new possibilities power high growth potential.

The Indian general elections to constitute the country’s 16th Lok Sabha has been the key event of the first half of 2014. A clear mandate has been received by the National Democratic Alliance (NDA), and there are high expectations from the newly formed government to guide the economy on a path of high growth. The realty sector expects to witness a turnaround through proactive measures of the new government. NDA’s pro-reform election manifesto has outlined priorities that have direct relevance to the real-estate sector, including:

Mumbai Industrial Corridor and Dedicated Freight Corridor, will lead to opportunities for development of new cities along the belt. These positive developments have enthused investors, and the realty sector is expected to gain from an influx of funds in the near term. The creation of the state of Telangana from the erstwhile Andhra Pradesh in June is another landmark event this year. The real-estate market in Hyderabad, which had been impacted by the political uncertainty in the state, is now expected to stabilize and witness growth. The availability

The real-estate market in Hyderabad, which had been impacted by the political uncertainty in the state, is now expected to stabilize and witness growth. ♦♦ Development of 100 new cities with state-ofthe-art technology and infrastructure, adhering to the concepts of sustainability ♦♦ Implementation of a national land-use policy, which will look at the scientific acquisition of non-cultivable land and its development, as well as protect the interest of farmers, while keeping food-production and economic goals of the country in mind ♦♦ A low-cost housing program to ensure every family will have a pucca house of its own by 2022, the 75th year of Indian independence ♦♦ Creation of 50 tourist circuits and encouragement of infrastructure and job creation around each circuit The manifesto also proposes to “encourage the overall housing sector, through appropriate policy interventions and credit availability and interest subvention schemes.” Apart from this, timely completion of large ongoing infrastructure projects, such as the Delhi

of good infrastructure and connectivity, coupled with low capital values (compared to other metropolitan cities), is expected to drive demand for real estate in Hyderabad. Apart from Hyderabad, which will remain the capital for both the states for 10 years, development of a new capital city for Andhra Pradesh is a priority for the state government. The state government has proposed to develop a world-class capital city with state-of-the-art social infrastructure and amenities. While the location of the new city is being debated, other prominent cities in Andhra Pradesh, such as Vijayawada and Guntur, are also set to witness growth. The State Government of Kerala has proposed measures to streamline the real-estate sector, improve transparency and protect the interests of consumers. These measures include setting up a real-estate authority and onlineregistration facility for developers, as well as changing the Coastal Regulation Zone Act. Continued

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ELEVATOR WORLD India • 3rd Quarter 2014 •


The Schindler E3 approach from the Global Leader in Escalators and Moving Walks From production, to using efficient technology and smarter operating modes in daily operation. Schindler’s E3 is a holistic approach that saves energy and lowers environmental impact. For Escalator layouts and planning dimensions Please visit www.schindlerdraw.com


Residential The central government’s agenda to ensure a house for every family by 2022 entails the development of 20 million housing units in urban India and 40 million units in rural areas over seven years. Architects, developers and other stakeholders of the realty sector are gearing up to partner in this ambitious plan. A notable development during the first half of 2014 was the plan to develop the Housing Start-Up Index to track the number of houses constructed every year. The index is being created by the Housing Ministry, in collaboration with the Reserve Bank of India, and is expected to be an indicator of the demand/supply situation in the residential market. A pilot project covering 25 cities has started and collated information on more than 600,000 buildings to be used by the technical committee from RBI for developing the index. Overall residential activity remained subdued, and capital values remained largely stable during the first half of this year. Delhi and Mumbai are witnessing development along new peripheral areas. In the National Capital Region (NCR), areas north and northwest of Delhi are witnessing demand synergistically with infrastructural development, such as the 135-km-long Kundli-Manesar-Palwal Expressway and 100-m-wide road from the Indira Gandhi International Airport to Narela. Areas such as Kundli-Sonipat and Panipat located in proximity to these developments are emerging NCR investment hubs. Western

suburbs in Mumbai, such as Mira Road and Kandivali West, are sought after by mid- to high-income investors, and several developers have launched projects there. Driven by the large presence of the information-technology (IT)/IT-enabled services (ITeS) companies, Kharadi, Hadapsar and Baner in Pune are witnessing demand for residential properties. Ahmedabad is leading growth in the realty market in Gujarat and witnessing demand for both commercial and residential properties. Demand for apartment complexes and high rises has surged in micro markets, such as South Bopal, Bodakdev, Vastrapur, Nicol, Nava Naroda and New Ranip. Shahibaug, Satellite, Bodakdev, Vastrapur, Prahladnagar and Thaltej are the prime residential areas in Ahmedabad. Apart from Ahmedabad, the realty markets in Surat and Vadodara are also in an upswing. The proposed international diamond-trading hub at Surat, coupled with the city’s proximity to the Golden Quadrilateral, is a key driver for growth. Residential realty is expected to pick up steam in Hyderabad following the formation of Telegana. Areas such as Kukatpally, which has good connectivity infrastructure at affordable capital valuations, are emerging as sought-after areas for investments. Chennai witnessed sluggish demand for residential property, mainly in suburban areas. The ongoing development of the metro rail in Central Chennai is expected to drive demand in these locations. The housing market in Kolkata has remained more or less stable. Jodhpur Park in South Kolkata has witnessed Continued

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ELEVATOR WORLD India • 3rd Quarter 2014 •

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appreciation of property values, owing to its proximity to office spaces. Luxury residential properties witnessed oversupply across the country.

Commercial The growth registered by the IT/ITeS sector during the first half of 2014 boosted sentiments favoring the office realty market. Bangalore continued to lead office-space demand, followed by Pune and the Delhi NCR. Micro markets, such as Outer Ring Road and Whitefield in Bangalore, and Yerwada in Pune, contributed to the demand. In Ahmedabad, commercial properties in micro markets, such as Prahladnagar, Sarkhej-Gandhinagar Highway and Ashram Road, have registered appreciation of capital values. In Hyderabad, existing IT/ITeS hubs, such as Gachibowli and HITEC City, have witnessed appreciation of property values. Other peripheral areas in Hyderabad located in proximity to the IT hubs,

The central government’s agenda to ensure a house for every family by 2022 entails development of 20 million housing units in urban India and 40 million units in rural areas over seven years. such as Attapur, are set to grow strongly in the city. Locations such as Ambattur and Mogappair in West Chennai are emerging hubs for office real estate. Locations in and around

the Central Business District in Chennai, such as Nungambakkam, Kilpauk and Purasaivakkam, are witnessing demand from micro, small and medium-sized enterprises in IT and other services sectors. As a general trend, companies are trying to consolidate operations, rather than expand, and are taking a cautious approach to realty contracts. In a large office realty deal in February, U.S.-based industrial engine maker Cummins bought its 700,000-sq.-ft. India office campus at Balewadi, Pune, from Panchshil Realty for nearly US$125 million. The Central Government’s proposal to develop 50 tourism circuits across heritage, spiritual, Himalayan, desert, coastal and medical circuit themes is expected to spur development of the hospitality sector. In another positive move, in October 2013, the central government included hotels costing more than INR2 billion (US$33.5 million) and convention centers costing more than INR3 billion (US$50.2 million) as “infrastructure sub-sector,â€? making them eligible for easy financing. Notwithstanding sluggish demand, several new hotel projects were launched across India throughout 2013. Cities like Bangalore, the NCR and central Mumbai witnessed an increase in room inventory and low occupancy rates, leading to pressure on room rents. Hospitality chains are sprucing up their meeting, incentive, conference and exhibition offerings to offset the slow growth in demand. Several players have proposed plans to enter/expand their base in India. European luxury hotel chains Kempinski and SwissĂ´tel Hotels & Resorts, and American Starwood Hotels & Resorts Worldwide Inc. are among the multinational players set to develop new properties in India. Starwood is launching its St. Regis and W brand of hotels in India as part of the company’s strategy to operate 100 hotels in the country by 2015. Among the domestic players, ITC is developing ITC Vilasa, a 92-room luxury resort and spa at Mahabalipuram near Chennai. Leading real-estate developers, such as Brigade Group and Prestige Group, have also ventured into the hospitality sector, either on their own or through partnerships with hospitality majors.

Retail Despite slow economic growth, the retail sector in India remained positive, with several multinational players firming their plans and expanding their presence in the Indian market. These include retail majors such as Starbucks, Krispy Kreme, Dunkin’ Donuts, Forever 21, Zara and Superdry. Retailers such as Metro AG have announced plans to go ahead with the cash-and-carry model in India. Additionally, Truefitt and Hill (salons) will soon commence its Indian operations, while Sternhagen (a brand for premium sanitary ware) plans to open flagship stores across Delhi, Chandigarh and Ludhiana, followed by Mumbai and Bangalore. High streets and traditional retail micro markets across metropolitan cities, including Khan Market in Delhi, and Commercial Street and Brigade Road in Bangalore, witnessed strong demand. Though there was a slowdown in the launch of new malls, occupancy rates in malls improved, and demand for mall space remained stable. Submitted by e-Research & Publications India Pvt. Ltd.    đ&#x;Œ?

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ELEVATOR WORLD India • 3rd Quarter 2014 •


Regional Industry News

Big Contracts in China World’s fastest elevator for Guangzhou, multiple major projects for Schindler

Hitachi Elevator Plans to Deliver World’s Fastest Hitachi Elevator plans to deliver the world’s fastest elevators to the mixed-use, 530-m-tall, 111-story CTF Finance Centre under construction in Guangzhou, China. Traveling at 1,200 mpm, or from the first to the 95th floor in approximately 43 s., the pair of units is part of a 95-unit order that also includes 28 double-deck elevators and additional high-speed elevators capable of traveling at 600 mpm. The previous world’s fastest elevators — such as those for Shanghai Tower — have an estimated speed of 1,080 mpm (ELEVATOR WORLD India, 3rd Quarter 2013). Hitachi is no stranger to fast-elevator technology, having developed 300-mpm units for the 30-story Kasumigaskei building, Japan’s fastest elevators at the time, in 1968. Four times as fast, the units for CTF will feature technology — some of it proprietary — to optimize safety, speed, efficiency and passenger comfort. Hitachi made the announcement in April, and delivery is expected upon completion of the building in 2016.

Schindler Supplying Nearly 300 Units Schindler is supplying a total of 291 units to four large, mixed-use projects in China. They are: ♦♦ The U Center, described by Schindler as one of the largest projects in Shanghai in 2014: Schindler will supply 68 escalators and 81 elevators, including 42 high-rise 7000 units, to the development, set to include an office tower and hotel. ♦♦ Suning Plaza in Xuzhou: Schindler will supply 55 elevators, including 21 7000 series, to this Aedis-designed development that will include a hotel, offices and apartments. ♦♦ Yintai Center in Chengdu: designed by John Portman & Associates, this ambitious city-within-a-city consists of a retail podium connecting buildings containing apartments, hotel rooms and retail establishments. Schindler will be supplying 40 7000 elevators and four 5500s. ♦♦ Twin Towers in Guiyang: a pair of 65-story, 300-m-tall towers will house stores, offices and hotel rooms. Schindler is providing 43 7000s Yintai Center for this project.

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ELEVATOR WORLD India • 3rd Quarter 2014 •

CTF Finance Centre

Suning Plaza


Regional Industry News

Company Growth and Development Businesses expand with a new engineering center, factory and company; Hyundai celebrates 30-year anniversary. Toshiba Elevator Opens Kuala Lumpur Engineering Center On July 1, Toshiba Elevator opened an engineering center in Kuala Lumpur to better serve its India, Middle East and Southeast Asia customers. It joins a Toshiba Elevator manufacturing facility in Penang, Malaysia. Citing the boom of high-rise buildings worldwide, the company states: “The center will use [Toshiba Elevator’s] comprehensive portfolio of people-moving technologies to deliver highly responsive support and quality products that meet market needs for safer, more comfortable, high-quality elevators and escalators.”

New Schindler Shanghai Factory, Another to Come Schindler opened a new manufacturing plant in Shanghai’s Jiading Industry District on May 21. At its opening ceremony, Schindler Group President Alfred N. Schindler called the factory’s completion a milestone in the group’s history that shows the ambition and confidence of its long-term development. The facility will supply both the domestic and global escalator market. It is equipped with multiple energy-saving components and was built as a certified green building. According to the Shanghai Elevator Trade Association, China is the biggest manufacturer of escalators, with an annual production share of 65%. Schindler’s Chinese construction plans for the next two years include another elevator plant and an R&D center with a test tower, all totaling 300,000 m2.

Mitsubishi and Partners Establish Company in Myanmar Mitsubishi Corp. and its partners have established MC Elevator Ltd. in Myanmar in an effort to strengthen their foothold in a sovereign state where urban development is brisk as the government moves toward democracy. Mitsubishi has been distributing elevators, escalators and related products in Myanmar since 1998, and in April established an office in Yangon (ELEVATOR WORLD India, 2nd Quarter). The new company, expected to be operational by summer 2014, will provide technical services and solutions, installation, testing and commissioning. Mitsubishi, which will hold a 60% stake in MC Elevator, believes this will result in more effective customer service. Mitsubishi’s partners are First Myanmar Investment Ltd. and Yoma Strategic Investments Ltd., which will each hold a 20% stake.

Hyundai Elevator Marks 30 Years, Highlights Growth Hyundai Elevator marked 30 years in business and examined past and potential growth during a ceremony in May at its headquarters in Icheon, South Korea, Korea Joongang Daily reports. Approximately 600 employees attended the event, during which Hyundai Group Chairwoman Hyun Jeong-eun emphasized the company’s intent to expand its reach globally. The number-one elevator company in South Korea for the past seven years, Hyundai Elevator reported revenue of US$1 billion in 2013 and installed more than 15,000 elevators, compared with revenue of US$1.6 million and 400 installations during its first year. In order to lay the groundwork for growth in China and Brazil, the company recently secured a 100% stake in Shanghai Hyundai Elevator and completed a factory in Brazil able to produce 3,000 units a year (ELEVATOR WORLD India, Second Quarter 2014).

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ELEVATOR WORLD India • 3rd Quarter 2014 •

Schindler Shanghai factory


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Regional Industry News

Growth in the Middle East KONE, Schindler and ThyssenKrupp Elevator see growth in the Gulf states.

65-Unit Order for Kingdom Tower, Future World’s Tallest Building KONE has landed a contract to outfit the mixed-use Kingdom Tower in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, with 65 units, including the world’s fastest and highest double-deck elevators that exceed 10 mps and rise 660 m. Kingdom Tower is expected to be complete in 2018 and will be the world’s tallest building at more than 1 km. KONE plans to use its UltraRopeTM high-rise hoisting technology (ELEVATOR WORLD India, 3rd Quarter 2013). The order consists of 21 MonoSpace®, 29 single- and seven double-deck MiniSpaceTM elevators, and eight TravelMasterTM 100 escalators. The system will include custom cabs and landing doors, Polaris destination dispatch, Infoscreen displays, E-LinkTM monitoring and emergency-evacuation capabilities. The order also includes 10 years of equipment maintenance.

Schindler to Supply 100 Units to Makkah Complex

Yas Mall

Schindler Olayan Elevator Co. has been awarded a contract to supply phase two of the 2,200-apartment complex Wahat Makkah, under construction in Makkah, Saudi Arabia, with 100 3300AP elevators. When complete, Wahat Makkah will have 214 units from Schindler, the sole vertical-transportation supplier for the development. Schindler stated that, with this project, special consideration is being given to “respecting local cultural and heritage elements, while fully exploring contemporary design opportunities.”

ThyssenKrupp Elevator Buoyed by U.A.E. Demand ThyssenKrupp Elevator expects significant infrastructure growth in the U.A.E. to bolster 2014 sales, The National reported, quoting CEO Andreas Schierenbeck at the unveiling of the company’s new US$45 million test tower in Germany in April. The U.A.E is outpacing the rest of the Middle East in terms of new construction, and ThyssenKrupp Elevator expects to build on an already strong track record in the country, which includes supplying 133 units to Abu Dhabi’s new Yas Mall and 640 units (not including 123 airport-to-aircraft passenger bridges) to Dubai International Airport. Schierenbeck forecasts a 10-12% increase in sales in Abu Dhabi and Dubai this year, and expects the activity to continue, resulting in growing ThyssenKrupp Elevator’s workforce from 1,700 in 2013 to 2,300 by 2019.

Schindler to Provide Specialized Outdoor Escalators in Dubai Schindler has been hired to provide seven highly specialized, energy-efficient, weather-resistant outdoor escalators for The Walk at Jumeirah Beach Residence ( JBR) in Dubai Marina. The 9300 units are among only a few fully outdoor escalators in the world, according to Schindler. Developed by Dubai Properties, The Walk is a 1.7-kmlong retail and entertainment strip at the ground level of JBR, a waterfront community overlooking the Persian Gulf in Dubai Marina.

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The Walk


Environmental Issues

Calculating, Quantifying and Reporting “Green” How to credibly claim and compare the environmental performance of elevators by Sascha Iqbal and Nikolay Minkov Strictly speaking, there is no such thing as a “green” elevator, unless covering your shaft doors and car entrance with green paint and decorating your car interior with some fancy green-colored panels count. Evidently, however, each product and activity has an impact on the environment, which is bigger or smaller when compared with a reference or benchmark. Thus, the question is more about how much “greener” (i.e., “better” in quantitative terms) the overall environmental performance of one elevator is when compared to a competitor’s.

LCAs: Calculating and Quantifying “Green” The most recognized scientific method around the world to measure “green” is using a lifecycle assessment (LCA). Standardized by ISO 14040[1] and ISO 14044,[2] an LCA allows for a quantified estimate of the environmental performance of each lifecycle stage of a product or service. Performing an LCA for a rather complex product such as an elevator system and its underlying supply chain is a laborious task, requiring three to 12 months of work from a core team of one to two people skilled in LCA, resulting in lengthy, technical reports with LCA results in greater-than-necessary detail. Not only the LCA project core team, but also numerous departments (R&D, purchasing, marketing, field offices, fleet managers, etc.), manufacturing locations and suppliers are involved. These participants also need to be trained in LCA, briefed about the purpose of the LCA project, informed about what data is needed and told how this data can practically be collected.

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ELEVATOR WORLD India • 3rd Quarter 2014 •

Thus, performing a full LCA from “cradle to grave” requires considerable investment of time, skills and financial resources companies may initially feel reluctant to commit to, unless the LCA’s clear value becomes obvious (e.g., when contracts are lost to competitors able to provide better [such as more transparent and quantifiable] environmental performancerelated information).

EPDs: Reporting “Green” Within the context of “green” building rating and certification schemes, such as Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design (LEED®), the Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method (BREEAM®), the German Sustainable Building Council (DGNB®), the French High Quality Environmental Standard (HQETM) and GreenStar, so-called “environmental product declarations” (EPDs), have increasingly gained importance, due to Continued

Figure 1: Normative references for environmental product declarations (Note: ASTM and LEO standards are both still in the draft stage.)


GEARS AND COMPONENTS FOR LIFTS


should be comparable. Comparable points should be calculated according to the same rules and system boundaries (e.g., similar to national or international accounting standards applied for calculation of balance sheets, or profit and loss statements) and applied consistently. This is where so-called “product category rules” (PCRs) come in.

PCRs: Calculation Rules for “Green”

Figure 2: The relationship between LCA, EPD, PCR, PO and GPIs

PCRs define the calculation rules and system boundaries (which lifecycle stages and components to include/exclude from the LCA study) for the underlying LCA, as well as format and content for reporting in an EPD. The existence of a PCR is a prerequisite to elaborate on an EPD, in order to be in conformity with ISO 14025.[4]

First Elevator PCR Development being accepted for (or contributing to) achieving credits. Of particular note are LCAs or EPDs accepted for achieving or contributing to the achievement of one point of the materials and resources credit 2, option 1 under LEED v4 (2013).[3] EPDs are standardized (in general) according to ISO 14025,[4] where they are officially named “Type III Environmental Declarations,” and for building products (in particular) according to ISO 21930[5] and CEN 15804.[6] The latter is currently the most evolved, widespread and accepted EPD standard related to building products, besides some other national ones (Figure 1). As opposed to full LCA reports, EPDs summarize LCA results in a more concise, brochure-like form. Thus, several elevator manufacturers have published EPD-like documents for their products.[7-10]

Facilitating Informed “Green” Purchasing Decisions

Development of the first elevator PCR was initiated on May 24, 2013, under the umbrella of The International EPD® System acting as so-called “EPD program operator” (PO), as defined by ISO 14025.[4] The draft developed is based on the requirements of the PO’s so-called “general program instructions” (GPIs),[11] ISO 14025[4] and CEN 15804,[6] including a mandatory independent EPD third-party verification (Figure 2). The proposed elevator lifecycle model (Figure 3) elaborated during the PCR development process allows for a flexible aggregation of lifecycle stages, if aggregated according to the rules outlined in the GPIs (“core,” “upstream” and “downstream” modules), CEN 15804 (stages A1 to C4) or common building-product LCA syntax (“cradle-to-gate,” “cradle-to-job[site]” and “cradle-to-grave”).

PO: Administrative Framework for “Green” A PO basically acts as an administrative body of an EPD program: it prepares, maintains and communicates GPIs,

In practice, elevator EPDs and the respective LCA results Continued contained in them have so far been very difficult or impossible to compare due to differences in functional units, calculation rules, default values, assumptions, background lifecycle inventory data, system boundaries, or applied allocation and cut-off rules. The “functional unit” is defined as a quantified performance of the product for use as a reference unit in an environmental declaration of the lifecycle of a product. Its primary purpose is to provide a reference by which input and output flows (material, energy, waste, emissions, etc.) of the elevator LCA results and any other information are normalized to produce data expressed on a common basis.[6 & 11] Thus, to genuinely allow and support architects, builders, planners or contractors to make informed “green” purchasing decisions, EPDs Figure 3: Proposed elevator lifecycle model with flexible aggregation of lifecycle stages into modules according to the GPIs of The International EPD® System, according to CEN 15804 and common LCA terminology

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ELEVATOR WORLD India • 3rd Quarter 2014 •


maintains publicly available lists and records of PCR documents and EPDs and is required to establish a transparent procedure for PCR review through an open stakeholder consultation (OSC).[4]

Draft PCR Consultations

Figure 4: Timeline and milestones of the elevator PCR development process under The International EPD® System

The OSC of the elevator PCR was launched on Dec 6, 2013, by actively inviting at least four dozen companies, industry associations, industry Internet groups, academics and individuals from around the globe. The main challenges and issues encountered during the PCR development process and addressed so far during the OSC include the following: ♦♦ Maintain balance of interests between industry representatives (elevator companies and associations), academia, institutions and independent LCA experts within the PCR development committee and stakeholder groups ♦♦ Definition of a meaningful functional unit (per ton-kilometer, per passenger-kilometer and/or per floor) ♦♦ Representativeness of proposed default system configurations and parameters (geography, elevator reference service life [RSL], usage intensity/frequency, trips per year, daily travel and standby times, rated load, rated speed, traveling height, number of stops, reeving factor, number of car entrances, etc.) ♦♦ Methodological choice for system energy demand (expressed in kWh per year and per-reference service life) calculation: VDI 4707-1,[12] ISO/DIS 25745-2[13] and/or ISO/DIS 25745-2 (ELEVATOR WORLD, September 2013) ♦♦ Consideration of component classification and energy demand according to the VDI 4707-2 draft[14] ♦♦ Inclusion/exclusion of installation lifecycle phase in/from the so-called “core module” ♦♦ Optional inclusion of elevator modernization and expansion of elevator RSL to building RSL (typically 50 years applied for whole-building LCAs) for facilitating integration into wholebuilding LCAs ♦♦ Environmental-impact relevance and inclusion/exclusion in/ from system boundaries of ozone-layer-depleting substances (such as potentially used for printed-circuit-board washing or as refrigerant in the air-conditioners of some elevators installed in [sub]tropical climates), packaging, and replacement material for maintenance and repair ♦♦ Allocation rules (based on physical relationships, versus based on economic relationships) ♦♦ Cutoff rules (1, 5, 10% or more for any environmental-impact category as defined in the PCR) ♦♦ Approach for modeling disposal and recycling of elevator components at the end of their lives: so-called “recycled content” or cut-off approach, versus so-called “end of life recycling” or avoided burden approach ♦♦ Declaration of hazardous substances (mandatory/optional, level of detail, applicable legislation and geographical scope) ♦♦ Representativeness of default scenarios and parameters proposed for modeling end-of-life and transportation stages ♦♦ Recommendation of generic background lifecycle inventory databases with respect to consistency, geographical and temporal representativeness, technological equivalence, and natural/technical-systems boundaries

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ELEVATOR WORLD India • 3rd Quarter 2014 •

♦♦ Definition of optional disclosure of additional (non-LCA/ qualitative) environmental information, such as energy-saving features, energy-efficiency labels/ratings, shaft thermal-energy losses, noise levels, recycled content and electromagnetic compatibility Due to unexpectedly large interest, the OSC was extended until April 11 at goo.gl/6R00Ug, where the draft elevator PCR could also be downloaded. Review and approval of the elevator PCR was scheduled for May 15, and publication for June 1 (Figure 4).

References

[1] ISO 14040: 2006 Environmental management – Life cycle assessment – Principles and framework [2] ISO 14044: 2006 Environmental management – Life cycle assessment – Requirements and guidelines [3] LEED BD+C: New Construction | v4 Building product disclosure and optimization – environmental product declarations (www.usgbc.org/ node/2616376?return=/credits/new-construction/v47material-%26resources, accessed February 23, 2014) [4] ISO 14025: 2006 Environmental labels and declarations – Type III environmental declarations – Principles and procedures [5] ISO 21930: 2007 Sustainability in building construction – Environmental declaration of building products [6] CEN 15804: 2012 Sustainability of construction works – Environmental product declarations – Core rules for the product category of construction products [7] MP Lifts MP1310 GO! (www.mplifts.com/portal/c/document_library/ get_file?uuid=1e08c15a-80f8-4b14-904e99e6a71d21b8&groupId=10136, accessed 23-Februrary 23, 2014) [8] ThyssenKrupp Elevator (www.tkearth.com/downloads/TKES_EPD_ Digital_Brochure-Interactive.pdf, accessed February 23, 2014) [9] KONE MonoSpace® (cdn.kone.com/www.kone.us/Images/konemonospace-environmental-product-declaration.pdf?v=2, accessed February 23, 2014) [10] Schindler, Environmental Fact Sheets (www.schindler.com/com/internet/ en/about-schindler/corporate-citizenship/product-ecology.html, accessed February 23, 2014) [11] General Program Instructions (Version 2.01) of the International EPD System [12] VDI 4707-1: 2009 Lifts – Energy efficiency [13] ISO/DIS 25745-2 Energy performance of lifts, escalators and moving walks – Part 2: Energy calculation and classification for lifts (elevators) [14] VDI 4707-2 Draft Lifts – Energy efficiency – Components

Sascha Iqbal of IQ Consult GmbH, Switzerland, has 15 years of experience in environmental management and eco design in the elevator and escalator industry. He is an accredited LEED BD+C professional and holds an MSc in Environmental Sciences from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich. He provides consultancy and expertise in elevator and escalator sustainability analyses. He can be contacted at email: sascha. iqbal@bluewin.ch. Nikolay Minkov is a research assistant at the Technical University Berlin. He is an environmental engineer and MSc in Environmental Management and Sustainable Development. He works in the areas of sustainability, applied LCA, EPDs and PCRs. Among other projects, he is responsible for the moderation of elevator PCR development. He can be contacted at email: nikolay.minkov@tu-berlin.de.


• Issue 3, Volume 7 • elevatorworldindia.com

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Environmental Issues


ThyssenKrupp Elevator’s Green Elevator Technology PMS gearless machines, regenerative drives, DSC and more are part of company’s strategy for its elevators to save energy. by V. Gurumoorthy

Opposite page: Nearly 200 TWIN systems have been installed in new and modernized buildings around the world. This system is at the Main Triangel in Frankfurt, Germany. This page, clockwise from top: The DSC terminal for passengers at the Raine Square office tower in Perth, Australia Machines in the Raine Square office tower in Perth, Australia: ThyssenKrupp Elevator uses quadruple redundancy to keep TWIN cars at a safe distance at all times. This four-step safety feature is comprised of anti-collision routing, automatic monitoring of minimum safety distances, an emergency-stop function and automatic engagement of the safety gear. ThyssenKrupp elevator and escalator units in Kempegowda International Airport in Bangalore, India

In line with the growing global trend toward designing and constructing sustainable buildings and cities, ThyssenKrupp Elevator is committed to continuously applying cutting-edge technology with energy-efficient and environmentally friendly features in its products. We have attached a high priority to developing and implementing sustainable solutions for the entire lifecycle of our products and processes worldwide, which, naturally, includes India, the world’s second-largest elevator market. In addition, high standards for health and safety are observed for all products to minimize the use of toxic materials from the R&D to manufacturing stages, as well as in field operations. In recent years, ThyssenKrupp Elevator introduced a range of new permanentmagnet synchronous (PMS) gearless machines, which consume up to 50% less energy than conventional geared machines. PMS machines are also lighter, more compact and require no gearbox, which not only saves on material and gear oil, but also substantially reduces the chances for oil pollution. Additionally, high-rise and high-speed ThyssenKrupp elevators can be equipped with regenerative drives, which feed energy produced during the generative mode of elevator operation (when the car is lightly loaded and moving up, or heavily loaded and moving down) back into the building’s power grid, which results in up to 50% energy savings. In terms of elevator control technology, the most important recent advancement is destination selection control (DSC). Passengers enter their destination floor on input terminals in the lift lobby, and those going to the same floor are then assigned to the same elevator to take them to their destination in the shortest time. Compared to a conventional group-control system, ThyssenKrupp’s DSC system significantly reduces the number of intermediate stops per trip and optimizes traffic so that the elevators are utilized much more efficiently. By eliminating unnecessary elevator trips and stops, the DSC group-control function also reduces the energy consumption of the elevator group, thus lowering its overall carbon footprint. Continued

• Issue 3, Volume 7 • elevatorworldindia.com

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Other energy-saving measures include the extensive use of LEDs in elevator cabs and escalators, which can offer up to 80% energy savings, while providing the same luminance as traditional lights with a lifetime 10 times longer. LED lights also emit low heat and minimal radiation. TWIN is ThyssenKrupp Elevator’s patented solution allowing two cabs to travel independently of each other in a single shaft. Arranged one above the other, the cabs can travel at different speeds and in opposite directions, as required. In addition to energy-efficient gearless machines, the system is equipped with regenerative drives that feed energy produced by the motor during the generative mode back into the building’s power-supply system. TWIN offers an additional 30% energy savings compared to non-shuttle double-deck solutions, since double-deck elevators have a heavier total mass to move. Another advantage of TWIN over double-deck systems is the capability to downsize the building’s emergency diesel generator by up to 50%. Furthermore, the TWIN system offers the ability to park and switch off one of the cars when traffic is light, thus saving additional energy that significantly contributes to lower operating costs over the course of the building’s life. In TWIN arrangements, an intelligent DSC system ensures passengers reach their destination in the shortest possible time. All passengers have to do is enter their destination floor on a touchscreen outside the elevator. In a fraction of a second, the computerized control system selects the elevator cab that will take them there in the shortest time and, via the terminal, informs them which door to approach. When passenger volumes are low during off-peak periods, one of the cabs can be parked on the lowest or highest floor, while the other remains in operation. ThyssenKrupp Elevator India is a part of the ThyssenKrupp Group, a Fortune 500 company. An extensive network of sales offices and service centers keeps ThyssenKrupp Elevator India close to its customers across the country. V. Gurumoorthy is vice president, Sales and Marketing, ThyssenKrupp Elevator India Pvt. Ltd.

Top and middle: ThyssenKrupp elevator, escalator and moving-walk units in Indira Gandhi International Airport in Delhi, India Bottom: ThyssenKrupp elevators with DSC in Times Square in Mumbai

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ELEVATOR WORLD India • 3rd Quarter 2014 •


Codes & Standards

Energy Code Development, Part One How the groundbreaking Hong Kong Energy Code was created, leading to a section on elevator energy efficiency. by Dr. Albert So The first code of practice related to energy in Hong Kong is perhaps the Code of Practice for Overall Thermal Transfer Value (OTTV) in Buildings published by the Hong Kong government in 1995. Then, a task force was established in 1997 by the Electrical and Mechanical Services Department (EMSD) of the government to draft codes of a similar nature but on different building systems, under which the Subcommittee on Lift (Elevator in North America) and Escalator Code of the Energy Efficiency and Conservation was formed. Such a code had been followed by the industry on a voluntary basis until 2012, when the statutory Building Energy Code (BEC) was enforced. Your author may be the only member who has been participating in the creation of the aforementioned documents from day one until now. This article will present a brief history of elevator code growth in Hong Kong and its parallel development in Europe. Technical considerations related to the code and some associated research works by the author will be discussed, which may be useful to elevator engineers who intend to design, install, operate and maintain green elevators.

Development History Since the 1973 Oil Embargo, there has been a global concern regarding the shortage of fossil fuels, and, therefore, energy conservation had been a hot topic in the 1970s and 1980s, though the concern at that time was in no way comparable to that of the present. The earlier situation was only an issue because the deficiency of fuel was considered a problem for the future. Thus, few people were willing to

sacrifice economic growth for the sake of minimizing energy consumption. It is well known that energy consumption of a nation highly reflects its gross domestic product. Now, besides the limited supply of fossil fuels, the major problem is climate change. Using fossil fuels to generate electricity implies putting millions of millions of metric tons of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. A consultancy study in 1991 initiated by the Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee of Hong Kong found that if the envelope of a building were constructed to a suitable OTTV, electricity demand from air-conditioning (and, thus, the emission of greenhouse gases from power generation) could be reduced. Hence, the Building Authority of Hong Kong published the OTTV Code in 1995[1] to limit the amount of heat transfer through the building envelope during the late spring/summer/early fall period, when the average outdoor temperature is higher than that indoors. The code has been mandatory since its implementation. In 1997, a task force was established by the EMSD to draft a series of four sets of codes of practices under four subcommittees: Lighting,[2] Air-Conditioning,[3] Electrical Services,[4] and Lifts and Escalators.[5] By 2003, another code[6] (in addition to the four prescriptive codes just mentioned) had been published. This one was based on system performance and simulation. All five codes had been operating on a voluntary basis until 2012, when they were combined together into one document.[7] In the years between, there had been several revisions, but the basic concept remained unchanged. Continued

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Basic Concept of the CoP Statistically, lifts and escalators account for 3-8% of total electrical energy consumption of commercial buildings, while it is the dominating consumer of the public areas of high-rise residential buildings. The Lift and Escalator subcommittee of the task force to draft the Code of Practice for Energy Efficiency of Lift and Escalator Installations (CoP) (of which your author was a member representing the Hong Kong Institution of Engineers) faced a big problem in 1997, when it was established that we, as a pioneer in this area, did not have any reference. The subcommittee then determined five main areas of the CoP, as follows: 1) Maximum allowable electrical power of lifts, escalators and moving walks 2) Traffic analysis and zoning 3) Lift system control 4) Energy management 5) Power quality Problems included how to define the maximum allowable electrical power and their desirable/practical values for power usage. For lifts, we decided the maximum allowable power be measured when a fully loaded car is running full speed in an upward direction. This definition is still in use today. For practical values, letters asking for technical data were sent to all Hong Kong representatives of elevator manufacturers and maintenance contractors. Unfortunately, the response from the market was unsatisfactory, while the general reply was that no such information was available from the manufacturers. To clear this hurdle, a government engineer worked with your author to launch a secret plan to push the industry to respond. We made use of fundamental laws in mechanics to derive equations to estimate such power based on friction losses during traveling, hydraulic losses, dynamic losses during acceleration and deceleration, potential energy transfer and regeneration, etc. under different conditions, then sent them to the industry for comments. Had the response again been poor, these theoretical values (which would not be favorable to manufacturers) would have been enforced. However, practical and reasonable values were soon received and tabulated in the CoP (Figure 1). The draft code was issued in 1998, while the first version was published in 2000.

required in the first version but waived in the 2005 edition. For lift-system control, lift operation standby mode was required during low traffic. Energy management called for the installation of metering devices or the provision of a simple connection to such devices to measure such parameters as voltages, currents, energy consumption, total power factor, power and maximum demand. This energy management requirement remains valid. Particular emphasis was placed on the regulation of two electrical parameters of a lift, escalator or moving-walk drive. Total Power Factor (TPF) is defined as: (Equation 1)

TPF was limited to a lower boundary of 0.85. Here, P is active power (in kW) consumed by the drive with respect to the fundamental component of 50 Hz in Hong Kong; Q is the reactive power (in kVAr) consumed by the drive with respect to the fundamental component; D is the distortion power (in kVAd) contributed by all other current harmonic components. Technically, the denominator is equivalent to the “apparent power” drawn by the drive. This requirement is still valid in the updated CoP, but there is an issue of the practicality related to measurement, which will be further discussed in Part Two of this series. Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) is defined as:

(Equation 2)

Here, Ih refers to the harmonic component of the current drawn by the lift, escalator or moving-walk drive, while I1 is the fundamental component. A table was included in the CoP that governed the maximum THD (%) against the fundamental current rating of the lift drive. For example, the limit was 35% for most lifts operating with a fundamental current of 40-80 A. This requirement is still valid in the updated CoP, but there is an issue related to the practicality related to measurement, which will be further discussed in Part Two. By controlling these two parameters, the electric power quality would be satisfactory, and less heat loss would occur along the electrical power transmission and distribution system.

Parallel Development in Europe

Figure 1: Values in this table are outdated, but readers interested in studying them can download the updated version from EMSD’s website.[7]

For high-rise buildings, traffic-analysis-based design in terms of round-trip time (RTT), system handling capacity and zoning was

In 2006, a working group was established by the European Lift Association to address the question of elevator energy efficiency. In 2007, the European Commission initiated a study to look into the subject. The first set of guidelines dealing with the energy performance of lifts on a national basis in Europe, VDI 4707, was published by the Association of German Engineers. This code aimed at classifying elevators based on their energy consumption and enabling easy calculation of the typical energy demand of a lift installation based on its operational profile. The goal was to adopt a simple approach to compare the energy performance of different lifts. The first draft of VDI 4707 appeared in 2007; the first formal Continued

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ELEVATOR WORLD India • 3rd Quarter 2014 •


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edition appeared in 2008, and the final version — Part 1 on “Lift Energy Efficiency” — was published in late March 2009. There are two classes of concern in assessing energy consumption: the travel or operational class and standby class. The travel energy is measured and categorized in one of seven grades, from “A” to “G,” while the standby energy is also measured and categorized in one of seven grades. Both classes are then combined to form the overall class or grade, class “A” being the best, and class “G” being the worst. These are based on three more parameters: nominal load (in kg), travel (in m) and usage intensity. Usage intensity is classified into five categories (Table 1). In other words, comparison of energy-efficiency classes is only possible by considering lifts belonging to the same category of usage. A lift in category of usage one consumes less than 50 W during standby and no more than 0.80 mWh/(m-kg) during travel is to be classified in Class A.

Internationally, the draft ISO/DIS 25745-1[8] was published in 2008, and its latest version was published in 2012. It provides a calculation to estimate lift energy consumption using the following equation:

(Equation 4)

where: EL is the energy used by a single lift in one year (in kW X h). S is the number of starts made per year. P is the rating of the drive motor (in kW). th is the time to travel between the main entrance floor and the highest served floor from the instant the doors have closed until the instant they start to open (i.e., half a reference-run trip cycle) (in s.). ♦♦ Estandby is the standby energy used by a single lift in one year (in kW X h). Usage Category 1 2 3 4 5 The equation relies on a Very low/very Medium/ Very high/very number of assumptions and has Usage intensity/frequency Low/seldom High/frequently seldom occasionally frequently several disadvantages: 0.2 0.5 1.5 3 5 ♦The ♦ building has a uniform Average travel time (hr./day) (≤ 0.3) (> 0.3 - 1) (> 1 - 2) (> 2 - 4.5) (> 4.5) floor population. Average standby time (hr./ ♦The ♦ number of up stops are 23.8 23.5 22.5 21 18 day) equal to the number of down Table 1: VDI 4707-1 usage categories stops. ♦No ♦ allowance is made for To measure the travel or operational energy, a reference run is regeneration. conducted with an empty lift car going up from the lowest floor to ♦♦ No allowance is made for the actions of the traffic controller. the top floor, then back to the lowest floor (i.e., both up and (Single units only are considered.) down). The total distance traveled is represented by d (in m), and ♦♦ No significant number of stops is made below the main entrance the contract (rated) capacity of the car is CC (in kg). The total floor. energy consumption, Eref, during these two journeys is measured ♦♦ No additional energy for travel through an express zone is taken and normalized to the specific energy during the reference run, into account. Esprun, by using the following equation:

(Equation 3)

This method of measurement is also recommended in a later International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standard.[8] The main criticism to this measurement is that it places less emphasis on the high power consumption during acceleration and deceleration. Thus, it may be unfair to low-rise buildings. Readers must note that the whole concept is on measuring the performance of the lift drive alone, quite similar to the counterpart section of the Hong Kong Energy Code. The distinctive contribution of intelligent supervisory control is ignored, whereas the main energy savings actually could be a result of intelligent passenger dispatching. This is another point that will be discussed in Part 2 of this series. Measurement of standby energy consumption is straightforward, which can be conducted 5-10 min. after a run. EN 81 allows the switching off of the lights inside the car when the car is idle with car doors closed to reduce standby energy consumption. However, frequently switching discharge lamps on and off significantly reduces their life.

♦♦ ♦♦ ♦♦ ♦♦

The Latest CoP

The CoP was made mandatory with the publication of BEC in 2012[7] by incorporating all five aforementioned codes, the most recent of which is performance based. The CoP 2012 on lifts and escalators has four purposes: 1) Reducing power consumption through imposing maximum allowable electrical power of motor drives 2) Reducing losses in the utilization of power through imposing requirements of minimum allowable total power factor, and limitations on decoration loads and standby mode in lift operation 3) Reducing losses due to associated power-quality problems 4) Providing appropriate metering and energy-monitoring facilities for better energy efficiency management The conditions of limiting the power consumption of lifts, escalators and moving walks have been discussed before. For traction lifts, classification is based on rated load and rated speed. For hydraulic lifts, classification is only based on rated load, as the speed is usually rather low. For escalators, classification is based on nominal width, rise, speed and type (nonpublic service, public service and heavy duty). For moving walks, classification is based on nominal width, length, speed and type (nonpublic service and Continued

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ELEVATOR WORLD India • 3rd Quarter 2014 •


public service). Total power factor and power quality in terms of total harmonic distortion have also been discussed. The latest CoP includes several new requirements versus the 2000 edition. The lift decoration load is governed, as the use of heavy materials for in-car decoration wastes energy. The allowable decoration load D with respect to the rated load L is governed by the following equations in Table 2.

L < 1800 kg

D = 0.5 L or 600, whichever is smaller

L ≥ 1800 kg

D = 0.38 L - 0.000026 L2 or 1250, whichever is smaller

Table 2: Maximum lift decoration load (in kg)

During low traffic periods, a parking mode must be available for at least one lift in a group or bank. The ventilation/air-conditioning system serving a lift car has to be stopped when the car is idle for some time.

More to Expect in Part Two A universal indicator proposed by your author some 10 years ago for benchmarking elevator energy performance, which takes care of both the drive and supervisory control, is now included in the technical guidance of the code for reference by elevator engineers. The indicator and related developments will be discussed in Part Two of this series. It shall also discuss various practical methods by which to deal with clauses in the CoP of Hong Kong and address some problems with selected clauses. Additionally, an energy-saving method for elevators developed by the author will be discussed.

References [1] Building Authority, Code of Practice for Overall Thermal Transfer Value in Buildings, Hong Kong, 1995. [2] Electrical and Mechanical Services Department, Code of Practice for Energy Efficiency of Lighting Installations, 1998. [3] Electrical and Mechanical Services Department, Code of Practice for Energy Efficiency of Air Conditioning Installations, 1998. [4] Electrical and Mechanical Services Department, Code of Practice for Energy Efficiency of Electrical Installations, 1999. [5] Electrical and Mechanical Services Department, Code of Practice for Energy Efficiency of Lift and Escalator Installations, 2000. [6] Electrical and Mechanical Services Department, Performance-Based Building Energy Code, 2003. [7] Electrical and Mechanical Services Department, Code of Practice for Energy Efficiency of Building Services Installation, 2012 (www.beeo.emsd.gov. hk/en/pee/BEC_2012.pdf ). [8] ISO/DIS 25745-1, Energy Performance of Lifts, Escalators and Moving Walks, Part 1: Energy Measurement and Verification, 2008.

Dr. Albert So is an executive board member and scientific advisor of the International Association of Elevator Engineers (IAEE). He is also the academic secretary for the IAEE HK-China Branch and honorary visiting professor of the University of Northampton in the U.K. He is based in Seattle.

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ELEVATOR WORLD India • 3rd Quarter 2014 •


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From One World to Another by Kaija Wilkinson A relationship formed nearly 20 years ago between Elevator World, Inc., founder William C. Sturgeon and Istanbul-based Asansör Dünyası magazine founder Muzaffer Baştakar came full circle on May 1 with the acquisition of Asansör Dünyası by Elevator World. Asansör Dünyası, which translates to “Elevator World” in English, is published bimonthly in English and Turkish and has a readership of more than 3,000. It will continue to be published under the Asansör Dünyası name. In announcing the news, Elevator World Executive Vice President T.Bruce MacKinnon stated: “We are thrilled to welcome Asansör Dünyası as an integral part of the Elevator World family. A recognized leader and wellestablished publication, Asansör Dünyası will help further our mission to publish and deliver relevant and trustworthy news to the vertical-transportation community, while offering a global marketing platform for our advertisers.” Left: Asansör Dünyası’s offices are located in a four-story building in bustling Istanbul. Top right: Yelda Beray, daughter of Asansör Dünyası founder Muzaffer Baştakar, shakes hands on the deal with Elevator World Executive Vice President T.Bruce MacKinnon. A portrait of Baştakar hangs in the background. Bottom right: (l-r) Gözde Kılıçaslan, Bülent Yılmaz, Sadi Oktay, Dilek Yurtseven, Aslı Kapkın, Güneş Çehreli, Yelda Beray, T.Bruce MacKinnon and Dürdane Abdal

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ELEVATOR WORLD India • 3rd Quarter 2014 •

Turkey’s Asansör Dünyası becomes part of the Elevator World, Inc. family.

Asansör Dünyası’s existing team will continue to run the magazine. They are: Managing Editor Yelda Beray, daughter of Baştakar; longtime employee Bülent Yılmas, who is now managing director; and an editor; bookkeeper; graphic designer; and assistant. The staff works out of an open-floor office located in a four-story building. MacKinnon, who visited the operation recently, notes space is used very efficiently. Asansör Dünyası, the leading publication of the Turkish elevator market, was founded in October 1996. Sturgeon launched Elevator World in January 1953. MacKinnon explains what led to Asansör Dünyası’s creation and its association with ELEVATOR WORLD: “Behind this, there is a terrific story, which reflects the mission of ELEVATOR WORLD and the vision of my grandfather. Nearly 20 years ago, Beray’s father contacted Sturgeon and asked him if he would sell the name “Elevator World” so he could start a lift publication for the Turkish market. Instead of accepting this offer, my grandfather gave him the rights to use our name if he would keep us up to date on that market and work with us on articles. Because of my grandfather’s generosity, desire to help the elevator industry and the impact this made on Beray’s father, when he passed, Beray felt like we should have the first right to purchase this publication.” With support from the principals of Turkish elevator associations, such as AYSAD, combined with strong, sector-specific


As the economy expands and the population increases, mixed-use skyscrapers are quickly multiplying, particularly in Istanbul, where the 261-m-tall Sapphire of Istanbul, the tallest building in Turkey, was completed in 2010.[2] It is set to be surpassed in a few years by the 298-m-tall Faco Tower, on the European side of Istanbul. Designed by Skidmore, Owings and Merrill, it is scheduled for delivery in 2017.[3] With more than 100 towers, Istanbul ranks 15th worldwide among cities with the most skyscrapers, between Moscow and Sydney.[4] There is also considerable activity in Ankara, where an array of residential, office and hotel towers are taking shape. Modernizations, inspections and upgrades are some of the drivers of the Turkish elevator market, Yılmas said. Such work helped shield the country from effects of the global recession, and the outlook remains cautiously optimistic. He elaborated: “So far, Turkey has fared the global recession quite well. The coming days will show how sustainable the current policies are. The modernization market, annual elevator inspections that have become widespread since 2011, urban transformation and fortifying buildings to make them resistant to large-magnitude earthquakes [have] all helped keep the elevator industry strong during the recession. Its sustainability, however, is a matter in question. The Federation of Industrial Associations, of which AYSAD is a member and also term president, will address this issue in its 2014 Congress, with participation from all sectors.” The industry has come a long way in the past 20 years. In 2005, Sturgeon wrote that Turkey was producing approximately 5,500 units annually. Today, Yılmas said, the market is characterized by: ♦♦ More than 20,000 new assemblies per year ♦♦ Approximately 100,000 first-time inspections per year ♦♦ An anticipated five-year growth rate of approximately 10%, which exceeds the national and global averages ♦♦ Sufficient domestic production and assembly capacity to fulfill current demand It is the belief of both Asansör Dünyasi and ELEVATOR WORLD that expanded reach and enhanced prestige will result from the acquisition. Sefa Targit, chairman of the Board of Directors of AYSAD and member of the Asansor Dunyasi’s Editorial Board, agreed, calling the two magazines a good team that brings together top industry players from the Old and New Worlds. Targit said: “If two institutions from two ends of the world have attributed value to one another and have merged, it means both are valuable.” Left: Space is used very efficiently in Asansör’s Dünyası’s small open office. Right: A recent issue of the magazine

editorial content, the magazine has achieved success not only in Turkey, but also in Europe and the Middle East, Yılmas said. Subscribers include members of the elevator/escalator industry; professors; university, vocational and high-school students; libraries; municipalities and associations. Elevator World, Inc. ownership — which involves close collaboration between the two magazines’ sales and editorial staffs — promises to expand Asansör Dünyası’s reach even further, Beray said: “I believe Asansör Dünyası, together with ELEVATOR WORLD, will achieve a greater level of success and grow in the sector. In turn, Elevator World is taking a very significant step toward harmony with the meaning of the word ‘world’ in its name.” Yılmas describes Turkey as the rising star of Eurasia, noting it boasts the 17th-largest economy in the world. A “cradle of civilization” linking Europe and Asia, Turkey has been on ELEVATOR WORLD’s radar for decades. In 1994, Turkish representatives at LIFT ‘94 in Brussels spoke with Elevator World about Turkey’s young elevator industry, consisting primarily of traction elevators with a capacity of four persons. The next year, Sturgeon sent the Gale family to cover the Asansör ‘95 lift expo, an event “in an area having potential for merchandisers dealing internationally.” At that time, AYSAD was just being formed, a development Sturgeon called most interesting. Since then, Turkey has clearly made strides toward realizing its potential. Major projects, such as Maslak 1453, a 24-tower, mixeduse development in Istanbul, is driving work for the industry. Scheduled for completion in 2016, the project calls for 341 new units, which KONE has been hired to provide. Turkey’s population has grown from approximately 60 million in the mid 1990s to close to 80 million today.[1] Trade shows such as Asansör Istanbul and Inelex have become popular and are well attended.

Because of my grandfather’s generosity, desire to help the elevator industry and the impact this made on Beray’s father, when he passed, Beray felt like we should have the first right to purchase this publication. – T.Bruce MacKinnon, Elevator World executive vice president

References [1] CIA World Factbook (www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-worldfactbook/geos/tu.html) [2] Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH), “Tall Building Archive” (www.ctbuh.org/TallBuildings/FeaturedTallBuildings/ FeaturedTallBuildingsArchive2011/SapphireTowerIstanbul) [3] CTBUH, “The Skyscraper Center” (skyscrapercenter.com/istanbul/ faco-tower/14383) [4] Emporis, “Cities With the Most Skyscrapers” www.emporis.com/statistics/ most-skyscraper-cities-worldwide

• Issue 3, Volume 7 • elevatorworldindia.com

51


Market Trends

Elevator Industry Looking to Rise High Changes in the Indian government mean changes in policy and focus, forecasting great potential. by Srini Vuruputur India’s 2014-2015 economic growth rate is still struggling to find its feet, but all hopes are not lost for the elevator and escalator industry in the country, in view of the rapid urbanization and its related expanding housing construction. Real-estate projects in India, which reached US$100 billion in 2010, are expected to exceed US$265 billion in 2020, and what will drive the sector’s growth are high disposable incomes, a young workforce and a large base of middle-class households. Adding to the growth of India’s real estate, the federal government’s push to improve infrastructure in the ongoing 12th Five Year Plan (2012-2017) is fueling the industry’s growth. Development of monorail, light rail and metro rail; modernization of existing airports and railway stations; and construction of new airports are expected to gain pace during this period. The compounded annual growth rate of the industry is 10-12%, and the present annual demand for elevators in India is said to be around 54,000 units. This is expected to reach 65,000 by the end of 2015 and exceed 70,000 in the subsequent year. Nearly three-fourths of the demand for vertical-transportation facilities is from the residential segment, while the remainder is shared by increasing commercial space in such infrastructure sectors as office, hospitality, airports and metro rail projects across the country. For example, in Andhra Pradesh (a state bifurcated on June 2), the newly elected government is planning to develop three mega cities

and 24 cities. In fact, plans akin to Singapore City are underway for Andhra Pradesh’s new capitol. According to a report by consulting firm Frost & Sullivan, more than two dozen mega cities are being planned by different states, with each having a population of at least eight million and a gross domestic product of US$250 million. When cities combine with suburbs or other nearby cities, mega regions are created. “India is expected to have four mega regions by 2025, each with a population of over 15 million,” the report reads. The mega regions include New Delhi and such nearby areas as Noida, Greater Noida, Ghaziabad, Gurgaon and Faridabad, which totals a combined population of 28.5 million. Mumbai and nearby towns like Bhiwandi, Kalyan, Thane and Ulhasnagar add up to a population of 34.4 million. Such mega regions will likely provide a much-needed fillip to the elevator industry, which has been witnessing a technological revolution in such areas as high speeds, power efficiency, ecological friendliness and safety. With the International Monetary Fund projecting India’s economic growth rate at 5.6% during 2014-15, the Indian federal government is also mulling a reboot of the economic sector by initiating several measures. One of them is to relax the existing environmental guidelines for construction of mid- to high-rise buildings and modifying land ceiling acts to give a thrust to elevator firms. Sensing the potential of the elevator industry, such international players as Hitachi, KONE, Schindler, Mitsubishi Electric, Otis and others are running the race with the

Growth of the Elevator and Escalator Market Growth in commercial space — office, retail and hospitality Demand from new housing units Infrastructure development Major drivers for the growth of the elevator and escalator market (Source: Frost & Sullivan)

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ELEVATOR WORLD India • 3rd Quarter 2014 •

Continued


Kulkarni

Ehrnrooth

Chidanamarri

local companies, either partnering with them or outsourcing manufacturing to them. This move will not only be beneficial to the local firms; it also helps the majors save time and money. While Schindler has already commissioned a greenfield elevator manufacturing unit near Pune in western India and plans to open another unit for escalators on the same premises in 2015, KONE has a production unit near the southern city of Chennai, which caters to the industry demand in both India and Bangladesh. KONE President and CEO Henrik Ehrnrooth, who visited Chennai in June this year, said his company would set up another unit, exclusively to produce elevators, adjacent to its existing facility in Chennai. “The new facility is expected to be commissioned in a couple of years. Besides meeting our future demand for India, it will also have export capabilities,” Ehrnrooth said. Similarly, Mitsubishi has opened an office in Chennai, and Otis is gearing up to meet the growing demand for escalators and elevators in the country. However, the industry has challenges, such as intense competition and maintenance of standards and

quality, on its way to unhindered growth. Sasidhar Chidanamarri, associate director (Environment & Building Technologies Practice) at Frost & Sullivan, explained: “India is home to almost all the international elevator firms, and the competition is three tiered, with tier 1 consisting of multinational companies, which have a pan-India presence. Tier 2 comprises local manufacturers who have a strong regional presence and have strong client relationships in their respective regions. Tier 3 includes unorganized players who have very localized operations and forge relationships with small real-estate developers. Because of the stiff competition, margins in this industry are under pressure, and quality issues have surfaced due to the compromise made on the pricing front.” Though Indian elevator standards are not on par with international standards, Chidanamarri said that with increasing awareness on safety, this scenario is expected to change: “Lack of implementation of standards is a major restraining factor for the market. Certification by accredited agencies and testing labs [is] necessary, especially in an industry that has a large base of small players.” With elevator maintenance by third-party technicians also gaining ground in India, real-estate developers are selecting small and local technicians to perform annual maintenance contracts after the manufacturers’ warranties expire (after one or two years following installation). Chidanamarri added: “These third-party maintenance firms should be regulated so that they follow the same safety standards as put forth by reputed Continued

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ELEVATOR WORLD India • 3rd Quarter 2014 •


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elevator manufacturers. Even the elevator manufacturers must get themselves accredited by testing labs for the components used [and] manufacturing [processes] followed, and work with testing labs to conduct a safety audit prior to commissioning. State regulatory authorities have to lay down stringent regulations for effective manufacturing, installation [and] maintenance of lifts, and bring in accountability [measures for] owners, manufacturers and maintenance agencies in case of accidents and malfunction.” With the new government firm in the saddle, the industry wants Prime Minister Narendra Modi to look into some of the issues that have been slowing the growth. From a sharp focus on infrastructure and real estate, that is expected to encourage the use of sustainable and energy-saving products/equipment to improve the environmental footprint. Uninterrupted power supplies should be mandatory in all elevators in areas where power-supply quality is inferior and irregular, said Uday Kulkarni, president of Schindler India’s operations in India and Asia. According to him, fluctuations in system voltage or a poor-quality power supply can interfere with the operation of the elevator or damage its components. “It directly affects the performance and ride quality of the elevator and creates sudden jerks, an uncomfortable ride, component failures or variation in elevator operational parameters,” Kulkarni said. He also pointed out that, along with efficient and sustainable products, installation and maintenance are also equally important. Kulkarni expressed that technicians should be trained and certified: “The state-controlled Lift Inspector’s office should make it compulsory that the installation fitters and service technicians

should be trained and certified before they start working on project sites.” On the safety aspect, Kulkarni said the number of accidents involving manual door elevators around the country has been increasing. He would like to see discouragement in the sale of manual elevators, explaining, “Our company has consciously stayed away from offering manual-door elevator products and is playing a major role in shifting the market to auto-door elevators.” Chidanamarri wants the Indian government to provide real estate with “industry” status to enable developers to avail debt lending at good interest rates. There should also be a widening in scope for external commercial borrowings, as well as better tax provisions related to the taxation of real-estate investment trusts. He also wants the government to clear the ambiguity in foreign direct investment (FDI) provisions into the real-estate sector. He argued: “Though 100% FDI is permitted, the sector has not received more than 10% of the total FDI received in India in the last four years. Fiscal incentives should be provided to developers who are keen on building low-cost and affordable housing.” Low interest rates to developers and home-loan borrowers will spur demand during the prevailing high interest rates, leading to low offtake and a subdued housing demand in India, Chidanamarri explained. The government has a tough task to ensure that low interest rates on loans will not heat up the market, leading to prices rising beyond the affordable levels of salaried class employees, he added. Srini Vuruputur is a senior journalist based in India and has worked for reputable English-language dailies in Oman and Bahrain.

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Events

WEE Expo

2014

in Guangzhou

The Chinese city plays host to the country’s robust elevator industry. by Peng Jie

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Li Shoulin

Zhang Lexiang

Shanghai (1997, 2000 and 2004) and three nearly 1 mi. long, parallel to the Pearl River times in Langfang (2006, 2008 and 2010). on Pazhou Island to the east of the slender Unlike the case in any previous WEE, the Guangzhou Tower. More than a dozen venue and schedule of the next WEE event motorway bridges have been built over the (at the newly built National Exhibition and river, helping make the island one of the Conference Center in Top: The nearly 1-mi.-long China Import & Export Fair Complex Qingpu District Shanghai, China, on May 10-13, 2016) was readily announced at the opening ceremony. The giant ovalstructured exhibition complex stretches Wang Runsheng

The 11th World Elevator & Escalator (WEE) Expo was held in the grand China Import & Export Fair Complex in Guangzhou, China, on May 13-16. It was the second time the global industry event took place in the southern Chinese metropolis, following 2012’s iteration. The expo has developed well, matching the pace of the robust elevator industry in China, along with the leading role the Chinese elevator industry has been playing in the world since the first WEE show, held in Beijing in August 1996. Prior to 2012, the event was held three times in Beijing (1996, 1998 and 2002), three times in


A moving walk in the venueâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s 1-km-long roofed overhead corridor for battery-powered shuttle carriages

busiest commercial parts of Guangzhou. It offers magnificent views of the megacity, especially in the evening, when the tower and other landmark buildings are silhouetted with color-changing lights against the night sky. Based on the experience of hosting the well-known international Guangzhou Trade Fair events twice a year in the past, the fair complex was designed and built to meet every detailed requirement an exhibitor might have. The exhibition halls are accessible from both the main-street side and the

roofed passage inside the building, which enables exhibitors to move exhibits and booth-construction materials in and out easily. The total area of the exhibition complex is to be 700,000 m2. Its first phase is complete, providing 395,000 m2 in 16 show halls. Those on the first floor have an indoor height of 13 m for real lift installations and other machinery. The completed construction broke two world records in the building industry: the biggest floor area in a single structure and

the longest (126.6-m-long) cross-span string beams used in a structure. Each show hall provides an exhibition area of 10,000 m2. The complex also features a 1-km-long roofed overhead corridor for battery-powered shuttle carriages moving passengers between the eastern exhibition entrance and Hotel Westin. Security facilities are located at both ends of the complex. Level B serves as the central area for all organization and administration activities and information issuance; before the show opens, exhibitors register here for permits to run their booths, and during the show, visitors register here for entry permits. The long, spacious hall is equipped with 16 moving walks, 46 escalators and 29 lifts. The entrances are arranged in a line leading to the show halls down on Level One, accessible by escalators on both sides of a visitor gate. A 4.8-m-deep basement parking area on Level -1 is capable of holding more than 1,800 vehicles. The event, themed with innovation, exchange and cooperation, proved to be another success, with more than 85,000 m2 of exhibition space and more than 800 exhibitors, including more than 100

Continued

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59


elevator and escalator manufacturers and suppliers, and more than 700 part and component manufacturers and suppliers. The latest technology and equipment were on display to visitors, who numbered 112,000. In addition to the International Elevator Safety Forum on reforming elevator safety supervision and industrial development sponsored by China elevatorsafety watchdog SESA, there were more than 30 workshops and seminars addressing high-speed elevators; intelligent control technology; new components, equipment and technology for the production of various components; the elevator and real-estate markets; and enterprise information technology. On the morning of May 13, the opening ceremony (presided over by Zhang Lexiang) attracted some 200 VIP guests. Wang Runsheng, president of China International Trade Center (Guangzhou Trade Fair), delivered a welcome speech. Achim Hütter, president of VFA Interlift, expressed his congratulations, and Li Shoulin, president of the China Elevator Association, made the opening speech.

The evening dinner party

Having benefited from the government’s consistent opening policy and the strong domestic demand for elevators in the country, the Chinese elevator industry has developed dynamically with profound changes in the

past 20 years. It features an ever-growing industrial scale and rapid upgrading process in both R&D and manufacturing capabilities. It has an annual growth rate of roughly 20%, and its total output is 633,000 elevators and escalators, of which 66,000

An Interview with Wittur

Sergio Biglino

The Shanghai Elevator Trade Association (SETA) interviewed Wittur Elevator Components (Suzhou) Co., Ltd.’s leaders on the first day of the World Elevator & Escalator Expo. Executive Vice President Asia Corporate Marketing Sergio Biglino (SB) and Managing Director Li Shaohua (LS) talked about the company’s performance and marketing strategy in the Chinese market, and Wittur’s new developments and actions to achieve more success in China. SETA: How has Wittur’s performance in the Chinese market been for the last couple of years, and what’s your expectation about Wittur’s market share in the components market in China in the near future? SB: In terms of sales, we have increased 40% from two years ago; that’s our achievement in sales. I think there is much more than that, though: the company is now much stronger in such areas as management, people, competence and supply chain. In a few words, Wittur is much stronger than before; that gives us the confidence in the sustainability for business. We have state-of-the-art technology, reliable quality, premium service and solid progress, and we are preparing for further development.

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ELEVATOR WORLD India • 3rd Quarter 2014 •

SETA: Have you benefited from your new factory in China and how it works? LS: Last year, we optimized the processing operation, mainly aiming to increase our volume to 1 million doors a year. We are not only paying attention to the volume increase, but also advancing new factory design and technology, increasing the capability for volume of different products. We focus on variety design, which is more flexible and environmentally friendly. For example, as for the painting line, we have advanced technology to deal with the wastewater included in our finishes: a new phosphate-free paint line with 100% wastewater recycling. We also use new technology to change the concept of productivity, which is totally different from two years ago. We are proud to say that all Wittur customers and government officials who visited Wittur’s new factory were surprised by it. On the whole, the factory is a big success and will support our sustainable development in China. SETA: Nowadays, people worry more and more about elevator safety. Has Wittur made any recent efforts on product innovation for safety? SB: When you think about safety, you have to think about where it starts and how you go along the way. Wittur products are Li Shaohua

by Annie Jiang


The Pearl River

units were exported to 145 countries and regions, constituting approximately 70% of the world’s total new installations in 2013 alone. Meanwhile, the businesses of component manufacturing, installation, maintenance and logistics have also

developed steadily, having created an industrial chain for the growth of the trade. By the end of 2013, the total number of operating installations in China exceeded three million, making up one-fourth of the world’s total. Although the per-capita

designed on the basis of safety. We have a lot of existing safety products, such as safety gears, sliding guide shoes, overspeed governors, etc. In addition, we are increasing the people awareness of safety during the process to keep it stable, because, even if you have very good design, if the manufacturing is not qualified, you also lose all the safety. That is the reason we pay great attention to training people to increase their awareness of safety. This new initiative, “Safety in Motion,” which we officially published on May 13, underlines the focus on safety all of us in the elevator industry need to have. We believe all passengers care about feeling safe while moving, even vertically. With Wittur, you can keep calm and just push a button, because we care about your safety, and we believe that the excellence of our solutions can be conveyed through their high factor of safety. SETA: What’s your expectation for this exhibition, and what’s your point of view about this exhibition? SB: What we want is to show our customer that Wittur is a global company. We are displaying a video showing 10 different factories around the world, in such places as Argentina, Spain, Australia, Brazil, Turkey, Italy, India and China. What we want to show our customers is that we have the same standards, codes, machinery, safety levels and regulations in all these factories, with the concept of safety first. We select products made in China, but not only in China. We are not able to show all our products during this exhibition, because our portfolio is very wide. We hope to give people the feel and sense of what we can do and what we can offer to the customers.

shared number of installations in China has risen above the world’s average, it is still a far cry from the figures of the developed countries. Therefore, China still promises great market room and potential for years to come. Inspired by the growing domestic market demand, the global leading manufacturers of elevators and escalators have been building R&D centers with testing towers in China. Such complexes are coveted by most manufacturers in the industry. Ever-higher testing towers have become visible landmarks in regions where the elevator industry is concentrated, particularly in the Yangtze River Delta area, covering Shanghai, southern Jiangsu and northern Zhejiang, and in the Pearl River Delta area surrounding Guangzhou and Shenzhen in Guangdong. Another noticeable trend at the WEE Expo was the fact that almost all the major manufacturers have taken action in the global market, either by working closely with their local agents or setting up local operation facilities to handle sales and aftersales services directly in such major Continued

We want to stress our image as “safety” and “global”; we are different from other companies. We also want to let the customer know Wittur has a worldwide presence with local service and is able to provide the customer with timely services complying with the local market to reduce costs. Even in India and Russia, we are there, and we understand the local standards, local market and customer needs, all of which are the basis for Wittur to provide close and value-added service. SETA: What’s Wittur’s next big move for exploring the Chinese market, and how do you plan to achieve your goal and win more customers’ trust? SB: For the past few years, our market activities and demonstrations have achieved great success among our customers, and we still need to improve our position in China. Wittur now has 21 branches in China and has increased its sales force three times to connect with Chinese customers closely. We want to differentiate from the others, especially in technical innovation. In addition, Wittur also wants to build an “expertise” team. Employees are required to not only be familiar with products, but also have the ability to make solutions for customers. We will also distribute more news to provide the media with more information, because. . . it’s good to share with Chinese customers. Annie Jiang is overseas manager for the Shanghai Elevator Trade Association.

• Issue 3, Volume 7 • elevatorworldindia.com

61


WEE Expo 2014

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markets as the Middle East, Russia and India. Quality elevators and escalators and components from China have penetrated every continent. New technology demonstrated by exhibits included more user-friendly designs in cabins, car panels, indicators, interfacing systems and wireless elevator networks. Elevator World, Inc. Executive Vice President T.Bruce MacKinnon and I had the great pleasure of meeting old friends at the Ningbo Xinda and Torin Drive booths. Just like the Chinese suppliers that are going global, many well-known brands from North America and Europe have played an active role in the Chinese market, defying fierce competition. For example, Italybased Sematic has taken a successful market share with its featured products and services. U.S.-based GAL/Hollister-Whitney, together with its local business partner Ensota, showcased new Rope Gripper® models, for which more users in China are being found. One of the perceivable changes in the exhibition halls over the decade is that the number of real installations has almost disappeared – your reporter did not find a single exhibit escalator to ride on, and installations taking visitors up and down were rarely seen. Experienced exhibitors seem to have wisely accepted more The nearby Guangzhou Tower cost-effective ways to participate, to the next, offering to design any kind of having come to understand that the stand. Video-equipment, furniture and measurement of whether their potted-flower leasing seem to be routine participation was a success is not how businesses inside the show halls. The much money they spent on the stand, but businesspeople there are like magicians how many order forms were signed by capable of making any small business grow customers. big. Guangdong people are often heard Partly due to the early development of saying, “If there’s money to make, let’s Shenzhen and Zhuhai in the 1980s and make it together,” for they regard sharing 1990s, and partly due to the fact that opportunities in business as a commercial Guangdong people have a keen mind in virtue. doing business, Guangdong has remained Powered by the construction industry, one of the leading provinces in economic along with the continued thriving development in China since the 1980s. As economy, the number of both in-service booth-setup service is a must with such and annually increasing installations by expos, contractors are busy from one expo

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ELEVATOR WORLD India • 3rd Quarter 2014 •

unit in Guangdong has ranked the highest in China. In 2012, Guangdong launched a reform in elevator safety administration, setting the pace to reduce accidents and injury rates of elevator accidents in public use (ELEVATOR WORLD, November 2012). In it, a random (spot-checking) inspection system is conducted, in addition to the routine yearly inspection and other administrative measures. With continued efforts by the authorized organizations and inspectors, the death and injury rates caused by elevator accidents have remained low in recent years. The National Elevator Quality Supervision and Inspection Center (Guangdong), Guangdong Institute of Special Equipment Inspection & Research and Shenzhen Institute of Special Equipment Inspection & Test all had their booths at the expo, showcasing safety devices and systems developed for field safety. In Guangdong alone, there are over 460,000 lifts and escalators in service, and nearly 100 manufacturers and more than 600 contractors doing installation and maintenance (by 2013 statistics). Challenges lie in the shortage of funds for the modernization and repair of old installations and unregulated field procedures (carelessness, irresponsibility or neglect) in maintenance and troubleshooting. These are among the main issues responsible for breakdowns and accidents of existing installations. Peng Jie has been an ELEVATOR WORLD correspondent based in China since the 1990s. He started his career in the elevator industry in 1982, working as a translator, field-manager assistant, lift-specification engineer, project manager, field manager and regional manager for prominent European elevator companies operating in China. He has gained experience regarding jobsite safety, field operation and management.


Engineering

Layered Zoning for Tall and Slender Buildings by Pieter J. de Groot Virtually all tall buildings are subdivided into zones served by groups of four or six elevators. These groups, with large, single-deck cars, reflect the planning concepts of the attendantoperated elevators of the early 20th century. When attendants were abolished, these groups lost their human intelligence. However, traditional controls with up/down buttons in the lobbies and floor buttons in the cars continued to be the standard group operating system. Without attendants, the performance of groups became erratic and inefficient. This was the reason why, in the past, the use of large cars became a must. The planning of groups with large cars became habitual. Planners were not aware that large cars are inherently inefficient and a great waste of space and energy. This paper proves that a new zoning concept on the basis of double- or triple-deck cars and intelligent destination controls can reduce the space requirements for groups by up to 50%, compared with those in existing buildings. Intelligent destination group controls are based on the inherent relativity of group characteristics. For detailed information on this topic, refer to my article “Planning Groups of Elevators for Optimal Performance and Efficiency” (ELEVATOR WORLD, January 2014).

Layered Zoning Envisage a 30-story building zoned in layers of A and B floors. The two lowest floors are entrance floors connected by escalators, herein identified as AØ and BØ. The 28 upper floors consist of 14 pairs of A and B floors. The lowest pair is identified as floors A1 and B1, the next

higher pair as A2 and B2, and so on. All A floors form building zone A, and all B floors form building zone B. The two zones are served by one group of six double-deck cars. The lower deck of each car is identified with the character A, and the upper deck with B. The A deck of each car serves only A floors and the B deck only B floors. This implies that the maximum number of destinations for the double-deck group is 14.

Floor Distances The distances between A and B floors are 4 m and match the distance between the A and B decks of the cars. The floor distances between a B and an A floor above may vary. This article will not consider alternatives for double-deck cars that can adjust the distance between their decks.

Performance During Heaviest Simultaneous Up and Down Traffic This article evaluates the performance of the six-car double-deck group previously outlined for simultaneous up and down traffic of 7% of the population per 5 min. These traffic conditions are extreme and unlikely to occur in a real building. We assume the following characteristics: ♦♦ Travel distance AØ to A14 and BØ to B14: 112 m (14 X 8 m) ♦♦ Contract speed: 6 mps ♦♦ Contract load: 800 kg per deck ♦♦ Population: 1,960 persons (28 X 70) During the assumed traffic conditions, intelligent destination controls will permit service to only five destinations for up trips, including the top or reversal destination. During down trips from the top/reversal destination, Continued

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ELEVATOR WORLD India • 3rd Quarter 2014 •


cars serve four more destinations before arrival at destination zero. On the basis of the permitted numbers of stops, average round-trip times (RTTs) will be 177 s., with an average interval between departures of 30 s. (Table 1). The average car-deck load will be approximately 6.8 passengers.

departing car on the basis of “first come, first served” until the number of permitted stops is exhausted. The average waiting time (AWT) for these passengers will be approximately 15 s. The remaining 43% of the passengers (i.e., 5.9 passengers on two entrance floors) may have a maximum of nine destinations. Their probable number

will not experience waiting and travel times worse than those of incoming passengers.

Conservative Calculation Method The calculation method of this evaluation is conservative, because it assumes that all trips reverse at the top destination. The mathematical formula for probable destinations assumes that all floor populations and their working hours are identical. In a real building, this will not be true; consequently, the real numbers for probable destinations are likely to be lower than the theoretical numbers. The assumed times for door opening and closing are 4.5 s. and 2 s. for the entry and exit of each passenger. For smaller cars and doors, these times will be shorter.

Interfloor Traffic Table 1

The time required for a typical up trip is the sum of five door-to-door flight times (DDFTs), plus the assumed time costs for boarding and disembarkation of the average number of 6.8 passengers on each car deck. Down trips will be just as long. The departure times from floor zero; the top floor; and, in fact, all floors, are controlled and coordinated by the intelligent destination control. These controls operate on the basis of timetables for each car and each round trip. Consequently, all time-dependent service qualities are predictable and highly consistent.

Number of Up Passengers and Probable Number of Destinations During a period of 5 min. with an up traffic density of 7%, the number of passengers entering the building will be 137 (7 X 19.6). During an interval of 30 s., the number of incoming passengers is only 13.7 (137/300 X 30). The mathematical formula for the probable number of destinations of a group of 13.7 passengers that may go to 14 destinations returns the number 8.8. The first departing car serves five destinations, implying that 57% of the incoming group (i.e., 7.8 passengers) can be assigned to the decks of the first

of destinations is 4.4, which implies all can be assigned to the second next departing car. These passengers will have to await the departure of the first car, plus 30 s. more until the departure of the second car. For these passengers, the AWT is approximately 38 s. (interval X 1.25). The AWT for all passengers will be approximately 25 s. The longest waiting time (i.e., the waiting time bandwidth) will be approximately 45 s. (interval X 1.5). During the next interval, another group of 13.7 incoming passengers will again produce a subgroup of 43% that will be assigned to the second next-departing car. Obviously, the average car deck load will soon be approximately 6.8 persons.

Service Qualities for Down Passengers The assignment of down passengers to specific cars is also based on “first come, first served” until the number of permitted stops is exhausted. Down calls that cannot be assigned to the first available car will be assigned to the second available car. Assigning a down or up going passenger at a permitted stop to a car going in the wrong direction but scheduled to reverse direction at the next stop can be used to enhance group efficiency. We may confidently assume that down passengers

Direct trips between destinations are possible if target destinations are already scheduled as permitted destinations or are still available as permitted destinations. If a direct trip is not possible, an interfloor passenger will be informed of the assigned car, as usual. In this case, the trip to the target floor will usually be a trip in the assigned car via floor zero for a down car, or via the reversal floor for an up car. Note that in multitenant buildings, interfloor traffic is very small. During periods with extreme traffic densities, it may be assumed to be negligible. During moderate traffic conditions, flexibility of the number of permitted destinations and direct communication with all passengers via mobile phones will ensure efficient interfloor traffic.

Performance if Permitted Destinations Are Increased to Six If the number of permitted destinations is increased to six, all performance data will be worse. The average RTT increases to 200 s., and the average car deck loads to 7.6 passengers. The AWT increases by more than 1 s., and the bandwidth increases by 5 s. The most significant change is the 10-s. increase of the longest passenger travel times in the cars to reversal floors. This negatively affects the average time to destination for all passengers with an increase of 5 s. Continued

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ELEVATOR WORLD India • 3rd Quarter 2014 •


Performance During Moderate Traffic Conditions “Moderate traffic conditions” are defined as simultaneous up and down traffic densities of 3% of the population per 5 min. In a real building, traffic densities are likely to be less during the majority of operating hours. During the assumed traffic conditions, intelligent destination controls may permit service to four destinations during up and down trips. On the basis of this number of permitted stops, average RTTs will be 136 s., and the average interval between departures will be 23 s. The average number of incoming passengers per interval is approximately 4.5 passengers, and their probable number of destinations is four. Consequently, all passengers can be assigned to the decks of the first departing car. Car deck loads will be approximately 2.3 passengers. AWTs for all passengers will be approximately 11 s. Incoming passengers may not distribute equally over both entrance floors, but these variations will not affect group efficiency. Group service qualities improve if the number of permitted destinations is reduced from four to three, because the average RTT is reduced to 112 s., and departure intervals are reduced to 19 s. Average car deck loads are reduced to 1.8 passengers. The AWT for all passengers is reduced to approximately 10 s. The percentage of incoming passengers that can be assigned to the first departing car is reduced to slightly less than 100%. The most significant change is the reduction of the longest passenger travel times in the

cars to reversal destinations by 12 s. This implies that, on average, passengers arrive at their destinations approximately 6 s. earlier. These data are an indication of the flexibility and performance reserves of groups with intelligent destination controls. They also explain why and how building managers can influence the service qualities of intelligent groups.

Performance During Up- or Down-Peak Traffic The six-car double-deck group can service up-peak traffic densities of 12% by permitting service to only four upper floors during up trips. Down trips will be nonstop (30 s.). This results in average RTTs of 110 s., average car deck loads of 7 persons and AWTs of 20 s. The waiting-time bandwidth will be approximately 42 s., because, theoretically, two passengers (one per deck) arriving during a specific interval may have to be assigned to the third departing car. The few down passengers (typical for up-peak conditions) will be assigned to upward cars. For down-peak traffic, the same methods will produce the same results.

Building Volume Savings/Footprint Reductions Hoistways usually occupy the full height of a tall building. For this reason, comparisons of the footprints of alternative configurations are good indicators of their space requirements. Existing 30-floor buildings are usually served by a low- and high-rise group of four cars, each with a contract load of 1600 kg. Their net internal hoistway area is approximately 28 m2 per group. Continued

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Residential Gates

Their lobbies and hoistway enclosures may double their floor-space requirements to 56 m2 per floor and per group. For two groups, their maximum total floor-space requirement may be 2 X 56 X 30 = 3,360 m2. On floors without entrances, lobby space may be reduced to corridor space, a savings of possibly 14 m2 per floor (i.e., on 28 floors, a total of 392 m2). In this case, their total floor-space requirement is reduced to 2,968 m2. The net internal hoistway area of the six-car double-deck group is also 28 m2. Including lobbies and enclosures. Its total floor space requirement may be as high as 56 m2. The total floor-space requirement of this group would be 30 X 56 = 1,680 m2. Thus, the additional floor space that results from the application of intelligent destination controls and Layered Zoning for the 30-floor building of this study is 2,968 - 1,680 = 1,288 m2. These floor-space gains increase exponentially with the height of a building, because hoistways for additional upper floors reduce the rentable areas of lower floors. Additional footprint savings for groups with intelligent destination controls may be possible on account of smaller lobbies in view of few waiting passengers and in-line configurations.

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Until now, traffic simulation was used to disclose performance parameters of specific groups with proprietary group controls for assumed traffic conditions. In the future, the role of traffic simulation will be very different, because the time-dependent service qualities and the up/down transportation capacities of groups with intelligent destination controls are predictable for any combination of up/down traffic densities. This implies group service qualities can be contractually guaranteed. Consequently intelligent groups do not require traffic simulation to disclose performance data. However, traffic simulation can be used for independent confirmation of calculated service qualities during the building planning phase. Guarantees of service qualities for a range of defined traffic densities are likely to become a standard element of future elevator contracts. These methods also imply that traffic simulation can be used to check the functionality of intelligent group controls. If traffic simulation does not deliver the calculated/predicted performance data, something is wrong in the control system.

Groups with Multi-Deck Cars Future buildings may be served by groups with eight or more multi-deck cars that serve many floors with a paternoster-like mode of car operation. These groups may be seen as a chain of cars connected by a software string, instead of roller chains. During heavy traffic, the string of cars rotates faster, because the cars make fewer stops. These groups will feature very short intervals, and waiting and travel times. The cars can be small, because the number of passengers per deck will be very low. The vertical traffic experience will be very different, compared to that of existing buildings. These configurations could be a topic for another article. Note that multi-deck cars also permit tall buildings on small building sites. Apartment buildings served by two or three double- or triple-deck cars will be practical and economical.


The discovery of the inherent relativity of group characteristics has been a shock for the author, and this may wel apply for many others in the elevator industry. Particularly for those of us who tried to solve this problem with complicated algorithms, traffic calculations, traffic analyses and traffic simulation, the question that remains is, “Why was relativity such an elusive problem?” The short answer: the performance of groups of elevators is a fourdimensional problem, in which time is the fourth dimension. Time “costs” control all aspects of group performance, because each stop causes a great loss of time. Cars must slow down and stop, doors have to open, passengers go in and/or out, doors close, and the car must start and accelerate again. These time costs explain why control of the permitted number of stops controls all group characteristics. This simple fact is the basis of intelligent destination group controls. Intelligent destination group controls can enhance the role of elevator contractors in the building industry. They are likely to be the providers of intelligent building-management systems. Insecurity in respect of group planning and performance is eliminated. Group configurations will define the maximum height and efficiency of future buildings. To ignore the innovation potential of intelligent destination controls (i.e., the continued use of group controls that do not control numbers of permitted stops and, consequently, do not facilitate optimal car operations and contractual performance guarantees) is not advisable. Elevators are already the pumping hearts of tall buildings; the author suggests that intelligent groups will become the brains of future intelligent buildings, as well. He would greatly appreciate reactions and questions from readers through EW at editorial@elevatorworld.com. Pieter J. de Groot has many years of elevator contracting experience in Hong Kong and other cities in the Far East and Australia. In 1972, he was appointed Schindler Asia-Pacific area manager. In this capacity, he initiated and managed the formation of Jardine Schindler (Far East) Holdings SA (1974) and Schindler Lifts (Australia) Pty. Ltd. (1980). After a meeting in 1975 with Leo Weiser Port — the inventor of destination group controls — he promoted the development of these systems with modern technology. Several years later, the Schindler group successfully reintroduced destination controls on the basis of modern technology. Subsequently, destination group controls became the industry standard. After retirement from Schindler, de Groot decided to do his own research concerning the theoretical performance potential of groups and discovered the inherent relativity of group characteristics. This discovery enabled him to design intelligent destination group controls. De Groot’s book, The Planning and Performance of Groups of Elevators, and articles on this topic can be read on or downloaded from his website: elevatorgroupcontrols.com.

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• Issue 3, Volume 7 • elevatorworldindia.com

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Company Spotlight

Otis India The established company regains the number-one market position in the country. by Lee Freeland Otis India, part of global conglomerate United Technologies, has been present in India for more than 120 years. When it was awarded the 670-unit contract by L&T Metro Rail for the Hyderabad Metro Rail project (ELEVATOR WORLD India, 3rd Quarter 2013), the largest single contract in the history of the Indian industry, it marked a return to the top in the nation for the OEM. Otis regained its position from Chennai-based Johnson Lifts by careful strategy. According to Live Mint, under Sebi Joseph, managing director of Otis India since 2012, operations went from centralized to regional, which resulted in faster delivery times, better service and greater customer satisfaction. Joseph divided operations into four regions operating independently with their own directors and finance, sales and service teams. Thanks to the reorganization,

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Key Projects In addition to DLF Group, India’s largest real-estate company, having more than 150 Otis elevators installed in its projects, the following are recently completed or upcoming developments featuring Otis equipment and technology.

Kohinoor Square This 53-story, 203-m-tall mixed-use skyscraper in Mumbai is receiving 49 elevators (including six Gen2® units), 10 escalators, the Compass™ destinationmanagement system and the web-based EMS Panorama™ system.

The Capital This commercial complex in the upscale Bandra area of Mumbai has 20 Gen2 elevators with ReGen™ drive technology, and the Compass and EMS Panorama systems.

Planet Godrej This 48-story, five-tower residential complex in Mumbai has 15 high-speed gearless elevators.

Great India Place Kohinoor Square in Mumbai

Otis’ new equipment orders — which included 222 units for the Delhi Metro Rail Corp. Ltd. — grew 44% from March 2013 to March 2014. In addition to an elevator production facility in Bangalore (expanded in 2012), Otis India operates regional offices in that city, Kolkata, Mumbai, New Delhi and Pune. It offers 24/7 service in major metropolitan areas, facilitated by 80 service centers in the country covering more than 300 cities. It was the first elevator company in India to receive ISO 9001:2000 certification in the qualitymanagement and -assurance standard.

Market Behind China, India is the world’s second-largest elevator market. Its demand for new housing and redeveloped

infrastructure is rapidly increasing. According to Otis, the company is meeting these needs with its “new equipment, solutions for upgrading older equipment and a service infrastructure to support India’s expanding market.” Its installation base is greater than 50,000 units.

Equipment Otis’ Gen2® elevator utilized flat polyurethane-coated steel belts to deliver an efficient system with a compact, machine-room-less design focused on smooth, quiet operation. The company states that when combined with energyconserving ReGen™ drives, these units are up to 75% more energy efficient than conventional systems. Gen2 machines are 70% smaller than conventional geared machines and require no additional

This shopping complex/amusement park will have 26 Otis elevators, including four Gen2 units; 32 escalators and one Trav-O-Lator® moving walk.

Sunshine Tower A 45-story premium commercial tower, this Mumbai building is to be equipped with five Otis high-speed gearless elevators that operate at 4 mps.

Air India Building The 25-story Mumbai tower contains six Otis Elevonic® elevators that reach speeds of up to 3.5 mps.

Peninsula Business Park These commercial towers in south-central Mumbai will include 30 Otis gearless elevators from its Bangalore factory.

Continued

Insert Month Year • ELEVATOR WORLD

75


Clockwise from top left: Kolkataâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Raj Bhavan houses Otisâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; first elevator installation in India, which was completed in 1892. The flat polyurethane-coated steel belts used in all Gen2 systems

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lubrication. Gen2 systems are available for both new installations and modernizations. The Gen2 Nova, recently introduced into the Indian market, is made specifically for the low- to mid-rise residential and commercial market. Best suited for buildings up to 60 m (approximately 18 stories) in height, Nova elevators accommodate capacities ranging from five to 13 passengers. They have been engineered to be exceptionally quiet and dramatically minimize noise and vibration. In addition, they include Otisâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Pulseâ&#x201E;˘ monitoring system to automatically check the elevatorsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; belts for problems on a consistent basis. This can reduce downtime required for belt inspection and ensure their integrity. Joseph commented on the Nova units: â&#x20AC;&#x153;Produced at our world-class manufacturing facility in Bangalore, the Gen2 Nova addresses Indiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s significant demand for high-speed, energy-efficient building products and services at a competitive price. Introducing the energy-efficient Gen2 Nova elevator system is an important step in Otisâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; ongoing efforts to preserve resources for future generations. Every installation will help advance India, and our company, on [Otisâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;] global environmental program, The Way to Greenâ&#x201E;˘, [which] spans every aspect of Otis operations, from design and manufacturing to products and end-of-life recycling. Otisâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Compassâ&#x201E;˘ destination-management system is designed to improve elevator performance, while enhancing the passenger experience. Using keypads or touchscreens to enter their destination floors, passengers receive personalized elevator assignments based on their destinations. Those traveling to the same or nearby floors are assigned to the same elevator to reduce waiting and travel times, car crowding and stops per trip. Otisâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; double-deck elevator can conserve core building space by requiring fewer hoistways, freeing 30-45% more rentable space. The company believes that as builders in India create taller structures with a more limited groundlevel footprint, such units will become more desirable and financially viable in the country, as they have in many other markets.â&#x20AC;&#x192; â&#x20AC;&#x201A; đ&#x;&#x152;?


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Market Trends

The Elevator Industry in India Growing tall, the country shows great potential in several facets of its elevator market.

by Shanker Gopalkrishnan This article is based on the report “The Future of Elevator Market in India to 2018” published by e-Research & Publications India Pvt. Ltd. of Chennai, India. The study provides a comprehensive analysis of the Indian elevator market and detailed forecasts through 2018. The full report is available at www. elevatorbooks.com. . . . Editor India is a young nation, with more than 65% of its population younger than 35 years old. The country has a vast talent pool, and a significant percentage of this population is well educated and technologically savvy with a high propensity to spend. The extent of urbanization in India is somewhat low when compared to that of other developing nations. However, by 2030, some 750 million people, representing nearly 50% of country’s population, are expected to be located in urban areas, and a large percentage of this urban populace will live in apartment blocks that use elevators. India has emerged as the second major market for elevators in the world, next only to China. The country exhibits potential for further sustained growth over the coming decades.

Economic growth, rapid urbanization, increasing disposable incomes and the availability of loan capital have accelerated the demand for housing and commercial space in metros, as well as in Tier I and II cities. In spite of expanding city limits, the availability of livable space poses a challenge to planners in most cities. Coupled with rapidly escalating land prices and inadequate public-transportation systems, most Indian cities are witnessing vertical growth, and the elevator industry is a major beneficiary of these trends. Increased government spending on infrastructure projects has also ensured double-digit growth rates for the elevator market in India. Vertical growth in the realty sector is a development gathering momentum across several cities in India. A key enabling factor has been the revision and relaxation of building norms by some of the state governments. According to some sources, around 300 to 400 high-rise (25-floor-plus) projects are in the planning stage in the country. While the development of high-rise buildings has quickened, there are still hurdles to be crossed, such as the slow pace of approvals, restrictive Continued

Elevator market in India: growth trends, 2001-2013 (source: eRPI estimate)

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ELEVATOR WORLD India • 3rd Quarter 2014 •


Coupled with rapidly escalating land prices and inadequate public-transportation systems, most Indian cities are witnessing vertical growth, and the elevator industry is a major beneficiary of these trends. building norms in many cities, etc. The trend toward high-rise buildings will have a positive impact on the specifications and standards of elevators. Safety, energy efficiency and aesthetics will be the key drivers of this industry in the coming decade. The Indian market for elevators (defined as orders booked) in 2013 is estimated at 52,600 units, a quantum leap from 11,500 units in 2001. Elevator demand in India is forecast to reach 103,000 by 2018, reflecting a growth rate of over 14% per annum. Some of the highlights of the market are: ♦♦ The western region is the leading market for elevators in India and accounted for 35% in 2013. The northern and southern regions accounted for 27% and 25% of the elevator market, respectively. ♦♦ Metropolitan areas such as Mumbai, the National Capital Region (Delhi), Pune, Chennai, Bangalore, Ahmedabad, Kolkata, Hyderabad and Surat are the leading markets for elevators, followed by Jaipur, Indore, Kochi, Vadodara, Lucknow, Chandigarh, Nagpur, Bhopal and a host of smaller cities. The top 30 cities accounted for 70% of the Indian elevator market in 2013. ♦♦ Passenger elevators accounted for 85% of the total elevator market in India. ♦♦ The market for home elevators is growing rapidly and is fueled by affordability, changing lifestyles and an increase in demand for villas and premium/designer apartments. Home elevators are customized to suit individual preferences. ♦♦ While elevators with a capacity up to 612 kg presently account for nearly 60% of the market, the market for higher-capacity elevators is forecast to grow faster. ♦♦ The market for elevators with speeds of 1 mps and above is growing well at the expense of slower elevators; over the next decade, the market for 2-mps-plus elevators is forecast to expand rapidly and be aligned with the growth of mid- and high-rise buildings. ♦♦ The variable-voltage, variable-frequency drive is now ubiquitous, and gearless motors have made major inroads in the Indian market. ♦♦ Over the last decade, manual doors have given way to automatic doors, which now account for 86% of the passenger-elevator market. The Indian elevator industry has a mix of domestic manufacturers and several international players, and offers attractive business opportunities to both. While global

Safety, energy efficiency and aesthetics will be the key drivers of this industry in the coming decade. 80

ELEVATOR WORLD India • 3rd Quarter 2014 •

manufacturers are setting up new greenfield projects and expanding facilities, regional players are scaling up capabilities to consolidate their positions. The country has moved up the value chain in terms of greater sophistication in elevator features, such as energy efficiency, advanced safety mechanisms and improved aesthetics. However, in sheer technological terms, the country has some catching up to do with other global markets. The elevator-component industry has come of age in India, where several international component manufacturers have set up shop. The domestic component manufacturers face intense competition from their Chinese counterparts; China has become a key source for components, and imports from it have increased exponentially in the last five years.

The Indian elevator industry is on a high growth trajectory driven by the rapid expansion in the residential and commercial real-estate sectors and increased spending in the infrastructure sector. The Indian elevator industry is on a high growth trajectory driven by the rapid expansion in the residential and commercial real-estate sectors and increased spending in the infrastructure sector. The modernization market in India, hitherto small, will emerge as a significant component of the elevator business in the foreseeable future. The total number of elevators installed in India, as of the end of 2013, had been estimated at approximately 320,000 units. Thus, new installations, as well as modernization, will present huge opportunities for elevator companies in India over the coming decade. Shanker Gopalkrishnan is president of Madras Consultancy Group and affiliated with e-Research & Publications India Pvt. Ltd., both of Chennai, India.


Codes & Standards

Developments in EN 81-20, 81-50 and Related Standards Esfandiar Gharibaan talks on upcoming European codes and ever-more-important market surveillance. reprinted from Liftinstituut Magazine

Gharibaan

Esfandiar Gharibaan is chairman of the European Committee for Standardization Technical Committee (CEN/TC) 10 (for lifts, escalators and moving walks). Therefore, he has a broad overview of developments in codes and standards. When asked, he was gladly willing to share his knowledge and views. Gharibaan stated that much of his working time is spent on his responsibility as chairman of CEN/TC 10 and related activities. He, for instance, also attends several meetings of other CEN and International Organization for Standardization committees, working groups (WGs) and task forces. “I can only do my job as a chairman if I know about the ongoing issues and if I am well informed about the discussions and position of stakeholders on those issues,” he remarked.

Two Standards, Instead of One

There are more than 400 CEN committees. CEN/TC 10 is the oldest one that is still active. CEN/TC 10 WG 1 focuses on lifts, and more than 30 of its members are from National Standardization Bodies that are members of

The transition period for EN 81-20 and 81-50 of three years is the absolute maximum. The industry needs to be ready on time.

– Gharibaan 82

ELEVATOR WORLD India • 3rd Quarter 2014 •

CEN. EN 81-20 and 81-50 are the main standards WG 1 has focused on in the last few years. Those standards will replace EN 81-1 and EN 81-2. While EN 81-20 formulates the safety and technical requirements for electric and hydraulic lifts, EN 81-50 describes the calculation, testing and examination of lift components. Gharibaan explains the reason for this change: “By this structure, many redundancies of the text between the standards have been removed, and it also makes it easier to find information within those standards. I believe they have become more user friendly and flexible to revise or amend in the future. But, of course, CEN/TC 10 will be careful with the number of amendments and their timing to avoid unnecessary disturbance for the industry.”

Development of EN 81-20 and 81-50 Development of EN 81-20 and 81-50 took a long time. Gharibaan explains that is because they “are the main and most comprehensive standards for lifts. We wanted to make sure that the revision includes needs and requirements of the users and stakeholders of those standards as much as possible.” Considering that requirements of EN 81-1 and 81-2 are widely used for new lifts around the world, experts from outside Europe have been involved in the development of EN 81-20 and 81-50 from the beginning. Gharibaan expounded: “We have utilized the cooperation agreement between CEN and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), and ISO experts from China, Japan, South Korea and the U.S. have participated in the preparation process. During the public enquiry, Continued


EN 81-20 and 81-50 are more flexible to update. – Gharibaan

in which we asked for comments on the draft of those standards, we received comments from 14 non-European countries, mostly from the Asian-Pacific region. This clearly shows that there is a worldwide interest for EN 81-20 and 81-50. We have considered every single comment seriously, and most of them have been accepted.”

Major Changes/Highlights When asked about the major changes/ highlights of EN 81-20 with respect to EN 81-1 and 81-2, Gharibaan divided this into two main aspects: safety of the passengers and safety of the workers. From the passenger’s safety perspective, he mentions the changes made for landing and car doors: “All the landing doors need to fulfill a pendulum shock test, and the forces that they have to withstand are increased. These changes are necessary to limit the deformation of the doors. There are also additional retainers requested for the doors, to hold the doors when the main guiding elements of the door fail.” Furthermore, EN 81-20 describes the measures to be taken to prevent passengers from being hit by closing doors, which Gharibaan said apply to doors of all lifts. Relating to the worker safety, EN 81-20 requires larger refuge spaces on the car roof and in the pit. Gharibaan explained: “The new requirements relate to the number of persons that may be present on the car roof and in the pit. Each person must have his own refuge space. The refuge space, therefore, can become bigger, depending on the number of persons expected to be present. Labels on the car roof and in the pit should indicate the number of persons allowed in those areas.” A new requirement in EN 81-20 is to provide a control station in the pit. This allows the maintenance mechanic in the pit to move the car under his or her own control, preventing unnecessary risks while the car is moved by someone else outside the pit. Finally, a “bypass

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ELEVATOR WORLD India • 3rd Quarter 2014 •

About CEN and Its WGs Established in 1975 in Brussels, the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) is an independent European nonprofit organization. There are more than 400 CEN committees with their own working groups (WGs), covering many different industrial sectors. The only sectors not covered by CEN are the telecom and electrotechnical sector. CEN develops European standards, as well as harmonized standards in support of European regulations.

CEN/TC 10 CEN/TC 10 covers a large scope of products for lifts, escalators and moving walks. Currently, there are 12 working groups under it. Gharibaan emphasized that lifting appliances covered by CEN/TC 10 have one thing in common: “They are carrying persons and/or traveling through multiple fixed floors. As there are common risks within those products, our intention is to share experiences of the WGs and make full use of the expertise of the members to achieve a high level of safety common to all standards we produce.”

Members Members of CEN/TC 10 committees are representatives of their National Standardization Bodies. Apart from the expertise of the members, Gharibaan said the members are also engaged and passionate about codes and standards: “Our committee members are very interested in this subject. . . . Otherwise, it’s very difficult to give time and optimal contribution. As a member, you have to deal with a lot of different views, so you need to have a drive to exchange views and have an open mind to ideas from others. In the end, we need to achieve consensus. If everyone sticks to his own point of view, it will be impossible to get that consensus. The work in committees and WGs also takes a lot of time and patience. Even a relatively small standard takes at least three years to develop.”

Call for SMEs to Participate Gharibaan encouraged small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to consider taking a more active part in the standardization work, saying: “One of our objectives is to involve SMEs as much as possible. This will not only help reflecting SMEs’ needs within the standards; participation of SMEs also [brings] a high level of technical knowhow and expertise to the standardization committees and WGs.”

operation” for the car- and landing-door locks has been added. Explained Gharibaan: “The main cause of disruption of lifts is the door locks. Workers sometimes need to over connect contacts to determine the cause of the failure in the lift, but there is a risk that they may forget to remove those over connections. This is a cause of a great risk when the lift is in normal operation. In EN 81-20, a clear bypass operation for the lift is described.”

implies that all lift installations and components have to meet the requirements of the new standards by July 2017. Gharibaan’s advice is: “Do not wait until that moment, but take care of the design and product adjustments as soon as possible. Testing and certification of installations and/or components takes time. It is also possible

Expected Implementation Date

SMEs are very welcome at CEN/TC 10.

It is expected for EN 81-20 to be published by CEN in July. However, EN 81-1 and EN 81-2 will remain valid until July 2017. The implementation of EN 81-20

Continued

– Gharibaan


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that clients will ask for lifts and components in compliance with EN 81-20, before this deadline. So it is better to be ready as soon as possible.”

Consequences Financial Gharibaan stated that the changes in the standards may also have some financial consequences. That is why he recommends using the transition period to have a good look at the economics of the implementation. Additionally, contracts should be adjusted, if necessary. “Try to avoid business risks as much as possible by taking these matters into account [at] an early stage,” he added. Relatedly, Gharibaan stated that while accident reports are important input, CEN/TC 10/WG 1 has also focused on avoiding risks in preparing the new standards, using risk-assessment methods.

For Notified Bodies Gharibaan stated that the content of the EN 81-50, which also has to be implemented before July 2017, remains mainly the same, compared to what is stated about certification in the EN 81-1 and EN 81-2. “The certification procedures and processes are not changed. But, some certificates and testing documents, for instance, have to be adjusted,” he elucidated.

Accreditation and Market Surveillance When asked about the quality and accreditation of Notified Bodies, Gharibaan said: “Every country has its own accreditation system and its own accreditation body. The recast of the Lift Directive and the new legislative framework will also have an effect [on] accreditation and Notified Bodies, as it will be more stringent about the way the accreditation and auditing of the Notified Bodies takes place. This is a good development, and it is beneficial for the entire profession.

Related to the safety of workers, EN 81-20 requires larger refuge spaces on the car roof and in the pit. These new requirements are related to the number of persons present in these areas.

What won’t be changed is that accreditation will remain a national matter, as well as market surveillance. Market surveillance will also become more and more important. I also hope that Notified Bodies will participate more and more in the already existing national and European forums for Notified Bodies.” Continued

Future Developments in Lifts Considering the high rate of innovations in the lift industry in recent years, it is very difficult to predict the future. However, Gharibaan thinks there are a few trends that may give some indications. For example, the use of electronic systems in lifts is increasing. “Electronic systems are developing very rapidly and becoming smaller and also more economical to apply,” he stated. “Use of such systems may improve safety, accessibility, comfort and performance of lifts.” Integration of lifts in the rest of the services in a building and in building-management and -access systems is becoming commonplace. “So, a lift will no longer be a standalone device,” noted Gharibaan. Sustainability and focus on energy consumption in the entire delivery chain for lifts will also remain important. This may not only affect manufacturing, logistics and installation, but also how the maintenance of lifts is carried out, said Gharibaan, noting “a strong commitment from the industry to improve energy efficiency for lifts.” Although there are not yet specific lift-industry regulations on this subject, it is expected that future regulatory development may include lifts within the scope of such regulations as the Energy-Related Product Directive. “This is a framework directive,” Gharibaan explained. “Lifts and escalators are, [thus far], not included in the implementing measures related to this directive. But, maybe this will change in the years to come.”

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ELEVATOR WORLD India • 3rd Quarter 2014 •

Electronic systems are developing very rapidly and may improve safety, accessibility, comfort and performance of lifts.


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We received comments from 14 nonEuropean countries on the draft of EN 81-20 and 81-50. This clearly shows that there is a worldwide interest for these standards. Globalization All CEN members are committed to adopt the EN 81-20 and 81-50 standards in their countries. Furthermore, 14 CEN affiliate countries may do the same. Gharibaan also expected that Asian/ Pacific and, possibly, South American countries will take these standards into account, explaining: â&#x20AC;&#x153;Working together with ISO and all other interested national and international standardization organizations, the ultimate goal is that a certified product, which meets the requirements of EN 81-20 and 81-50, will be recognized and can be applied around the world.â&#x20AC;?

Other Developments in Standardization There are also other standards under development. New standards are coming for lifts with inclined paths (EN 81-22) and lifts in seismic environments (EN 81-77). Gharibaan commented, â&#x20AC;&#x153;We are also preparing a new standard, EN 81-42, for lifting appliances with enclosed cabins and low speed.â&#x20AC;? Asked about new standards regarding evacuation lifts, he states that a technical specification, CEN/TS 81-76, has already been published: â&#x20AC;&#x153;This specification focuses on the evacuation of disabled persons in mid-rise buildings using lifts. In the near future, this may become a European standard. ISO is focusing on evacuation from high-rise buildings using lifts. When that standard is ready, we could adopt it as a European standard.â&#x20AC;? Many existing standards refer to EN 81-1 and 81-2, so with the new EN 81-20 and EN 81-50, those standards have to be aligned, as well. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Furthermore, all standards are subject to periodic review, and they may need to be revised,â&#x20AC;? Gharibaan forecasted.

Energy Consumption Gharibaan emphasized that EN 81-20 and EN 81-50 are safety standards. However, he noted: â&#x20AC;&#x153;Environmental issues, such as energy consumption, have also been taken into account. For example, EN 81-20 requirements for ventilation of the lift well have been described in such a way that allows the building designer to find the optimal solution based on the input given by the lift installer. This will be especially useful with high-energy-performance buildings providing [a] safe environment, while minimizing loss of energy.â&#x20AC;? Speaking about standards related to energy consumption, he said CEN and ISO are working together on this topic. ISO is leading the work: â&#x20AC;&#x153;Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s better to have a set of global standards on this subject from the beginning. Therefore, CEN/TC 10 and ISO/TC 178 decided to have a joint project. The result of the project will be published as CEN and ISO standards at the same time. The standard with respect to energy measurement (EN ISO 25745-1) is already published, and EN ISO 25745-2 (with respect to emergency performance classification of lifts) and EN ISO 25745-3 (with respect to emergency performance classification for escalators) are under development.â&#x20AC;?â&#x20AC;&#x192; â&#x20AC;&#x201A; đ&#x;&#x152;?


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Product Spotlight

Rotary Encoders in Elevator Technology An overview of the use of rotary encoders in the elevator industry and details on HEIDENHAIN’s offerings by Tripathi Abhilash Every day, millions of people use elevators for transportation. Statistically speaking, every person on the earth rides an elevator once every 72 hr., and the availability and reliability of elevators are generally seen as matters of course. The devices were proven safe enough for human passengers when, at the 1853 World’s Fair, Elisha Graves Otis shocked a crowd of spectators as he stood on an elevator platform at maximum height and cut the platform’s only bearer cable. Due to Otis’ safety brake, the platform sank by only a few centimeters before it immediately stopped. The invention made it possible for building height — and the fantasy of architects — to continue to grow and advance the course of urbanization. For elevators, this created a huge market, 60% of which is controlled by the “big four” elevator companies: Otis, Schindler, ThyssenKrupp Elevator and KONE. Presently, half the world’s population lives in cities; by 2050, this number will be two-thirds of the nine billion people expected to be alive. As elevators consume up to 10% of a high-rise building’s energy consumption, a core goal in this industrial sector, besides increasing comfort, is higher efficiency. Elevator efficiency gains that increase the load capacity, while reducing required installation space and noise while increasing speeds, lengthening maintenance intervals, and reducing environmental pollution in spite of increased performance can be attained via a drive toward more advanced technology. While, years ago, the high-volume segment still operated on drive designs with frequency-controlled gear motors and hydraulic installations (motors with pumps), the technology transformed itself in the late 1990s to direct drives (permanentmagnet synchronous motors with high pole-pair numbers), also known as torque motors.

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ELEVATOR WORLD India • 3rd Quarter 2014 •

Figure 1: Modern elevator design with the three possible applications for encoders

Thanks to the freedom from maintenance and the power density of torque motors, it was also possible to integrate them in the elevator shaft (Figure 1) and do without the machine room. This option was as welcome to architects as it was to building owners, because it enabled them to realize new building designs and savings. The technology of these motors frequently requires an absolute position value to ascertain the rotor position so the motor current is controlled with the correct phase. Also, the relatively low rated speed (60-1,500 rpm) of these drive designs made high-resolution position acquisition a must for short control cycle times. Because of these requirements, HEIDENHAIN’s ExN 1300 rotary-encoder series, developed for the high-quality drive


l-r: Figure 2: ECN/ERN 1300 and 400 series; Figure 3: ECN/ERN 100 series; Figure 4: ECI/EQI 1100 series

control needed in machine tools and printing machines, can also be applied to today’s changing elevator drives. To be able to withstand the environmental conditions of an elevator shaft (e.g., concrete dust), some of the encoders have to be modified for a higher protection grade (using sealed housings and sealed ball bearings). This comes together with a market requirement for providing long cable lengths from the encoder (up to 10 m) without using extensions. With relatively few R&D expenses, HEIDENHAIN’s ERN 1387 rotary encoder for servo motors became the ERN 487, and the company’s ECN 1313 became the ECN 413 for elevator motors (Figure 2). The simple, purely axial installation procedure for the encoders permits optimum integration in the motor design with mounted brake. While the encoders in the ExN 1300/400 series are

used in the low-to-medium motor power range, those in the ExN 100 series (Figure 3) are used in high-rise buildings. The absolute encoder’s EnDat interface provides customers with other benefits, such as an electrical-zero point setting and the capability to save customer-specific data in the encoder. This can enable more efficient encoder installation and configuration. New versions of encoders, with such features as the transmission of motor winding temperature over the EnDat 2.2 protocol and optimized scanning, can provide elevator manufacturers with new possibilities for monitoring and timely maintenance tips. Almost all reputable manufacturers of servo amplifiers for the elevator industry include an EnDat interface option for their products’ encoder input. This has allowed wide market acceptance of HEIDENHAIN encoders for torque motors. Besides applications in drive control, encoders in elevators are also used to position the passenger cabin and control the doors. Electromagnetic switches (Figure 4), low-resolution linear encoders or multi-turn encoders in conjunction with cable winches are employed for passenger cabin positioning. Standard AC motors, as well as DC motors, are used to open and close door leaves to their end positions. In some cases, very simple kit encoders are used for position control. Tripathi Abhilash is head of Sales & Marketing at Heidenhain (India) Ltd.

Elevator World India Marketplace

Prathmesh Talekar Works Manager 91-9221314013 91-9167094841

• Issue 3, Volume 7 • elevatorworldindia.com

93


Elevator World India Marketplace

ics

Tech Electron

Plot no 11 R. N. 1136 Bharat Nagar, Bandra Kurla Complex, Bandra (East), Mumbai - 400 051 Mobile No : +91 9969424711 / 9322818148 Email : techelectronics99@gmail.com info@techelectronics.in Website : www.techelectronics.in

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ELEVATOR WORLD India • 3rd Quarter 2014 •

Manufacturing By TFT LCD ,DOT MATRIX DISPLAY, CONTROL PANEL & ELEVATOR SPARE PARTS www.techelectronics.in


ELEVATOR WORLD India Source Directory This section serves as a resource for the industry and consists of current Elevator World India advertisers and their website addresses. For detailed information

on each company, please visit www.elevatorworld.com/directory. Contact Anitha Raghunath at anitha@virgopublications.com or TBruce MacKinnon at tbruce@elevatorworld.com for more information.

ADCO Controls

HITACHI LIFT INDIA PVT. LTD.

Web Site: www.adcocontrols.com

Web Site: www.hitachi-lift.co.in

AFAG MESSEN UND AUSSTELLUNGEN GMBH

Hydro-Pneumatic Techniks

Web Site: www.interlift.de

Altenmo Technologies Pvt. Ltd Web Site: www.altenmo.com

BHARAT BIJLEE LIMITED

The Future of the Elevator and Escalator Market in India to 2018

Web Site: www.hipot.in

INDITECH SYSTEMS Web Site: www.inditechsystems.com

indonesia lift & Escalator expo Web Site: www.ina-liftelevator.com

Web Site: www.bharatbijlee.com

BHARAT ENGINEERING WORKS Web Site: www.bharathengineering.com

BLAIN HYDRAULICS GMBH Web Site: www.blain.de

CANNY ELEVATOR CO., LTD. Web Site: www.canny-elevator.com

City Lifts (India) Ltd. Web Site: www.citylifts.com

EASTERN HEMISPHERE ENGINEERING PVT. LTD.

Inova Automation Pvt Ltd Web Site: www.szmctc.com/en

INVT Electric India Private Limited Web Site: www.invt.in

jade elevator components Web Site: www.jadeec.in

JAYASHREE ENCODERS Web Site: www.jencoder.com

JOHNSON LIFTS PVT. LTD. Web Site: www.johnsonliftsltd.com

Web Site: www.easternhemisphere.in

Jupiter

Eletech Industries

Web Site: www.jupitergroup.co.in

E-Mail: eletechindustries@vsnl.net

ELEVATOR & ESCALATOR SAFETY TRUST E-Mail: info@eest.in

ELEVATOR WORLD, INC.

KINETEK Web Site: www.kinetekinc.com

Langfang Conference and ExhibitIon Co., Ltd.

Web Site: www.elevatorworld.com

Web Site: www.elevator-expo.com

ESCON ELEVATORS PVT. LTD.

LARSEN & TOUBRO

Web Site: www.esconelevators.com

ESQUIRE ENGINEERING CO. Web Site: www.esquireelevatorparts.net

EXCELLA Electronics Web Site: www.excellaelectronics.com

FORMULA SYSTEMS LTD. Web Site: www.formula-systems.com

GIOVENZANA INTERNATIONAL B.V.

Web Site: www.larsentoubro.com

Laxmi Mech. & Eng. Company Web Site: www.laxmimeco.com

LIFTINSTITUUT Web Site: www.liftinstituut.com

LM LIFTMATERIAL GMBH Web Site: www.lm-liftmaterial.de

Web Site: www.giovenzana.com

M.A.N Industries

GMV India – Component Manufacturing and Trading Pvt. Ltd.

MADE EVENTI SRL

This new report includes an overview of the industry, demand forecasts, key drivers and trends, new capacity & expansion, trends in the components market, trends in the maintenance and modernization market, technological aspects, profile of select major players, import trends and an understanding of the regulatory issues. The current study will focus on 30 cities, cover trends and growth in high rise buildings, and provide an economic and demographic profile of India.

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Web Site: www.drivesautomation.com

Web Site: www.gmv.it

Web Site: www.madeexpo.it

Hephzi Elevators International Co. Pvt. Ltd.

Marazzi (jiangsu) elevator guide rail co., ltd.

Web Site: www.hephzi.com

Web Site: www.marazziguide.com

View an informational brochure & table of contents at:

• Issue 3, Volume 7 • elevatorworldindia.com

95


MARK ELEKTRIKS

OTIS Elevator Company [India] Limited

TAK CONSULTING PVT. LTD.

Web Site: www.markelektriks.com

Web Site: www.otis.com

Web Site: www.takconsulting.net

MATRIX ENGINEERING

PHYSICAL MEASUREMENT TECHNOLOGIES

TARGI KIELCE S.A.

Web Site: www.esquireelevatorparts.net

Web Site: www.pmtvib.com

Web Site: www.euro-lift.targikielce.pl

MAYR ANTRIEBTECHNIK

SafeLine Group

TECHNÍSCHE AKADEMÍE HEÍLBRONN E.V

Web Site: www.mayr.de

Web Site: www.safeline-india.com

Web Site: www.hs-heilbronn.de/TAH/EnglishTAH

MITSUBISHI ELEVATOR ETA INDIA PVT. LTD.

SCHINDLER INDIA PVT. LTD.

Tecno doors PVt. ltd.

Web Site: www.mitsubishielevator.in

Web Site: www.india.schindler.com

Web Site: www.fermator.com

Monitor S.p.A

SCHMERSAL INDIA PVT. LTD.

TORIN DRIVE INDIA

Web Site: www.monitorelevator.it

Web Site: www.schmersal.in

Web Site: www.torindriveintl.com

MONTANARI LIFTS COMPONENTS PVT. LTD.

Sematic Elevator Products India Pvt Ltd

Toshiba Johnson Elevators India Pvt. Ltd.

Web Site: www.montanari-giulio.com

Monteferro S.p.A. Web Site: www.monteferro.it

MORIS ITALIA S.R.L. Web Site: www.moris.it

NBSL Elevator Components Co. Ltd. Web Site: www.nbsldt.com

Neptune Marketing Web Site: www.neptunemarketing.in

Web Site: www.sematic.com

Web Site: www.toshiba-india.com/elevator.html

SHANGHAI BST ELECTRIC CO., LTD

VIRGO COMMUNICATIONS & EXHIBITIONS PVT. LTD.

Web Site: www.shbst.com

SHARP ENGINEERS Web Site: www.sharpengineers.com

Soberman Engineering Web Site: www.sobermanengineering.com

Web Site: www.virgo-comm.com

VIRGO PUBLICATIONS Web Site: www.elevatorworldindia.com

WOODFOLD MFG INC. Web Site: www.woodfold.com

SREE GAJANANA ENTERPRISES Web Site: www.sgelevatorparts.com

Oleo International

Suzhou Great Elevator Co., Ltd.

Web Site: www.oleo.co.uk

Web Site: www.greatelevator.com

Advertisers Index ADCO Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

Inova Automation Pvt Ltd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

Sharp Engineers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83

AFAG Messen und Ausstellungen . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

Jade Elevator Components . . . . . . . . 7, 43, 65, 85

Suzhou Great Elevator Co, Ltd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

Altenmo Technologies Pvt. Ltd. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

Jayashree Encoders Pvt Ltd. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

Tak Consulting Private Limited . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87

Bharat Bijlee Ltd. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

Johnson Lifts Private Limited . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

Tecnolama . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

Blain Hydraulics Gmbh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

Jupiter Enterprises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

Torin Drive India Private Limited . . . . . . . Cover 2

Canny Group Co., Ltd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

Kinetek . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

Toshiba Johnson Elevators India Pvt. Ltd. . . . 11

Chr. Mayr GmbH + Co. KG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90

Larsen & Toubro Limited . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79

Virgo Communications & Exhibitions

City Lifts (India) Ltd. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

Laxmi Mech. & Eng. Company . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

EEST - Elevator & Escalator Safety Trust . . . . . . 89

Marazzi (Jiangsu) Elevator Guide Rails

Eletech Industries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

Co., Ltd. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

Elevator World . . . . . . 70, 77, 86, 91, 95, Cover 3

Montanari Giulio & C. Srl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

Esquire Engineering Co. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30, 31

Monteferro SPA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

EXCELLA Electronics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73

NBSL Elevator Components Co., Ltd. . . . . . . . . . 9

Formula Systems Ltd. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

Neptune Marketing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

Giovenzana International BV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

Otis Elevator Co. (I) Ltd. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

Hephzi Elevators International Company

Physical Measurement Technologies . . . . . . . . 27

Pvt Ltd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

Schindler India Pvt. Ltd. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

Hitachi Lift India Pvt. Ltd. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

Schmersal India Pvt. Limited . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81

Hydro-Pneumatic Teckniks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

Sematic S.p.a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cover 4

Inditech Systems Pvt Ltd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54

Shanghai BST Electric Co., Ltd. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

96

ELEVATOR WORLD India • 3rd Quarter 2014 •

Pvt. Ltd. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Woodfold Mfg Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

Marketplace Axis Industries Pvt Ltd. Bhamra Engineering Works Essential Lights Icon Control System Innovision Maha Lifts Nocee Elevators (P) Ltd. Tech Electronics The Elevator Factory Xecom Information Technologies Pvt. Ltd


Elevator Industry Educational Resources ELEVATOR WORLD offers a variety of educational materials that can help you gain the knowledge and skills needed to execute a job properly and safely. These materials provide great opportunities for training employees, self-study and/or field reference. You can choose from books, posters, CDs or software covering topics including:

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Market Reports

Design

History

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Elevator World India  

The Premier Magazine for the Building Transportation Industry in India Volume 7, Issue 3

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