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Introduction

I am a candidate for a Master of Science degree in Elementary Education from University of Nebraska - Omaha in Spring 2014. I have been the school librarian at Liberty Elementary School in the Omaha Public Schools (OPS) for the past two years. My prior education experience in Illinois spanned 15 years of teaching a range of grades through middle school. Liberty Elementary School is located in the heart of downtown Omaha, Nebraska. Liberty serves 655 students in grades Pre-Kindergarten through sixth grade. The student population is 63% Hispanic, 16% Caucasian, 15% African American, 1% Native American, 4% multi-racial and .2% Asian. 50.77% of our students are part of the English Language Learners (ELLs) program. The Free and Reduced Lunch rate is 94.5%. My student is a male, twelve year old, 5th grader, from Nepal. His native language is Nepali in which he is a proficient reader. He has limited skill in speaking and reading English. Bimal receives 25 minutes of newcomer instruction a day. The ELL department provides Saturday school for refugee students that he attends. As a migrant ELL student Bimal qualifies for tutoring outside of the home. At this time he is not receiving tutoring but he is getting signed up. The ESL department also provides a second session summer school in July for refugee students that he qualifies for. During small group instruction for newcomers, emphasis is placed on American culture, sentence building, vocabulary and guided reading. Bimal is an energetic and very personable student that likes books about science, culture, world maps and flags. He’s always anxious to point out where his country of origin is on the map. Despite his motivation and good disposition, Bimal continues to struggle with the concepts of reading, writing and speaking English. Strategies and interventions continue to be targeted toward addressing his deficits. Bimal represents the 4th largest refugee population in OPS. Refugees represent 3.8% of the overall student population. According to the 2013 -14 District English Language Learner/Refugee Report, 15,800 students in OPS speak 109 different native languages in their homes. The overall refugee population is up by 84%. With this trend continuing, it impacts the services and programs needed by students in OPS.

 

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School Mission Statement

Liberty school’s overall mission is aligned with that of OPS in the commitment to educational equity for all students, staff and patrons of the school system. In all places and in all activities of OPS, it is expected that every individual will be treated in a fair and equitable manner. All conduct will reflect a belief in the dignity and value of each person regardless of the individual’s race, color, religion, sex, sexual orientation, national origin, disability, age, marital status, citizenship status, or economic status.

As for (ELLs) , the mission of OPS is to provide specialized instruction that develops the students’ abilities to read, write, speak and understand English. OPS respond to the needs of the ELL by providing support for the maintenance of the students’ first language and pride in their cultural heritage.

 

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Reading and Critical Thinking There are approximately 5.5 million students attending U.S. public schools whose native or first language is not English. School achievement is lower for English Language Learners (ELLs) and many are likely to have reading difficulties with English word identification and comprehension. These issues underscore the need for better tools and methods for teaching and assessing reading skills in ELLs. Swanson, Orosco and Lussier (2012) conducted a study to explore the cognitive processes that underlie reading disabilities (RDs) in Spanish-speaking children who are ELLs . They cited considerable evidence that phonological (speech sounds) processing and vocabulary are major cognitive determinants of word reading skills. They concluded that there is a direct correlation between phonological awareness and vocabulary development with the acquisition of second language reading skills. An alternative to assessing reading comprehension was suggested by Holdren (2012) where visual art was used to engage students in critical thinking skills. Students were allowed to use varied mediums and formats to present artistic impressions that represented their comprehension of the text. The findings of the study suggested that using art projects to assess higher level reading comprehension was enjoyable for students and accommodated differences in learning styles. Teaching reading to second language learners is a multi-tiered and faceted process. Accessing background knowledge and connecting unknown vocabulary to known knowledge are done in the early phase of instruction. When ELLs bring their background knowledge to the surface and are provided opportunities to share their initial connections, the teacher can assess their understanding and plan a route for instruction to clarify and enrich the students’ vocabulary knowledge. In subsequent phases, two characteristics are emphasized: ensuring opportunities for meaningful use of the vocabulary words and providing multiple exposures. Students read and determine how their background knowledge can be linked to the text and the target vocabulary. A student’s ability to learn a new word in the second language is enhanced when they have access to concepts stored in the memory of their first language. In the latter phases of instruction, students strengthen their vocabulary understandings by focusing on higher-level knowledge. A student’s proficiency in his native language will determine the degrees of language transfer. Having thoroughly explored their connections to the target vocabulary, ELLs are more prepared to demonstrate their understanding. The aforementioned reading phases are referred to in an article by as the Vocabulary Quilt method. It is a teaching strategy that can be used for designing a reading program for my student. It would be particularly effective with my student because it actively engages him throughout all phases of instruction. With the Vocabulary Quilt, at the end of the lesson, my students will have a tangible product that documents his learning and can serve as a useful study aid.

 

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Lesson Plan Objective English Language Learners (ELL) will recognize and define target vocabulary in their second language (English) using the background of the native language as a resource to make connections. Nebraska Language Arts Standards LA 5.1.4.a – Read phrases, clauses, and sentences that sound like natural language to support comprehension. LA 5.1.4.b – Read words and phrases accurately and automatically LA 5.1.5.b – Relate new grade-level vocabulary to prior knowledge and use in new situations Standards for the 21st Century Learner 1.1.6 – Read, view and listen for information presented in any format (e.g., textual, visual, media, digital) in order to make inferences and gather meaning. Lesson time : 40 minutes Group Size: 1 – 4 students Materials completed “Vocabulary Quilt “ target vocabulary list sticky notes chart paper reading selection pens, pencils, markers Lesson Modeled and Shared (Before Reading) • Display a completed vocabulary quilt. • Explain to students that they are going to create something similar using their vocabulary words . • To create the quilt, fold chart paper as many times to make the number of squares needed per word. • Project or write targeted vocabulary for all students to see. • Show students how they are to write one word per square from the targeted vocabulary list. • Now tell students that they are to write or draw in their own language whatever comes to mind when they hear the word. • Demonstrate to students that they will rewrite the word (in English) in the “quilt” square if they have no recognition of it. Guided (During Reading) • Display “vocabulary quilts” so that students can see them throughout the lesson • As vocabulary is encountered in the text, stop to discuss the students’ reactions and comments.  

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• •

Stop often throughout the reading to refer to the quilts and help students make connections between their initial connections and the text. Continue to monitor the students’ understanding and dispel any misconceptions or inaccurate connections to the text.

Independent Practice (After Reading) • Have students work together to generate a definition for ech word and record it on a sticky note top put on the quilt. • Student groups share with others the definitions they generated. Assessment Students’ learning will be assessed by their accuracy with recognizing, pronouncing and defining the new words on the established “vocabulary quilt”

 

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Writing and Collaboration-Communication Many studies have shown that the collaborative model for writing is much preferred by English Language Learners (ELLS). Once thought of as a task that is done individually, writing collaboratively is reported by ELLs to be enjoyable and contributes to better learning of the second language. Shehadeh (2011) studied the effects of collaborative grouping for ELLs given a writing assignment. The subjects were divided into two groups. The experimental group of students carried out their writing tasks in pairs. The control group conducted their writing tasks individually. The results of the study showed that the experimental or collaborative writing groups had a significant effect on the students’ second language writing skills. Their language learning and writing skills were noticeably improved in the areas of content, organization and vocabulary. The benefit was less significant for grammar or writing mechanics. In a study conducted by Woo, Chu, Ho, and Li (2011), Chinese elementary grade ELLs worked collaboratively to produce a non-fiction text. Each member of the collaborative group contributed to the writing via of a class wiki. The writing process and product were enhanced for the ELLs through the use of collaborative grouping. Making entries on the wiki allowed for an exchange of comments that improved the ELLs’ writing conventions and coherency. The students reported that they enjoyed using the wiki and how it helped them to work better as team and to write better. My student, Bimal, will benefit from the feedback from his peers of like language, culture and age. By working in pairs or small groups on writing tasks it will enhance his language learning opportunities as suggested by the aforementioned study. Using a wiki, as a scaffold for my student would provide a non-threatening way for him to interact with the English language while receiving support form his peers. Other interactive tools may be used such as a Google Document or an interactive board. Lesson Plan Objectives Students will… • Work collaboratively to read and write • Improved English fluency and learn new vocabulary in their second language • Practice the writing process by writing an acrostic poem in collaboration with other group members • Learn how to access and post information on an online shared document. Nebraska Language Arts Standards LA 5.3.3.c – Interact and collaborate with others in learning situations by contributing questions, information, opinions, and ideas using a variety of media and formats LA 5.2.2.a – Write for a specific purpose (e.g., story with pictures, factual book, alphabet book, poem, letter) LA 5.1.6.l – Build and activate prior knowledge in order to identify text to self, text to text, and text to world connections before, during, and after reading LA 5.3.3.c – Participate actively with others in learning situations by contributing  

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questions, information, opinions, and ideas (e.g., book share, literature circle, field trip share, cooperative problem solving) LA 5.2.1.f – Publish a legible document (e.g., handwritten or electronic) American Association of School Librarians ( AASL’s) Standards for the 21st Century Learner 3.1.3 Use writing and speaking skills to communicate new understandings effectively. 3.1.4 Use technology and other information tools to organize and display knowledge and understanding in ways that others can view, use, and assess. 3.2.3 Demonstrate teamwork by working productively with others. Materials   Copies  of,  Keeping  Up  With  Cheetah  by  Lindsay  Camp   Colored  Pencils,  Markers   Writing  Paper   Completed  “Vocabulary  Quilt”   Computers  with  Internet  access   List  of  English/  Nepali  vocabulary  words  from,  Keeping  Up  With  Cheetah     Lesson   Session  One    -­‐  Reading  the  text   • Show  students  the  book,  Keeping  up  with  Cheetah  by  Lindsay  Camp.  Explain   that  the  book  is  written  in  English  and  Nepali  and  that  they  will  hear  the   book  read  twice,  once  in  each  language.   • Tell  students  to  pay  particular  attention  to  the  interactions  in  the  story   between  the  cheetah  and  hippopotamus  because  they  will  write  a  poem   about  the  story  later.   • Using  the  overhead,  project  images  of  the  book  on  the  screen  while  reading   the  story.    Read  each  page  in  English.    Have  a  Nepali  student  read  the  story   again  in  their  native  language.   • After  reading,  lead  students  in  a  discussion  about  what  the  main  idea  of  the   story  is.       •   Session  Two  –  Vocabulary  Building   • Create  a  “vocabulary  quilt”  by  folding  chart  paper  as  many  times  to  make  the   number  of  squares  needed  per  word   • Re-­‐read  the  story,  Keeping  Up  With  Cheetah   • List  targeted  vocabulary   • Tell  students  that  they  will  write  the  words  they  have  learned  from  the  story   in  English  and  Nepali  in  a  square  on  the  “vocabulary  quilt.”   • Show  students  how  they  are  to  write  one  word  per  square  from  the  targeted   vocabulary  list.   • Tell  students  that  they  should  write  the  English  word  with  the  Nepali  word   next  to  it  in  each  square  of  the  quilt.    They  should  also  draw  pictures  to  help   them  remember  what  the  words  mean.            

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Tell  students  that  they  are  to  write  in  their  own  language  whatever  comes  to   mind  when  they  hear  the  word.  If  they  have  trouble  coming  up  with  an   answer  have  them  look  at  the  page  in  the  book  where  the  word  appears  to   see  if  the  pictures  help  them.   • Allow  students  to  work  collaboratively  with  one  or  more  partner  to  complete   the  quilt     • Display  the  vocabulary  quilt  for  continued  referencing.     Session  Three  –  Collaborative  Writing   • Pass  out  copies  of  Keeping  Up  With  Cheetah  to  each  student  pair  or  group  (no   more  than  4  in  a  group).   • Explain  that  they  are  going  to  take  turns  reading  the  book  first  in  Nepali  then   in  English.   • Before  reading,  ask  students  if  they  know  what  an  acrostic  poem  is.  Explain   that  it  is  a  poem  where  every  line  starts  with  a  letter  in  the  word.    Project  an   example  of  the  type  of  poem  they  will  write.   • Remind  students  that  Cheetah  and  Hippo  have  a  special  friendship  in  the   story.  Explain  that  once  they  have  read  the  story  together  they  will  write  an   acrostic  poem  in  English  about  the  things  they  like  about  their  favorite   friend.  Tell  students  to  reference  the  “vocabulary  quilt”  and  book  for  help   with  words.     • Distribute  a  different  colored  marker  to  each  student   • Give  directions  for  writing  the  collaborative  poem.  Model  the  following:   o Start  with  the  words  BEST  FRIEND  written  vertically  on  a  large  piece   of  paper   o The  first  person  adds  a  word  or  phrase  next  to  the  letter  of  their   choice  to  describe  their  favorite  person/friend   o Use  a  different  colored  marker  than  the  person  before  you  to  add  your   word  or  segment  to  the  poem   o Pass  the  poem  to  another  student  and  they  will  add  a  word  or  phrase,   in  a  different  colored  marker.    Pass  the  poem  to  the  next  person   o Continue  passing  and  adding  to  the  poem  words  or  phrases  in  English   until  it  has  been  completed.   • Once  the  poem  is  completed,  allow  students  to  read  the  poem  in  English.   •  Compare  what  has  been  written  to  the  friendship  in  the  story   • Display  completed  poems.     Session  Four  –  Peer  Editing  Using  a  Wiki   • Tell  students  that  they  are  going  to  post  their  acrostic  poem  on  a  Wiki.    After   discussing  and  explaining  what  a  Wiki  is,  model  the  path  for  getting  to  the   homepage  of  the  teacher  created  wiki.   • Explain  to  students  that  they  will  type  their  contribution  to  the  poem  on  the   wiki.  Model  how  to  format  on  a  wiki  to  include  changing  the  color  of  text.   • Explain  to  each  contributor  that  they  will  use  the  same  color  on  the  wiki  as   they  used  on  the  paper  draft  of  the  poem.   • Once  completely  posted  on  the  wiki,  allow  students  to  read,  in  English,  the   line  they  added  and  the  second  time,  read  the  poem  chorally.       •

 

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Assessment   • Observe  the  process  of  writing  the  poem  collaboratively  to  determine  if  an   ample  scaffold  for  strengthening  English  writing  fluency  occurs  as  the   activity  progresses.   • Listen  to  each  student  read  the  poem  paying  particular  attention  to  their   mastery  in  pronouncing  and  understanding  the  English  words.     • Observe  how  students’  contributions  to  each  line  of  the  poem  demonstrates   their  understanding  of  the  main  idea  and    elements  of  the  story.             Digital  Literacy  and  Creativity     The  opportunity  to  express  oneself  creatively  using  digital  tools  may  be  one  of  the   tasks  an  ELL  can  do  with  a  measure  success  as  they  are  on  the  path  to  English   language  development.    From  the  standpoint  of  motivation,  an  ELL  may  be  more   inclined  to  tackle  a  task  digitally  in  lieu  of  the  traditional  paper  and  pencil   implements.  Literature  suggests  that  interactive,  web-­‐based  instructional  tools  used   with  ELLs  improve  their  grammar,  vocabulary,  sentence  writing  and  reading  in  the   second  language.  It  also  improves  their  digital  literacy  and  encourages  creativity.     In  a  study  conducted  by  Pandya  (2012),  elementary  through  college  age  ELLs    were   given  the  task  of  designing  a  digital  video  composition.    Students  transferred  their   traditional  writing  assignment  into  a  video  that  utilized  writing,  audio  and  visual   skills.    Although  assessing  literacy  development  using  a  digital  modality  posed  a   challenge  for  teachers,  the  benefits,  as  expressed  by  the  ELLs  were  positive  and   favorable.         The  options  for  using  digital  tools  to  enhance  ELLs  are  numerous.    In  an  article  by   Kilickaya  and  Krajka  (2012),  web-­‐based  comic  strip  creators  were  used  to  help  ELLs   with  grammar  and  sentence  writing.  Students  were  highly  motivated  for  this  task   and  created  stories  with  more  ease,  giving  voice  and  character  to  the  characters   they  inserted  in  the  strips.         Combining  digital  literacy  and  technology  in  the  construction  and  programming  of   robots  was  a  study  conducted  by  McDonald  and  Howell  (2012).    The  study  describes   the  use  of  robots  in  an  elementary  classroom  as  a  tool  to  enhance  the  development   of  technological  skills  in  a  creative  environment  rich  in  numeracy  and  literacy   opportunities.  Students  were  exposed  to  a  new  range  of  vocabulary  and   demonstrated  confidence  in  using  the  new  words.    Throughout  the  project  new   terms  were  introduced  to  the  students  via  colorful  posters  that  were  left  in  the   classroom  over  the  duration  of  the  project  for  students  to  reference  and  build  upon.            

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Lesson  Plan     Objectives   Students  will…   • work  collaboratively  to  develop  a  digital  video  composition.   • transfer  a  writing  assignment  into  a  video  that  utilizes  writing,  audio  and   visual  skills.   • learn  GarageBand  and  I-­‐Movie  applications  as  tools  for  visual  and  oral   presentations.           Nebraska  Language  Arts  Standards   LA  6.2.1.a  –  Use  prewriting  activities  and  inquiry  tools,  using  available  technology   to  generate  and  organize  information,  guide  writing,  answer  questions   LA  6.3.1.a  –  Communicate  ideas  and  information  in  a  manner  appropriate  for  the   purpose  and  setting   LA  6.3.1.b  –  Demonstrate  and  adjust  speaking  techniques  for  a  variety  of  purposes   and  situations   LA  6.3.3.c  –  Interact  and  collaborate  with  others  in  learning  situations  by   contributing  questions,  information,  opinions  and  ideas  using  a  variety  of  media  and   formats   LA  6.4.1.f  –  Gather  and  share  information  and  opinions  as  a  result  of   communication  with  others  (ie.,  video/audio  chat,  interview,  podcast,  multimedia   presentations)     American  Association  of  School  Librarians  (  AASL’s)    Standards  for  the  21st  Century  Learner   2.1.6 – Use the writing process, media and visual literacy, and technology skills to create products that express new understandings. 3.1.3 – Use writing and speaking skills to communicate new understandings effectively. 3.3.4 – Create products that apply to authentic, real-world contexts. 4.1.8 – Use creative and artistic formats to express personal learning. Lesson Time: 6 (+), 40 minute sessions Group Size: 1 – 4 students Materials • Copies of, I See The Sun In Nepal by Dedie King, translated by Kanchan Burathokil • Computers with Internet Access; I-Movie and GarageBand applications • List of English/Nepali vocabulary words from the book selection Lesson   In  this  lesson,  students  will  create  a  digital  composition  to  retell  a  story.  English   Language  Learners  (ELLs)  will  compare  and  contrast  their  culture  of  origin,  as   described  in  the  story,  with  their  present  American  experience.  They  will  retell  the   story  in  English,  paying  close  attention  to  fluency  and  the  use  of  new  vocabulary.   The  digital  composition  will  be  created  using  I-­‐Movie  and  GarageBand  applications   using  video,  still  images,  voiceover  narration  and  instrumental  music.       10  


Session  One     • Show  students  a  digital  video  composition  similar  to  the  one  they  will  create.   • Tell  students  that  they  are  going  to  create  a  video  composition  about  the   book,  I  See  the  Sun  In  Nepal.  Summarize  the  story  by  telling  students  that  it  is   about  a  girl  that  lives  in  Nepal  and  what  everyday  life  is  like  for  her  such  as   chores,  going  to  school,  playing  with  friends  and  spending  time  with  family.   • Read  the  story  in  English.  Have  a  Nepali  student  read  the  story  again  in  their   native  language.   • After  reading,  lead  the  students  in  a  discussion  about  the  story.       Session  Two   • Re-­‐read  the  book,  I  See  The  Sun  In  Nepal,  in  English  and  Nepali.   • List  targeted  vocabulary.   • Tell  students  that  they  are  going  to  re-­‐tell  this  story  only  with  it  taking  place   in  American  culture.  Explain  that  their  stories  will  be  done  in  a  video   composition.   • Allow  students  to  work  collaboratively  in  writing  a  draft.   Session  Three   • Continue  guiding  collaborative  groups  in  writing  a  narrative  comparison  and   contrast  of  Nepal  and  American  cultures  as  portrayed  in  the  story.     • Allow  pairs  to  peer  edit  the  narratives,  referring  and  paraphrasing  from  the   text  as  much  as  necessary.   Technology   Model  for  students  how  to  develop  an  I-­‐Movie  with  images,  recording  voiceovers   and  music  from  GarageBand.   • Collaborative  groups  will  work  for  several  sessions  to  develop  the  video   composition.       Assessment   • Evaluate  students’  work  on  the  video  using  a  rubric  and  reflect  on  the  overall   process.   • Listen  to  the  students  reflect  on  what  they  learned  in  terms  of  content,   writing  skills  and  technology.   • Observe  how  students’  contributions  to  the  narrative  and  development  of  the   video  demonstrated  their  learning  in  their  second  language  and  digital   literacy.              

 

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Gail Walker My21 Reflection Selecting an English Language Learner (ELL) has helped bring an awareness of the many challenges facing school districts with the charge of addressing the 21st Century skills learning needs of students whose first language is not English. This experience has made me more sensitive to the strategies and interventions enlisted by English as a Second Language (ESL) instructors and has given me more reason to make connections with those professionals at my school in a way not previously done. As a school librarian, the heightened awareness of ELLs’ learning needs has prompted me to be more intentional in my collection development and to solicit more input from the ESL professionals on their recommendations for books and ways to best serve our ELL population. I gleaned a great deal of knowledge from a myriad of literature that supports the 21st Century skills of reading and critical thinking, communication and collaboration and digital creativity. The activity of searching for articles became a personal quest for knowledge as the course progressed. I learned that word knowledge and recognition is the best indicator of an ELL’s reading and critical thinking abilities. The strategy of teaching reading vocabulary to an ELL provided an opportunity to determine the student’s cultural context for the second language words. The strategy was more interactive and moved away from dictionary defining. The visual chart, which is a continual word reference for the ELL, also served as an assessment tool. Focusing on target vocabulary allows the ELL to isolate the words from the general text and concentrate on the highlighted ones. My student came to higher word knowledge when able to first connect to the English word in his native language and creating a visual image. Writing his own definitions provided him with a greater sense of ownership and comprehension of their learning. Revisiting words and images encourages the ELL to view their background knowledge in their native language as a resource. The completed “vocabulary quilts” served as a tool for reviewing and practicing the content learned. The opportunity for my student to create a composition digitally added value to his English literacy development. Oral language development is critical for all learners, particularly ELLs. The chance to record his voice and to hear it back offered my student a chance to speak to his audience (teacher and peers) without the accompanying stresses associated with writing and speaking a second language. Many ELLS don’t like writing in the second language so creating a digital composition was more engaging. An enhancement to his digital literacy also occurred by using Garage Band and I-Movie applications to create the video. He may be more motivated to compose for a digital video and ultimately find the overall writing process more bearable. The student reflected on what he learned in terms of the process and technology. The students expressed pleasure in putting their writings into a video format. Offering this digital approach to writing and speaking may enhance my student’s motivation and engagement. Utilizing the video composition is a way for me to   12  


assess and track growth in oral language skills as heard in the student’s videos over time. It provides the opportunity to introduce alternative approaches to traditional tasks and to aid in the development of my student’s digital literacy as well. Using technology tools promote writing and speaking. Students practice new vocabulary and grammar structures and improve their second language fluency enabling them to engage in conversations around issues and topics of concern.  

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Works Cited Holdren, T.S.(2012). Using art to assess reading comprehension and critical thinking in Adolescents. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 55(8), 692-703. Doi:10.1002/JAAL.00084 Kılıçkaya, F., & Krajka, J. (2012). Can the use of web-based comic strip creation tool facilitate EFL learners' grammar and sentence writing?. British Journal of Educational Technology, 43(6), E161-E165. McDonald,  S.,  &  Howell,  J.  (2012).  Watching,  creating  and  achieving:  Creative     technologies  as  a  conduit  for  learning  in  the  early  years.  British  Journal  of     Educational  Technology,  43(4),  641-­‐651.   Pandya, J. (2012). Unpacking Pandora's box: Issues in the assessment of English learners’ literacy skill development in multimodal classrooms. Journal Of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 56(3), 181-185. doi:10.1002/JAAL.00124   Shehadeh,  A.  (2011).    Effects  and  student  perceptions  of  collaborative     Writing  in  L2.    Journal  of  Second  Language  Writing,  20(4),  286-­‐305.   doi:10.1016/j.jslw.2011.05.010   Swanson, H., Orosco, M. J., & Lussier, C. M. (2012). Cognition and literacy in English language learners at risk for reading disabilities. Journal Of Educational Psychology, 104(2), 202-320. doi:10.1037/a0026225 Wessels, S. (2011). Promoting vocabulary learning for English learners. Reading Teacher, 65(1), 46-50, doi:10,1598/RT.65.1.6 Woo, M.,Chu, S., Ho, A., & Li, X. (2011). Using a wiki to scaffold primary school students’ collaborative writing. Journal Of Educational Technology & Society,14(1), 43-54.

 

   

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Gail Walker