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54 It has also been highlighted in this and other chapters that this process of radicalization leading to violence does not require external guidance as it did in the past. Several recent examples have confirmed previous warnings about the emergence of self-radicalized cells and individuals. Especially with the extensive use of the Internet, individuals increasingly get radicalized on their own or among groups of friends, feeding off each other's radicalization. The operational expertise available online also makes it possible for such selfrecruited, self-radicalized cells to plan and execute violent acts with no or with limited outside help, thus making their detection extremely difficult. In other words, in addition to the previously known top-down structures, hierarchies, and indoctrination in radicalization, new trends of bottom-up radicalization and self-recruitment have emerged and create significant challenges for intelligence and law enforcement agencies. Within this general framework, some more specific aspects of which this chapter has explored, a number of policy implications have also been identified in policy areas of importance for the future evolution of the phenomenon of violent extremism.