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the scope of this report. So, too, are those who, although fueled by extremist beliefs, strike from beyond a state’s borders. The main message that this report conveys is that civil society, religious leaders, and faith communities must do most of the heavy lifting in countering extremism. The role of government, at least in these three cases studied, is limited. The most important task for governments is to create the space necessary for local communities to respond to violent extremism undertaken in the name of their religion. The primary research for this volume was undertaken by three prominent analysts on commission for EWI: Daniel Levitas (Christian extremism in the United States), Dina Kraft (Jewish extremism in Israel), and Thalia Tzanetti (Muslim extremism in the United Kingdom). They undertook extensive field work and interviewed leading experts. The major findings of this research are contained in chapters 1, 2, and 3. Chapter 4 is a synthesis of the findings from these three cases—drawing parallels and highlighting differences with the aim of teasing out the commonalities that might inform policy responses to extremism. It synthesizes not just the findings from the fieldwork but is based on additional research undertaken by EWI staff. It also incorporates the results of EWI’s June 2007 conference on extremism. The conference also was one of the main sources for the recommendations that follow in chapter 5. This conference featured panelists and participants from diplomatic and security backgrounds, religious leaders, academics, and members of civil society. EWI would like to acknowledge the role of Stephen Tankel for his work compiling the three research reports and recommendations from the conference for chapters 4 and 5. The EastWest Institute would like to acknowledge the generous support of Don and Bim Kendall, Don Nelson, Kathryn W. Davis and the Shelby Cullom Davis Foundation for their support of our work on Violent Extremism and Radicalization.