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Contents 102

ELEVATOR WORLD March 2015

92

ON THE COVER 432 Park Avenue in New York City (photo by Todd Shapera)

SPECIAL REGIONAL SECTION: NEW YORK 67

Global Interchanges

by Daniel Safarik, CTBUH

74 ECNY

by Lee Freeland

76 82 86 88

New Requirements for NYC Elevator Systems

by James Marinelli, Electrodyn Systems Ltd.

Old Building, New Purpose

by Michael J. Ryan, The Peelle Co.

Managing Elevator Contractor Operations

submitted by FIELDBOSS

Elegant Elevator Entrances in the Big Apple by Ralph M. Newman, Columbia Elevator Products

92 98

Business is Booming in the Big Apple

by Kaija Wilkinson

On the Same Page

by Ray Downs and Robert Pitney, TEI Group

100

285 Madison Avenue

102

Never Too Tall or Too Thin

by Ed Butte, Magnetek

by Nikolai Fedak, New York YIMBY

Vol. LXIII No. 3

82


Contents

40

48

53

COLUMNS

CONTINUING EDUCATION

105

Oleo International by Lee Freeland

57

Integrated Circuits by David Herres

112

A New Method for Measuring Escalator or Moving Walk Overspeed and Anti-Reverse Protection by Junhua Shen, Yihui Ruan, Rongfeng Lu and Jihnhua Ye

149

Continuing Education Assessment Examination Questions

118

Early Electric Elevator Controllers, Part Two by Dr. Lee Gray, EW Correspondent

130

Ride the Pink Elevator by Rachelle Brown

134

Risk Potential of Safety Gears by Tim Ebeling

8 Editor’s Overview 10 Calendar 14 Comments 16 U.S. News 24 International News 34 In Memoriam 152 Product Spotlight 156 Classified 159 Advertisers Index 160 Last Glance

FOCUS ON MODERNIZATION 36

NYC’s Beaux Arts Building Gets Renovation of Four Elevators by John C. King

40

Elevator Modernization by Ralph M. Newman

48

Premier Place, Dallas by Susan Flyzik

53 Innovative Escalator Modernization at Sants Station by Begoña Flores Canseco

ONLINE EXTRAS

www.elevatorworld.com In addition to selected U.S. patents, we offer:

• Scenes from Manhattan courtesy of NYC & Co. • Detailed product information from Oleo International • More pics from Dallas’ Premier Place elevator cab modernization • MARCH WEB EXCLUSIVE: “Many Hands Make Light Work: ThyssenKrupp Elevator Outfits a Complex of Four Towers in Angola”

DEPARTMENTS


Mission Statement The mission of ELEVATOR WORLD is the intelligent collection, management and distribution of information for the benefit of the industry, while providing a global marketing platform that expands the reach of the industry to all corners of the world. How to Contact ELEVATOR WORLD • Mail: P.O. Box 6507; Mobile, Alabama 36660 • Shipping: 354 Morgan Avenue; Mobile, Alabama 36606 • Phone: (251) 479-4514 or toll-free: 1-800-730-5093 • Fax: (251) 479-7043 • Email: editorial@elevatorworld.com or sales@elevatorworld.com • Website: www.elevatorworld.com Subscriber Services & Back Issues • ELEVATOR WORLD is available in both print and digital verisions. Questions regarding new print or digital subscriptions, renewals, bulk subscriptions, subscription payments, change of address, back issues or billing may call (251) 479-4514 or 1-800-730-5093, ext. 23, 12 or 19. News, Press Releases and Article Submissions • Submissions to be considered for publication should be sent to editorial@elevatorworld.com. Editorial space is non-paid; material is accepted based on newsworthiness or educational value and may be edited. Contact Managing Editor Angela C. Baldwin, ext. 30. Reprints/Permission • To order editorial or advertising reprints, call Patricia Cartee, ext. 23. • To obtain permission to use any part of ELEVATOR WORLD, call Ricia Hendrick, ext. 25. Advertising • For display, classified or online advertising information, contact Advertising Manager Lesley K. Hicks, ext. 29. The Bookstore • For educational books, posters, CDs, DVDs and videos, contact Syreeta White at ext. 19; online at www. elevatorbooks.com; or see our supplemental booklet in this issue. Online • www.elevatorworld.com: News, links, calendar, classifieds, bookstore, feature articles, people and products of the industry. Site updated daily. • www.TheElevatorMuseum.org: Take a tour of the history of the elevator industry. • www.elevatorjobsitesafety.com: Complete Safety Handbook PDF, plus current revisions, quizzes, safety products, toolbox meetings and links. • www.elevatordirectory: A powerful online business directory, events calendar, classifieds section and more. • www.elevatorworldindia.com: Covers information about the free quarterly magazine ELEVATOR WORLD India, including a complete archives section. • www.theeurosource.com: Contains details regarding the yearly EURO SOURCE directory, including the most recent directory in digital format.

Mailing Lists

• ELEVATOR WORLD does not release its subscriber list. • The Elevator World SOURCE© published yearly in January provides a comprehensive list of elevator industry suppliers, contractors, consultants and associations. Call Lesley Hicks, ext. 29, for more information.

Printed on recycled paper

6

www.elevatorworld.com • March 2015

ELEVåTOR WÅRLD

®

Founder:

STAFF

Editor and Publisher Ricia Sturgeon-Hendrick, ext. 25 Executive Vice President T. Bruce MacKinnon, ext. 20 Managing Editor Angela C. Baldwin, ext. 30 Senior Associate Editor Lee Freeland, ext. 41 Associate Editor Kaija Wilkinson, ext. 13 Editorial Assistant Hanno van der Bijl, ext. 40 Vice President of Production Lillie K. McWilliams, ext. 15 Graphic Design Associates Jessica Trippe, ext. 16 Tara Dow, ext. 24 Web/Graphic Designer Dan Wilson, ext. 28 Director of Commercial Operations Patricia B. Cartee, ext. 23 Vice President of Marketing Brad O’Guynn, ext. 38 Sales/Marketing Assistant Caleb Givens, ext. 17 Advertising Manager Lesley K. Hicks, ext. 29 Advertising Account Executive Scott O. Brown, ext. 31 Commercial Assistant Cleo Brazile, ext. 42 Educational Sales Service Associate Syreeta White, ext. 19 Financial Associate Emma Darby, ext. 33

William C. Sturgeon 

1953

ELEVATOR WORLD, INC. BOARD OF DIRECTORS AND OFFICERS

Angela Baldwin (V.P. Editorial), Richard Baxter, Massimo Bezzi, Tricia Cartee (V.P. Commercial Operations), Jonathan Charest, Jo Chateau (Acting Treasurer), James Green, Ricia Hendrick (President, Chairman), Paul Horney, Martha Hulgan, Achim Hütter, T. Bruce MacKinnon (Executive V.P./Secretary), Lillie McWilliams (V.P. Production), Brad O’Guynn (V.P. Marketing) and Robert Schaeffer TECHNICAL ADVISORY GROUP Richard E. Baxter, Louis Bialy, James W. Coaker, Walter Glaser, M.J.Mohamed Iqbal, John Koshak, Ami Lustig, TAK Mathews, Zack R. McCain, Parag Mehta, Richard Peters, Jay A. Popp and Albert So

CORRESPONDENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS

Africa: Shem Oirere; Australia: John Inglis; Canada: John Murphy; China: Peng Jie, Zhang Lexiang, Dr. Albert So, Yihui Ruan; Europe: Luc Rivet; Germany: Andreas Wirths; Hungary: Marius Makovsky; India: TAK Mathews; Iran: Amir Reza Hashemi; Israel: Ami Lustig; Italy: Massimo Bezzi; Japan: Masaru Matsumoto, Yutaka Otagiri, Youichi Saji, Shigeharu Kitamura; Mexico: Raul Gonzales Mora; New Zealand: Bob Johnston; Russia: Viktor Khristich, Yury Kireev; South America: Carmen Maldacena; Taiwan: Spenser Cheng; Turkey: Ersan Barlas; United Arab Emirates: M.J. Mohamed Iqbal; United Kingdom: David Cooper, John Gale; United States: John Koshak, Jim Coaker, Galen Dutch, Lawrence Fabian, Richard Gregory, David Herres, Dr. Lee Gray, George Gibson

EDITOR EMERITUS Robert S. Caporale

CORRESPONDING PUBLICATIONS

Argentina: Revista del Ascensor, Subir y Bajar; Brazil: Revista Elevador Brasil; China: China Elevator; Germany: Lift Report, Lift Journal; Greece: Anelkistiras – Greek Elevation Magazine; Iran: Donya-ye Asansor; Italy: Elevatori; Korea: Elevator & Parking Systems; The Netherlands: Liftinstituut Mededeling, Liftbouw; Poland: Dzwig Magazyn; Russia: Lift Russia; Spain: Ascensores y Montacargas; South Africa: Lift Africa Magazine; Ukraine: Lift Expert; United Kingdom: Elevation ELEVATOR WORLD India is a quarterly magazine published by Elevator World, Inc. (Mobile, Alabama) and Virgo Publications (Bangalore, India). Advertising and subscription information can be found at website: www.elevatorworldindia.com. Asansör Dünyasi is a bimonthly magazine owned and published by Elevator World Turkey. Advertising and subscription information can be found at website: www. elevatorworld.com.tr or by calling (251) 479-4514.

ELEVATOR WORLD is a registered trademark and all rights reserved. Copyright © 2015. For permission to reprint any portion of this magazine, please write ELEVATOR WORLD at P.O. Box 6507; Mobile, AL 36660. ELEVATOR WORLD is published in the interest of the members of the elevator industry, to improve communication within the industry and to further the continuing education of members of the industry. ELEVATOR WORLD publishes articles by contributing authors as a stimulation to thinking and not as directives. ELEVATOR WORLD publishes this material without accepting responsibility for its absolute accuracy, but with hopes that the vast majority of it will have validity for the field. The ideas expressed therein should be tempered by recognized elevator engineering practices, guidelines, codes and standards. Publication of any article or advertisement should not be deemed as an endorsement by ELEVATOR WORLD. Printed by Interstate Printing & Graphics, Inc., 1135 Corporate Drive North, Mobile, AL 36607. Periodicals postage paid at Mobile, Alabama, and at additional mailing office. Post Office Publication Number 172-680 (ISSN 0013-6158), under the act of March 3rd. U.S. Pat. Office. POSTMASTER: address all correspondence to Elevator World, Inc., P.O. Box 6507, Mobile, AL 36660; fax: (251) 479-7043. Published monthly. Subscription rates (print): U.S. and possessions: $75/one year, $125/two years, $175/three years. International, including Canada: $125/one year, $225/two years, $325/three years; Digital format: $25; Single copies (print or digital): $15; THE ELEVATOR WORLD SOURCE© (print or digital): $46. (All subscribers receive THE ELEVATOR WORLD SOURCE© free.)

The official magazine for NAEC, Elevator U and CECA.


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Editor’s Overview

Coming of Age in New York by Ricia Sturgeon-Hendrick This month, our focus is on modernization with a special emphasis and section on the New York City (NYC) area. My family has a long history with NYC. I first came to the city when I was 16 (a birthday present from my parents). Ironically, my paternal grandmother also came to NYC when she was 16, but she came via Ellis Island as a Hungarian refugee. My father was born to her on Tremont Avenue in the Bronx and worked in NYC as a young man. He later returned to the city yearly to write about the projects and companies of the elevator industry. When my son turned 16, we went to, of course, NYC, and now, T.Bruce has two daughters living, dancing and studying in that amazing city. The oldest went there when she was just 13. In my family, we all seem to gravitate to NYC at a very young age. Perhaps the old adage “If you can make it there, you can make it anywhere� is true. It’s appropriate that our focus topic this month is Modernization. In addition to maintenance, this aspect of the industry has kept our industry alive over the past five years of deep recession. John King of Cab Solutions writes about modernizing the elevators at the Beaux Arts Building in NYC working with PS Marcato Elevator and using a wide range of suppliers — Man-D-Tec, Forms+Surfaces and Adams Elevator. Magnetek took a 30-year-old system at 385 Madison Avenue and installed the first Quattro AC drive in the U.S. to bring it up to speed. Susan Flyzik of Eklund’s, Inc. wrote of her company’s modernization of nine elevators at Premier Place, Dallas. By far the most challenging and interesting mods involved inserting large things into small places. Ralph M. Newman writes in Elevator Modernization of Columbia working with Elevator Equipment Corp. to get a 2,500-lb. elevator stuffed into a 1,500-lb. shaft. The ways to save space were fascinating. Again, in only the smallest space, ThyssenKrupp Elevator modernized an escalator in the Sants Station in Barcelona. Because the original escalator was between two walls, the new escalator (an iMod) was installed in modules built to fit. The New York Special Regional Section (our first regional section) started out as an eight-pager and ended up being 40 pages. What did you expect? It’s New York! The city itself has 35% of the tall buildings

8

www.elevatorworld.com • March 2015

in the entire U.S. James Marinelli of Electrodyn writes about the New Requirements for NYC Elevator Systems. He serves on the NYC Elevator Code Committee and estimates there are 72,000 elevators in the city — and they are the largest, oldest, and most diverse and complicated equipment in the vertical-transportation industry. Daniel Safarik of The Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat writes in Global Interchanges about the resurgence of the skyscraper in NYC after 9/11 and the 2008 recession. Nikolai Fedak, founder and editor-in-chief of New York YIMBY, notes that you can “Never [be] Too Tall or Too Thinâ€? in NYC. His article talks of handling the space crunch in the city by going up and even cantilevering over other buildings. In their Readers Platform, On the Same Page, Ray Downs and Robert Pitney of TEI Group suggest industrywide safety standards. Peelle’s Michael J. Ryan writes in Old Buildings, New Purpose about large-box buildings that are being repurposed in Brooklyn, bringing 1,300 manufacturing and retail jobs to the area and urban farming on the rooftops. Liberty Elevator’s Muttart brothers had a hand in the elevator work with Peelle. Meanwhile, Columbia’s L.J. Blaiotta speaks of the Elegant Entrances in the Big Apple and his company’s commitment to supplying them. ELEVATOR WORLD’s own Lee Freeland wrote a history of the Elevator Conference of New York, an association with a penchant for education and promotion. Business Is Booming in the Big Apple, according to EW’s Kaija Wilkinson, who spent many days on the phone finding out who (in NYC) is building tall, who’s doing mods, who’s adding staff, and how they all handle the workload. Finally, FIELDBOSS writes about a method of automating operations, and tracking violations and repairs in Managing Elevator Contractor Operations. What a fully packed special section! Look out, Chicago; you’re next. Much of the building going on in NYC is very pricey high-rise residential space. This is already a city of 8 million, but it continues to grow. Just like my own family, who came early and often to the Big Apple, it seems that many young people are coming and staying — and hoping to make the fortune it đ&#x;Œ? costs to live there.  


Calendar

Calendar of Events Industry leaders will be gathering for major events throughout the U.S., Italy and the Middle East.

2015 March MADE Expo Fiera Milano Rho Milan, Italy March 18-21 For more information, contact organizer Diomedea at website: www.diomedea.it. NAESA Eastern Region Spring Workshop Clarion Resort Fontainebleau Hotel Ocean City, MD March 20-21 For more information or to register, contact NAESA International at www. naesai.org. Asansör Istanbul Tüyap Fair Convention and Congress Center Istanbul, Turkey March 26-29 For more information, contact organizer Istanbul Fair Organization Ltd. at email: asansor@ifo.com.tr.

April ECNY Supplier Showcase Villa Barone Manor Bronx, New York April 8

10

www.elevatorworld.com • March 2015

The IAEC Forum is scheduled for May 16-22 in Nashville, Tennessee (photo by Guerrier Noir).

For more information, contact the Elevator Conference of New York (ECNY) at website: ecnyweb.com. NAESA Central Region Spring Workshop Hilton Garden Inn O’Hare Airport Des Plaines, IL April 10-11 For more information or to register, contact NAESA International at www. naesai.org. NAESA Western Region Spring Workshop Gold Coast Hotel and Casino Las Vegas, NV April 17-18 For more information or to register, contact NAESA International at www. naesai.org. NAEC Educational Conference Sheraton Waikiki Honolulu, HI April 18-21 For more information, contact the National Association of Elevator Contractors (NAEC) at website: www.naec.org. NFPA Conference & Expo Chicago, IL April 22-25 For more information or to register, contact the National Fire Protection

Association (NFPA) at website: www.nfpa. org/training/nfpa-conference-and-expo. Iran Liftex Tehran International Exhibition Center Tehran, Iran April 25-28 For more information on “The Fourth International Exhibition on Elevators, Escalators, Lift, Conveyors and Related Components and Equipment,” visit websites: www.liftex.ir and www.iranfair. com. BuildingsNY Expo Jacob K. Javits Convention Center New York, NY April 28-29 For more information, contact organizer Reed Exhibitions toll free: (888) 334-8702 or website: www.buildingsny.com.

May IAEC Forum Nashville, TN May 16-22 For more information, contact the International Association of Elevator Consultants (IAEC) at website: www.iaec.org. Elevators & Access Control Dubai World Trade Center Dubai, U.A.E. May 18-20


Calendar

Dubai is to host Elevators & Access Control on May 18-20 (photo by P.Iml).

For more information, visit www. middleeastelevators.com. ASME A17 Elevator MasterClass New York, NY May 27-28 For more information, contact the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) at website: www.asme.org.

June CECA Annual Convention Hyatt Regency Vancouver Vancouver, Canada June 2-6 For more information, contact the Canadian Elevator Contractors Association (CECA) at website: www.ceca-acea.org. Russian Elevator Week International Exhibition and Convention Centre MosExpo Moscow, Russia June 9-11 For more information, contact organizers National Lift Union and MosExpo at website: www.lift-expo.com/en. Ninth Annual EESF Boat Cruise Chicago, IL June 10

For more information, contact the Elevator Escalator Safety Foundation (EESF) at website: www.eesf.org. Pop/Joe Memorial Invitational Golf Outing Nassau Country Club Glen Cove, NY June 15 For more information, contact organizers at website: www.popjoe.com. Lift Expo Russia ExpoCentre Moscow, Russia June 17-19 For more information, contact organizers at website: en.liftexporussia.com. Elevator U The Ohio State University Columbus, Ohio June 22-25 For more information, contact Elevator U at website: www.elevatoru.org. EIGSC Golf Outing California Country Club Whittier, CA June 29 For more information, contact the Elevator Industry Group of Southern California (EIGSC) at website: elevatorindustry.com.

New York City is to host an ASME A17 Elevator MasterClass on May 27-28 (photo by 472169).

August CEA Golf Outing Gleneagles Golf Club Lemont, IL August 7 For more information, contact the Chicago Elevator Association (CEA) at website: cea-online.org.

September Lift & Escalator Symposium Highgate House Northampton, U.K. September 23-24 For more information, visit website: www. liftsymposium.org. NAEC Annual Convention and Expo Westin Boston Waterfront Hotel and Boston Convention Expo Center Boston, MA September 28-October 1 For more information, contact the National Association of Elevator Contractors (NAEC)’s Amanda Smith toll free: (800) 900-6232, fax: (770) 760-9714, e-mail: amanda@naec.org or website: www.naec.org.

October Interlift 2015 Augsburg Trade Fair Centre Augsburg, Germany October 13-16 For more information, contact organizer

Continued

March 2015 • ELEVATOR WORLD

11


AFAG Messen und Ausstellungen GmbH at email: interlift@afag.de or website: www.interlift.de. Wisconsin Elevator Symposium Grand Geneva Resort Lake Geneva, WI October 22-23 For more information or to register, contact NAESA International at www. naesai.org. CTBUH 2015 Conference New York City October 26-30 For more information or to register for the “Global Interchanges: Resurgence of the Skyscraper City” conference, contact the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) at www.ctbuh2015.com.

Regional Meetings and Events Canadian Elevator Contractors Association (CECA) Central Region Meetings are held the first Thursday in February, April, October and December. Contact CECA at phone: (905) 446-0327, email: office@ceca-acea.org or website: www.ceca-acea.org. CECA Eastern and Western Regions Four meetings per year on an as-needed basis. Contact CECA at phone: (905) 446-0327, email: office@ceca-acea.org or website: www.ceca-acea.org. Chicago Elevator Association (CEA) First Thursday of each month, SeptemberJune (no meetings during July and ­August). Contact Tom Przybyla at phone: (708) 371-2444 or fax: (708) 371-2477.

website. Contact ECNY at email: info@ ecnyweb.com or website: www.ecnyweb.com. Elevator Industry Group of Southern California (EIGSC) Third Tuesday of each month, January-May and September-­December at Les Freres Taix R ­ estaurant, 1911 Sunset Boulevard, Los Angeles, beginning at 11:30 a.m. Contact EIGSC at website: www.elevatorindustry.com. International Association of Elevator Consultants – New York (IAEC-New York Region) Meets quarterly in March, June, ­September and D ­ ecember on the s­ econd Tuesday in New York, NY. ­Contact Joe Neto, Jr. at email: jneto@josephneto.com. Massachusetts Elevator Safety Association (MESA) Meetings are held on the second Tuesday of each month (except June, July and August) at the Phillips Old Colony House, Boston (Dorchester), MA. Contact President Eric Tragash at phone: (860) 678-7987, Treasurer Joe Zarba at phone: (508) 586-3610, email: mesassoc@hotmail.com or website: www.mesassoc.com. The annual safety seminar is held in ­October of each year, with the golf outing in September of each year. Northern California Elevator Industry Group (NCEIG) Second Wednesday of each month (except July, August and September). Contact NCEIG at website: www.nceig.org for meeting dates and locations. An expanded calendar with associated industry events is available at website: www.elevatorworld. com/directory/event .  

Elevate Training Courses Dubai – March 10, 2015 London – March 19, 2015 London – September 10, 2015 Hong Kong – November 26, 2015 Sydney – November 30, 2015 Elevate Training Courses (Advanced) Dubai – March 11, 2015 London – March 20, 2015 London – September 11, 2015 Hong Kong – November 27, 2015 Sydney – December 1, 2015 For complete details on Elevate Training Courses, contact Peters Research Ltd. at website: www. peters-research.com/training.

American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) International Professional Development Course For information on all courses, contact ASME toll free: (800) 843-2763, outside North America: (973) 882-1170, fax: (973) 882-1717 or (973) 882-5155 or email: infocentral@asme. org.

NAESA International QEI and Code Training For more information on all NAESA International Education programs and QEI testing, contact Dotty Stanlaske at phone: (360) 292-4968, fax: (360) 292-4973 or email: dotty@naesai.org.

Elevator Association of Florida Meetings are held on the second Tuesday of January, April, July and October. Contact Treasurer Lee Rigby at phone: (850) 294-1070, fax: (850) 210-0085, email: elevatorlee@aol.com or website: www. fla-elevator-association.org. Elevator Association of Minnesota (EAM) September, December, spring and a June ­ ontact Rick Lowenberg of golf outing. C Minnesota Elevator, Inc. at phone: (507) 245-4208. Elevator Conference of New York (ECNY) Dates to be announced on the ECNY ECNY and the IAEC-New York Region will meet regularly in New York City (photo by Frank Winkler).

12

www.elevatorworld.com • March 2015


Comments Going Up and Down with DieselDucy

The article is amazing. In my opinion, it is one of the best articles ever done on me; it says exactly what I want out there. Andrew Reams, aka “DieselDucy” www.dieselducy.com Thank you so much for the hard copies of the magazine! Everyone who sees it remarks how professionally laid out the publication is. . . congratulations! And, I really enjoyed the article. Little Daniel gets the cutest shy smirk when he sees himself in the magazine, then usually runs off, because he’s somewhat overwhelmed by the sight. It’s really adorable. Thanks for letting us be a part. Karen Morrison kjk88bus@gmail.com

PoY Award Promotes Industry

The project team members and I were more than excited upon hearing the news that “Mount Tianmen Tourism Tunnel Escalators” was awarded first prize in the Escalators, New Construction category of the 2015 ELEVTOR WORLD Project of the Year (PoY) Awards. On behalf of Canny Elevator Co., Ltd., I’d like to express my greatest thanks to the EW Editorial Department for all the excellent work you’ve done. Please also relay my sincere appreciation to the highly respected panel of PoY judges, who always have a hard time making difficult decisions that power the advancement of the global elevator industry. For EW readers worldwide, the project did not only present a “Dream Solution” by the Canny project team, which overcame unprecedented challenges one after another, but also integrated our “Canny Dream” to make a better world through reliable products and exceptional services for customers around the world.

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www.elevatorworld.com • March 2015

We are glad to see our continued efforts boiled down to a milestone in the escalator industry on the PoY stage in a way it can be seen and shared by the elevator world. The PoY award will help build our company spirit and staff camaraderie; it will also encourage us to work harder and smarter in the future. We would look forward to seeing more excellent projects in 2016’s PoY. Richard Zhu Marketing General Manager Canny Elevator Co., Ltd. zhuruihua@canny-elevator.com

NYC Success Story

When an elevator for a three-level apartment within one of New York City’s (NYC) most prestigious residential buildings, 10 Gracie Square, was called for, the client’s architect initially came up empty. This building is historic and has been home to notable figures such as Gloria Vanderbilt and her son, Anderson Cooper, as well as famed conductor André Kostelanetz. The client’s wife grew up at 10 Gracie Square and has family roots that extend a generation. Due to her mobility and health issues associated with aging, the client wanted an elevator so she could traverse the three levels as she always had. But, various local elevator contractors and suppliers told him the home had no space for an elevator. That’s when the project architect looked to us — UT Elevator. We were contacted via email. This time, he received a “Yes.” It was determined that if the home could be modified in a noninvasive way, there could be a very tight, yet feasible space in which to assemble an elevator. The device had to be customized in such a way that it would suit the restrictions of the existing space and all the stringent requirements imposed by the city and building. There were many hidden

obstacles unveiled throughout the process, but, in the end, UT Elevator provided the client with a compact, efficient, gearlesstraction system with custom interior and three-speed sliding doors — the only kind feasible, given the tight quarters. Each component was custom made in UT Elevator’s Pickering, Canada, facility. In addition to the satisfaction from a job well done, this job resulted in UT Elevator familiarizing itself with NYC’s approval process and getting to know key NYC department figures, such as the chief examiner, inspector and borough commissioner. This experience will help us handle future, challenging custom residential jobs for the city’s elite. John Virk Karen Virk Co-owners UT Elevator Inc. John.virk@UTElevator.com Karen.virk@UTElevator.com

Join the Discussion! Submit your comments to one of the following addresses. Postal: P.O. Box 6507; Mobile, AL 36660 Email: editorial@elevatorworld.com Website: www.elevatorworld.com ELEVATOR WORLD reserves the right to edit comments for length and clarity.


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US News

NYC Surging New York YIMBY: Condos, hotels on drawing board. “San Francisco’s Worth” of New Skyscrapers for NYC Developers intend to add a “San Francisco’s worth” of new skyscrapers to New York City (NYC) in the coming years, according to New York YIMBY, which said that, in 2014, applications were filed for 17 buildings taller than 500 ft. San Francisco has 18 such buildings. Overall, 2014 was a strong year for filings, with demand outpacing supply and prices remaining high. Across the five boroughs, applications were filed to build 44,825 residential units, compared with 22,915 units in 2013. Brooklyn and Queens led the way, with Manhattan also having a strong showing. Interestingly, NYC’s supertall building boom is not reflected in the numbers, since most of those applications were filed several years ago. Full data may be downloaded at www.yimbyresearch.com.

New Marriott near Hudson Yards A two-tiered glassy structure with corner ornamentation is the design plan for a 312-ft.-tall, 29-story tower at 461 West 34th Street, New York YIMBY reports. With DSM Design Group as the architect, it is set to house a Marriott Courtyard hotel with groundfloor retail. Despite its height, it will be dwarfed by Hudson Yards buildings taking shape across the street. The location is prime, directly across from the city’s first Neiman Marcus department store

Mobility Elevator Gets New Website Elevator and lift provider Mobility Elevator and Lift Co. of West Caldwell, New Jersey, launched a new website (www. mobilityelevator.com) in January. New features include comprehensive technical information, and new installation pictures and brochures.

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www.elevatorworld.com • March 2015

Despite its height, the 312-ft.-tall Marriott Courtyard will be dwarfed by Hudson Yards buildings (images from Marx Development).

and convenient to a key subway station. In December 2014, excavation appeared imminent, and a 2016 completion date is projected.

Plans Percolate for Another Midtown Condo Tower After changing hands in 2014, a piece of property in the Midtown South area of NYC looks primed for another condominium tower, New York YIMBY reports. Although design details were hazy in late 2014, the tower would have 51 stories and ground-level retail. Designed by Rafael Viñoly, it would feature cantilevers above the lower floors to expand square footage. No timeline is announced for the project, which is planned at the corner of Fifth Avenue and 30th Street. At least two additional residential towers are taking shape nearby.


US News

Projects across the U.S. US$400-Million Condo Tower Planned in San Diego Developer Nat Bosa is planning a US$400-million condominium tower in downtown San Diego on the waterfront, The San Diego Union-Tribune reports. Scheduled for completion in 2017 and part of a larger downtown rebirth, the building will stand 450 ft. tall and have 232 condos within 41 stories. Prices will start at more than US$1 million for even the smallest units, and demand is expected to be strong due to a dearth of for-sale condos downtown. The structure was designed by Kohn Pederson Fox, which drew inspiration from waves and seashells to form a glassy tower with “two embracing curves.”

Center of the Americas” would include residential units, hotel rooms and office space. The 340 Biscayne Boulevard site, upon which currently sits a Holiday Inn, was purchased by ITC Center Miami LLC and BH Downtown Miami LLC. Local firm Arquitectonica designed the 77-story building. According to the Miami NewTimes, the building would dwarf anything currently in Miami’s skyline. However, other proposed nearby projects are expected to be taller.

393-Unit Apartment Tower for Uptown Charlotte On the heels of the August 2014 opening of the 22-story Element Uptown residential tower in uptown Charlotte, North Carolina, Childress Klein Properties has announced another project nearby consisting of 31 floors housing 393 apartments atop the 11-story Mint Museum, Charlotte Business Journal reports. Construction is expected to start in spring 2015, and the project – which in December 2014 had not yet been named – is set to include underground parking and a top-floor, resort-style pool. It will join a growing number of apartment towers in the city.

Miami Mixed-Use Tower Announced A 935-foot-tall tower has been proposed for downtown Miami. “The World Trade

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BART Escalator Upgrades in Store San Francisco’s Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) system is set to get a trio of rebuilt street-level escalators at a pair of stations where service is notoriously spotty, The San Francisco Examiner reports. BART has set aside US$12 million for improvements, including art, lighting, stair treads, signage, news displays and safety features for two units at Power Street and one at Civic Center. BART is still gathering input from customers but expects new canopies over the units (ELEVATOR WORLD, September 2013) will help protect them from the elements and people using them as toilets. Work is expected to start in 2016 and be complete in 2017.

NFPA Launches Electrical Certification Program The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) has launched its Certified Electrical Safety Worker (CESW) certification program, based on the 2015 edition of NFPA 70E, Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace®. The program’s objective is to ensure electricians have the knowledge, training and experience to perform their jobs at the highest, safest level possible. The CESW certification program was developed in coordination with experts in the electrical safety field, including construction, industrial, residential electricians and contractors; electrical engineers; electrical safety training organizations; and facilities managers and supervisors. It features a 100-item examination, along with a set of recertification requirements that must be completed within a three-year time period following initial certification. During the examination, candidates are assessed on the main subject areas of understanding electrical safety-related work practices, establishing electrically safe work conditions, identifying precautionary techniques for work involving electrical hazards and performing electrical hazard risk assessments.

KONE to Outfit Seattle Tower with 19 Units KONE has been hired to provide 19 elevators to Fifth + Columbia, a 44-story office/hotel tower being built in downtown Seattle (ELEVATOR WORLD, February 2015). The order consists of six MonoSpaceTM, machine-room-less units, 13 MiniSpaceTM 6-mps units and the PolarisTM destination-control system. General contractor JTM Construction awarded the contract. Boasting a geometric design and glass façade, the building was designed by Zimmer Gunsul Frasca Architects of Seattle and is being developed by Daniels Real Estate.

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www.elevatorworld.com • March 2015


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US News

ASME A17 Code Week Held in Florida The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) held a successful A17 Standards Committee and associated code committee meetings during Code Week on January 12-15 at the Sheraton Sand Key in Clearwater, Florida. In addition to the usual items covered, themes of the meeting included defining the forms of auxiliary and emergency power and alternative testing. The A17 Standards Committee met for the better part of the day on January 14. One highlight of the meeting was a celebration of James Coaker having recently

received the Melvin R. “Mel� Green Award for the lifetime achievement of service to the committee. Coaker was very appreciative of receiving ASME’s most prestigious award and praised the organization for its openness and the fact that “anyone can pick up the phone and get a professional response from any ASME chair or other leader.� Among the news shared at the meetings was the plan for the publishing of a new edition of the A17.4 Guide for Emergency Personnel in February. The guide is used as a

baseline for training firefighters in many parts of North America. Additionally, A17.7/B44.7 New Technology Committee Chair Louis Bialy announced there are initiatives within the U.S. Technical Advisory Group to harmonize elevator documentation worldwide. He also said a task group had been formed to review ways to harmonize his committee’s work with the European Committee for Standardization. Though there is currently no such harmonization, ISO Annex C addresses additional considerations that must be met for the European Parliament and Council Lifts Directive. Bialy believes a similar appendix could be made for A17.7/B44.7. Work to that effect will be discussed at upcoming elevator-code meetings, which were still being planned at the time of this writing. Visit calendar.asme.org for the đ&#x;Œ? latest updates.   Left: A portion of the large group at the main event, the A17 Standards Committee meeting Bottom left: (l-r) Hank E. Peelle, III; James Coaker; Richard Gregory; and Cal Rogler celebrate Coaker’s receipt of the Mel Green Award. Bottom right: The busy A17.4 Guide for Emergency Personnel Committee prepares to publish a new edition of its guide.

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www.elevatorworld.com • March 2015


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International News

Companies on the Move An Australian firm reinforces its commitment to safety, shares are acquired, experts are hired, and a U.K. company moves into a new location.

Bain Announces Wittur Acquisition Bain Capital Europe LLC has announced it intends to buy Germany-based Wittur, one of the world’s largest independent elevator component and systems suppliers, from Triton and Capvis. The deal is subject to regulatory approval. No staffing changes are anticipated. Since its 2010 acquisition by majority shareholder Triton and co-investor Capvis, Wittur has made notable strides, Bain observed, including solidifying its status as an industry leader and substantially growing revenues, customer base, operations and R&D. Bain believes continued outsourcing in the elevator industry will drive continued growth for component suppliers such as Wittur.

Apex Starts 2015 in New, Larger Digs Apex Lifts’ service, accounts, call, repair, sales and construction staff started 2015 in a new, larger facility, Art’s House Banks Lane in Bexleyheath, Kent DA6 7BH, U.K. Phone numbers and email addresses are unchanged. Moving into the 12,800-sq.-ft. building, located just outside of London, represents growth for the company. It boasts a stylish interior, as well as ergonomic and high-tech features. It is named for company founder Arthur Richard Thomas Jenchner. His son, Managing Director Warren Jenchner, observed: “2015 is set to be an exciting year for Apex Lifts, so it’s the perfect time to move to a bigger office space. While the offices are separate from our manufacturing facilities, we’re still keen to show

off what we do at Apex, so we’re installing our own brand of show lift, complete with glass doors and LCD screens, which will also display on our Twitter feed.”

Majority of Sematic Shares Acquired by Carlyle The European division of Washington, D.C.-based assetmanagement firm The Carlyle Group has acquired a majority stake in Italy’s Sematic Elevator Products. Sematic has experienced double-digit revenue growth in recent years and, in 2014, expected to generate sales of EUR150 million (US$183.8 million). The deal was expected to close in the first quarter of 2015, and Sematic is optimistic the partnership will enhance its ability to grow internationally. With more than 1,000 employees and production facilities and sales offices worldwide, Sematic was founded in 1959 by Francesco Zappa and is today run by his sons, Roberto, Marco and Paolo.

AL Hires Operations Development Manager, Launches Website

Amalgamated Lifts Ltd. (AL) of Kent, U.K., has hired Daniel Williamson as Operations Development manager. Williamson has worked within the lift industry around the world in various roles, from manufacturing, export and trade sales to direct end-user sales, over the last 13 years. Most of his experience was on bespoke lift designs. His role at AL is to ensure constant business growth and engage new clients with a unique way of working. He is a part

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www.elevatorworld.com • March 2015


Williamson

of the company’s Senior Management team and supports its Construction Department. Williamson has a degree in International Business, French and Spanish from Aston Business School and has completed a Lift Engineering course from the ITAINNOVA Technological Institute of Aragon, Spain. AL has also launched a new website at www.al-lifts.co.uk. It includes sections for all of AL’s services: lift maintenance, repair, modernization and installation. “Key Personnel” and “Past Projects” sections are also prominent.

Blain Hydraulics Establishes Blain India Pvt. Ltd. Blain Hydraulics of Germany has established Blain India Pvt. Ltd. in Mumbai in an effort to build market share in what it describes as a “promising and developing elevator market” that includes India and the Indian subcontinent. Products will come from Blain’s own warehouse, which will be joined shortly by marketing and service centers. Stated the company: “With ready availability of its products, spare parts and services, Blain India will contribute in expanding hydraulic elevator market share in India in years to come.”

LML Partners with EESF, Hires Consultant LML Lift Consultants Pty. Ltd. has become a sponsor and partner of the Elevator Escalator Safety Foundation (EESF). This

(l-r) Richie Lobert, Dean Morgan and John Lockwood of LML

means LML will host EESF material on its website and promote the organization in its country of operation. The company stated: “As a safety-minded organization, LML sees the benefit in partnering with EESF in order to help spread safety messages and programs to the lift- and escalator-using public in Australia.” LML has also hired Charlie Mastrogiovanni as a senior consultant based at its head office in Melbourne, Australia. Mastrogiovanni has 25 years of experience, including lift installation, servicing and consulting.

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International News

KONE Action Acquisition and high-profile jobs on tap for OEM

Italian Firm MIA Acquired

Liautaud

KONE has acquired Manutenzione Installazione Ascensori SpA (MIA), a company formerly owned by Manutencoop Group, doing business in Italy from 12 locations. MIA provides maintenance, modernization and new-unit sales, and its maintenance arm has grown by 16,000 units since its founding in 2008. MIA employs approximately 160 people. Upon completion of the deal, KONE Executive Vice President and Area Director for West and South Europe and Africa Pierre Liautaud remarked: “This acquisition strengthens KONE’s presence in the fragmented Italian elevator market and brings new opportunities in the challenging business environment of southern Europe.”

57 Units for Paris Law Courts KONE has been hired to provide a vertical-transportation system that includes 49 elevators and eight escalators for the Paris

Law Courts, a new, 160-m-tall complex that will bring the city’s court and police functions under one roof. The order includes a panoramic elevator, along with 37 MonoSpace® and nine MiniSpaceTM elevators, and eight TravelMasterTM escalators. It also includes KONE’s destination-control system. KONE’s temporary elevator JumpLift will be used during construction. Pierre Liautaud, executive vice president and area director for KONE West and South Europe and Africa, stated: “We are very proud to have been selected by Bouygues Construction for this high-rise project, which is sure to become a landmark of the city. By offering our latest energy-efficient equipment, we are helping the customer reach their sustainability goals.”

London Airport Deal KONE has secured a four-year contract to maintain elevators, escalators and moving walks at London’s busy Gatwick Airport. In what the company called “around-the-clock service,” KONE will maintain all the airport’s elevators, escalators and passenger conveyors. It was also appointed Gatwick Airport Ltd.’s modernization partner for associated equipment. KONE’s operational performance at Gatwick is published monthly across the airport. As of December 2014, its equipment availability rate was 99.7%. The facility serves approximately 38 million passengers per year.

The Paris Law Courts building was designed by architect Renzo Piano; ©RPBW L’autre image, Labtop et Lansac

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www.elevatorworld.com • March 2015


Hyundai Motor Plans 100-Plus-Story Skyscraper in Seoul Hyundai Motor Group aims to build an office tower of at least 100 stories on the former Korea Electric Power Corp. site in the Gangnam district of Seoul, The Dong-a Ilbo reported. In December 2014, the automaker was soliciting bids from international architectural firms and pursuing approvals needed to proceed. Should it be built, the tower will be joined by a convention center, automobile theme park, shopping mall and lodging. The office tower would be among the tallest buildings in Seoul.

Sri Lankan Tower an Homage to Cricketers A 96-story, mixed-use tower proposed in Colombo, Sri Lanka, is designed as a tribute to the 1996 cricket team that won the World Cup, World Architecture News reports. Designed by Reza Kabul Architects, its glassy façade resembles four cricket bats with a ball perched on top. Should it be built, 96 Iconic Tower would have 18 escalators connecting a four-level shopping area, along with four lifts for residents and two for staff. It would also contain a top-floor observatory and a cricket museum.

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Turkish Governor Bans Short Elevator Trips Dursun Ali Şahin, governor of Edirne, Turkey, has banned elevator trips of up to three floors for the able bodied in the city’s public and private buildings, various outlets, including the Daily Sabah, reported. Aimed at fighting obesity and having gone into effect on January 1, “Let’s Take the Stairs Instead of the Elevator” exempts elderly and disabled persons. An elevator attendant is to supervise the process in institutional buildings. Şahin is the same lawmaker who has enforced health-oriented rules in the past, such as requiring cafés to serve tea with only one sugar cube, rather than the traditional two.

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International News

Big Contracts for Majors in Australasia Demand fuels sales, ambitious plans in India’s most populous metropolis.

Opulent Condo Tower Planned Bandra Ohm, an opulent, 30-story condominium tower that would have a balcony swimming pool for each of its 100 units, is planned in Mumbai, the Wall Street Journal reports. Designed by James Law Cybertecture of Hong Kong, the building has a remarkable design resembling a perfume bottle with a Fabergé egg in the center. The balcony swimming pool has been seen in cities such as Miami and Kuala Lumpur as developers find ways to make their luxury towers stand out from the competition. Ground is expected to be broken this year on Bandra Ohm.

Strong Demand for Residences in Supertall The Lodha Group, developers of the 117-story, 442-m-tall residential building World One Tower in Mumbai, reports brisk sales during a nine-day booking period in winter 2014, New Delhi TV reports. During that time, approximately US$80 million worth of property was sold. The project was launched in 2010 and is expected to be complete in 2016. It will be among the tallest residential structures in the world. In December 2014, it was approximately 75% complete.

Image from Pie Cobb Freed & Partners

28

www.elevatorworld.com • March 2015

Image courtesy of James Law Cybertecture®


International News

Schindler System for Indonesia’s Tallest Tower Schindler is outfitting what will be Indonesia’s tallest skyscraper, the 330-m-tall, 81-story Thamrin Nine Tower 1 in Jakarta, with a complete vertical-transportation system that includes 32 elevators and 34 escalators. Installation is underway, and the building, which will house offices and a Hilton hotel, is scheduled for completion in 2017. Units being installed include several panoramic, 8-mps elevators, as well as a 280-mT-capacity elevator capable of carrying vehicles up 280 m in less than 2.5 min. The system will utilize Schindler’s PORT destination-control technology and be monitored by Schindler’s Lobby Vision® security system. The elevators are Schindler’s electricity-regenerating 7000 Series. The 5.5-million-sq.-ft. building, part of a larger, mixed-use development, is expected to house up to 25,000 tenants. The vertical-transportation system is expected to serve approximately 6,000 passengers daily.

New Asansör Istanbul Pavilion for March Event The 14th Asansör Istanbul exposition is set for March 26-29 at the Tüyap Fair and Convention Center in Istanbul across approximately 50,000 m2. Among an anticipated record number of international participants at the four-day industry show, there will be a new national pavilion for Italian companies. It will be comprised of some 33 Italian manufacturers and suppliers. Additionally, a group from Germany and approximately 58 companies from China are to have booths. Organizers İFO Fuarcılık and AYSAD (Turkish Lift and Escalator Industry Association) expect an additional 120 exhibitors from Spain, France, the U.K., Greece, India, the U.S., Lebanon, Malta, and Bosnia and Herzegovina. They suggest participants plan to spend at least three days at the show to interact with all the exhibitors. The 2015 edition of the fair is expected to be some 25% larger than the previous (and record) iteration, held in 2013. A total of 500 exhibitors from 30 countries are expected to participate. For more information, visit website: www.asansoristanbul.com.

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International News

New VTIP Contains Updated, Expanded Information The Vertical Transportation Industry Profile (VTIP) 2014 will be available at the Elevator World Bookstore by March 31. It will be approximately 90 pages. It includes new statistics for almost every U.S. state (at least 40 of the 50), Canadian province and European country. New stats are included for, among others, India, China, Japan, Brazil, South Africa, and, for the first time since 2000, many South Asian and Gulf Cooperative Council countries, including Sri Lanka, the U.A.E., Iran and Saudi Arabia. Extensive reports on elevator markets in India, Italy, China and the U.S. will be included, as well. For more information, see website: www.elevatorbooks.com or phone: (251) 479-4514, ext. 19. 

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CTBUH Predicts 2015, Looks Back at 2014 The Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) kicked off the year with news predictions for each month of 2015. Highlights include “New York’s B2 Will Be Back” (the January predication, also covered in ELEVATOR WORLD, November 2014), “Dubai’s Burj 2020 To Get Underway” (the March prediction, also covered in EW, December 2014), “Ping An Finance Center Will Top Out” (the July prediction, also covered in EW, March 2014), “KL118 Foundation Work Completed” (a third-quarter prediction, also covered in EW, September 2014) and “Shanghai Tower Will Complete” (the November prediction, with its record-setting elevators most extensively covered in EW, July 2013). Finally, the council expects China to lead the world in supertallbuilding completions, finishing 13 in the year. In addition to numerous tall buildings EW also covered, ThyssenKrupp’s MULTI (EW, February 2015) was among CTBUH’s choices for top 12 stories of 2014. The full story is available at website: www.ctbuh.org/News/ GlobalTallNews/ WatchOutforTheseTall Happeningsin2015/tabid/6716/ language/en-US/Default.aspx.


In Memoriam

Boeneke

Robert “Bobby� Boeneke

Robert “Bobby� Boeneke, owner of Residential Elevators, died on January 21 at his home in Tallahassee, Florida, after a battle with cancer. He was 50 years old. A former bank executive, Boeneke bought Residential Elevators in 1996 when he was only 32. Today, the company has operations in Crawfordville, Florida;

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www.elevatoru.org

James J. D’Ambrosio

James J. D’Ambrosio of Boston passed away on January 3. He was the retired owner of 3PHASE Elevator Corp. of East Bridgewater, Massachusetts, and an elevator mechanic for more than 40 years. He is survived by his wife, Barbara; children, Karen and Jimmy; sister, Theresa; five grandchildren and one greatgrandchild. A mass was held on January 8. Memorial donations may be made to the American Cancer SocietyŽ, 30 Speen Street, Framingham, Massachusetts 01701, www.cancer.org/donate or the Arthritis Association, 39 Cross Street, Peabody, Massachusetts 01960.

John Steven Wickert

John Steven Wickert of Dover, Delaware, passed away on January 6 at 83 years of age. A native of Staten Island, New York, Wickert was a retired Otis elevator technician who had worked in the original World Trade Center and dozens of other New York City skyscrapers. He is survived by his wife, Helen, and son, John. A funeral mass was held on January 12 in Staten Island. Wickert

George W. “Bill� Porter of Eckhart, Maryland, passed away on December 9, 2014, at the age of 89. Porter enjoyed a 32-year career in the elevator industry, servicing and inspecting elevators for Otis in the Maryland area. He was also a U.S. Navy veteran of World War II, serving in the Pacific Theater. He is survived by his wife of 66 years, Leona Mae “Nonie� Porter; son, Warren; sisters, Mina and Shirley; grandchildren, Jeffrey and Jennifer; stepgranddaughter, Jessica; and four great-grandchildren A service was held at Durst Funeral Home in Frostburg, Maryland.

Cairo, Georgia; and Tallahassee. Counting celebrities among its clients, the company serves customers in 18 states, as well as the District of Columbia and the Bahamas. Boeneke is survived by his wife, Demory, and three sons.

John F. Hilson

John F. Hilson of Holbrook, Massachusetts, passed away on January 2 at the age of 85. Hilson was an elevator mechanic for more than 40 years, most recently for ThyssenKrupp Elevator. He was also a devoted member of the International Union of Elevator Constructors Local No. 4 of Boston, serving on its board and as a delegate to numerous national conventions. Upon retirement, he cofounded and ran elevator mechanic recertification company H&H Providers. Survivors include children Margaret, John, Robert and Marie; seven grandchildren; and two great-grandchildren. A funeral mass was held in Holbrook.   đ&#x;Œ? Hilson

George W. “Bill� Porter


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Focus on Modernization

NYC’s

Beaux Arts Building Gets Renovation of Four Elevators Cab Solutions creates design that synthesizes old and new with clean lines and high-end materials.

36

by John C. King Elevators are intimate spaces – microcosms of the high-rises that they make possible. With so many trades coming together in such close quarters, it is evident with elevators, more so than with any other space, whether a collaboration has been a success or a failure. Our four elevators are at the heart of a building-wide overhaul of a grand Beaux Arts building on New York City (NYC)’s Fifth Avenue. Numerous technical challenges were overcome to present the end user with a design that synthesizes old and new with clean lines and high-end materials. 225 Fifth Avenue is a 12-story high-rise constructed as an office building in 1906. It was recently converted to condominiums, and a newly elected board of directors tenaciously pursued a sophisticated new aesthetic befitting a storied building in a vibrant downtown neighborhood. Rawlins Design was engaged to provide an overall vision for the building’s public spaces, partnering with Cab Solutions to realize four modernized elevators. An existing gold, black and beige terrazzo floor in the lobby informed the palette of textured and smooth bronze, black granite, antique mirror and synthetic backlit onyx panels. The design is a composition of low-maintenance panels that belie the complex engineering behind it. Bronze, onyx, granite and mirror are heavy materials. However, by utilizing synthetic onyx panels, super-thin granite slabs and metal-laminate ceiling panels, the net change in weight between the new and

www.elevatorworld.com • March 2015


Opposite page: old cabs totaled only 22 lb. Rebalancing was, therefore, unnecessary, and critical funds were saved for the Forms+Surfaces Virtual visible aspects of the design. Quarry and LightPlane Exhaustive attention was paid to the three-part lighting design. The most dramatic of these is a Panels were used on each side of an antique mirror. continuous LED array providing warm and back lighting for the synthetic onyx panels. Soft soffit lighting washes over the textured bronze panels, as recessed LED clusters illuminate the center of the cabs. Below (clockwise from Professionalism, ingenuity and mutual respect make for a refreshingly serene end product of a project top left): • Before beset with technical, budget, permit and timing challenges. • After Cambridge Architectural brass mesh, which is used to face the side-wall and lower rear-wall panels, • Adams Elevator installed was picked as a tie-in to the recently renovated building lobby. Aluminum honeycomb was used to back new bronze handrails. the mesh, and Z-bars were used to attach the panels to the cab shell. The antique mirror, featured on the rear wall of each cab, is intended to complement the grand mirror found in the main lobby. The initial design concept included an oval-shaped drop ceiling made of glowing stone. After investigating the challenges of having this ceiling appear to float within the cab, it was decided to move the concept to the upper rear wall. Forms+Surfaces Virtual Quarry and LightPlane Panels are used on each Professionalism, ingenuity and mutual side of the antique mirror. The onyx patterns were selected, cropped and respect make for a refreshingly serene integrated into LED backlit panels, resulting in an authentic stone appearance within each cab. Finally, the LightPlanes were installed with a end product of a project beset with convenient quick-connector accessible from within the cab to enable easy technical, budget, permit and timing Continued maintenance should the light grid fail.

challenges.

March 2015 • ELEVATOR WORLD

37


Man-D-Tec’s Trifecta LED downlights provide soft cab lighting, and its IlluminatorÂŽ LED strips along the outside edge of the side walls help remove the ubiquitous curved shadows cast on the top of elevator panels. The rear wall, however, was left without this additional soffit lighting to allow the LED backlit glass panels to achieve an unobstructed, warmer glow. All cab illumination was fitted with dimmers to enable easy adjustments. The flooring includes a carpet insert and granite border. Surfacing Products International’s Soterra’s Thin-Slab granite represented a lightweight, low-profile, flexible product for the elevator cab border. Duravator carpet was picked for the inserts. The floor was designed for and furnished with removable carpet for easy cleaning or replacement. Weight concerns were addressed early. Although the old cab interiors were heavy, the preliminary design considered for the new interiors was even heavier. It became very important to accurately estimate these two in order to minimize the net weight change. An initial load balance test confirmed our starting point, and engineering was revisited to fabricate lighter-weight panels. Although guesswork until the demonstration was complete, our estimates turned out to be nearly spot on. 1145 lb. was removed from the first cab, versus an estimated 1160 lb., and 1167 lb. was added, for a net weight change of only 22 lb. This minimal weight change avoided the need to rebalance the cabs. Capital budgets, always tight for aesthetics, were defined early as well. With a detailed and disciplined approach, the project remained on budget. The efforts to avoid the cost of a potential rebalancing paid off and allowed more of the project’s budget (which did not have to be adjusted) to go to the cab finishes and lighting. Given the variety of materials used within the cabs to face the wall panels, there was a need to bring it all together wherever possible. It was decided to create custom bronze framing, including the capping of the Forms+Surfaces LightPlane panels. The additional thickness required the balance of the rear wall panels to be packed out accordingly to create a consistent surface plane. The drop ceiling was faced in Wilsonart’s bronze-colored laminate (rather than bronze) to reduce cost and added weight. The bronze front-return walls, jambs and transoms were in poor condition and needed to be re-clad. Signature Metal was able to refinish the existing cab doors and soffits. New bronze handrails from Adams Elevator (Lustre Products) were installed on the rear John C. King, LEED AP BD+C, is cofounder of and side walls. The toe kicks and reveals were also replaced. The Cab Solutions, LLC. Prior result is a uniform, bronze color scheme throughout the cab to forming Cab interiors. Solutions, King worked The initial schedule for the fabrication and installation was for Fortress Investment aggressive. In the end, the project deadlines were met, but not Group in NYC where he without some hiccups. The permitting/inspection process was chief financial officer represented one of these challenges. Given the sheer volume of of the Drawbridge Man-D-Tec’s Trifecta LED downlights provide Funds. Prior to Fortress, projects working their way through NYC permitting and soft cab lighting. he was executive vice inspections at any given time, things can get backed up. In our president of Brickman case, that delay became prohibitive. PS Marcato Elevator was Group. King began his instrumental in working to expedite the process, allowing the execution of the career at Goldman Sachs installations to proceed and the disruption of service for building tenants to be in NYC, where he was a minimized. founding member of its Any project with a large, eclectic team and many moving parts runs the risk structured finance of missing deadlines and blowing budgets, or alternatively, compromising the group. He received a BS in Business & Economics end product. 225 Fifth Avenue’s elevator cab renovation represents the from Lehigh University. exception, and as such, is a testament to the power of working together to đ&#x;Œ? achieve an excellent result.  

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Focus on Modernization

Elevator Modernization Stuffing 2,500 lb. of elevator into a 1,500-lb. shaft by Ralph M. Newman

An example of a cab-interior panel upgrade – the “Nolita” model from Columbia’s XChangaCab® modernization line

Blaiotta, Jr.

In today’s elevator-industry vernacular, the term “modernization” can be taken a number of ways. Immediately apparent to the eye – and relatively easy on the budget – is an upgrade of cab and entrance aesthetics, which, for property owners, delivers a number of positives. Compelling new lobby and cab designs can add significant value to the property, help owners and managers compete with recently constructed buildings for new tenants, encourage the retention of current occupants and make the ride much more enjoyable for their visitors, the day-to-day passengers. Such upgrades can also help make a property become “greener” and qualify for Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design points. But, as it relates to elevators, the term “modernization” has implications far beyond the aesthetic and environmental, notably in the areas of functionality, safety and code compliance. While many updates are elective and optional, some may be required, depending on conditions. L.J. Blaiotta, Jr., president of Columbia Elevator Products, explains: “For example, legacy equipment may fall victim to age and cease to be viable. The equipment may not be compliant with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and/or current code. Replacement parts may be difficult – if not impossible – to obtain. Car calls may become unacceptably slow, and passenger convenience, not to mention safety, Continued

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www.elevatorworld.com • March 2015

Architectural door treatment, an example of the type of entrance upgrade that can be created as part of a modernization. Such new looks can add significant value to a property.


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A typical post-World War II elevator swing-door installation, which, as part of a modernization, can be replaced with a fully automatic, InWall pocket-door entrance.

Blaiotta, Sr.

may be at risk. In these situations, updated equipment actually may be mandated by current safety standards and compliance with federal, state and local codes.” Beyond the simply cosmetic, intermediate modification efforts were targeted toward improving the service of the elevator, including upgrade from manually operated to power-operated doors, new car-operating panels (COPs) and other evolutionary developments. “But,” says Lou Blaiotta, Sr., Columbia’s founder and chairman, “here we will focus on full modification, involving replacement of the entire elevator system, including the drive equipment, reusing only the existing hoistway and rails.” According to Blaiotta, Sr., ideal candidates for such full modernizations are the single-speed AC traction elevators, of which many thousands remain in operation today (10,000 in New York City alone). Emerging in popularity during the post-World War II period, these were installed as upgrades of earlier, prevalent DC systems when the

A typical post-World War II four-to-six-story apartment building, equipped with an AC traction elevator and, as a secondary mode of egress, exterior fire escapes: such installations are ideal candidates for dual-roped hydraulicelevator modernizations.

municipal trolley grids by which they were powered were converted to AC. As Blaiotta, Sr. explains: “With the return home of massive numbers of military personnel, an urgent need developed for housing this instantly expanded population and the growing families. Suburban development exploded, and inner cities saw the conversion of tenement walkups to four-to-six-story apartment buildings and the new construction of high-rise developments. Municipalities hurriedly legislated and approved semi-fireproof construction of these buildings, provided they included secondary avenues of egress, such as fire-rated stairs and the fire escapes that came to visually emblemize the cities of the time. To encourage such construction, municipalities provided financial incentives, including low-interest loans, extended mortgage terms, power-rate concessions and federal/state tax deductibles – an example of all this was the Mitchell-Lama Law in New York State, with similar programs implemented elsewhere.” Having been in place for 50 or more years, many of these remaining AC traction systems are not code compliant, frequently Continued

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Been there. Done that.

Canton Elevator: all you have to know about hydraulic elevators. Sometimes a project needs some special “know how” to keep it on schedule and problem-free. That’s when you want to give us a call. We’ll respond with solutions and choices molded from decades of engineering and manufacturing experience few can match. Whether for passenger, freight or hospital application, a Canton Elevator System provides much more than hardware. Built into every holed or holeless

unit is an important intangible — field awareness. It’s the prime factor you need to be free of installation hassles, stay on schedule and, most important, be profitable. Today, “been there...done that” speaks volumes in an industry so oriented to safety, quality and performance. Calling Canton Elevator means you won’t have to sweat the details. We’ve done that.

2575 GREENSBURG ROAD • NORTH CANTON, OHIO 44720 PHONE 330-833-3600 • FAX 330-833-0229 • E-Mail info@CantonElevator.com • www.CantonElevator.com


A plan elevation view of an AC traction elevator system with counterweight and cables occupying space behind the car: note that the cab is too small to accommodate a stretcher or comply with minimum ADA requirements for inside cab dimensions.

A post-modernization view of a dual-roped hydraulic upgrade featuring a fully automatic door system: note that due to the elimination of the counterweight and cables, the cab has become sufficiently larger to accommodate a stretcher, is now ADA compliant and qualifies for a higher weight rating.

out of service, constantly in need of expensive repairs and, generally, a bane to landlords and their severely inconvenienced tenants. Many of these elevators may have been subject to partial modernizations – replacement here and there of machines, doors, interlocks, controllers and fixtures updates – but remain lacking in the fundamental areas of safety, accessibility and code compliance. Many older structures did not have the available square footage to allow for installation of an ADA-compliant cab

(sufficiently large to accommodate a stretcher, etc.), presenting a severe obstacle to operating a viable building in today’s environment. This created the need to develop a much more far-reaching level of upgrade – a way to install largerplatform cabs in existing, limited-size hoistways. Since it was not possible to enlarge the car by making it wider, this left only the option of making it deeper from front to back. Blaiotta, Sr. explains:

“At Columbia, we innovated a number of ways to accomplish this. For openers, on the front end, we moved the sliding doors into the wall, Columbia’s so-called ‘InWall pocket-door solution,’ to free up several inches of space. We used linear operators, such as our ALURE® system, to offset the doors and position them directly at the edge of the sill for a savings of 2 in. or so of clutch space. But, the major space savings was achieved by replacing the AC traction system with hydraulically operated pistons positioned at the sides of the car in the space already occupied by the rails, thereby eliminating the counterweight and cables behind the car. This 10 in. of saved space, combined with the space saved by our overhead car front and InWall doors, allows for a cab that is 15 in. deeper or more, ADA compliant, higher weight rated, able to carry more passengers and better able to serve the building.” With Elevator Equipment Corp. (EECO) as its fabricating partner, Columbia developed a breakthrough solution based on certain realities. In new construction, when starting from scratch, a single jack in its entirety can simply be planted in the ground. But, in existing, older buildings, for many reasons, one would rather not be digging holes, meaning that a “hole-less” solution needed to be found. One such method was to mount a telescopic piston structure that expanded upward, similar in appearance to classic automobile antennas, at ground level. But, in buildings four to six stories tall, the overall height of the hoistway would most likely have to increase. The ultimate answer was a dual-roped hydraulic system that overcame these negatives. As Daryl Frith, national sales manager of EECO, explains: “Instead of pushing the car up from beneath, each of the two (much smaller) pistons push up a sheave assembly traveling atop the moving piston, with a wire rope configuration that allows the elevator to move at a 1:2 ratio. Each of the multiple wire ropes (per side) runs through one of the sheave’s grooves and is anchored at one end to the hitch plate on the jack cylinder and, on the other end, to the bolster assembly beneath the car. So, Continued

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Frith

for every 1 in. the piston pushes its sheave upward, the result is 2 in. of upward travel of the car, in a very power-efficient manner. And, the pistons/jacks reside in the preexisting 8-10 in. space on each side of the car, adjacent to the rails, consuming no additional space of their own, thereby allowing for a larger platform. To summarize – by utilizing an existing fireproof hoistway, removing the overhead or basement AC traction machine and its counterweight assemblies, removing existing swing doors and installing InWall pocket doors and an overhead car front, relocating the 4-in.-deep COP from the front return panel to the side wall to protrude into the existing rail space and installing a dual-roped hydraulic system and enlarging the platform. The result is a larger, fully automatic, handicapped-accessible elevator. Capacity is increased from 1500-1800 lb. to 2100-2500 lb. – effectively, a conversion from limited-use/limited-application-sized to full sized.” The upsides of such full modernizations are many. From an ecological point of view, installing oil-operated jacks in the ground is avoided. Roofs, which must be opened for the project, can, in the process of reconstruction, be fashioned into green, hangout spaces, taking advantage of the additional area made available by elimination of the penthouse machine room. For tenants, it means a better, more contemporary building, less inconvenience due to elevator downtime; a faster, smoother ride devoid of flying stops; and not needing to consider moving to a newer, more expensive property. For building owners, the advantages represent significant economic value. “Roped hydro systems are much more energy efficient than traction,” explains Blaiotta, Sr., continuing: “Cranes can be shorter, and crane rental time is reduced by the easy drop-in of the jacks through the hole created by reducing the size of the rooftop machine room. Financial institutions are more willing to fund such major upgrades, as opposed to smaller cosmetic projects, especially in light of consequently available rent increases under rent-control guidelines and more profitable operation enabled by tax depreciation allowances and interest payment deductibles.” “Bottom line,” concludes Blaiotta, Jr., “such modernizations are a win/win/win all around – for those who own the buildings, those who inhabit them and for us all sharing the environment. And, for the owners, the economic benefits can be such that it literally pays to be modern!”

An example of an ALURE® InWall “pocket entrance,” where an automatic sliding door arrangement is used to replace a manual swing-door entrance. Note that the entire assembly fits inside the depth of the wall and requires no hoistway space. The sliding doors open behind the stationary panel, while the door track and hangers mount behind the transom panel.

Ralph M. Newman has written for ELEVATOR WORLD over the years and is a freelance writer with extensive experience in the elevator industry. Newman is a partner in Dott Communications, an Internet development company and advertising agency with several clients in the field. A 3D model of a dual-roped hydraulic package by EECO showing the jacks and pistons occupying the previously dead space adjacent to the rails (image courtesy of EECO).

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Focus on Modernization

Premier Place, Dallas Classy office tower’s nine elevator cabins get timeless redesign. by Susan Flyzik Considered a landmark office building in Dallas, Premier Place is a distinctive 20-story reflective-glass tower with 395,900 sq. ft. of premium office space and stunning views of Southern Methodist University, downtown Dallas, North Dallas, and Park Cities. Eklund’s, Inc. had the opportunity to work with Premier Place’s property manager and architect to renovate the property’s nine outdated stone and wooden cabs, bringing the building’s verticaltransportation aesthetics up to par with its grandeur. Modern and sophisticated, the cab’s back wall is divided into four horizontal sections of quartered fiddleback Makore wood veneer. An eye-catching, vertical “Absolute Black” polished granite accent panel is centered on the back wall, resting between the wooden panels on either side. All finishes are enclosed by simple 4-ga. stainless-steel bar binder. Moving to the side walls, the horizontal panels above the handrail are clean, low-iron, white back-painted glass. The fiddleback Makore veneer is brought back in below the handrail to coordinate with the back wall. The base, frieze, reveals, handrail and handrail backer are all 4-ga. stainless steel, a Continued

Eklund’s, Inc. had the opportunity to work with Premier Place’s property manager and architect to renovate the property’s nine outdated stone and wooden cabs, bringing the building’s vertical-transportation aesthetics up to par with its grandeur. 48

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Premier Place


A detail of a cab’s ceiling

popular choice in elevator cab design. The island ceiling, also 4-ga. stainless steel, is composed of six sections, each housing a recessed LED downlight. Concealed LED perimeter lighting was installed on the ceiling to give it a welcoming glow around the edge. We were so pleased with this design that we decided to add a similar one to our standard product line. It appears as a choice in our StreamLine Cab Design Studio (p. 152). Susan Flyzik is director of Marketing at Eklund’s, Inc., a total elevator cab solutions provider based in Southlake, Texas.

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levator ride quality is a first indicator of the quality of design, installation and service. The EVA-625 has become the International Standard for the absolute measure and analysis of ride quality and vibration & sound. The EVA system includes powerful analytical software tools to fully analyze all aspects of the elevator mechanical and control system. The highly accurate response of the EVA system, and the powerful analysis capabilities offered by the EVA Elevator/Escalator Analysis Tools software, allows rapid identification of problem areas so that corrective actions can be targeted quickly and precisely. The EVA EVA-625 system uniquely provides the ability to measure the vibration and sound that people feel and hear, yet allows analysis of the broad-band vibration and sound that is the result of the function of all dynamic aspects of the elevator system. Problems with roller guides, rail joints, motor control systems, and other dynamic elements can be identified in minutes. Quality of installation and service can be improved dramatically. The EVA system and accessories are designed to be robust and easy to operate. The system includes high resolution sensors and data acquisition system, all necessary cables, one year warranty and the industry standard EVA Elevator/Escalator Analysis Tools software, all at very low cost.

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Rise Above

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Focus on Modernization

Innovative Escalator Modernization

at Sants Station ThyssenKrupp Elevadores installs first iMods in Europe. by Begoña Flores Canseco Approximately seven years ago, ThyssenKrupp Elevadores, Spain began working with the Transports Metropolitans Barcelona (TMB) on a project to replace 56 old escalators at Sants Station, the main intermodal transit station in Barcelona. With an annual passenger volume of close to 30 million, Sants Station connects to several Barcelona metro, national railway (Renfe Operadora), high-speed train (AVE) and long-distance coach stations. Unfortunately, Line 5 of the Barcelona metro presented a problem that stymied this project: Sants’ number one escalator, nicknamed “Revenge,” was extremely difficult to Continued

Clockwise from top: • Sants Station is one of the busiest in Spain. • The “Revenge” • Old structure • New structure

March 2015 • ELEVATOR WORLD

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Bottom left: iMod in ThyssenKrupp Norte factory Below, top to bottom: • The upper and lower modules are installed. • New escalators

Process of Assembling an iMod

1) The old escalator is completely scrapped, keeping only the structure. 2) The existing structure is repaired, cleaned and painted. 3) The structure is officially approved to ensure it will withstand the loads to which it will be subjected. 4) The upper and lower modules, which are the largest parts of the assembly, are installed. 5) Intermediate elements are fitted. 6) Installation of mechanical and electrical components are completed. 7) Stainless-steel cladding is placed. 8) Performance tests are done to give the final OK.

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access, because it was sandwiched between two walls. It was, accordingly, excluded from the initial project. But, then, ThyssenKrupp Norte launched the iMod escalator model. Having been successfully used on reference jobs in the U.S., the iMod is ideal for remodeling inaccessible escalators due to architectural constraints that make it difficult to install conventional 6-m-long


Specifications

Model: iMod Tugela Slope: 5.75 m Step width: 1,000 mm Inclination: 30° Speed: 0.5 mps Cladding: Stainless steel Paint: Anti slip (on plates and steps) Energy efficiency: Variable-frequency drive, radar-operated automatic start and platform system for people detection Other features: Oversized motor, main drive, rotary tension unit and step chain for high traffic; double-skirting board brushes; balustrade protection; video-surveillance system; remote control Arts Hotel renovation, urban accessibility

Above: Intermediate elements are fitted.

in Santa Coloma and Portugalete, Girona and AVE – to name just a few of the latest examples. Besides the usual difficulties, the work environment further complicated this project. Since Sants Station is very busy, TMB only allowed ThyssenKrupp Elevadores to work in shifts of six hours at night during the summer season. However, the installation went as planned, made possible due to the fact that ThyssenKrupp Elevadores has personnel specializing in unique installations, as well as its own factory in Spain. The project was concluded on April 11, 2014, when the iMods were put into operation. These are the first of their kind in

sections. It overcomes this obstacle by installing modules manufactured to fit the existing escalator structure. With this technology in its arsenal, ThyssenKrupp Elevadores would have its own revenge four years after the initial project. The company revisited the project with TMB, and a plan for seven escalators was drafted. Despite economic difficulties, Barcelona Metro decided to call for tenders

on the works, and a contract was signed to install three iMods in the Sants Station on Line 5 of the metro. Project manager Javier Mur Ruiz de Mendoza oversaw the modernization of the iMods at Sants Station. He has been leading some of the most challenging projects ThyssenKrupp Elevadores has faced in the past seven years: Intxaurrondo Station, L1-L4-L5-L9 Metro Barcelona, the

Europe, and this is the first time ThyssenKrupp Elevadores has used this method for the complete remodeling of an escalator.

Begoña Flores Canesco is Communications Manager at the Communications Department at ThyssenKrupp Elevator Southern Europe, Africa and Middle East. March 2015 • ELEVATOR WORLD

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Continuing Education

Integrated Circuits The history, application and maintenance of these important microelectronics components are explored.

Learning Objectives

occupying a common substrate. The goal was to miniaturize the After reading this article, you should have learned about: previously clunky hearing aid. The ♦♦ The emergence of IC technology DC device, as conceived at that ♦♦ How Moore’s Law affects IC development time, did not go into production, but ♦♦ Limits to IC development the underlying idea became part of ♦♦ The importance of differential amplifiers in IC applications the intellectual underpinning that ♦♦ How to troubleshoot and repair ICs in elevator controllers made further developments possible. In 1952, Geoffrey Dummer, a by David Herres radar scientist at the British Ministry of Defense Royal Radar In the microelectronics continuum, Establishment, wrote a paper that laid out the integrated circuits (ICs) are probably close to basic idea of the IC, but he was unable to their midpoint of development. They have actually build the device. In mid 1958, a major progressed far since their inception around the breakthrough was achieved by Jack Kirby, middle of the last century, but for the “smaller is working for Texas Instruments. He proposed the better” theory, there is no endpoint in sight. To IC as we know it, and later that year, he built the begin this survey, we will peer back into the past first working model of it. Kirby’s device was built to see how IC technology emerged from a more on a germanium substrate. Less than a year later, primitive semiconductor environment. Robert Royce designed a chip with a silicon Naturally, the most primitive of these precursor substrate. It was produced by Fairchild devices were diodes (ELEVATOR WORLD, Semiconductor and represented a substantial August 2014), because only a single junction was step forward. involved. IC development in the years that followed The device performed better than the was characterized by the capability to place an old-world diode vacuum tube, and as ever-increasing number of transistors on a single increasingly refined production methods chip. “Small-scale integration” is the term given emerged, the cost to the end user fell sharply. for the first stage in this progression. It refers to Simultaneously, a two-junction device with the technology that prevailed in the early years, three leads appeared. The transistor made when the number of transistors that could be tubeless radios possible, and TVs became far integrated on a single substrate was fewer than more compact and energy efficient. This was the 100. These chips constituted the electronic underlying situation when IC technology, very brains for the Minuteman Missile and Apollo limited and tentative in form by today’s programs, in which weight was at a premium. standards, first appeared. Successive chip densities were “mediumIn 1949, a Siemens engineer, Werner Jacobi, scale integration,” “large-scale integration,” filed a patent for an important IC precursor: a “very-large-scale integration” and “ultra-largethree-stage amplifier, the five transistors

Value: 1 contact hour (0.1 CEU) Approved for Continuing Education by NAEC for CET® and CAT®.

Continued

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scale integration.” The boundaries between these levels are not meaningful in any definitive sense, except to suggest what can only be described as an explosion in our capability to create huge numbers of digital logic gates in increasingly smaller packages. This progress is described by Moore’s Law, which states that the number of transistors we can place in a single chip doubles every two years, or, in another version, every 18 months. While an accurate description of the current state of integration, this statement (which is more an observation than an actual law) is somewhat fanciful, because it suggests that before long, there will be more devices in the densest microchips than there are elementary particles in our universe. Notwithstanding, the level of integration that has been achieved is astounding. Currently, single ICs are being manufactured that

contain devices numbering in the tens of billions. This fact has been made possible by the development of complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. This technology refers not to a single device, but to a circuit composed, in its most basic form, of two metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs), a P-type and an N-type, connected in series with respect to the applied bias (EW, October 2014). Since one of them is off while the other is on, there is no current flow, except very briefly during transitions. Consequently, there is minimal heat generation, even in the dense configurations in VLSI and beyond. Without CMOS, there would be no International Space Station as we know it. There are other “brick walls” that may neutralize Moore’s Law, perhaps hindering our ability to migrate beyond this temporally finite solar system. For one thing, miniaturization can only go so far before theoretical, practical and economic limits are approached. The latest thinking seems to be that Moore’s Law will evolve. It is becoming apparent that circuits the size of single molecules are feasible thanks to the use of nanomaterials. These are metals, ceramics and polymeric materials that resemble living organisms, because they have the capability of designing and replicating themselves. The value of this miniaturization goes far beyond just the idea of creating increasingly compact consumer devices, although that is one benefit. Smaller chips with greater circuit density means the connecting media traces required for internal wiring become shorter and thinner, vastly increasing the speed of the device and reducing cost. A theorized material called stanene, composed of a one-atom-thick sheet of tin, could act much like a room-temperature superconductor.[1] This and other innovations stand to pave the way for higher-performance ICs. Like most other semiconductors, ICs are constructed using planar processes on microcrystalline silicon wafers. The essential stages are thin film, lithography, etching and doping. To begin, SiO2 and polycrystalline films are bonded to the silicon substrate. The next layer is a photo-resistive or light-sensitive layer exposed to light through a mask. The product is next placed into a developer, causing the areas that had been exposed to light to dissolve. This leaves the areas that had not been exposed to light intact. Lithography consists of duplicating the mask pattern at the photoresist level, which becomes the mask for the etching process. The photoresist layer is then eliminated by the application of suitable chemicals, Continued

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readying the semiconductor material for doping. In this process, very slight amounts of specific impurities are added. At the P-N junctions, charge carriers, electrons and holes, are available so that conduction can take place when needed and not take place when not needed, in response to the amount and polarity of the applied bias. Doping is a subtle undertaking. Typically, a gas is passed over the substrate for a period of less than 12 hours. Depending upon the desired electronic properties, doping will be light or heavy. For light doping, the concentration is on the order of one atom of the impurity per 100 million atoms of the P- or N-type material, while for heavy doping, the ratio is 1:10,000. These very slight concentrations convert uninteresting slabs of fused beach sand into the building blocks for intelligent machines. The workflow described above is repeated as needed to build the IC on its substrate. More than 600 steps may be required to manufacture a typical IC. At any stage, an errant speck of dust or inaccurate temperature, timing or alignment can invalidate the entire process. Therefore, extensive testing is needed at each step. Testing can account for up to 25% of production costs. Because billions of transistors may inhabit a single chip, it is obvious that no single individual (nor even a working committee) could understand the architecture in all its complexity. For this reason, the design phase of these miraculous entities has become largely automated. IC design theory differs, depending upon whether the chip is digital or analog. Examples of digital components are randomaccess memory, read-only memory, flash computer memories, field-programmable gate arrays and all sorts of application-specific integrated circuits. Examples of analog ICs are operational amplifiers (opamps), lineal regulators, phase-locked loops, oscillators and active filters. Since signal fidelity in analog ICs is the focus (in contrast to the up or down digitals), analog devices are usually larger with less circuit density. Accordingly, the design goals and procedures differ sharply. Electronic design automation (EDA) refers to numerous software tools that work for both printed circuit boards (PCBs) and ICs. The goal is to thoroughly simulate and test ICs prior to manufacture. As semiconductor technology has evolved to a point where immense numbers of devices are packed into ever-smaller ICs, EDA has become the only viable means for meeting the design goals, which are numerous. After circuitry has been designed, simulated, tested and verified, engineers move on to the physical design. Here, again, complexities abound. Gross structural arrangement is first on the agenda. Registertransfer level (RTL) analysis applies to the flow of signals between registers, which are assigned to locations inside the IC. Cores and arrays are assigned, and input/output pins are determined. Then, a netlist (a list of all the component terminals that should be electrically connected for the circuit to work) of required gates is generated. Clocks are added for timing the workflow, and wiring is connected. (All of this is on a conceptual level, and the plan is to create a finished design that works prior to physical implementation.) Following satisfactory completion and verification, it is necessary to step back and ascertain whether the Continued

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Figure 1: ICs come in numerous packages with standardized pin spacings. They can be mounted on a circuit board or inserted into IC sockets (graphic courtesy of Mouser Electronics).

chip, so conceived, can actually be manufactured. Electrical, physical and economic goals must be considered before the IC can go into production. Choice of packaging is critical during the design process so that the chip will function properly within the contexts of various types of electronic equipment contemplated. A good knowledge of IC packaging is also important for technicians who intend to troubleshoot and repair the machines. IC packages have been ceramic or metal in the past, but now, plastic prevails. Each type of package is designated by a letter or letter/number combination. The packages are various sizes and shapes with different numbers and configurations of pins. Inside the package is the chip proper, known as the die, with terminations far too small to be hand soldered. (Also, the heat would instantly fry the sensitive chip.) Attached to the die are gold-plated leads that are, in turn, connected to the conductive pins outside the package. These can be soldered, but care must be taken to prevent heat or static electricity from traveling into the semiconductor material. Unless overcome by curiosity, technicians will not have occasion to break open these packages, since the chip is not repairable. The pins serve two purposes: to physically mount the chip and to connect it electrically to the outside world. Of course, the pins have to be installed correctly. Many semiconductors are incinerated if the power-supply polarity is inadvertently reversed, although a blocking diode or protective fusing can sometimes prevent damage. ICs usually have a dot and/or notch at some point along their perimeter. This marks the spot where pin numbering begins, starting with one and proceeding in a counterclockwise direction looking down at the top of the IC. The pin connections are identified by number in the manufacturer’s datasheet, available as a free download on the Internet. Additionally, there are archival sites, on which datasheets for obsolete or out-of-production ICs can be found.

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These chips are available in two categories, based on how they mount on the circuit board. Through-hole packages are larger and more user friendly if the device needs to be replaced or taken out of circuit for testing purposes: simply insert the pins through the holes in the board, flip it over and solder on the back side, then snip off the excess. Surface-mounted packages are very small and more difficult to replace or remove for testing. They are positioned on one side of the board and soldered in place. Special tools and techniques are required. Although the very basic 555 IC is known as a “timer,” it is capable of performing other functions, as well. Besides providing time delays of various durations and intervals (together comprising the duty cycle), the 555 can work as an oscillator, flip-flop device, make a push-button switch bounce free and function as a sensor, among numerous other applications, by means of external circuitry. Most equipment with a blinking LED, such as many telephones and printers, utilize 555 ICs. These circuits, along with accompanying LEDs and resistor-capacitor (RC) networks, can be harvested from retired units, but with 555s priced at less than US$1, this is hardly worth the effort. Signetics (later acquired by Philips) introduced the 555 in 1971. It is now made by numerous manufacturers with some internal variation and slightly differing operating characteristics and part numbers but identical pinouts. With small variations, the 555 contains a mere 25 transistors, 15 resistors and two diodes. It is available in an eight-pin dual in-line package. There are other versions, such as the 556, which consists of a single chip containing two 555s in a 14-pin dual in-line package. Other variations are the 558 and 559, consisting of 16-pin dual in-line packages containing four 555s. CMOS technology is invoked to create the low-power TLC 555. The standard eight-pin 555 in a dual in-line package illustrates the simplicity and multiple functions of this remarkable device. As always, pins are numbered consecutively from the dot/notch, beginning with pin 1 and proceeding counter-clockwise: ♦♦ Pin 1, GROUND: Provides the low-level reference ♦♦ Pin 2, TRIGGER: A timing interval begins, and pin 3, OUT, goes high when this input drops below half of the voltage applied to pin 5, CONTROL. ♦♦ Pin 3, OUT: This output goes 1.7 V below Pin 1, GROUND, when triggered. ♦♦ Pin 4, RESET: The timing interval resets when this input is connected to pin 1, GROUND. ♦♦ Pin 5, CONTROL: Varies the timing of the RC network ♦♦ Pin 6, THRESHOLD: Detects two-thirds of rail voltage, making OUTPUT low if pin 6, TRIGGER, is high. ♦♦ Pin 7, DISCHARGE: Becomes low when Pin 6, THRESHOLD, sees two-thirds of rail voltage. ♦♦ Pin 8, SUPPLY: Must be connected to the positive supply voltage for the IC to work: acceptable range is 4.5-15 VDC. For digital applications, use +5 VDC. The 555 has three operating modes: monostable, astable (free running) and bistable (Schmitt trigger). In the monostable mode, the 555 is a one-shot pulse generator. When the trigger pin sees a voltage less than one-third the supply voltage, the pulse begins.


The duration depends upon the values of the resistor and capacitor in the RC network. After this single pulse, the IC remains dormant until it is retriggered. In the astable mode, the 555 becomes an oscillator. At slow speeds, it can cause an LED to flash, or it can function as a logic clock. It can also be used to create audible tones. In the bistable mode, the 555 becomes a flip-flop. Pin 7, DISCHARGE, is not connected, and the external capacitor is not present. An important application is the bounce-free switch, made possible by the latching action of the 555, operating in its bistable mode. Due to its simplicity, tolerance of a wide range of supply voltages, multiplicity of applications and low cost, the 555 is a good introduction to the world of ICs. With a low pin count, equipment in which it is used is easy to troubleshoot and repair. Somewhat more expertise is required in dealing with the opamp, but because of its frequent occurrence, it should be part of technicians’ knowledge base. Early analog computers containing opamps consisted of huge arrays of vacuum tubes with high-voltage power supplies. There was lots of heat to be dissipated, and the dedicated space for doing this was substantial, so the machines were mostly seen in universities and large research facilities. Today, with solid-state electronics and the ubiquitous IC, opamps are common enough to be found in almost every home. They also figure prominently in heavy commercial and industrial equipment. Because of their wide usage, they are worth a close look.

Figure 2: The opamp has two inputs of opposite polarity. The output is based upon the difference of the inputs.

The opamp is one (but not the only) type of differential amplifier. It resembles the fully differential amplifier, which differs by having two outputs. The opamp has one output and two inputs. The inputs are V+ and V-, so one is the inverse of the other. The IC, due to internal circuitry, amplifies only the difference in voltage between the two. The degree of amplification conforms to this formula: VOUT = AOL (V+ - V-) where VOUT is output voltage, V+ is non-inverting input, V-is inverting input, and AOL is open-loop gain.

Continued


Figure 3: The open-loop opamp, with no feedback, has enormous amplification (graphic courtesy of Wikipedia).

The open-loop gain is relevant in cases where there is no feedback connection between output and input. Because of the enormous gain of an opamp in the open-loop mode (often around 100,000), the degree of amplification is phenomenal. But, the real advantage of this IC is seen when it is operated in the closed-loop mode. Here, the amplification is much less, given by this equation: VOUT = VIN (1 + Rf/Rg) where Rf and Rg are the values shown in Figure 4.

appearance, or it will be abnormally hot. More likely, there will be no indication by outward appearance. If cost is not a factor and the focus is getting the equipment up and running quickly, the repair may consist of replacing an entire circuit board. The problem with this solution is that individual boards can be very expensive, and a complete backup inventory would be quite large. To a certain extent, it is possible to test an IC using a multimeter, especially if it has the “diode test” function. This procedure is helpful but not definitive. In it, the technician would consult the manufacturer’s datasheet and see where continuity should and should not be expected. If all pins are shorted out to the substrate, the IC is bad. There should never be a short between power and ground. Frequently, the manufacturer’s datasheet contains a schematic of a test circuit that can be built to test the IC on a go, no-go basis. A good plan would be to replace the defective circuit board, then take it back to the shop and replace the defective IC so a spare board is on hand for future use.

References [1] Charles Q. Choi. “Could Atomically Thin Tin Transform Electronics?” Scientific American, December 4, 2013 (www.scientificamerican.com/ article/could-atomically-thin-tin-transform-electronics).

Learning-Reinforcement Questions Use the below learning-reinforcement questions to study for the Continuing Education Assessment Exam available online at www.elevatorbooks.com or on p. 149 of this issue. ♦♦ Who built the first working IC? ♦♦ What is small-scale integration? ♦♦ What does Moore’s Law state? ♦♦ What does “CMOS” mean? ♦♦ How is lithography used in manufacturing ICs?

Figure 4: The closed-loop opamp is created by adding a feedback line from the output to the inverting input. Rf and Rg limit the amount of amplification, greatly improving stability and reducing noise. If more amplification is desired, additional stages can be cascaded (graphic courtesy of Wikipedia).

The opamp in this circuit is far more stable than either the openloop opamp or previous amplifiers without negative feedback. The opamp, so configured, was designed to solve stability and noise problems that existed in the early years of radio and wire transmission. This is why long-distance callers don’t have to yell to hear each other. Troubleshooting and repairing large-scale commercial and industrial electronic equipment, such as elevator controllers, usually involves analyzing the symptoms and (with the help of the manufacturer’s documentation and schematics) isolating the defective section, circuit and component. Not infrequently, the culprit is a bad IC. Sometimes, it will have a burnt or distorted

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David Herres holds a New Hampshire Master Electrician’s license and has worked as an electrician in the northern part of that state for many years. He has focused on writing since 2006, having written for such magazines as ELEVATOR WORLD, Electrical Construction and Maintenance, Cabling Business, Electrical Business, Nuts and Volts, PV Magazine, Electrical Connection, Solar Connection, Solar Industry Magazine, Fine Homebuilding Magazine, Design World/Test & Measurement, and Engineering News Record. He has also written four books published by McGraw-Hill: 2011 National Electrical Code Chapter by Chapter, Troubleshooting and Repairing Commercial Electrical Equipment, The Electrician’s Trade Demystified and The Homeowner’s DIY Guide to Electrical Wiring, the latter published in December 2014. He holds a BA in English Literature and Composition from Hobart College of Geneva, New York.


Photo by Tom Perry; © NYC & Co.

Photos by Virginia de la Fuente

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Market Trends

Global Interchanges NYC as resurgent skyscraper city by Daniel Safarik The Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat will stage its 2015 International Conference in New York City (NYC) on October 26-30. The conference title, “Global Interchanges: Resurgence of the Skyscraper City,” reflects the dramatic upsurge in skyscraper investment, design and construction that has occurred in the city in the past few years and shows no signs of abating. Even though NYC has long been synonymous with skyscrapers, it was only a few years ago, after the tragic events of

9/11, that the entire typology of tall buildings was being questioned and many major firms were threatening to move out of town. The financial crisis and recession of 2008 brought on more negative predictions. But, since the recovery began, “resurgence” is the name of the game, and NYC is pushing the limits of tall once again. Since the turn of the decade into the 2010s, the pace of new construction in NYC can be split into two large categories: large-scale urban regeneration clusters and super-slim luxury residential

infill. In both cases, developers and designers are pushing the limits of zoning, below-ground infrastructure and skyward structural engineering, including prefabrication, megaframes, bridge-like platforms over rail yards, sway-retarding dampers and cantilevers, in order to get every last square inch of potential out of high-priced high floors, as well as, to a lesser degree, provide affordable housing. Developments under construction include the US$15-billion Hudson Yards, the largest private real-estate development in U.S. history; a residential Continued

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While connectivity lends cachet to large-scale developments such as WTC, Hudson Yards and Manhattan West, the tall and thin residential towers of upper Midtown are predicated on a delicate balance between proximity and exclusivity. skyscraper at 432 Park Avenue that surpasses the Empire State Building in height; and another on 57th Street – just one foot shorter than One World Trade Center (WTC) – that may become the world’s tallest residential building when completed. The tall residential typology is making its way into the Financial District, both through office-building renovations and new construction, such as the proposed 125 Greenwich Street (1,358 ft.) and the under-construction Four Seasons (937 ft.), continuing that district’s transformation from a place that went quiet on nights and weekends to a vibrant 24/7 neighborhood. The pressure of the real-estate market in Manhattan is great enough that areas of Brooklyn, Queens and New Jersey are seeing record-setting proposed tall developments around transit hubs. At Pacific Park (formerly Atlantic Yards) in Brooklyn, construction is well underway on a mix of housing typologies using various construction methods.

WTC One of the most-watched construction projects of the past 10 years, WTC is finally taking recognizable shape as a

group of buildings that do as much for enclosing public space as they do for defining the skyline – perhaps more so than did their predecessors. With Skidmore Owings & Merrill’s (SOM) One WTC (1,776 ft.) and Fumihiko Maki’s Four WTC (977 ft.) now open, along with a critical pedestrian tunnel between Brookfield Place (formerly World Financial Center), the PATH and New York City Transit subways, the WTC site is becoming recognizable as a destination, rather than as a hole in the ground to be circumnavigated. At the center of it all, the somber fountains of the 9/11 Memorial, representing the foundations of the original Twin Towers, drop water into a seemingly endless void. Although it’s impossible to avoid the gravity of the site’s history, the overall feeling is of excitement and rejuvenation, and the landscaped park surrounding the fountains is a significant improvement over the original hardscape.

Hudson Yards Comprising 14 acres of open space and 13.4 million sq. ft. of office, retail and residential towers, Hudson Yards is an almost unimaginably large 29-acre

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development in space-starved Manhattan. Though the area has long been a wasteland of industrial uses, the northward advance of the High Line elevated park and the southward advance of the Number 7 subway line from Times Square promise to incorporate the development into some of the city’s most vital neighborhoods. Built above the Long Island Railroad’s staging yards west of Penn Station, Hudson Yards will eventually include at least four towers of between 40 and 80 stories and a moving canopy called the “Culture Shed” by Diller Scofidio + Renfro and Rockwell Group – and that’s just on the eastern half of the property. The two commercial towers by Kohn Pedersen Fox bookend a large retail podium, standing across a new public square from residential towers by tall-building ace David Childs of SOM and novices DS+R/Rockwell. Commercial tenants L’Oreal, Time Warner, Coach and SAP have all committed to the project, while a piece of public art by Thomas Heatherwick, whose urchin-shaped UK Pavilion was the talk of the 2010 Shanghai Expo, is set to occupy the project’s central square. Connectivity to the urban grid, carefully calibrated phasing, and a highly curated mix of uses are all critical aspects


lies entirely on terra firma: Each dances on complex transfer beams and pylons between the tracks below. The buildings’ supporting platform alone is expected to cost between US$700-800 million. A slightly different solution to a similar problem lies just east of Hudson Yards, where a relatively smaller project is simultaneously underway.

Manhattan West

of the future success of the US$15-billion project. Related Cos. and Oxford Properties Group are clearly mindful of the slow starts behind initially transitpoor Canary Wharf in London and other megaprojects of prior decades, particularly since the site was acquired from Canary Wharf ’s bankrupt developer, Olympia & York. “We think it is critical that for all the tenants who are coming, that there will be critical mass, and it won’t just be a big construction site,” said Related’s president in charge of Hudson Yards, Jay Cross. He continued: “That’s the beauty of mixed use: It allows us to deliver two residential towers without oversaturating the residential market. We then get critical mass in the commercial towers, and then, with those four towers, the retail now has an audience with which to populate the stores. These factors all feed on each other, and I think that a mixed-use master plan is a critical component; it also makes life extraordinarily complicated. We try not to mix uses in a single building, because it gets even more complicated. So far, we have managed to keep buildings single use without multiple entrance conditions.” All of these factors are complicated further by the fact that no single building

The 12-track channel taking travelers into Penn Station has been plunged into darkness, but it will be in exchange for Manhattan West’s 1.5-acre landscaped public plaza, set between two 60-plus story towers by SOM. Unlike Hudson Yards, the tower foundations at Manhattan West are on terra firma. But, in order to support the plaza between them, a highly innovative, posttensioned, precast segmental bridge technology had to be devised to span the active rail lines below without interrupting train movements. The platform alone is a US$290-million investment, said Philip Wharton, senior vice president of development for Brookfield Office Properties, Manhattan West’s owner. The plaza represents a continuation of 32nd Street as a pedestrian walkway that stays level, while the streets on either side drop to the west. If Brookfield can reach an agreement with Hudson Yards to its west, this corridor could theoretically provide an uninterrupted pedestrian

pathway from Penn Station, and through the future Moynihan intercity rail station and both mega developments, all the way to the Hudson River and High Line. A portion of the pedestrian corridor may pass directly through an existing building positioned over the rail yards, 450 West 33rd Street, a heavyset concrete ziggurat that once housed both the New York Daily News printing presses and stored furniture for retailer E.J. Korvette. While the building can structurally support and is zoned for a skyscraper, the current plan calls for recladding the structure and leasing to tenants in need of large floorplates, Wharton said. Including the two SOM towers, the project will comprise 6.2 million sq. ft. of office, residential and retail space. Although Hudson Yards dwarfs Manhattan West in size, Wharton says the project’s ideal positioning between the High Line, which receives 3.5 million people per year, and Penn Station, which receives 600,000 travelers each day (219 million per year), will be beneficial for both developments. He observes: “Retail and residential feed off each other. Retail wants to be near retail and Continued

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NYC’s tall-building market has apparently bifurcated into two distinct trends – one in which the public realm has reasserted itself with new vigor and another in which exclusivity rises to godlier heights than ever before.

near residential. The Fairway grocery store in the [Hudson Yards] Coach building will be great for us. Office is more competitive. But for two out of the three uses, we are very happy about the complementary nature.” The idea that the Javits Convention Center, High Line, Chelsea art-gallery district, and Penn and Moynihan stations will be fused together at the double slipknot of Hudson Yards and Manhattan West is staggering to comprehend, even in a city used to superlatives. “It’s going to be amazing,” Wharton said. “Once this all is built out, it will be a whole other city here. There will be 25 million sq. ft. of office space, 15,000 apartments, and maybe 150,000 to 200,000 people coming to work here each day.” Transit and pedestrian connectivity is the lynchpin of success for each of these tall-building projects.

The Superslims While connectivity lends cachet to large-scale developments such as WTC, Hudson Yards and Manhattan West, the tall and thin residential towers of upper Midtown are predicated on a delicate balance between proximity and

exclusivity. If it could be summarized, the theme behind developments such as 432 Park Avenue, the Baccarat Tower and 111 West 57th Street would seem to be: “Right in the middle of it, yet above it all.” Carol Willis, curator and founder of the Skyscraper Museum in Lower Manhattan, took your author and Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) Executive Director Antony Wood through the exhibition, “Sky High and the Logic of Luxury,” which examined the luxury superslim phenomenon in extraordinary detail. In addition to several human-sized scale models of the superslims, impressively lit from within, technical drawings and early study models were also on display. Willis later delivered a presentation on the subject at the 2014 CTBUH Conference in Shanghai. At 111 West 57th, the extreme slenderness ratio of 1:23 on the 1,421-ft.tall, 60-ft.-wide tower may prove to be a record breaker. But the point is not to set a record, even though the building will take advantage of 15,000 lb. sq. in.

concrete, once a rare commodity, and a pendulum damper to achieve this feat, according to Michael Stern, managing partner of JDS Development. “It’s all about the views,” Stern said, articulating the well-considered (if tight) mechanics of building on a through lot that narrows to 43 ft. on the south side in order to provide apartments views up and down the island. Forty-four boutique apartments will be served by two passenger and one service elevator all the way to the top – and will be sure to command the same upper-eight-figure prices of its nearby neighbors. Nevertheless, the building doesn’t want for architectural panache – Stern hired SHoP Architects to create what he calls a “modern version of a classic New York skyscraper, with feathered setbacks.” JDS wanted to do something different than the glassy towers that have risen of late, something “more Woolworth’s than Dubai. Somehow, we’d gotten away from the romance, and we want to get back to that,” Stern said. Although he hired SHoP on the strength of its “nerve” for cladding the contentious Barclays Center in COR-TEN® Continued

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steel, he insists he is not a big risk taker. “NYC multifamily housing is the most stable asset class in the world,” he said, citing his lengthy experience with mid-rise towers. “No one pays attention until you do a tall one.” Projects such as the 1,397-ft.-tall 432 Park and the Baccarat certainly want people to pay attention, though attention seems to be lavished mostly on interiors. The Baccarat sales office is paneled in burled walnut, rare forms of granite and other stone, and, of course, crystal fixtures and glassware, while the 432 Park marketing suite features a full-sized mockup of an apartment in the building, culminating in a special promotional film that can be seen only at the suite. A visit to CIM Group and Macklowe’s 432 Park’s marketing suite in the GM Building is a highly orchestrated ballet, in which one moves past carefully chosen modern art pieces and photographs of interwar New York cityscapes and cultural icons of the period. Standing inside a full-scale mockup 10-by-10-ft. window frame that characterizes the building’s look (and is meant to evoke the coffered ceiling of the Pantheon) affords an accurate approximation of the view from the tower rising just to the south.

Numerous other “moments” greet the visitor as he makes his way around the suite, including a bathroom with a 1,200-lb. marble sink. Each of the 104 units will have one, and each is brought up in one piece. This makes sense when one considers that the combined value of the apartments is more than US$2.7 billion. The NYC tall-building market has apparently bifurcated into two distinct trends – one in which the public realm has reasserted itself with new vigor and another in which exclusivity rises to godlier heights than ever before. Time will tell whether the two morphologies remain separate or grow together to become an as-yet-unseen hybrid in Gotham. Through all of this, the increasingly global capital markets, seeking stability, have manifested themselves in NYC real estate. Here are just a few of the headlines that bring the “Global Interchanges” theme to light: ♦♦ “China’s Greenland Group Acquires 70% Stake in Atlantic Yards Project,” The Commercial Observer, October 13, 2013 ♦♦ “Tishman Speyer Invests US$3 Billion in China’s Real Estate Market Over 8

JDS wanted to do something different than the glassy towers that have risen of late, something “more Woolworth’s than Dubai. Somehow we’d gotten away from the romance, and we want to get back to that,” Michael Stern, managing partner of JDS Development, said. 72

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Years,” The Wall Street Journal, January 7, 2014 ♦♦ “NY’s Silverstein Properties Bets $2.2 Billion on China Free Trade Zone,” Forbes, January 28, 2014 ♦♦ “Trump Organization to Develop a Trump Tower in Mumbai,” Fortune, August 12, 2014 ♦♦ “Japanese Firm Snaps Up Controlling Stake in New York’s 55 Hudson Yards,” New York Daily News, January 6 New York’s dramatic skyline, more than a century in the making, has been the envy of cities around the world for years. From the very birth of the tallbuilding typology, NYC has been at the forefront of the scene. By the end of 2015, it will be home to 239 buildings of 150 m or greater in height. This number, more than any other city save Hong Kong, makes up 7% of the global total and 35% of the tall buildings in the U.S. In addition to these impressive figures, NYC has enjoyed many records, including being the location of the first 150-m-tall building and the first supertall (300-m-tall) building. A remarkable 10 of the 15 skyscrapers that have enjoyed the title of the “World’s Tallest” were located in NYC, giving the city the title for a combined total of 84 years. The city’s accomplishments, including both historic and planned/under-construction buildings, are impressive when examined in isolation, as well as a part of the global whole. Daniel Safarik is editor at the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat.


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www.couriondoors.com March 2015 • ELEVATOR WORLD

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Readers Platform Associations

ECNY Growing organization promotes education and outreach in NYC. by Lee Freeland

History The Elevator Conference of New York (ECNY) was established in 1993 by Nick Kassetas. Entering the New York City (NYC) marketplace as manager of Adams Elevator Equipment Co.’s NYC branch, he wondered why such a large market was devoid of its own regional elevator-industry organization. In 1991, Kassetas spoke with Jip Chun, an elevator engineer, about forming such an association. Chun referred him to James Moran of Universal Elevator and Jim McDermott of Millar Industries. An exploratory meeting was set up in 1992. In addition to these four men, it was attended by Joe Altamuro and William “Bill” McLean of NYC Transit, Tom Olenick of VDA (Van Deusen & Associates), Larry Clarke of P S Marcato Elevator Co., Nick Montesano of DTM Elevator Consulting Inc., Herb Liebowitz of GAL Manufacturing Co., Charles Buckman of National Inspection Services, and Richard Dalvano of Barist Elevator Co. Attendees voted to continue the process of organizing an NYC elevator association. ECNY’s name was accepted in 1993. Original officers and directors were also affirmed: Kassetas (president), Moran (vice president), Buckman (secretary), McDermott (treasurer), Dalvano, McLean, Patricia Daub of Middle Department Inspection Agency, Dennis Sullivan of the Port Authority of New York & New Jersey, and Mike Spataro of Titan Machine Corp. The busy year included drafting of the organization’s bylaws. They were quickly accepted, and ECNY was officially registered and incorporated with the State of New York.

Growth and Activities ECNY has grown from humble origins of 20 individual members to its current membership base of 190 corporate, 54 individual and four association/honorary members, including contractors, suppliers and consultants. The conference attributes its growth to its continuing-education programs, outreach to the NYC Department of Buildings and industry events that have gained national recognition. These affairs include an annual dinner dance, holiday party and, since 2011, the ECNY Supplier Showcase. The latter event (described by one participant as “the best value going”) has grown to feature more than 70 exhibitors and 650 attendees, a number that grows substantially each year.

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ECNY board members (l-r) Jack Morgan, Brad Hunt, Andrea Magaziner, Bobby “Dee” DeFrancesco and Douglas “Doug” Gilman accept a commendation from (second from right) Bronx Chamber of Commerce President and CEO Lenny Cano at the ECNY Supplier Showcase in April 2013. This event and the annual ECNY Dinner Dance are held at the Villa Barone Manor in the Bronx.

ECNY has held other events at varying locales in NYC, but Bruno’s on the Boulevard in Jackson Heights has been its staple for meetings and educational seminars, and is considered “home.”

ECNY has endowed an annual scholarship program for its membership since 2003. Third-party educators review scholarship applications from members’ children and select the winners. The organization awards US$2,500 or US$5,000 to each winner, based on academic achievement and the number of applications received. In 2014, it gave out US$40,000 for this purpose. ECNY also continues to support the Elevator Escalator Safety Foundation with contributions and its annual participation in National Elevator Escalator Safety Week to educate the local riding public. The conference holds approximately six educational seminars each year. It is gearing up for the next Supplier Showcase on April 8 and dinner dance on May 15. For more details and other upcoming events, visit www.elevatorworld.com/directory/ event and ecnyweb.com.


Andrea Magaziner, treasurer, is employed by GAL Manufacturing Corp. in the Bronx. She began her career at Elevator Products Corp. and held a variety of positions in accounting, human resources and sales, serving as vice president of Sales and Marketing until she joined O. Thompson Co. in 2002. Magaziner was elected to the NAEC Board of Directors in 1999 and served as that organization’s treasurer in 2000 and 2001. She has served on ECNY’s board since 2003 and has been treasurer since 2006. She is chair of its Finance Committee and a member of its Website Committee. Douglas “Doug� Gilman, secretary, is president of Elite Elevator Cab Remodeling, Inc., which was established in 1979. Gilman began in the elevator industry at Parkline in 1977. He is a co-chair of the committee that organizes the annual Pop Frohlinger/Joe Marchese Golf Outing, which benefits the Elevator Escalator Safety Foundation. Gilman received the ECNY Safety Award in 2006 for his work on this committee. He was elected to the ECNY Board in 2005 and currently chairs the Planning Committee. Brad Hunt is employed by The Peelle Co., which he joined in 1980 as a sales engineer. Hunt worked for Dover Elevator Co. in West Babylon, New York, from 1995 until 1999, when he returned to Peelle as its National Modernization Sales Manager, a position he still holds. Hunt was elected to ECNY’s board in December 2009 and currently serves on its Website Committee. Jack Morgan serves as the president of Morgan Elevator Company Ltd., established in 1973 by himself and his late father,

Duffy

Bobby “Dee� DeFrancesco, vice president, started his career in electrical supply in June 1982 when he opened Central Elevator & Electrical Supply Co., Inc., selling exclusively to the elevator industry. He has been an ECNY board member and chair of its Dinner Dance Committee since 1997, when he sold Central to Benfield Electric Supply Co., Inc. He remains the company’s president and continues to sell elevator products, supplies and cable to the Northeast. DeFrancesco was a board member of the National Association of Elevator Contractors (NAEC) from 1993 to 1997 and NAEC Convention exhibit chairman for 10 years (including World Expo chairman for two years). In 2001, he was awarded NAEC’s prestigious President’s Award; in 2003, he was named “Man of the Year� at the Pop Frohlinger/Joe Marchese Golf Outing; in 2005, he was awarded the William C. Sturgeon Distinguished Service Award; and he was presented the ECNY Francis B. Reilly Award in 2007.

James “Jim� Duffy is president of Richmond Elevator, established in 1990. Duffy began his career in the elevator industry in 1971 with Mainco Elevator. He joined the ECNY board in 2000 as secretary to fulfill a vacancy, then sat as secretary until 2003. Duffy has been involved with the following ECNY committees: Technical Presentations (2001-2003), NYC Department of Buildings (DOB) Elevator Advisory Committee (2001-2003), NYC DOB Elevator Code Committee (2003-present), NYC DOB Committee (2004-present) and Website Committee (2004-present). He is an electrical engineer and licensed NYC private elevator inspector director and QEI. Duffy is a member of the ASME A17 Sidewalk and Hand Elevator Committee and a member of the NYC Code Revision, Elevators & Conveyors Technical Committee. He is also a part-time member of the faculty of the College of Staten Island Engineering Science Program.  Robert “Rob� Cuzzi joined VDA (Van Deusen & Associates) in 1998 as manager of Operations after serving as Operations manager of P S Marcato Elevator Co. since 1992. He is a mechanical engineer and licensed QEI with experience in construction and transportation. After joining the ECNY board in 2003, he was elected secretary in 2004, and is involved in code and technical seminars. He was awarded the ECNY Francis B. Reilly Award in 2010. Cuzzi

Kenneth V. “Ken� Breglio, president, currently serves as President of BP Elevator Co. Breglio began his career in the elevator industry in 1969 with Knudson Elevator. He joined the ECNY board in 1999 and was elected treasurer in 2000 and vice president in 2006. Breglio was the 2003 recipient of the Francis B. Riley Award for outstanding service to ECNY.

John. The company is a member of the International Union of Elevator Constructors Local No. 3. Morgan is a licensed elevator inspector and director. He was elected to the ECNY board in 2005 and has been a member of NAEC since 1989, and is a member of the Joint Employment Office Board of Directors and the Joint Apprenticeship & Training Committee. He is involved with his town’s Boys Club of America.Â

Brayan Casas is the Operations manager for DTM Elevator Consulting Inc. He joined DTM in 2001 as an assistant and has since worked for the firm in several elevator-consulting capacities and as its lead traffic-analysis expert. Casas graduated from Iona College with a bachelor’s degree in Business Administration. He is an alternate to the ASME Sidewalk Elevator Code Committee and is Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design Green Associate accredited. Casas was đ&#x;Œ? elected to ECNY’s board in December 2013.   Casas

Breglio

Board of Directors

March 2015 • ELEVATOR WORLD

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Readers Platform Codes & Standards

New Requirements for NYC Elevator Systems A summary of how the elevator codes affect NYC units and a rundown of the major compliance mandates on the horizon by James Marinelli New York City (NYC) has always been a unique place to live and work. From its stone canyons, comprised of some of the world’s most famous skyscrapers, to its public transportation, responsible for delivering millions of people to their place of employment every day, the city has provided a daunting challenge to those of us responsible for vertically transporting the public to their lofty destinations. It is often said that there is more vertical traffic than horizontal traffic in the city. The vertical-transportation industry in NYC is one of the largest in the world and, as such, is home to some of the oldest, most diverse and complicated elevator systems our industry has ever devised.

The vertical-transportation industry in NYC is one of the largest in the world and, as such, is home to some of the oldest, most diverse and complicated elevator systems our industry has ever devised. As a direct result of this diversity, our elevator code requirements are unique, as well. In addition to the adoption of the ASME A17.1 Safety Code for Elevators and Escalators, modifications have been implemented by the NYC Department of Buildings to address the special requirements of a city of some eight million people. While the A17.1 has been modified to meet our local needs, from time to time, the NYC Elevator Code Committee has had to lobby the city council to adopt additions to the NYC Building Code to address catastrophic events that have occurred. This is not a new concept but a practice that has been used since the adoption of the first building codes. As a member of the National Code Committee, I have been involved in several code changes made to address such events. The best example of this is found in the aftermath of the MGM Grand fire,

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which took place in Las Vegas on November 21, 1980. During that horrific event, many lives were lost that could have been spared if the code had addressed some of the areas that were left to chance, like an “Alternate Recall” landing. The New York Elevator Code is a modified version of ASME A17.1. It is referenced by Chapter 30 of the NYC Building Code, and the provisions of ASME A17.1 are modified in accordance with Appendix K, Chapter K1. The NYC Elevator Code Committee, for the most part comprised of professional engineers and consultants, has been entrusted with the task of keeping our local code current by adopting the latest version of A17.1 on a three-year cycle. The committee is further tasked with amending A17.1 to keep up with the changing technology and events that shape our local industry’s needs. As a result of some recent events, new code requirements have been proposed, and, to date, several have been adopted by the city council. Several major new requirements have been adopted in recent years to address issues that have been brought into focus by events ranging from metal fatigue, frozen brake plungers, up overspeeding, broken door relaying cables and human error. Mother Nature has even gotten involved, with the flooding of Battery Park and the surrounding buildings. The first new requirement for all NYC elevator systems was adopted by the city council several years ago. Its purpose is to provide an upgrade to all hoist machines with single plunger brakes. This upgrade can be accomplished in one of two ways. The first way is to alter the single-plunger brake assembly to a dual-plunger type. The second (and more common) approach to compliance is to refit the hoist machine with an emergency braking system that will meet the requirements of “Unintended Car Movement Protection” as specified in ASME A17.1 Section 2.19.2. This section states that an emergency brake must be engaged should an uncontrolled motion or up overspeed event occur. This upgrade to all hoist machines must be done by 2027 as mandated by the NYC Building Code, Appendix K3, and Rule 3.8.4.1. The specified year seems a long way off, but keep in

Continued


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mind there are approximately 72,000 elevators in the greater metropolitan area and, when seen from a scheduling prospective, the deadline for compliance is not far off at all. The next requirement deals with securing the car door/gate between landings to prevent passengers from self evacuating during an entrapment. This action, taken by passengers when panic sets in, has resulted in more fatalities than any elevatorsystem malfunction, whether electrical or mechanical. The remedy for this long-recognized passenger-safety issue is to secure the car door/gate while the elevator travels between landings, thus preventing self evacuation. While this has been a requirement for NYC elevators since 1985, its enforcement has now been extended to include all elevators, regardless of their installation date, as required under ASME A17.3. The A17.1 Handbook on Safety Code for Elevators and Escalators, 2000 Edition, Section 2.12.5, explains the rationale behind the use of door restrictors in this way: “When a passenger elevator is outside the unlocking zone, it is unsafe for a passenger to try to exit through the elevator entrance unassisted (Note: the unlocking zone is an area seven inches above or below the landing). In fact, there have been many reports of fatalities due to this condition. A person inside the car should not be able to accomplish their own emergency evacuation through a hoistway door when the car is located outside the unlocking zone. This requirement may be met by restricting the opening of the car door or the hoistway door.” The third requirement is new and looks to the catastrophic event that took place on December 14, 2011, in which a woman lost her life as a result of an elevator leaving the landing with its doors opened as she attempted to board. Added to the NYC

The question heard most often when a code change is contemplated or adopted is, “How will the change be accomplished on the thousands of existing elevator systems?” Building Code with the effective date of January 1, 2015, the new rule states that all elevators under the jurisdiction of the NYC Department of Buildings must have their hall doors and car doors/gates monitored for proper operation. All passenger and freight elevators must comply by January 1, 2020, per ASME A17.3 as modified by NYC Building Code Appendix K3, Rule 3.10.12. The rule simply states that means shall be provided to monitor the hall doors and car door/gate for faulty contact circuits and, if a faulty circuit is detected, the elevator shall be prevented from operating and removed from service. The deadline for compliance, leaves four years, or 1,241 working days, to apply this safeguard to the approximately

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72,000 elevators in the greater metropolitan area. Ultimately, given the small window for compliance provided by this rule, both consulting firms and elevator companies have an obligation to advise their clients as to the rule and its implications. As can be imagined, the liability exposure is huge. The final change being contemplated by the NYC Code Committee is in response to the storm flooding experienced in the downtown area several years ago as a result of Hurricane Sandy. There is a new code requirement being proposed to provide fluid detection systems for elevator pits in buildings located in areas designated as flood zones. These systems would monitor the elevator pits for liquid intrusion and relocate all elevators in an affected building to a safe landing above the base flood elevation (BFE) plain. Once relocated, the elevator systems would be removed from service. The elevators would be returned to service only when the liquid intrusion monitoring device were manually reset by trained personnel. This proposed addition to the code is being reviewed by several city agencies, including the NYC Fire Department. It is expected to be presented to the city council within the year. It is important to note that the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) has weighed in on this issue. Protecting buildings constructed in “special flood hazard areas” from damage caused by flood forces is an important objective of the NFIP. In support of this objective, the NFIP regulations include substantial improvements to existing buildings in areas designated as flood zones. As NFIP’s “Technical Bulletin 4,” dated November 2010, states: “All appropriate measures must be taken to mitigate flood damage to elevators and associated equipment to the maximum extent possible. Although some components must be located below the lowest floor of a building (i.e., below the BFE) to function, most elevator components vulnerable to flooding can be located above the BFE or be designed to minimize flood damage.” The resulting compliance with the NFIP regulations should result in lower flood-insurance premiums, since the premiums are determined, in part, by the level of exposure to storm damage to which the elevator equipment is exposed. Once this comprehensive rule is adopted, it will go a long way toward protecting the riding public from possible injury or worse. The new proposed rule will also have the effect of saving the building owners the substantial cost of replacing cabs, hoist cables, electrical cables, car-operating panels and car-top equipment, all of which could be damaged if the elevator systems were left in service. The question heard most often when a code change is contemplated or adopted is, “How will the change be accomplished on the thousands of existing elevator systems?” While the code changes are required to be implemented within a given period of time, there is no requirement to replace the existing elevator equipment to accomplish these changes. This allows the industry the opportunity to apply upgrades to Continued

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existing elevator systems to accomplish the new rule requirements, thus dramatically lowering the cost of compliance by building owners as compared to a complete elevator-system replacement. The cost of these upgrades is usually one-fifth the cost of a new elevator system. The rule of thumb for refitting existing systems with new logic functions or equipment has always been, “Is the existing elevator system operational and relatively trouble free?” If the answer to this question is “Yes,” then an upgrade to the elevator system is an avenue that should be explored. Refitting is a method that uses a device to add new functionality to existing operational elevator systems. These upgrades alter an elevator control system in a way that incorporates new logic operations to the existing controller’s operation. An upgrade can be applied to the mechanical side of an elevator system in the form of an emergency brake added to an existing hoist machine or a door restrictor added to an existing door operator. Devices used for these upgrades must meet certain standards, the most important of which is that they are compatible with the host elevator system, while upgrading the operation to the new requirements. Without the “compatibility” factor, a refit device becomes a liability, rather than an asset. While elevator modernization has been a widely accepted practice throughout North America in recent years, it is generally not as well known a remedy for code compliance as is

replacement of the entire elevator system. It has become more popular in recent years as a result of a poor economy. When a building is faced with the high cost of elevator-system replacement, refitting it with an upgrade becomes an attractive and viable option. From NYC’s oldest elevator systems to its newest additions, the NYC Elevator Code Committee, Department of Buildings and City Council are committed to keeping its vertical transportation, which the public uses to reach the clouds, the safest conveyance they, as a team, can provide. James Marinelli is founder of Electrodyn Systems Ltd., which he opened in 1985. He provides special engineering services to the elevator industry. Celebrating his 50th year in the elevator business in 2015, Marinelli spent his first 20 years as a maintenance mechanic and supervisor. He is a member of several American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) code committees and, over the years, has helped craft the ASME A17.1 code followed today.

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Readers Platform

Knowing that the elevators will help breathe new life into an area so rich in history was a humbling experience to all involved.

Old Building,

New Purpose

Liberty Elevator and Peelle collaborate on interesting and satisfying revitalization project.

by Michael J. Ryan With its great views of lower Manhattan and the new World Trade Center skyline, the East River area in Brooklyn has become such a hot spot that the New York real-estate market has nicknamed it “DUMBO” for “Down Under the Manhattan Bridge Overpass.” Old buildings in thriving areas like this are usually demolished and replaced with modern structures. But here, developers are repurposing a number of them. Instead of attempting the difficult task of filling the building with a mega tenant, repurposing these facilities opens the

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door to multi-tenant opportunities. Light manufacturing, R&D, office space and dining venues operate in the same building, which would otherwise be a vacant eyesore. The building at 850 3rd Avenue, now Liberty View Industrial Plaza (LVIP), is a former U.S. Navy Supply warehouse. The 1.3-million-sq.-ft. building was constructed in 1916 and included 11 Otis elevators with Peelle doors. After the building exterior was restored to its original design in March 2013, the U.S. Department of the Interior placed it on

the National Register of Historic Places. Another recently repurposed building, the Brooklyn Army Terminal, sits further down the block. Salmar Properties purchased 850 3rd Avenue in 2011 and is bringing it back to life. Their principals, Sal Rusi and Marvin Schien, both of whom have backgrounds in construction, are not simply interested in repurposing historic buildings, but also in revitalizing communities. Ian Siegel, Salmar’s project manager, stated: “Liberty View Industry Plaza plans to bring 1,300 manufacturing jobs and


Focus on Modernization

Buckley

Nickolous

numerous retail opportunities back to this part of Brooklyn. This area is known as Sunset Park, and its residents used to support the local military installations. We are already looking for our next project.” The building will include retail, a major box store, manufacturing, office space, an indoor parking garage and a community garden – a 100,000-sq.-ft. commercial greenhouse on the roof of the eight-story LVIP. It is projected the rooftop community garden will produce one million pounds of organic food each year. “Here in New York, we don’t have acres and acres of unused land to grow fresh food,” said Brooklyn Borough President Marty Markowitz, “but Brooklyn’s got plenty of industrial buildings with unused roofs that are perfect for urban farming.” The LVIP thus adds to the borough’s rooftopgardening trend. The repurposing project started in early 2012 when Salmar Properties hired Vertical Professional Solutions, LLC (VPS) as its elevator consultant. At this stage in the project, only three of the existing 22 elevators were functioning. The 19 other elevators had stopped between floors – frozen in time with a decade of dust and buildup, as if everyone had just left one day. After an in-depth survey conducted mainly by flashlight, it became apparent to Michael Nicklous and Robert Buckley, owners of VPS, that this was no longer a modernization project, but a newequipment project. It would require complete demolition and redesign of the existing hoistway space. Changes included the resizing of car dimensions to accommodate counterweights that previously traveled in adjacent hoistways, Continued

Opposite page (l-r): LVIP (850 3rd Avenue), Brooklyn; (l-r) Chris Peelle and J.T. Peelle This page, top to bottom: Peelle door installation; before Peelle door replacement; after Peelle door installation March 2015 • ELEVATOR WORLD

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Liberty is excited to once again be contributing to such a positive historical piece of New York history.

– Douglas J. Muttart

Left: Ian Siegel, Salmar Properties project manager Top: (l-r) Douglas J. and Darren Muttart

the removal of large 10,000 lb. drum machines, the reconfiguration of machine-room space, and the challenge of laying out new machinery that avoided numerous building structural obstacles. VPS sought to provide an elevator design that maximized the available space, adapted to the numerous tenants’ needs, and provided the ultimate level of safety and reliability. Peelle replaced the original doors and gates with new equipment using its wireless control system. This work was in coordination with Liberty Elevator of Paterson, New Jersey, which replaced the elevator machine and hoistway equipment. Peelle furnished and installed a total of 144 doors, 18 gates and nine cabs. Liberty Elevator contributed engineering, installation, modernization and subcontractor coordination for the work. Originally, the project included the Peelle penthouse operator, which opened each biparting door one at a time, utilizing one mechanism located in the machine room, which predated today’s technology of using two operators per door. The project posed some special challenges, because it had to be estimated without the original job data. 850 3rd Avenue was a classified government facility, and therefore, neither Otis nor Peelle kept job files. Once the materials were removed from the hoistway, proper dimensions were determined. Peelle and Liberty Elevator had to suit their modern equipment to hoistways built for products designed almost a century ago.

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Liberty Elevator is an International Union of Elevator Constructors Local No. 1 company providing customizable preventative-maintenance programs, cab refurbishments, modernizations and new installations in New York and New Jersey. It is a third-generation, family-owned and -operated full-service elevator company owned by brothers Douglas J. and Darren Muttart and their mother, Janet Muttart. The brothers are fifth-generation elevator mechanics. George Gordon Muttart established National Elevator in 1960, proudly servicing elevators throughout the Northeast. In 1987, Douglas K. Muttart established Liberty Elevator Corp. after completing the historic installation of the elevators in the Statue of Liberty. Twenty-five years later, Douglas J. and Darren followed in their father’s footsteps when Liberty Elevator was awarded the vertical transportation contract to install three new elevators in Lady Liberty (ELEVATOR WORLD, January 2014). Working with VPS (Liberty’s engineers), the owners and Peelle were also directly involved in the historic revival of the LVIP. Providing the vertical transportation is their way of contributing to the revitalization of this turn-of-the-century industrial area. Space in New York City is difficult to come by – especially enough space to grow fresh produce. Knowing that the elevators will help breathe new life into an area so rich in history was a humbling experience to all involved. “Liberty is excited to once again be contributing to such a positive historical piece of New York history,” explained Douglas J. Muttart.

Michael J. Ryan is vice president of Sales and Marketing for The Peelle Co. He is also responsible for Peelle’s North American business. He holds an MBA in General Business and a BA in Marketing.


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Readers Platform

Managing Elevator Contractor Operations Business-management software for mobile devices helps keep elevator operations on track. submitted by FIELDBOSS As technology perpetually progresses, elevator contractors understand they can no longer rely on manual methods or a variety of disconnected software solutions to support their business operations. There is too much paperwork and too many little things to keep track of, and mistakes get expensive when things start falling through the cracks. It is also strategic to have electronic access to historical records in case of a tax audit or litigation. Using manual methods or outdated software also means that technicians have limited or no access to information when they are in the office. This is a time-consuming and risky way to work. Elevator service companies need to be connected in the field, which means technicians must have access to information they need at all times. Accessing equipment location, parking, access codes, specification documents and service activity history from a mobile device is completely possible and expected by top-performing staff in this day and age. The FIELDBOSS product is an end-to-end businessmanagement software built for elevator contractors within the Microsoft Dynamics platform. Building on top of this platform offers business workers the Microsoft Office interface and full integration with Microsoft Outlook. The FIELDBOSS business is a gold-certified Microsoft partner with its headquarters in Toronto and a U.S. location in Manhattan, New York.

NYC Elevator Inspections, Violation Tracking in 2015 This year, the New York City (NYC) Department of Buildings (DOB) will offer a new online inspection scheduling service through the NYC development hub. This new portal will standardize elevator inspections in NYC, enable timely online results and reduce labor costs. The current process can take 10 or more days to produce inspection results after an inspector visit. With the new scheduling service, an email with the final inspection results will be sent within 24 hours. The system can also be logged into for results viewing on demand. Elevator violations come with major fines if they are not corrected in a

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Product Spotlight

A service schedule integrated with Microsoft Outlook’s “Calendar� feature

timely fashion, and the DOB keeps an updated list of the top elevator offenders on its website. With the NYC DOB’s new “Inspection Ready� online service, there are no phone calls and no more waiting in lengthy lines. The 10 or so steps that had been required are now streamlined, and everything is completed electronically online. Additionally, the DOB Elevator Unit now accepts requests for category-1 lookup sheets and copies of PVT violations via email. This means that department customer-service windows no longer accept these requests and will direct constituents to email such inquiries. Building owners must have a basic test and inspection conducted on their devices annually, though these annual tests are not required to include load testing. Category-1 tests must be performed by an approved elevator-inspection agency and witnessed by an approved elevator agency not affiliated with the agency performing inspection. This requires strong coordination between agencies to both perform and approve inspections. The FIELDBOSS Elevator Contractor Management solution can automate these repetitive business processes and track violation documents and repairs in one place. Duplicate data entry can be eliminated, and document turnaround can be sped up with Excel integration and Word templates. The software allows users to track inspection results by email. Each email can be automatically linked to a case, elevator or account in the program. Users can track, report and set alerts for violation activities by elevator in accordance with jurisdictional requirements.

Service Activity Scheduling, Routing and Dispatching Along with tracking violations, we have noticed that integrated service activity scheduling, routing and dispatching are the functions most desired by elevator service companies. Being able to efficiently schedule, route and dispatch technicians through dedicated field-service software can help companies avoid customer-service pitfalls. FIELDBOSS has sophisticated case management, integrated dispatch capabilities and escalation rules to ensure on-demand service and fix requests do not fall through the cracks. It also makes sure the service requests are tracked and billed every time. Planned and actual time can be tracked against contracts or standard billable rate tables. Service follow-up can be automatically generated to ensure quality and customer satisfaction. Route optimization (using Google or Bing maps) for technicians is built in. www.fieldboss.com   đ&#x;Œ?


GOING UP? Are you going up…with new buildings, new acquisitions, renovations or other new plans and ideas to make your buildings bigger, better, or more appealing? To reach new heights of excellence in elevator solutions for your projects or properties, team up with TEI Group. For more than 20 years, we’ve served metro New York with expert services for elevator installation, modernization, and maintenance. You may not know our name, but TEI is big enough to handle your largest project — and smart enough to give you the personal attention and time you deserve. For a closer look at our company and some of the talented people who make TEI tick, visit: www.teigroup.com/TeamStories. To speak with a representative about a project or other needs, call us today at 212 727-3200. TEI Group. Yes, we’re going up. Join us.


Readers Platform Company Spotlight

Elegant Elevator Entrances in the Big Apple Columbia president reminisces on recent extraordinary projects his company completed in NYC. by Ralph M. Newman “New York, New York, what a wonderful town — especially for elevators, that is!” exclaims L.J. Blaiotta, Jr., president of Columbia Elevator Products, whose business and family history are deeply rooted in New York City (NYC). “Nowhere are the challenges greater, but, at the same time, nowhere surpasses this city for the architectural creativity and manufacturing ingenuity it inspires in the pursuit of pleasurably moving people through its great buildings.” While the so-called “capital of the world” demands a vast array of services from countless elevator companies, Bridgeport, Connecticut-based Columbia has carved out a niche in the New York market. “While we offer a complete line of architectural solutions to the elevator industry,” explains Blaiotta, “high-end entrances for high-rise buildings are what we’re most known for and sought after. Our NYC customers, including several of the major OEMs, come to us for ‘the unusual’: custom jobs they find difficult, if not impossible, to get designed, engineered and manufactured for them elsewhere.” As an example, Blaiotta cites the Hudson Yards development on West 30th Street in Manhattan: “Here, the architect wanted 17-ft. entrances in the lobby to appear as if they had 17-ft.-tall center-opening doors. Columbia accomplished the look by featuring 9-ft. center-opening doors

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with 8-ft. transoms that created the desired center-opening door appearance. This is a highly unusual, nonstandard look that still complies with a UL Oversized Certificate procedure. The design also called for two 17-ft.-tall LED lighting columns respectively to the left and right of the jamb, to illuminate when the car arrives at the floor. While fire code does not ordinarily allow for the attachment of anything to an entrance, we were able to build an oversize jamb large enough to accommodate insertion of the light fixtures and connection to the wall in a way that did not corrupt the fire integrity of the entrance assembly. We brought very much the same treatment to 3 World Trade Center (WTC), except that there, the requirement was for 20-ft.-tall entrances, consisting of 12-ft. transoms and 8-ft. doors (all UL certified), with adjacent 20-ft.-tall, floor-to-ceiling LED fixtures. For 3 WTC, the approval process is nearing completion, and all the work we did for 4 WTC is complete. “Another example can be found at 56 Leonard Street in Manhattan’s tony Tribeca district. Here, they wanted as ‘skinny’ a profile as possible, without applying a plate on top of an entrance and with the jamb itself fire rated. We used a Dutch-bend-type profile, building the light fixtures directly into the head of the entrance in a way that qualified for a UL label. Such solutions require a significant amount of

501 West 30th Street, part of the Hudson Yards development

engineering and work with UL, extra burn tests and other steps we undertake to work toward a successful engineering evaluation. Our objective is to make the final approval as time and cost efficient as possible for the customer.” A wholly different need arose at 432 Park Avenue, the new icon of Manhattan’s ultra-luxe Upper East Side. At 88 floors, this building is the tallest residential structure in the Western Hemisphere, offers NYC’s very highest habitable space and tops WTC’s roof height by 30 ft. Some entire floors are individual apartments, some floors are divided into two or more units, and all are serviced by one of four elevators that all open directly into occupants’ private living spaces. “The reason for this,” explains Blaiotta, “is that building owners avoid ‘wasted’ common space — such as corridors and vestibules —


that they would be unable to calculate into their marketable square footage.” This presented a couple of unique challenges, security and safety principal among them, as Blaiotta further explains: “For security, this situation required a swing door that closes in front of the apartment door and locks, with zero clearance between the doors for the safety of children and pets. While it’s fairly routine to create fire-rated zero clearance in masonry applications, it’s much more unusual to get one that’s fire rated in a drywall application, such as this building. Plus, these particular zero-clearance entrances were architecturally mandated to be 9-ft. tall, all of which we were able to achieve.” At 1717 Broadway in Times Square — a set of twin-pack Marriott hotels for which Columbia created the elevator entrances — it was a matter of aesthetics versus functionality. Blaiotta explains:

This page, clockwise from top: Marriott twin-pack hotels; 432 Park Avenue; 4 WTC (3 WTC shown in reflection) Opposite page, top to bottom: Carnegie Hall; Yankee Stadium

“Here, the architect wanted to bury the lobby entrance underneath marble. This is easy to do when it’s a center-opening entrance, but these elevators had singleslide doors, which presented a very difficult challenge. In the end, we came up with an inventive solution that resulted in

the unique, buried-in-marble look desired in the lobby, but that also worked with the conventional entrance treatments higher up the shaft, where there was no marble. We did this by building a smaller, partial sub-frame, adjacent to the doors, where the marble abuts, as opposed to placing the marble directly up to the doors.” According to Blaiotta, more and more commercial building owners are leaning toward single-slide elevators, since they can accommodate stretchers for Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) compliance. While many of these buildings feature marble lobbies, they often have multiple banks of elevators with center-opening doors (not ADA compliant) with an additional service elevator into which a stretcher will fit. Explains Blaiotta: “By contrast, each of these Marriott hotels has only two elevators and no such ADA-compliant service elevator. Their elevators needed to serve both functions — to move passengers, as well as bulky luggage and furniture — which meant they had to be single-speed side-sliding units, as opposed to center opening. Hence the challenge. The buried-in-marble approach in the lobby at first seemed prohibitive, because the door wouldn’t ‘know’ how far to open, but we devised a unique trim package, built directly into the fire-rated frame, to make the doors behave the same on the ground floor as they do on all the upper floors. To the best of my knowledge, this is the only single-slide installation of its kind in NYC.” In NYC’s borough of Brooklyn, Columbia provided the entrances for 29 Flatbush Avenue, one of that area’s first major high rises. Residential real estate is currently considered “red hot” in Brooklyn, increasingly serving a growing body of residents working in the lower-Manhattan financial district just across the East River. Development schedules here are competitive and aggressive, and, as Blaiotta explains: “In this case, since this was a rapidpour, fast-moving building, the prime objective was maximized speed and ease of installation. Using our QuikEnt® entrance tower, we made an intelligent sill support angle that was simple to adjust, level and plumb — much smaller and easy

Continued

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for the mechanic to set in exactly the right place, as opposed to having to do this with an entire entrance. Once the sill support angles were correctly positioned, the mechanics simply set preassembled entrances on the preinstalled angles, and the entrance installation process became streamlined and quick. We sent them the entrances knocked down, and they set up a staging area on a higher floor, where they assembled complete entrances in preparation for positioning on the alreadyinstalled angles. This was a unique solution for that particular job, where time was of the essence. “In New York, challenges come in all forms. For our Yankee Stadium job, they needed ultra-wide, two-speed, centeropening doors on gigantic passenger elevators to move large volumes of people at one time, similar in scope to a freight elevator, but, of course, not with vertical-parting freight doors. We were able to provide them with horizontally sliding passenger doors of enormous width. At Carnegie Hall, the architects wanted a large opening with a ‘pretty’ elevator to elegantly serve audiences at performances, but one that could also be used off-hours to move grand pianos and the like — functioning as a freight elevator without looking like one. Our solution was a 14-ft.-wide entrance with three-speed, centeropening doors in oxidized bronze — huge but beautiful. At a state courthouse, we were able to achieve ADA compliance by

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replacing two very small, manual swing-door elevators that were side by side in a duplex shaft with a single, larger elevator utilizing our fully automatic InWall, single-slide pocket-door system. “Such projects are representative of the specialty work that is our core business in NYC. Given our proximity to the city, it is easy for us to work face-to-face with the general contractor, the elevator contractor and the architect, all together, to produce a design that will fulfill the architectural objectives, while satisfying UL fire codes and other issues of compliance. And, geographically, we are able to invite the team to our factory, to touch and feel a physical mockup of the project.” Blaiotta, who sits on the Elevator Advisory Board of the NYC Department of Buildings, works through the approval process with the department’s engineers to ensure buildings Columbia works on will not require any kind of variance. “We work to adhere entirely to standard UL procedures,” notes Blaiotta, “to minimize or avoid potential variances. Dealing with a variance can be problematic, because you don’t always know if the result will be fire rated, so we work strategically to head that off wherever possible.” With 50 years under their belts of doing such work in NYC — and the Blaiotta family’s very beginnings there — Columbia’s principals express a deep, enduring bond with the city. Says Blaiotta: “My dad, Lou Blaiotta, Sr., who founded the company in 1965, was one of the original East Side Kids, born on 117th Street and Pleasant Avenue in East Harlem. Raised in a cold-water flat, he launched his career as a copyboy at Brooklyn’s Williamsburg Steel Products Co. and leveraged the knowledge of elevator doors he gained there into his own, more far-reaching manufacturing enterprise — a true Horatio Alger/ rags-to-riches story.” In fact, the “Columbia” name itself could not be more rooted in NYC: Blaiotta, Sr., chose it in honor of his father, who died in a hoistway lift accident at upperManhattan’s Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center and added a nod to his father-in-law, who was an NYC police officer and president of the Italian American Police Benevolent chapter known as the Columbia Association. “Look around the NYC skyline,” concludes Blaiotta, “and you see buildings containing our work practically everywhere. After a half century of solving problems and helping in our own little way to improve the quality of life here, we couldn’t feel more rewarded, proud and energized to address the challenges of the future!” Ralph M. Newman has written for ELEVATOR WORLD over the years and is a freelance writer with extensive experience in the elevator industry. Newman is a partner in Dott Communications, an Internet development company and advertising agency with several clients in the field.


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Readers Platform

View from Top of the Rock®, the observation deck atop Rockefeller Center, in December 2014; 432 Park Avenue, which, upon completion, will be one of the tallest residential buildings in the world, rises to the right. (photo by Jill Trent)

Business is Booming

in the Big Apple

The elevator industry is keeping up with the challenges and reaping the rewards of increased tall-building construction in NYC. by Kaija Wilkinson Tall-building construction in New York City (NYC) is at a historic high, and the elevator industry is reaping the rewards. The increased workload is not without its challenges, including having to comply with post-9/11 building and security codes and meeting the demands

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of ever-more-discerning customers. But, insiders say the industry is embracing the challenges as the wealth is distributed among OEMS, independents, suppliers and consultants. “When there are this many cranes on the horizon in Manhattan, it’s good for all of us,” states

Robert Pitney, director of independent elevator company TEI Group, which is experiencing growth in all areas of the company as a result of the building boom. OEMs are adding staff, too. Schindler’s NYC operation has grown its engineering, project management and


Market Trends

Modern and historic structures exist side by side in NYC, and elevator contractors are doing work in both. In the center is One WTC (photo by Marley White; ©NYC & Co.)

field-support departments as it handles projects such as Three and Four World Trade Center (WTC), 7 Bryant Park and residential super-skinny, supertalls 432 Park Avenue and 56 Leonard. Taking shape now, the latter two belong to a new breed of high rises that promises to give the NYC skyline a new look by 2018. Such buildings make sense in the NYC market, observes Sula Moudakis, Schindler high-rise/new-construction sales director for NYC. “In a competitive real-estate environment like New York’s, where the market values height, supertall, high-end office buildings and ultra-luxury condos with small footprints and less room for elevators are becoming more popular,” she says. All the glittering new arrivals have forced owners of older properties to renovate in order to, as Pitney states, “compete head to head with them.” It’s a

trend from which NYC independents, in particular, are benefitting. Nouveau Elevator is in the midst of its biggest job to date: the complete renovation of 25 cars and integration of destination-control systems on the elevators at Two Penn Plaza, a 29-story Midtown Manhattan building built in the late 1960s. Nouveau Principal Donald Speranza observes such projects create a cascade of business that flows to suppliers and others. Because of the project, he says, supplier Motion Control Technologies enjoyed one of its biggest orders ever. It is a similar scenario at Centennial Elevator Industries, which recently wrapped up a couple of noteworthy projects. Working with Van Deusen & Associates, it modernized 11 units in the 21-floor Hippodrome office building at 1120 Sixth Avenue in Midtown, and

another 11 units at 285 Madison Avenue, a historic office property that underwent a US$50-million overhaul after it changed hands in the wake of an elevator accident that grabbed headlines in 2011 when a young advertising executive was killed. Centennial President and Chief Operating Officer Richard T. L’Esperance said the biggest challenge of the heavy workload is being able to meet clients’ demands. “Since we are growing every day, it’s very difficult, but we are managing to get it done,” he states. D&D Elevator is enjoying a slice of the renovation pie, as well. The company has seen revenue and employment growth of 10-15% each year for the past several years, according to President/ CEO Bobby Schaeffer, who expects the trend to continue. “A majority of our work has been in the modernization of aging equipment,” he notes. Continued

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Clockwise from top left: Photo by Julienne Schaer, ©NYC & Co. Photo by Jen Davis; ©NYC & Co. KONE handled an elevator project at Madison Square Garden in 2013.

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Beyond Tall While it’s true NYC is getting some of its tallest buildings in years, many other types of projects are keeping workers busy. KONE’s new-installation business in NYC, for example, is primarily driven by mid-rise residential construction and retail, according to Patrick O’Connell, director of marketing and communications for KONE Americas. Companies are also winning jobs related to new and upgraded infrastructure, such as in the city’s subway systems. Some of the installations are groundbreaking, such as KONE’s escalators for a new subway station. There, workers installed units with a one-of-a-kind incline with a 90-ft. rise. Independents are getting in on infrastructure work, as well. Approximately four years ago, Nouveau began to step up its escalator-installation division, particularly related to infrastructure improvements. The effort is paying off in a big way now, according to Speranza, who states: “We’ve modernized over US$30 million worth of escalators for the [city’s Metropolitan Transport Authority] and have grown into one of the largest escalator companies in [NYC]. We now have over 20 escalator teams doing complete modernizations and installations, not only within the subway system but, [also] across the airports.” KONE reports the number of employees on its payroll in NYC has increased by nearly 10% over the past year, as it has added people in sales, project management and field resources. Although it has enough people to handle current jobs, other Continued challenges have emerged. O’Connell notes:

NYC Trends: Rope Grippers, Gearless Machines Stepped-up safety concerns may lead one to believe demand for HollisterWhitney RopeGrippers® in New York City is at an all-time high, but that isn’t the case. Doug Witham of GAL Manufacturing Corp. says that with the exception of the New York City Housing Authority, most property owners solve elevator-braking requirements by installing two brakes on a single disk in a gearless system. “The current trend is taking out geared machines and replacing them with gearless,” he observes. So, are Rope Grippers going the way of the dodo bird? “Not in our lifetime,” Witham says, noting that most systems worldwide use suspension ropes, and such systems continue to be the one of choice in developing countries. Business has increased for GAL – which carries an array of products – everywhere in the U.S., including in NYC. “As of about five months ago, we are back to 2008 numbers. I’ve got to tell you, I never thought I would see that again.”

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O’Connell

Rupe

Designing vertical-transportation systems for the new breed of thin supertalls comes with its own set of challenges, Moudakis points out. Their dainty footprints leave little room for elevators. “These matchstick buildings require the unique expertise of the engineering team – such as advanced sway analysis and precision wind and weather adjustments – which is often just as crucial as the technology itself to delivering the best ride quality and performance available,� she opines. That is good news for consultants such as Lerch Bates Inc., which is handling a heavier workload in NYC these days. Eric Rupe, Lerch Bates vice president, Central and Northeast U.S., says the company expects the current construction activity to continue for another three to five years. “We expect conditions to remain ideal for new construction projects to begin the design stages for at least another [15-33] months, before we see a tapering off to more sustainable levels,� he says. Syska Hennessy Group, which provides consulting and engineering services, recently oversaw the installation of 20

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Schaeffer

Complexity Adds Challenges

new elevators, 10 escalators and 14 moving walks that were part of the expansion of LaGuardia Airport. It has had a presence in NYC for more than 60 years, and the most recent years, while the most fruitful, have also been the most challenging, says Associate Partner Michelle Baratta. She points out that after 9/11, building codes changed dramatically, and the industry had to adjust. She observes: “The elevator industry was required to adapt to these changes in both the design and installation of elevator equipment. Security is now a major concern, as high-end security systems must be integrated with elevator systems. This can be tricky, as it will sometimes involve the integration of up to three disparate systems that are now required to work together, which is not always a smooth transition.â€? OEMs are developing new technology with an eye toward urbanization in big cities, such as NYC, where real estate is scarce and valuable. Due to their weight, elevator ropes are one of the main hindrances to going higher, observes O’Connell. That is where KONE hopes its UltraRopeTM, unveiled in 2013, will prove useful, since it is significantly lighter than traditional steel rope and allows for travel of up to 1 km (ELEVATOR WORLD, August 2013). New technologies, such as UltraRope – on which staggering amounts of time and money were spent – are a clear indicator of how much faith the big OEMs have in the future of tall buildings. In 2014, ThyssenKrupp Elevator announced MULTI, a ropeless, multiple-car system using maglev technology (EW, February 2015). The company aims to have the prototype operating in its new test tower next year. ThyssenKrupp Elevator believes NYC is among the growing metropolises worldwide that will benefit from MULTI. As of winter 2015, there had not yet been an announcement of ThyssenKrupp Elevator working with a skyscraper builder in NYC to incorporate the system, but the company certainly hopes that will change in the near future. The construction activity of NYC, not only in Manhattan but in the other boroughs as well, is great news for the elevator industry. What is going on in America’s largest city has created a mood of optimism among industry professionals. Being busy, they say, is a good problem to have.   đ&#x;Œ? Moudakis

“One challenge we’re facing right now is the expansion and growth of non-union general construction and non-union elevator-installation firms, which represents a potential challenge for our union workforce. Competing against companies with lower labor rates means we have to continuously be creative in order to find new efficiencies. It starts with building good products that are engineered to work well and be installed efficiently. Our skilled workforce also recognizes our business challenges and knows working both hard and intelligently are keys to meeting the growing demands of our industry.� Whether a union or merit shop, a skilled workforce is hard to build, says Schaeffer. Since the inception of third-party witnessing in 2009, many experienced elevator technicians have become licensed inspectors or third-party witnesses, leading to a major technician shortage, he says, adding that action is needed if that is going to change: “I foresee this problem continuing unless the union shops start to increase their number of candidates participating in apprenticeship training and the local merit shops get serious about delivering their own education programs. Both groups need to do more to deliver continuing-education opportunities to New York-area technicians.� D&D has in-house education programs, which Schaeffer says are vital to keeping up with growth.


Readers Platform Readers Platform

On the Same Page Your authors, from NYC-based TEI Group, address the need for an industrywide set of safety standards. by Ray Downs and Robert Pitney In an industry with such a high possibility of physical harm to our workforce, why is it taking so long for us to realize the critical need to define, design, develop, implement, test and verify a single, industrywide set of safe-work practices and procedures? Everyone in the U.S. must follow the U.S. Department of Labor’s OSHA standards. While a few companies

It is now time to develop one universal set of safety standards for our entire industry. go above and beyond these standards, many still do not have written safety programs in place and/or the resources to develop them. Under-resourced companies, while doing the best they can, can do little more than hope nothing happens to one of their employees. In an industry consisting of startups, mom-and-pop shops, billion-U.S.-dollar conglomerates and everything in between, there is one common thread we share: we are all elevator men and women, coming to work each day to earn a living for ourselves and our families. When one of our tradespeople experiences a serious – or, worse yet – fatal injury at work, the news will most likely first come from a colleague. Upon hearing such news, many of us express relief it was not one of our employees. However, this relief is tinged with dread, since we all know it could have happened to any one of us on any given day. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers and the American National Standards Institute, Inc., have already

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developed and published numerous codes and standards. These are intended to serve as the basis for the design, construction, installation, operation, testing, inspection, maintenance, alteration and repair of elevators, dumbwaiters, escalators, moving walks and material lifts. Unfortunately, they fail to address certain key issues, such as how to safely get on top of an elevator cab to perform routine maintenance. It is now time to develop a single, universal set of safety standards for the entire industry. They need to be written, adopted and deployed so we can eliminate the guesswork from the precautions our workers take in order to safely perform their jobs. Whether you’re a mom-andpop shop staffed with third-generation tradespeople or one of the international players, we can no longer afford to play by different sets of safety rules and practices. We envision a future where, in order to operate, an elevator company must first demonstrate it has a program through which it trains, deploys, tests and verifies employees on a defined set of standard, industry-specific safe-work practices. These practices will need to address both dated equipment still in service, but needing to be brought up to today’s standards, as well as highly advanced equipment coming online. It is time for all of us to work toward the unifying goal of a single set of safety standards for our entire industry. Only then can we truly become safer. To succeed, there are 10 safety standards, not new to the industry, we all need to adopt, related to the machine room, car top, pit/escalator and hoistway. They are: ♦♦ Lockout/tagout (machine room)

♦♦ Electrical safe-work practices (machine room) ♦♦ Jumper process (machine room) ♦♦ Top-of-car access/egress (car top) ♦♦ Fall protection (car top) ♦♦ Pit access/egress (pit/escalator) ♦♦ Mechanical stored energy (pit/escalator) ♦♦ False car, and running and working platforms (hoistway) ♦♦ Chainfalls/scaffolds/ladder safety (hoistway) ♦♦ Materials handling (hoistway)

Whether you’re a momand-pop shop staffed with third-generation tradespeople or one of the international players, we can no longer afford to play by different sets of safety rules and practices. Each of these processes comes with a detailed set of steps that must be followed. The steps must first be taught to employees, then deployed and implemented at the field-mechanic level. While we’re sure some companies already have such standards in place, we need the cooperation of unions, merit shops, independent companies and the big OEMs to unify the industry around standard safety processes. The end result will be a safer industry, bound together by one set of standards, in which the potential for pain and suffering endured by our workforce, and their families, is significantly reduced.


Elevator World Inc.’s Elevator Industry Field Employees’ Safety Handbook is a great starting point in this endeavor. We should contemplate positioning it as a template for industrywide safety standards. Using it in conjunction with practices and procedures already established by the likes of Otis, Schindler, ThyssenKrupp

Using [the Elevator Industry Field Employees’ Safety Handbook] in conjunction with practices and procedures already established by the likes of Otis, Schindler, ThyssenKrupp Elevator and KONE could produce a viable, single set of safety rules behind which we can all stand.

Elevator and KONE could produce a viable, single set of safety rules behind which we can all stand. First, we need to come together, and then work together to develop this universal set of standards. With that accomplished, all elevator companies, and the unions that represent the apprentices, mechanics and their families can stand united. Together, we can and will be a stronger and better educated industry suffering fewer accidents, injuries and fatalities, which will allow us to continue to thrive safely for decades to come. If this article seems a bit ahead of its time, we hope we will at least jump-start the dialogues that must be held in order to make our industry safer for all its workers. We need to talk about what we need to do better as an industry, through open dialogue during contract negotiations, at safety committee meetings and in the boardroom, so we can collectively make enhanced safety practices an industry priority sooner rather than later. We challenge each of you to have an open

mind in the pursuit of one set of safety standards for the elevator industry. Ray Downs is vice president of TEI Group. He has more than three decades of experience in environmental health and safety programs, human resources and project management. He holds myriad professional certifications, including from the OSHA Training Institute. Robert Pitney is a director at TEI Group, where he is tasked with bringing increased efficiency and effectiveness to the company. He has an extensive background developing, managing and troubleshooting information-technology systems, and has published numerous articles on enterprise resource planning.

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Readers Platform Project Spotlight

285 Madison Avenue Elevator modernization by Centennial, MCE, Magnetek helps transform historic office tower. by Ed Butte A classic 26-story office building at 285 Madison Avenue in New York City (NYC) underwent a renovation from a 1929 design to a contemporary office space with a distinctive entry, strong building identity and new elevators featuring Magnetek, Inc.’s Quattro® AC drives. This is the first U.S. installation of Quattro AC following successful installations in London; Toronto, Canada; and Melbourne, Australia, as well as other major cities. The transformation of 285 Madison began in 2012 when RFR Holdings LLC, in partnership with Green Oak, acquired the building. Immediately following the acquisition, the property’s managing agent, RFR Realty LLC, initiated a project to reposition and revitalize the building by updating the interior while

controls had not been updated for 30 years. Cab interiors were upgraded to include new fixtures, ceilings and glass sidewalls. Partnering on this project were installer Centennial Elevator Industries, Inc., one of New York’s largest elevator contractors; Motion Control Engineering (MCE), the controller manufacturer; and Magnetek. Maintaining the highest levels of functionality, comfort and safety were vital for the new elevator system. MCE iControl traction controllers; gearless machines from MCE’s sister company, Imperial Electric; and Quattro® AC elevator drives from Magnetek were ideally suited for the project, particularly due to the demanding installation

Partnering on this project were installer Centennial Elevator Industries, Inc., one of New York’s largest elevator companies; controller supplier Motion Control Engineering; and Magnetek, Inc., an elevator-drive designer and manufacturer. maintaining its classic design. Changes included an entirely new lobby, roof lounge, floor renovations, updated electrical and mechanical systems, and modernization of all elevator cabs and lifting systems. Elevator modernization included new platforms, buffers, door equipment, controllers, gearless machines and other mechanical components for improved operation. The DC-hoist elevator motors that were replaced were original to the building, and the elevator cabs and

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schedule. In an effort to improve energy efficiency and promote green building operations, existing motor-generator sets were replaced with 12 Magnetek Quattro AC drives. These drives harness regenerative energy to deliver up to 42% in energy savings over nonregenerative drives used in gearless applications. Quattro AC drives are the latest product in Magnetek’s line of technologically advanced, green elevator drives offering clean harmonics, lower

installation costs and high ride quality. The elevator drives’ precise, accurate controls provide smooth acceleration and deceleration, resulting in significantly improved performance. Jerry Schumm, executive vice president of RFR, elaborated: “We wanted all behind-the-scenes mechanical and electrical systems to live up to the same level of quality as the renovated areas available to our tenants. Quattro AC elevator drives integrated seamlessly into our building. They have been a great success, providing reliable service and performance for our elevators.” The incorporation of Quattro AC drives into 285 Madison’s elevator systems has resulted in faster floor-to-floor times, improved responsiveness and qualification for gold-level Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design certification, along with additional energy-efficiency building credits. Magnetek’s green elevator drives contribute to more efficient operations, matching the building’s modern, streamlined design. Full building renovations were scheduled to be complete in early 2015, featuring a direct-to-roof elevator providing tenant access to a rooftop lounge. Ed Butte has been with Magnetek for more than 33 years, serving in a variety of roles of increasing responsibility in the industrial controls and inverter businesses. He currently serves as director of Elevator and Mining Products. He holds a BS in Electrical Engineering from the University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana.


The view from an office on the 38th floor loses its thrill if the elevators don’t work.

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Benfield also carries Draka’s advanced Sure Stop™ rope brakes. Unlike other brakes, the all-electrical Sure Stop is easily installed and does not need a hydraulic system to work. Benfield is proud to stock Gustav Wolf wire ropes in constructions that are built specifically for American applications. These designs are optimized for conventional hoist installations as well as reverse bends and low-stretch performance.

Great components only work if you have them on hand. Benfield’s location in the Bronx gives our fleet of trucks easy access to greater NYC. Experienced staff takes your orders, and just-in-time delivery is free in all five boroughs. Keep New York running with the finest in cable, wire rope and components being delivered by the best distributor in the city. Benfield Electric. We know elevators.

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Readers Platform

Never Too Tall or Too Thin Supertalls are redefining the 57th Street skyline. by Nikolai Fedak New York City (NYC) is undergoing a skyscraper boom the likes of which it has never seen before, and the number of towers taller than 1,000 ft. is increasing every year. But changes at the very top will be, by far, the most dramatic. Well over a dozen structures will soon cross the 1,000-ft. threshold, but only a few will approach 1,500 ft. These are the towers that will characterize the peaks of NYC’s future skyline. 432 Park Avenue is the most notable addition to the skyline since the rise of One World Trade Center (One WTC), from which it nabbed the title of NYC’s tallest building (at least in terms of roof height). As of January, it stood 1,397 ft. above the streets of Midtown Manhattan. It was designed by architect Rafael Viñoly, and exercises a concrete but temporary rule over the surrounding plateau of skyscrapers — much like the city’s previous “tallest residential” titleholder, One57, though by a significantly wider margin. But, alas, the skyscraper forest that sprawls underneath 432 Park’s dominion will soon be

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punctuated by additional supertowers of even greater heights, all within a few surrounding blocks. Perhaps the most marvelous of these is 111 West 57th Street, which will rise out of the historic Steinway Building’s old backyard. The building’s widest side will measure approximately 60 ft. in length, while it will stand 1,421 ft. tall. Those marveling at the slenderness of 432 Park will be even more amazed by the dimensions of its new — and slightly taller — neighbor, which will be far skinnier. Designed by SHoP Architects and developed by JDS Development and Property Markets Group, the willowy vision will be clad in terracotta tiles and laced with ribbons of bronze, offering a modern interpretation on classic materials that have long defined the NYC skyline. At its roof, the building will be crowned by glass and metal, offering another contrast to its austere and cast-concrete Park Avenue sibling. While the super-thin and ultra-luxury residential towers at 432 Park and 111 West 57th will scrape similar heights, it is the


Market Trends

111 West 57th Street (image courtesy of JDS Development); opposite page: 432 Park Avenue

Designed by SHoP Architects and developed by JDS Development and Property Markets Group, the willowy vision [at 111 West 57th Street] will be clad in terracotta tiles and laced with ribbons of bronze, offering a modern interpretation on classic materials that have long defined the NYC skyline. future Nordstrom Tower at 217 West 57th Street that will claim the crown for all of Midtown. Developer Extell has not officially revealed its design, but drawings indicate a spire height of 1,775 ft. and a roof height coming in just shy of 1,500 ft. The latter number means it will become the tallest building in North America, topping even the Willis Tower in Chicago, though the spire leaves its ultimate pinnacle just a few feet shy of the mast atop One WTC. Adrian Smith + Gordon Gill Architecture is designing. At its base, the Nordstrom Tower will have its namesake Seattle department store’s NYC flagship, spanning nearly 200,000 sq. ft. Of course, the residential portion is what pushes the tower to its ultimate pinnacle.  Perhaps more challenging than the height of 217 West 57th Street is the site’s configuration, as it will cantilever over a neighboring low-rise structure. The tower will protrude from the mixed-use lower levels approximately 300 ft. above street level, and while it won’t be visible on the overall skyline,

developers are now constructing buildings one on top of the other, showing just how crunched NYC is for land. 432 Park Avenue should wrap up construction this year, while foundation work is underway on both 111 and 217 West 57th Street. The former is expected to open in 2017, while the latter will be finished in 2018. Nikolai Fedak is founder and editor-in-chief of New York YIMBY (www.newyorkyimby.com). He moved to NYC in 2008 to study Political Science at Fordham University’s Lincoln Center campus. Upon graduating in 2011, he began working for the Clinton Global Initiative, during which time he founded New York YIMBY. After learning the publishing business at Surface Magazine in 2012, he began full-time work on YIMBY in 2013. When he isn’t writing or snapping photos of the city skyline, he can be found speaking about new development on industry panels.   March 2015 • ELEVATOR WORLD

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Company Spotlight

Oleo International World’s largest elevator buffer just the latest in innovations from British company

by Lee Freeland Oleo International, a company specialising in crash energy management systems, designs, manufactures and supplies products across multiple sectors worldwide, focusing on the elevator, railway and industrial markets. The firm employs 265 worldwide, with 220 based in Coventry, U.K. With other operations in China, Germany, the U.S. and an office in India, Oleo exports 95% of its products and supplies its buffer range to all leading elevator manufacturers.

(positioned at the bottom of elevator shafts) are designed to provide a vital safety mechanism for elevator systems. While Oleo had already designed, manufactured and installed buffers supporting elevator speeds of 11.62 mps, technology to cope with speeds in excess of 20 Continued mps had not been available.

Oleo credits its success to how well it knows its product and the markets around the world in which it participates, and its investment in people, processes and British engineering. After two years of R&D and an investment in excess of GBP1.5 million (US$2.36 billion), the company has had its HSL 115 and HSL 72 high-speed elevator buffers certified to industry standards EN 81-1/2:1998 and GB 7588-2003. This means the products are now available worldwide. Oleo reported that, as of November 2014, it had already received orders in excess of GBP1 million (US$1.57 million) for these products. They are currently undergoing testing at the company’s 33-m-tall test tower in Coventry, U.K., which it calls “the largest such facility in the world” (ELEVATOR WORLD, May 2014). Intended as an enabling technology for the installation of high-speed elevators in ultra-highrise buildings, Oleo’s HSL range is available in multistage heights and is compatible with elevator speeds of up to 20 mps. The buffers

Key to the technical advancements in Oleo’s new high-speed elevator buffer design is the shift from single-phase construction to two- and four-stage telescopic buffers. The multistage feature minimizes the stroke and overall height of the buffer, allowing for an easier and more cost-effective installation process by saving critical space in the elevator shaft. March 2015 • ELEVATOR WORLD

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In-house simulation software and testing equipment help Oleo develop new technologies.

An Oleo office and service center opened in Germany in 2013.

Oleo described the need for such products thusly: “While China is the world elevator and new high-rise-building market leader, an increase in the construction of skyscrapers is taking place in many other countries. At the same time, building managers require faster elevators to enable efficient movement of larger numbers of people around these vast buildings. After identifying this global demand for these larger-scale safety-critical products, we developed a new telescopic elevator buffer designed to be used at such high speeds and still be capable of safe average deceleration of 1 G.” Oleo’s latest elevator buffer range has been driven by market demand from developing countries. The certification comes at a time when other companies in the industry have also pushed the boundaries – notably, KONE with the introduction of its UltraRope (ELEVATOR WORLD, August 2013) and Hitachi, which is installing what is to be the world’s fastest elevator at the Continued

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History, Philosophy and Organization Oleo International’s history begins in 1934, when cofounder Peter Thornhill developed an undercarriage strut using a free-floating piston. This breakthrough led to the Oleo rail buffer, a product the company still manufactures and exports today. After many years of R&D for a hydraulic railroad buffer, Thornhill lodged a patent in 1951 for the first practical design for a self-contained hydraulic buffer for railroad rolling stock. In 1952, he established Oleo Pneumatics Ltd. under the entrepreneurial influence of fellow cofounder Jack Onions. By 1960, Oleo was supplying 1,000 hydraulic buffers to British Rail every week. In 1971, the company realized the potential for the product to be used in the industrial market. By 1976, it had developed its primary range of industrial buffers. Shortly after the opening of a new 10,000-m2 manufacturing facility that year, the company expanded its

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buffer range further when it introduced its lightweight range of elevator buffers. Oleo credits its success to how well it knows its product and the markets around the world in which it participates, and its investment in people, processes and British engineering. Its thorough apprenticeship program promotes the company’s philosophy of developing staff for long-term careers at Oleo. It also heavily funds R&D to develop crash energy management solutions to make a significant safety difference in multiple global markets and industries. TA Savery Group acquired Oleo in 2009. The group also includes Savery Hydraulics, a leading expert in the design and manufacture of hydraulic solutions, including large bespoke systems, electrohydraulic control systems and small individual units.


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HOMELIFT QUARTZ: FREEDOM FROM BASEMENT TO LOFT More and more people want to live comfortably in familiar surroundings for as long as possible. But sometimes the stairs in their homes represent an unsurpassable barrier. For this reason LM has developed the Quartz Homelift, which is approved by Machinery Directive. It has automatic car and landing doors, which can be central or side opening. Through car or adjacent entries are possible. Due to the gearless drive, it is very quiet and extremely energy-efficient. The Quartz Homelift is operated by automatic drive system and only requires a single phase supply. With a shaft pit of just 100 mm and minimum headroom of 2450 mm, you can serve up to 7 stops, so your client has the opportunity to exploit the whole house as living space, from the basement to the loft. Give your client barrier-free freedom, because our motto is: With know-how to the top!

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Oleo regularly participates in the Interlift exhibition. Here, its booth displays intricate models of its elevator buffers.

CTF Finance Centre in Guangzhou, China (EW, June 2014), to be completed in 2016. Though companies in Asia also produce elevator buffers, Oleo feels it has the advantage of more engineering experience and a uniquely performing product. Internationally, Oleo has an office and manufacturing facility in China, an office and service center in Germany, a distribution center in the U.S. and a sales office in India. Servicing on its products is performed by local shops it certifies. In 2014, it announced that Lift Solutions Inc. will provide its sales and technical support in the U.S. and Canada (EW, December 2014).

Selected Installation Sites Oleo credits much of its success and current sales growth to offering a complete range of elevator buffers to compete in both the low- and high-speed segments of the market. The following buildings in which its products are installed speak to the diversity and longevity of the company’s work: Petronas Tower, Kuala Lumpur Taipai 101, Taipei Shanghai World Financial Center, Shanghai Jin Mao Building, Shanghai Burj Khalifa, Dubai World Trade Center, New York City Empire State Building, New York City Al Hamra Tower, Kuwait City, Kuwait Eiffel Tower, Paris Tokyo Skytree, Tokyo Oriental Pearl Tower, Shanghai

T.A. Savery & Co. Ltd., trading as Oleo International, is accredited in accordance with ISO/IEC 17025:2005 general requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories. Oleo International is a U.K. Accreditation Service-accredited testing laboratory (number 7778). The schedule of accreditation, which bears the same accreditation number, is available at www.ukas. com. It can test its own products and those of other companies at this laboratory (EW, June 2014). Additionally, the company’s buffer certification and approvals include EN 81.1, ASME A17.1, đ&#x;Œ? GB 7588 and EK 1002.  

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Engineering

A New Method for Measuring Escalator or Moving Walk Overspeed and Anti-Reverse Protection A testing system that uses an advanced single-chip microcontroller that can produce simulated overspeed and low-speed signals to test escalator or moving-walk protection by Junhua Shen, Yihui Ruan, Rongfeng Lu and Jihnhua Ye With the development of the economy and social progress in China, elevators, escalators and moving walks have become more and more important for everyday life. Accidents in which escalators and moving walks have run at reverse speed or at a very fast speed have occurred in recent years around the world, calling greater attention to riders’ safety. Now, most escalator and moving-walk manufacturers make use of speed sensors to monitor running speed in real time. A controller can receive the speed signals from these sensors and determine whether the units are running at a speed slower or faster than normal. For many controllers, low-speed protection is considered unintentional reverse running protection.

This article introduces a new testing system that can make use of an advanced single-chip microcontroller that can produce simulated overspeed and low-speed signals to test escalator or moving walk overspeed and anti-reverse protection. The model is characterized by simple structure, small volume, high response speed and high reliability. The design of the escalator or moving walk must demand that it will stop when it unintentionally runs in reverse or its rated speed exceeds 120%. To test the validity of the design, this method is studied to inspect overspeed and anti-reverse protection of the escalator or moving walk. This speed-measurement equipment includes an OEM-supplied stationary Continued

Figure 1: Structure of a typical escalator

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speed sensor. Though some sensors are fixed near the driving-chain sprocket, most are fixed near the flywheel. The measured targets are either holes or electromagnets. If these run face-to-face with the stationary speed sensors, the output of the sensors will be high or low. The output frequency of the sensor changes with the change of the escalator or moving walk speed.

The Principle of Measurement If accidental reversing of an escalator or moving walk operating in the up direction happens, the unit will slow down, and its speed will be below 80% in the up direction, then above 120% in the down direction. At this time, the overspeed and anti-reverse protection device is activated, the motor is turned off, and the brake is activated, bringing the escalator or moving walk to a smooth stop.

Figure 2: Hardware composition

The speed sensor can monitor the flywheel or sprocket speed, as well as avoid reversing. The speed sensor (proximity switch) is an automotive tachometer that generates a square waveform with a frequency proportional to the speed of the escalator or moving walk. When the unit is moving slowly, the sensor produces a low-frequency signal. As its speed increases, the sensor produces a higher-frequency signal. When the unit runs at normal speed, the output frequency of the sensor is a fixed value. Most OEMS simulate an overspeed or a low-speed signal to test overspeed and anti-reverse protection through parameter setup. However, FROM THE ELEVATOR ESCALATOR SAFETY FOUNDATION different manufacturers have different testing methods. Equipment inspectors cannot be familiar with each. Meanwhile, inspectors cannot inspect the speed sensors; it is difficult to judge if the sensors are good or bad. This instrument adapts the main circuit board, including a single-chip microcontroller, to receive pulse signals from a speed sensor. These signals are converted into an escalator or moving walk speed value and stored in the microcontroller’s memory. When an escalator or moving walk runs at a rated speed, the outputs of the speed sensor are The mission of the fixed pulse signals. If an escalator or moving Elevator Escalator walk runs reversely, the output pulse Safety Foundation is to frequency of the speed sensor will be educate the public on different from the pulse of fixed-pulse signals. the safe and proper use If the speed of a unit is higher than its rated of elevators, escalators EESF is re-branding the successful Safe T Rider® speed, the output frequency of the speed and moving walks Safety Education Program that has reached sensor is higher than its rated frequency. through informational millions of children in North America and Canada. This microcontroller can produce more programs. For more EESF is actively fundraising to match the $75,000 than 120% and less than 80% of its rated information visit our released by the William C. Sturgeon Fund to output frequency. The unit running speed is website, www.eesf.org. support the project costs. proportional to the output frequency of the This is a one-time, special project and donations speed sensor. The main circuit board utilizes received are completely separate from our annual these values to simulate overspeed and campaign that supports operations. For more low-speed signals, putting them into the information about this vital project, or to make main circuit board of an escalator or moving a donation, contact Nikole Gore-Layton, nikole@ Elevator Escalator walk. Inspectors can judge the unit’s eesf.org or 251-479-2199. Safety Foundation overspeed and anti-reverse protection Thank you to the Elevator World staff and 356 Morgan Ave function from its operational status. board members for their continued support of Mobile, AL 36606 the Elevator Escalator Safety Foundation. (800) 949-6442

Happy New Year

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Hardware Composition

The system is composed of both hardware and software (Figures 2 and 3). Continued

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When connecting the data terminal of the instrument to the output port of the speed sensor, the measured pulse frequency at normal speed, more than 120% and less than 80% of pulse frequency can be seen on the display screen. Inspectors can press “+” or “-” to acquire different pulse frequency and determine when the escalator or moving walk will stop.

Software Design

Figure 3: Software flowchart

The former component includes a single-chip microcontroller, key, display screen and detecting port. The core of the hardware is the microcontroller (model 89E564RD2). The microcontroller can be considered a self-contained system with a processor, memory and peripherals, and can be used as an embedded system. The device relates to a key input processing circuit for processing key input data and transmitting the processed data to the microcomputer. The output signals, which are generated by the microcontroller, are sent to the main circuit board of an escalator or moving walk. These signals simulate impulse signals generated by the unit.

The C programming language is used when programming the single-chip microcontroller, which is powerful when processing data. Elevator inspectors can set up parameters by pressing “+” or “-.” The system can simulate overspeed and low-speed signals, which are proportional to the frequency of pulse signals generated by the speed sensor. The control software is implemented in the programming environment of µVision4. Junhua Shen, Rongfeng Lu and Jihnhua Ye are engaged in elevatorinspection work at the Jiangsu Special Equipment Safety Supervision Inspection Institute, Suzhou, China, branch. Yihui Ruan is an engineer active in elevator electrical control study and inspection work at the Jiangsu Special Equipment Safety Supervision Inspection Institute, Suzhou, China, branch. He holds a master’s degree in Automation from Soochow University in Suzhou.

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History

Early Electric Elevator Controllers, Part Two Continued examination of a 1913 elevator catalog explains the technical operation of controllers, accessories and safeties, and sheds new light on the role of the elevator operator. by Dr. Lee Gray EW Correspondent In 1913, Cutler-Hammer Manufacturing Co. of Milwaukee produced an extensive catalog of its products that provides a unique glimpse into the world of early electric elevators and controllers. The elevator portion of its catalog was composed of individual bulletins, which included 25 bulletins on controllers for DC motors, 15 bulletins on controllers for AC motors and 29 bulletins on accessories for electric elevator systems. Part One of this article (ELEVATOR WORLD, February 2015) provided an overview of controllers designed for use with DC motors and examined several of these controllers’ typical operational features and components. This concluding segment will address additional controller features, car equipment, the role of the operator, and the application of Cutler-Hammer controllers and equipment to elevator machines built by various regional companies. The possibility or prospect of the elevator operator playing a role in elevator operation beyond simply “driving” the car was touched on in Part One. In the description of its “try-out switch,” Cutler-Hammer once again implied that the typical operator played an important role in ensuring efficient and safe elevator operation. The try-out switch was mounted on the face of the controller switchboard and was designed to permit the operation of the elevator from the machine room for “test purposes.” The switch consisted of a “single lever locked in the central position.” When in this position, it completed “the circuit to the car switch.” According to the author of Bulletin 7110, “Direct Current Reversible Two Speed Full Magnet Controllers for High Speed Passenger Elevators”:

“Operators are usually instructed to go to the switchboard every morning before entering the car and to test the operation of the elevator by means of the try-out switch, so as to be sure that every part of the installation is operating properly. In this way, the car can be run up and down the hatchway several times each morning, testing not only the controlling apparatus, but the motor, limit-switches, brake solenoids, etc.” And, as it was “not possible to operate the elevator from the car while the try-out switch” was in use, the test runs could occur without risk to passengers. This proposed testing procedure implied the elevator operator would be sufficiently trained in the controller’s operation to effectively judge – by looking solely at the opening and closing of relays and switches – that “every part of the installation” was operating properly. Although it is probable that, in some settings, elevator operators were trained to do more than run the car, it seems unlikely they would have received technical training on controller operations. However, another feature designed specifically for the elevator operator is more plausible in its possible use. Whereas the try-out switch was imagined as being used at the start of the day, the service switch, designed to take the elevator out of service, was primarily intended for use at the end of the day. Cutler-Hammer acknowledged the service switch was not a new feature; however, the company claimed the switch’s typical location was often problematic: “It happens sometimes that the main line knife-switch ordinarily used as a service switch cannot be so located that it may be conveniently opened at night, or at other times when the Continued

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KEB’s SPI Encoder Learn takes 24 seconds to complete. The absolute encoder position of a permanent magnet (PM) motor must be learned. This process used to require that the elevator car was unroped or balanced. This was a big pain if the encoder position needed to be relearned for an existing installation. The process could take a mechanic hours to complete. KEB’s stationary pole identification, or SPI, is a solution to the problem. SPI allows the absolute encoder position to be learned under the brake. SPI works reliably with a variety of different motor designs and types. And it only takes 24 seconds. SPI is one more reason KEB is the preferred elevator drive for PM machines.

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elevator is idle for considerable periods. This condition is frequently met in buildings where the elevator machine is installed at the top of the hatchway, or on the roof, and unless some provision is made for opening the circuit to the motor from the car, or from one of the lower floors of the building, the operator will be obliged to leave the elevator at the top of [the] hatchway each night, walking downstairs every evening and upstairs every morning.” The solution was to add “a main line solenoid switch with magnetic blow-out” to the controller. This switch acted as a “single-pole service switch” and remained closed while the elevator was in operation. The operator turned the service switch on and off via the car safety switch or “through any single-pole pilot switch installed on the landing at which the operator usually quits the elevator for the night.” The car safety switch consisted of “a single-pole switch enclosed in a cast iron box” and was intended to “ensure the stopping of the elevator even should some accident render the regular control from the car switch inoperative” (Figure 1).

Figure 1: Car safety switch, Cutler-Hammer Bulletin 7790, “Elevator Car Safety Switch”

The controller was also used to govern the operation of the elevator engine brake, which could be either a mechanical or dynamic (electric) brake system. Several types of Cutler-Hammer controllers were designed for elevators that employed both types of brake, as their combined use was perceived as complementary: “In any form of elevator braking – mechanical or electric – the energy represented by the inertia of the moving parts must be dissipated in the form of heat in order to stop the motor. In mechanical braking, this energy is transformed into heat by the friction of the brake shoe. In electric braking, it is transformed into heat by causing the motor to generate current and dissipating this energy in a resistance provided for that purpose – the dynamic brake resistance. Hence, when the dynamic brake is used in connection with the mechanical brake, the effectiveness of the latter is increased, since it is not called upon to arrest a full-powered motor, but one which has already been deprived of a portion of its energy by having a resistance shunted across its armature terminals.” Continued

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Figure 2: Car switch, Cutler-Hammer Bulletin 7730, “Elevator Car Switch – Cutler-Hammer Type”

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Figure 3: Hatchway limit switch, Cutler-Hammer Bulletin 7770, “Single Pole Hatchway Limit Switch – Cutler-Hammer Type”

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The accessories referenced above, with the exception of the safety switch, were not the subjects of individual catalog bulletins. They were apparently considered normative controller features or options. The 29 bulletins on elevator controller accessories addressed such features as car safety switches, car-operation Continued

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switches, limit switches, hatchway limit switches, slack-cable switches, elevator-door safety switches, floor stop devices and emergency-stop buttons. The car-operation switch required the operator to maintain pressure on the control lever to run the elevator. The CutlerHammer switch featured a button on top of the control lever that was pressed to release the lever and that had to be continually pressed while the car was moving (Figure 2). If the operator released the button, the lever automatically returned to the center position, and the car stopped. This design ensured “constant watchfulness on the part of the operator” and served as “a safeguard against accident should injury or illness befall the operator while the car is in motion.” Cutler-Hammer manufactured a variety of limit switches designed to be used in conjunction with the elevator winding drum; these included rotating-cam, traveling-cam, single-speed, two-speed, two-speed and slowdown, and track-type limit switches. A less-expensive option was the Cutler-Hammer

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Figure 5: Tandem-gear winding-drum machine, Haughton Elevator, CutlerHammer Bulletin 7099, “Index and General Description: Direct Current Elevator Controller”

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Figure 6: Winding-drum machine, Marshall Elevator, Cutler-Hammer Bulletin 7099


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hatchway limit switch that consisted of a “pivoted arm carrying a large roller at one end and a carbon contact button at the other,” which was mounted on a slate base (Figure 3). If the car failed to stop before it reached the switch, the roller would contact a cam on the car that pushed the roller back and opened the control circuit. The elevator-door safety switch prevented the elevator’s operation if the door were open. Cutler-Hammer reported, “This switch finds its widest application in connection with push button controlled elevators, but is sometimes installed, as an additional safeguard, in elevators operated by an attendant.” Cutler-Hammer also designed several devices intended for use with “push button controlled electric passenger elevators or dumbwaiters.” These included the floor-stop device and emergency-stop button. The operation of the floor-stop device (Figure 4) was described as follows: “This device should preferably be geared directly to the winding drum on the elevator machine. . . . The operation of the floor stop device is positive. There is a relay for each floor, and this relay is actuated by a push-button properly marked. The relay, in operating, releases a catch, which drops a contact finger against one of two copper strips. These strips travel around the wheels on the floor stop device and are insulated from each other by a fiber ‘knock-out’ block, which resets the relay finger, and this stops the car. One of these strips makes contact with the ‘up’ reverse switch, while the other one makes contact with the ‘down’ reverse switch. The position of the ‘knock-out’ block on the floor stop device. . . corresponds to the position of the car in the hatchway.” The emergency-stop button, connected to a “solenoid on the floor stop device,” was designed to “bring the car quickly to rest, at Continued any point in its travel.”

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Figure 7: Belt-driven machine, Nock & Garside Elevator, Cutler-Hammer Bulletin 7099

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Figure 8: Push-button winding-drum machine, Bay State Elevator, CutlerHammer Bulletin 9699, “Index and General Description: Alternating Current Elevator Controllers�

Cutler-Hammer discussed almost all of the accessories addressed thus far in the context of controllers for DC motors. Although the company did build 14 types of controllers for AC motors (primarily utilized on belt-driven freight elevators, slow-speed passenger elevators and dumbwaiters), this system, while slowly gaining in popularity, was perceived as more limited in its potential: “The alternating current induction motor is being used more and more for driving elevators, and, while admirably adapted for some classes of elevator service, it possesses certain definite limitations, which should be taken into account when deciding on what type of motor to use. It is not possible to vary the speed of the ordinary induction motor under all conditions of load, nor is it ever possible to employ with it the dynamic brake used with the direct current motor; hence, the use of alternating current motors is limited to slow speed elevators, which may be slowed down and

stopped by the mechanical brake alone. Until. . . a variable speed alternating current motor is developed and placed on the market, the use of an induction motor with high speed passenger elevators should not be attempted.â€? In addition to pictures of individual controllers and other components, several of the bulletins also featured pictures of elevator machines equipped with Cutler-Hammer controllers. The images of complete installations included machines built by Haughton Elevator Co. (Toledo), Marshall Elevator Co. (Pittsburgh), Nock & Garside Elevator Co. (Denver) and Bay State Elevator Co. (Agawam, Massachusetts) (Figures 5-8). The Haughton, Marshall and Nock & Garside machines all utilized Schureman-type controllers. The Haughton elevator used a Type 7565 Full-Magnet Reversing Elevator Controller (standing behind the electric motor), while the Marshall elevator employed a Type 7500 Semi-Mechanical Controller (mounted on top of the electric motor). The Nock & Garside machine was a ceiling-mounted, belt-driven freight elevator that employed a Type 7510 Single Speed Reversible Controller (located on a platform adjacent to the gearing). The Bay State elevator featured a Type 9828 Alternating Current Push Button Controller (mounted on the wall) and a Type 7085 Floor Stop Device (located to the left of the winding drum). The geographic diversity of the elevator companies represented – from Massachusetts to Colorado – speaks to Cutler-Hammer’s importance in the development and production of electric elevators. This brief survey of Cutler-Hammer’s 1913 catalog bulletins has attempted to provide new insights into the operation of early electric elevators. The bulletins illustrate and explain the technical operation of controllers, accessories and safeties, and shed new light on (and prompt new questions about) the role of the elevator operator. Finally, this material also serves as a set of visual “keys,â€? which may be used to unlock part of the mystery of the machinery often depicted in photographs of historic elevators.   đ&#x;Œ?

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Events

Metro partnered with Susan G. Komen to raise awareness and funds for breast cancer research.

Ride the Pink Elevator Metro Elevator partners with Susan G. Komen to help find a cure for breast cancer. by Rachelle Brown It was an innocent enough idea at the time. “I wonder what would happen if we painted them pink and turned them into goodwill ambassadors,” Metro Elevator’s executive vice president, Roger Brummett, thought out loud as he watched Metro’s paint professional, Dave Picco, spraypaint one of Metro’s 6000-lb.capacity construction hoists. Brummett was trying to conceive of a way to further build brand recognition and help the 44-year-old

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company do something unique that would differentiate it from other providers of hoisting and lifting services nationwide. The company had earned a positive reputation as a regional player, supplying construction and material hoists for major construction projects; but, there was this sense that the time was right to expand its marketing reach across the continent.

It’s Personal Brummett and Metro Elevator owner and CEO Charlie Ernstes tossed around a number of ideas on how to grow the company’s name recognition. They had already succeeded as corporate sponsors of a racecar in the Verizon IndyCar Series and the Indianapolis Colts in Metro’s hometown of Indianapolis. Sponsorships


(l-r) Detroit Race for the Cure Director Katrina Studvent, your author, Komen Michigan Executive Director Jennifer Jurgens, The Habitat Co. Vice President of Property Management Ted Verner, Ann Arbor-based developer Dan Ketelaar and Metro Elevator Executive Vice President Roger Brummett

like these were and continue to be an effective means of entertaining customers at events and building and fostering relationships with their corporate guests. However, Brummett and Ernstes wanted to do something more. They wanted to find a way to not only make Metro Elevator synonymous with construction hoists, buck hoists, material lifts and rack-andpinion elevators; they also wanted to be known for making a difference beyond the construction site. The two discussed the idea of a pink elevator and the potential for it to raise awareness and funds on behalf of breast cancer research. Brummett had lost a grandmother to breast cancer at a young age. He saw firsthand the personal and

emotional devastation of the dreaded disease. Both men had friends and relatives who had also been affected. To help find a cure for breast cancer would be a worthy endeavor.

A Serendipitous Partnership For several weeks, the idea churned inside the walls of Metro. Brummett suggested they reach out to the local affiliate office of Susan G. Komen, the world’s foremost breast cancer education and research organization. He was introduced to the local director, Natalie Sutton. Several conversations ensued between them, both by phone and in person. Komen representatives visited Metro Elevator’s shop on the east side of Indianapolis to watch a construction hoist

operate on a test tower. After witnessing Metro’s capabilities and enthusiasm for the idea, Sutton was convinced it was worth pursuing. Sutton began coordinating phone meetings with key thought leaders and managers within Susan G. Komen’s corporate offices in Dallas and with Metro representatives to further vet the idea and determine how to best make it work. Weeks of planning and plotting began to unfold into a strategy. The idea of “Ride the Pink Elevator” began to evolve, but it was not yet fully green-lighted. A serendipitous event, seemingly innocuous at the time, would send everything spiraling into orbit. Sutton told Brummett about an upcoming “Pink Tie Ball” at a conference Continued

The Michigan affiliates of Susan G. Komen are honored to have been chosen as the benefactors from the first ‘Ride the Pink Elevator’ project in Ann Arbor, Michigan. Unique projects like this reach a new audience for us: construction subcontractors (many of whom are male). Breast cancer affects everyone, and thanks to Metro Elevator, we’re getting a whole new group of people educated and aware of how they can help fight breast cancer in their own community. Real men can and do wear pink and help save lives!

March 2015 • ELEVATOR WORLD

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facility near the famed Indianapolis Motor Speedway. Brummett asked Sutton if she was aware of Metro Elevator’s involvement with IndyCar. She replied that she wished she had known sooner, because she would love to have had an IndyCar driver as a celebrity guest for the gala. Coincidentally, Brummett and Ernstes had had a lunch meeting the day before with female racecar-driver Pippa Mann about sponsorship opportunities for the upcoming Indy 500. Brummett contacted Mann, and four days later, she, along with Brummett and his wife, Rachelle, attended the Pink Tie Ball in Speedway, Indiana. Mann became acquainted with a number of Komen representatives. Four months later, she qualified in a pink car for the Indianapolis 500. Adorned in Susan G. Komen colors and the signature Komen “Running Ribbon,” Mann finished 22nd, setting off a social-media firestorm and raising funds based on the number of laps she completed. Her garage was deluged with well-wishers, many of whom were breast-cancer survivors who flocked to meet her, or seek a photo opportunity or autograph. Attending that Indianapolis 500 on behalf of Komen was Director of Corporate Relations Carrie Glasscock; Director of Major Gifts Lynn Sellers, and, lastly, none other than Nancy Brinker, Komen’s founder and Global Strategy chair. Metro representatives were able to interact on a personal level with these three key individuals about “Ride the Pink Elevator.” Brinker was able to give her personal support behind the idea: “I think it is fantastic and unique, and could be very exciting for us.” With the combination of their spectacular experience with Mann, the opportunity to explore Metro’s crazy idea face to face and the sense that it could be big, “Ride the Pink Elevator on Behalf of Susan G. Komen with Metro Elevator” was on its way to being launched.

Top left: (l-r) Verner, Ketelaar, Studvent, Jurgens, Komen Michigan Development Director Tanya Horan, First Lady of Michigan Sue Snyder, Komen Michigan Community Events Coordinator Claire Van Raaphorst, your author, Clayco Senior Project Manager Rob Williams, and Brummett Bottom left: Metro partners with general contractors by supplying pink construction hoists for their projects.

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This has been so much more than I ever hoped for and a lesson in what happens if you decide to dream big and think a little bit outside the box.

– Roger Brummett

Time to Launch It took a number of weeks to properly establish an agreement between Komen and Metro. A full-time campaign director, Rachelle Brown, was hired by Metro to manage the mechanics of the program, interact with participants and ensure the program would be a success. Brummett and Brown then began to introduce the idea to Metro’s customer base with high hopes for participation. Little did they know just how enthusiastically the idea would be received. Metro Elevator made its first presentation to Clayco, Inc., a Chicago-based design-and-build company, then developing a 14-story project in Ann Arbor, Michigan. Brown and Brummett presented the “Ride the Pink Elevator” concept to key executives, and they jumped on board immediately.

How It Works Metro Elevator partners with a general contractor to provide a construction hoist for one of its projects. The general contractor agrees to have the construction elevator placed on the jobsite to be painted pink and to engage all of the subcontractors on the project to raise funds on behalf of Komen during a portion of that project’s lifecycle. Metro Elevator works with the general contractor and provides it all the fundraising materials and guidance necessary to ensure the success of the campaign. All participating contractors and subcontractors agree to engage their respective employees to make pledges based on the number of revolutions the pink elevator will make during the fundraising portion of the campaign. A counter is

placed at the base of the elevator, and every time the elevator cab comes to rest at the base landing, a revolution is recorded. Participants can pledge any amount of money per revolution and cap their total contribution to Komen. There are no minimums or maximums, and each contractor and subcontractor company and their employees can participate as they are able. Metro Elevator engages the resources of Komen affiliate offices in the cities where they are placing the pink construction hoists, and the local Komen affiliate assists them with publicity and public-relations events surrounding that particular project. The entire program is turnkey for the general contractor and makes it easy to engage participation. Rob Williams, the project manager for Clayco, Inc., in Ann Arbor, Michigan, commented: “[Metro Elevator has] been great to work with and they have made it both fun and easy to participate in such a worthy endeavor. They are truly experts in their field, and they are not only providing a valuable service to our project, they have united all of the participating companies working here in a very meaning ful cause.” Metro Elevator is capturing interest from other companies and construction projects around the country, as well. Pink elevators will soon be adorning the skyline of downtown Louisville, Kentucky, with Whittenberg Construction on the new Aloft Hotel and at Central Michigan University in Mount Pleasant, Michigan, with Clark Construction and Spence Brothers Construction. Other projects are being negotiated in Indianapolis, Cincinnati and Savannah, Georgia.

The Joy of Dreaming Big Reflecting on the program, Ernstes said: “I am thankful, excited and amazed that the ‘Ride the Pink Elevator’ campaign has taken off on the level it has. It has been an invigorating awakening, beginning with thoughts of doing a one-time fundraiser here in Indianapolis, to now getting calls from all over the U.S. asking for our Pink Elevators. We truly appreciate the opportunity to work with and help fund such a worthy cause for something that affects one in eight women in the U.S., and with an organization that is working to improve the health and well-being of women around the world.” Ernstes, Brummett and Brown are excited about the rapid “pinkification” of these major construction projects and the enormous good they hope to do on behalf of Susan G. Komen. The positive effects, both external and internal, are not lost on Brummett: “This has been so much more than I ever hoped for and a lesson in what happens if you decide to dream big and think a little bit outside the box. It’s no longer just about making money – we are making a difference in the lives of people impacted by this dreaded disease, and it has changed our company’s culture for the better as a result.” Rachelle Brown is manager of Marketing and Public Relations at Metro Elevator. For more information on “Ride the Pink Elevator,” contact her at email: rachelle@metroelevator.com or phone: (317) 562-9833.

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Inspection

Risk Potential of Safety Gears Inspections with test weights show a lack of clearness.

by Tim Ebeling Henning GmbH & Co. KG, Germany This paper was presented at Paris 2014, the International Congress on Vertical Transportation Technologies, and first published in IAEE book Elevator Technology 20, edited by A. Lustig. It is a reprint with permission from the International Association of Elevator Engineers (website: www.elevcon.com). This paper is an exact reprint and has not been edited by ELEVATOR WORLD. Key Words: Testing the safety gear, safety inspection, inspection with test weight, alternative testing systems

Abstract It is a preferred practice all over the world to test the safety gear with weights when elevator systems are placed on the market. And the justification is a reasonable one: during these tests all components are subjected to a mechanical stress test so that faults made during the installation and structural deficiencies are brought to light. But in a worst-case scenario – an emergency stop in free fall with full load – this test is only able to provide a verification of the effectiveness of the safety gear in a very limited manner or not at all. The same applies to any recurring inspections to be carried out at specified intervals. This has not only been proven by numerous practical examples, it can also be easily verified physically. In the meantime several alternatives to the traditional inspection are available allowing a much safer and meaningful inspection of safety

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gears to be carried out without the use of weights.

1. Introduction The justification to test safety gears with weights, a preferred practice almost all over the world when elevator systems are placed on the market, is a reasonable one. During these tests all components are subjected to a mechanical stress so that faults made during the installation and structural deficiencies are brought to light. But in a worst-case scenario – an emergency stop in free fall with full load – this test is only able to provide a verification of the effectiveness of the safety gear in a very limited manner or not at all. The same applies to any recurring inspections to be carried out at specified intervals. And this has not only been proven by numerous practical examples, it can also be easily verified physically. In the meantime several alternatives to the traditional inspection are available allowing a much safer and meaningful inspection of safety gears to be carried out without the use of weights.

2. Inital Situation 2.1 Requirements to be met by elevator safety gears Nearly all currently existing safety standards for elevator systems require safety gears to be able to safely decelerate a fully loaded car to a complete stop in a free fall situation.

Continued


Depending on the applied standard different deceleration limits are specified which may not be deceeded or exceeded. In many countries minimum or maximum sliding distances are specified instead of deceleration limits, the length of the skid marks of the safety gear on the rails being measured, which, of course, physically corresponds to the deceleration achieved. Usually this has to be verified when the system is put on the market and during recurring inspections (for example in parts of Europe every 2 years, in North America every 5 years).

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Since Elisha Graves Otis presented his revolutionary elevator safety brake during the 1854 World Expo in New York, suspension ropes of elevator systems are usually no longer deliberately cut to prove the effectiveness of the safety gear. Instead the car is packed with its rated load, accelerated in downward riding mode before the safety gear is triggered at the rated speed or tripping speed of the overspeed limiter. The decelerations achieved are either measured during the process or subsequently derived from the sliding distances measured on the guide rails.

When the measurements meet the requirements of the appropriate safety standard and the mechanical equipment of the elevator system shows no signs of damage, the safety gear is regarded as having passed the test.

2.3 Testing the safety gears without the use of test weights When new elevator systems are placed on the market, the safety gears are tested with test weights nearly all over the world, except in Austria where a loophole in the European standard that will be closed soon allows the effectiveness of safety gears to be verified using substitute measurements by means of specialised electronic test systems. For over 20 years recurring inspections of safety gears in Germany have usually been carried out without the use of test weights. Instead electronic testing systems are utilized which measure the forces of the safety gear and derive their effectiveness for the elevator system in question. With the 2013 edition of the A17.1 (USA) and/or B 44 (Canada), these testing systems may now also be used in North America for recurring inspections.

3. Physical Correlations During Safety Gear Tests When looking at the preferred practice for testing the safety gear by packing the Continued

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Figure 1. Forces in an extremely simplified elevator model the moment the car makes an emergency stop. FCW — forces resulting from the counterweight; FS — deceleration force of the safety gear; FFC — weight force of the fully loaded car; x — braking distance


car with the rated load and bringing it to a halt in an overspeed or rated speed situation, it immediately becomes apparent that an important requirement to be met by safety gears is not tested at all: the safety gear’s effectiveness when decelerating a fully loaded car to a complete stop in a free-fall scenario! This requirement is intended to warrant that even in the most unlikely event of an overall suspension rope failure none of the passengers are being hurt or killed. The difference between the requirement and the practical test is also physically substantial since it neglects all forces resulting from the counterweight when suspension ropes do exist. Parts of the weight force of the counterweight (FCW) act on the car through the suspension ropes in the same direction as the deceleration force of the safety gear (FS). In other words: the counterweight supports the safety gear in compensating the weight force of the fully loaded car (FFC). This support does not exist in the worst case when suspension ropes no longer exist. The following illustrations of an extremely simplified model show the forces at the moment the car makes an emergency stop during a practical test with test weights and when it makes a stop in a free-fall situation. One may assume that the moment the safety gear is tripped the forces FCW of the counterweight are practically zero since the counterweight which is accelerated upwards continues to move upwards because of its intertia and that therefore the ropes between the counterweight and car would slacken for a moment. Exactly at that moment in time the practical test would be equal to the actual requirement of a free-fall stop. But this is not the case at

all as has been proven by numerous practical measurements. Decisive factors preventing this are the ropes acting as long springs which first have to slacken again depending on their spring constant. Since the actual decelerating process only lasts a few milliseconds, this is something that happens extremely seldom.

Figure 2. Force and acceleration measurements the moment the safety gear is triggered (T1 to T3), the forces from the counterweight (hatched) clearly influence the safety gear operation

(solid: acceleration, hatched: load in suspension ropes, dotted: speed) Time T1: Acceleration: 0.0 m/s² Force: 28 kN Speed: -1.3 m/s Time T2: Acceleration: 2.3 m/s² Force: 11 kN Speed: -0.7 m/s Time T3: Acceleration: -0.7 m/s² Force: 2 kN Speed: 0.0 m/s Continued

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Illustration 2 clearly shows that the force in the suspension ropes is continuously reduced (hatched curve) during the entire safety gear operation (T1-T3). At the beginning of the safety gear operation the force is 28 kN. At time T2 when the car has already been decelerated to half the tripping speed of the overspeed limiter, it is still 11 kN and at the end of the safety gear operation it is still 2 kN. Neglecting this force would mean a calculated deceleration of the fully loaded car in a free-fall situation of 12 m/s² (~ 1.2 g). But this result is incorrect! In reality a free-fall scenario would yield a deceleration of merely 3 m/s² (~ 0.3g) which would prevent serious personal injury in this elevator system. Empiric experiments have shown that these influences stemming from the counterweight during safety gear trials with an empty car and averaged throughout the duration of the actual safety gear operation correspond to about 50% of the weight force of the fully loaded car. And the influence is even stronger with a fully loaded car since the decelerations achieved at the car and thus the deceleration difference between the counterweight and car are substantially smaller. The model presented in illustration 2 has the following movement equation: (1)

in which the acceleration and the forces depend on the time. In the following, simplified average values during the safety gear operation are examined at the interval Dt between tstart and tend, the same designations being used, for example:

This yields an average safety gear force with an empty car of: (2) The effective stopping distance in the optimum deceleration phase is calculated from the mean deceleration and the speed v at the start of deceleration by a double integration:

The safety gear force for a car packed with the rated load mrl then amounts to:

(3)

(4) Assuming that the safety gear force during a downward ride of a car with only a small load or of an empty car is at least not smaller than the one of a fully loaded car, these two forces can be regarded as being equal FS,E = FS,F and can be used to calculate the deceleration by the safety gear at rated load. This procedure is allowed since the theoretical deceleration force of the safety gear Continued

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and the rated load of the car and the counterweight forces are known. This element is used by the electronic testing systems referred to earlier and will be dealt with once again later.

depends neither on the initial speed nor on the car load. These parameters only affect the resulting stopping distance and deceleration. A better presentation is given by showing the forces resulting from the counterweight as a multiple a of the car load: und

4. Effects of the Counterweight on the Inspection Statement

A few transformations then yield the deceleration by the safety gear with a rated load: (5) These equations allow two interesting conclusions to be drawn: 1) The deceleration of the car is highly dependent on the forces resulting from the counterweight. As already mentioned earlier, the average forces resulting from the counterweight often correspond to half the weight force of the fully loaded car. When this is entered in equation (4), it becomes apparent very quickly that this substantially influences the decelerations and/or the length of the sliding distance. The results of these characteristics are clearly bettered by the influences of the counterweight than they would be improved in a worst-case scenario with ruptured ropes. 2) Equation (5) clearly shows that it is possible to use the deceleration during the safety gear operation with an empty car to determine the deceleration and thus also the sliding distance for a fully loaded car in a free-fall situation when the weight

It is now of interest to apply these reflections to the current common practice of inspecting safety gears with test weights, requiring a difference to be made between inspections carried out before elevator systems are placed on the market and recurring inspections.

4.1 Inspecting the safety gear before the system is placed on the market When the system is placed on the market one can hopefully assume that the real weights of the counterweight and car conform to the design criteria on the basis of which the safety gear has been selected. It must further be assumed that the system has been installed correctly and that for example the counterweight or car guides do not jam which would impermissibly support the safety gear in deceleration. The selected safety gear has also generally passed a type examination and so has proven that it is capable of decelerating the specified loads down to a complete halt even in a free-fall situation without certain deceleration thresholds being exceeded. But if one takes a look at the two principal testing criteria specified in safety standards all over the world and knowing the

Continued

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influence stemming from the counterweight, some obvious weak points cannot be ignored

4.1.1 Testing criterion: measurement of the sliding distance An inspection principle such as the one specified in the North American ASME A17.1-2010/CSA B44-10 for example is decelerating the fully loaded car running at overspeed to a complete stop using the safety gear followed by a measurement of the sliding distance using the marks on the guide rails. In ASME A17.1-2010/CSA B44-10, Table 2.17.3 “Maximum and minimum stopping distances for Type B car safeties with rated load and Type B counterweight safeties”, a minimum and/or maximum limit is specified that needs to be reached. For cars with a rated speed of 1.25 m/s for example the standard specifies a tripping speed of the overspeed limiter of 1.7 m/s, a minimum stopping distance of 150 mm and a maximum stopping distance of 675 mm. If one then uses equation (4) to calculate the average force of the safety gear which is in the end evidenced at tripping speed and maximum stopping distance, a car with an empty weight of 2300 kg and a load of 1100 kg resulting in FS,F = 40633 N – FCW,F . In contrast there is a force of 33354 N in a free-fall scenario which would make this car crash. It is absolutely clear that the force FCW,F produced by the counterweight must not exceed 7279 N because this would prevent the safety gear from decelerating the car. This merely corresponds to 22 % of the weight force of the fully loaded car. In this system that really exists in North America the counterweight influence is nearly 50 %. This yields the frightening result that although the effectiveness of this safety gear in accordance with the valid standard about the determination of the slide distance is theoretically correct, this fully loaded cabin could not be brought to a complete stop in case of a free-fall scenario.

4.1.2 Testing criterion: measuring the deceleration The other testing criterions for example specified in the European standard DIN EN 81-1:2010-06 in chapter 9.8.4 for brake safety gears are limit values for a deceleration in a free-fall situation (regardless of the actual load) of at least 0.2g and maximum 1.0g. This is tested by bringing the car with 125 % of the rated load to a complete stop. Here, too, the problem is that the test is never carried out with cut suspension ropes and that the counterweight influences are

unknown. So this testing criterion, too, does not allow a statement to be made about the effectiveness of the safety gear in a free-fall situation. Under certain aspects this may lead to the same disastrous conditions described under the sliding distance testing criterion. The remarks made with respect to the test with weights prior to placing the system on the market illustrate that the effectiveness of the safety is actually not comprehensively tested since the counterweight influences are not known. In the end one has to rely on the quality of the work carried out by the installation company, on the type examination of the safety gear and first and foremost on the correctness of the calculated weights of the counterweight and car.

4.2 Recurring safety gear inspection In principle recurring inspections of safety gears are governed by the same principles already mentioned for inspections prior to placing systems on the market. But now the influential factor time is added. The elevator system may have been modernised in the meantime. This often goes hand in hand with an increase of the car weight. The company carrying out the modernisation has usually restored the counterweight balance by increasing its weight. As such the forces resulting from the counterweight may have increased when the safety gear is inspected so that the test result is even less useful for proving the safety gear’s effectiveness. Depending on the servicing condition and the time the elevator system was been in operation there may be wear on the safety gears, guides, etc. In some cases this is another factor that contributes to an increase of the forces resulting from the counterweight.

5. Inspecting the Safety Gear Using Electronic Test Systems As shown by the equations it is possible to determine the deceleration of a fully loaded car in a free-fall scenario from the deceleration of the safety gear tested with an empty car provided the counterweight influences are known. This principle is based on the fact that the force of a brake and thus of the safety gear develops independently of the weight to be decelerated or its speed. For elevator systems this means that the safety gear must be fully engaged and in this condition must always apply the same deceleration force. This deceleration force can be determined by measuring the car’s deceleration and the forces resulting from the counterweight during the safety gear operation. Once this Continued

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deceleration force is determined, it is easy to calculate the average deceleration of the elevator in a free-fall situation for any random load and initial speed. Modern electronic testing systems therefore consist of two principal components: an acceleration sensor mounted on the car and force sensors measuring the forces in the suspension ropes immediately above the car during the safety gear operation. Then the equations referred to earlier are used for the calculation of the safety gear’s effectiveness. Since these systems are in use in Germany and recently also in North America numerous elevator systems have been identified in which the safety gear’s effectiveness could not be verified although they had been inspected at recurring intervals in the past, but with test weights and without knowing the counterweight influences. The physical superiority of this measuring principle with respect to a possible statement about the effectiveness of the safety gear is obvious. Another factor often neglected needs to be added: an important argument for inspections with test weights is the installation and material quality test carried out at the same time in form of a mechanical elevator system stress test. Any shortcomings are revealed by a visual inspection after the safety gear operation ends up in distorted cars, destroyed internal panellings, etc. But it applies to an even greater extent to the test without test weights. Since the

deceleration force of the safety gear is the same in this test as in the test with weights, decelerations are much higher and the stopping distance is much shorter. The clearly higher and more abrupt deceleration therefore also causes a substantially higher mechanical stress for the elevator system. A stress which in a worst-case scenario with for example only one passenger needs to be endured.

6. Summary This paper has made it clear that a test of the safety gear using test weights and without determining the influences of the counterweight does not allow a statement to be made about the effectiveness of the safety gear, neither before it is placed on the market nor during recurring inspections. In Europe for example the requirement specified in EN81 with respect to deceleration limits in a free-fall situation is not tested. Surely the increase of the safety level is one of the reasons why the current 2013 edition of the North American elevator standard A17/B44 has permitted electronic testing systems, if only as an option. Inspections using test weights are still allowed and are even mandatory prior to placing the system on the market. Since inspections without test weights are also accompanied by a substantial mechanical stress test for the elevator system, it must be allowed to question the justification of the safety gear inspection

using test weights and to ask if the use of electronic testing systems does not provide a much higher level of reliability and safety.

7. Biographical Details Tim Ebeling has been employed since 2003 as head of development with Henning GmbH & Co. KG. In this capacity he has established the R&D center in Braunschweig (Germany). A team of employees is now working there on the development and production of electronic and measurement components for lifts. Since 2012 the author is also managing director. One of his particular focal points is the measurement technology. Especially in this area the author looks back on many years of experience in the development of acceleration and rope load measuring systems. The author’s professional goal is to enrich the elevator market with innovative elevator components and opposing the increased cost pressure in the elevator industry through the development of efficient sustainable and đ&#x;Œ? labor-saving components.  

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With their dependable performance assured, the on-site simplicity of HALFEN channels makes them a favorite among installers and quality inspectors. Quality equals safety All steel connections are not the same. Unqualified materials and production methods can result in material failure in the demanding dynamic loading environment experienced by guide rail, divider beam, and door connections. HALFEN channels have been proven both in the testing laboratory and on the construction site for over eighty years. Need to contact HALFEN?

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ELEVATOR WORLD Continuing Education Assessment Examination Questions Read the article “Integrated Circuits” (p. 57) and study the learning-reinforcement questions at the end of the article. To receive one hour (0.1 CEU) of continuing-education credit, answer the a­ ssessment examination questions found below online at www.elevatorbooks.com or fill out the ELEVATOR WORLD Continuing Education Reporting Form found overleaf and submit by mail with payment. Approved for Continuing Education by NAEC for CET® and CAT®.

1. The first IC: a. Was a three-stage amplifier. b. Had 10 transistors. c. Was part of radar technology. d. Was built on multiple substrates.

8. Pins are required in ICs: a. To mount the chip. b. To connect the chip electrically. c. Both A and B. d. Neither A nor B.

2. Doping is used to make P- and N-type materials. a. True. b. False.

9. Pin connections: a. May be ascertained from the data sheet. b. Are printed on the package. c. Are not important to the technician. d. Are the same for all ICs.

3. To manufacture a typical IC: a. Six steps are needed. b. 600 steps are needed. c. 6,000 steps are needed. d. Only one step is needed. 4. Automation: a. Is used in the design stage of ICs. b. Is necessary, because of the complexity of today’s ICs. c. Has become the principle design method for ICs. d. All of the above.

10. ICs are mounted onto PCBs using: a. Through holes. b. Surface-mounting technology. c. A or B. d. Neither A nor B.

5. ICs are digital only. a. True. b. False. 6. Today’s IC packaging is predominantly: a. Germanium. b. Metal. c. Ceramic. d. Plastic. 7. ICs can be repaired easily. a. True. b. False.

March 2015 • ELEVATOR WORLD

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ELEVATOR WORLD Continuing Education Reporting Form

Circle correct answer.

Article title: “Integrated Circuits� (EW, March 2015, p. 57). Continuing-education credit: This article will earn you one contact hour (0.1 CEU) of elevator-industry continuingeducation credit. Directions: Select one answer for each question in the exam. Completely circle the appropriate letter. A minimum score of 80% is required to earn credit. You can also take this test online at www.elevatorbooks.com.

Last name: ______________________________________________ First name: _________________________ Middle initial:________ CETÂŽ, CATÂŽ or QEI number:_____________________________ State License number: ___________________________________ Company name: _________________________________________ Address:________________________ City:_________________ State: __________________________ ZIP code: _______________ Telephone:______________________ Fax: __________________ E-mail: ________________________________________________

1. a b c d 6. a b c 2. a b 7. a b 3. a b c d 8. a b c 4. a b c d 9. a b c 5. a b 10. a b c Signature: ___________________________________________

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Payment options: Check one: � $30.00 – Non-subscriber course fee � $25.50 – ELEVATOR WORLD subscriber course fee Subscriber #: ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ (Six-digit number on your print label or in your digital confirmation) � Payment enclosed (check payable to Elevator World, Inc.) Charge to my: � VISA � MasterCard � American Express Card number: __________________________________________ Expiration date: _________________ Signature: ___________________________________________

This article is rated for one contact hour of continuing-education credit. Certification regulations require that we verify ­actual study time with all program participants. Please answer the below question. How many hours did you spend reading the article and studying the learning-reinforcement questions? hours ________________ minutes _______________

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To receive your certificate of completion using the mail-in option, send the completed form with questions answered and payment information included to: Elevator World, Inc., P.O. Box 6507, Mobile, AL 36660. To receive your certificate of completion online, visit www.elevator books.com and follow the instructions provided for online testing.

You now have the opportunity to earn Continuing Education contact hours in ELEVATOR WORLD magazine. Articles pertain to various industry topics that appear in the magazine bi-monthly, and for every exam you successfully complete, you’ll earn 1–3 contact hours. As a subscriber, you not only have full access to these Continuing Education articles, but you also receive 15% off of the retail price.

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High-Tech Products Hit Market Definite Purpose Contactors

CARLO GAVAZZI offers a new generation of GDP Series Definite Purpose Contactors. The contactors are available in one-pole, one-pole with shunt, or two-pole configurations with maximum ratings of 25, 32 or 40 amps. They are also offered in three-pole configurations with maximum ratings of 25, 32, 40, 50, 60, 75 or 90 amps. Technical specifications include 24-, 120-, 220-, 277- and 480-VAC 50/60-Hz coils; a voltage rating up to 600 VAC; standard screw terminals are standard on all-onepole, one-pole with shunt and two-pole models; standard lug terminals on all three-pole models; multiple 0.25-in. fast-on control and load terminals; and operating temperature rating up to 104ÂşF (40ÂşC) and de-rated specifications up to 158ÂşF (70ÂşC). UL recognized and RoHS compliant, the products can be applied in a disconnect circuit. www.GavazziOnline.com

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Schindler UK, a leading provider of lifts and escalators, recently launched a series of innovations to significantly improve the energy efficiency and sustainability of its escalator and moving-walk solutions in the U.K. and Ireland. In addition to standard improvements in these areas, a premium power package that uses advanced drives, IE3 motors and high-efficiency gearing for total drive efficiency of 85% is available. The package further reduces operating costs and carbon emissions. A new range of intelligent power-management options has also been developed. ECOLINE options were designed to optimize efficiency without compromising passenger flows and can reduce power consumption by up to 36%. Features include stop-and-go and slow-speed operation, an “ECO� power option to stop the escalator after an adjustable time running at slow speed, and automatic motor-power adjustment that responds to passenger load. www.schindler.com/escalators-uk

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Eklund’s, Inc.’s new StreamLine Cab Design Studio, a virtual design tool, allows for experimentation with cab configurations and finishes. Configurations and materials can be specified for both new cabs and renovation projects. The StreamLine series includes eight pre-engineered passenger cabs, three observation cabs and two freight/service cab options. More than 140 panel finishes, six handrail types and seven ceilings, all with multiple finish options, are choices. The company promotes easy installation featuring a clip-in system. www.Eklunds.com   đ&#x;Œ?

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EW is now accepting entries for its third annual “Photos of the Elevator World Contest”. Due to the great response in the “Elevators (in any capacity)” category last year, we have decided to separate it into two categories, “Elevators (Commercial) and Elevators (Private Residence)”, this year. Last year, we received more than 250 submissions from 15 countries, with both companies and amateur photo enthusiasts across the globe participating. Send us your best shots and you could win cash and be published in ELEVATOR WORLD magazine! We look forward to viewing the elevator world through your unique lens. An EW panel of judges will first choose up to 20 finalists from each category. Those finalists will then be presented online during the month of May 2015 where our readers will vote and ultimately decide the best of the best. The winners and runner-ups from each category will be featured in the August 2015 issue of ELEVATOR WORLD and highlighted online. In addition, ALL qualified submissions will be posted in a special photo contest gallery on www.elevatorworld.com. Visit elevatorworld.com/photocontest for entry form and contest rules.

Categories •

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Elevators (Commercial)

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Prizes Winners of each category will receive:

• US$250.00 cash or the equivalent in Elevator World educational products or advertising. • Winning photos will be considered for the August 2015 ELEVATOR WORLD magazine cover (depending on quality and composition of photo).

All entries must be received by 5 p.m. (CST), Thursday, April 30, 2015.


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See This?

ER 2014

Oleo International . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 The Peelle Company Ltd. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 Physical Measurement Technologies . . . . . . . . . . 51 Plymouth Engineered Shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 PTL Equipment Manufacturing Corp. . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Quality Elevator Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 Quick Cab by Vertical Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 Reuland Electric Co. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Reynolds & Reynolds Electronics . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 Rigidized Metals Corporation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Ring Communications, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Savaria, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 SEES Inc./Southern Elevator & Electric . . . . . . . . . 13 Sematic S.p.a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cover 2 Shanghai Gie Em Co. Ltd. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 SJEC Corporation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Smartrise Engineering, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Suzhou Torin Drive Equipment Co., Ltd. . . . . . . . 39 TEI Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 Tecnolama . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 Titan Machine Corporation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 Tri-Lok Mfg. & Maint. Corp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 Union-Gard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 Unitec Parts Co . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Vertical Express . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 Weibo Elevator Co., Ltd. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Wikk Industries, Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Wire Rope Works Messilot Ltd. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Wurtec, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 Zhejiang Xizi Forward Electrical Machinery, Ltd. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

DECEMB

Adams Elevator Equipment Company . . . . . . . . 21 AFAG Messen und Ausstellungen . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 AFD Industries, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 A-FLY International Limited . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 Ascension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Avire Limited . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 Benfield Electric/Draka Elevator Products . . . . 101 Blain Hydraulics Gmbh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Brugg Wire Rope, LLC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 C.E. Electronics, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Canton Elevator, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 CelikRay Asansor Kilavuz Raylari . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 China Elevator Magazine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Claddagh Electronics, Ltd. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 Columbia Elevator Products Co., Inc. . . . . . . . 20, 71 Courion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15, 73 D&D Elevator Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Draka Elevator Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cover 4 EHC Global . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 Electrodyn Systems, Ltd. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Elevator Equipment Corporation (EECO) . . . . . 108 Elevator Escalator Safety Foundation . . . . . . . . . 114 Elevator Motors/Materials Corp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 Elevator Safety Company . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Elevator U . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Elevators EV International . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 Elgo Electronic GmbH & Co. KG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 Enterprise Elevator Products Corp . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 Excel Elevator & Escalator Corp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 FieldBoss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 G.A.L. Manufacturing Corporation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 GAL Canada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 Genemek . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Giovenzana International BV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Global Tardif Elevator Manufacturing Group Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 Gustav Wolf GmbH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cover 3 Halfen USA Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 Henning Testing Systems GmbH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 Hollister-Whitney Elevator Corp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 IFO - Istanbul Fair Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 IGV Group S.p.A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 Industrial Encoder Corporation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Innovation Industries, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Integrated Display Systems, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 International Steel & Counterweights . . . . . . . . 140 JM Associates/Burnham + Company . . . . . . . . . . 58 KEB America, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 Kleemann Hellas S.A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 Kumalift Co., Ltd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 Langfang Conference and Exhibition Co., Ltd. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 LM Liftmaterial GmbH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Magnetek-Elevator Products Division . . . . . . . . . 81 Maxton Manufacturing Company . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Mongrain Vertical Transport Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 Monteferro SPA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 Motion Control Engineering, Inc. (MCE) . . . . . . . 35 MP Macpuarsa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 NAEC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 New York Yimby . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Ningbo Xinda Group Co., Ltd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

May Issue: Focus Topic: Tools & Testing Equipment Editorial Deadline: March 16 Advertising Deadline: April 1

June Issue: Focus Topic: Communication Systems Editorial Deadline: April 15 Advertising Deadline: May 1

July Issue: Focus Topic: Suspension Means Editorial Deadline: May 15 Advertising Deadline: June 1 To submit editorial content contact: editorial@elevatorworld.com To advertise contact: advertising@elevatorworld.com

March 2015 • ELEVATOR WORLD

159


Last Glance

A Short Ride According to Liftinstituut, the More’s department store in Yokohama, Japan, is home to the shortest escalator in the world. Its miniscule rise of 83 cm enables passengers to more đ&#x;Œ? easily traverse the four steps they would otherwise have to slog.   

Photo courtesy of Flickr user kurayami_hime.

160

www.elevatorworld.com • March 2015


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Elevator World March 2015  

March 2015 Features: Special Regional Section: New York • Focus on Modernization

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