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HelloWorld! Cultural Workshop E.V.L International Consultings Ltd. (Ireland)

Effective Communication in a Global Workplace

February 28, 2011 Shining Chen


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Communication Break-Down

Message Sender

Message

Channel

Message Receiver

Feedback

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Types of Communication

Verbal Written

Visual

Non-Verbal Oral

Body language Facial expressions

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Agenda Nonverbal Communication Verbal Communication •

12 General tips on effective communication

Business writing

Oral communication Disclaimer This presentation is not intended to teach everything about business English or communication, but to introduce/review many great tips AND to encourage you to research and think on your own! Let’s begin the journey of learning together! E.V.L International Consultings Ltd. (Ireland)


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Non-Verbal Communication Highly influenced by our culture! Body language •

Hand gestures

Posture

Body movements

Handshakes

Body contact

Facial expressions •

Eye movements

Eye contact

Eyebrow movements

Lip movements

Smiles

Non-Verbal Body language

Facial expressions

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Nonverbal Communication with Global Business Contacts What about nonverbal communication of other cultures? What can I do to avoid misunderstanding? 2-Step Process: 1. Observe any nonverbal feedback,

even if it is confusing to you 2. Communicate verbally

Now let’s get into more details!

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Verbal Communication This is where we can make ourselves clear to others very effectively. Written Communication Visual Communication Verbal

Oral Communication So, are there general tips on effective communication?

Written

Visual

Oral

Hum‌

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12 General Tips on Effective Communication 1.

Breaking down long sentences (pg.9)

2.

Being clear with pronouns (pg.13) Being aware of cultural differences (pg.14) Complete sentences not always effective (pg.18) Explaining colloquial languages & acronyms used (pg.20) Checking understanding (pg.23)

3. 4. 5. 6.

5.

Explaining what we are doing (pg.27) Asking for clarification (pg.29) Offering constructive criticism (pg.31) Being assertive at work (pg.33) Handling hostility at work (pg.34)

6.

Improving communication with a particular individual (pg.35)

1. 2. 3. 4.

13. (give my own tip here)

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Tip #1: Breaking Down Long Sentences What counts as a long sentence? Here are 2 common definitions in English: • 2 or more clauses • More than 2 lines long on page

So you see, a sentence does not have to be very “long” to be confusing! How do long sentences affect our work efficiency? How to break down long sentences? Take a moment and think about it!

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Tip #1: Breaking Down Long Sentences “Are my sentences simple enough that even non-native speakers can easily understand?” How to break down long sentences? • Step 1: “One Sentence, One Idea”

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Tip #1: Breaking Down Long Sentences How to break down long sentences? • Step 2: “Clean up” “If we can write with less and simple words, why make it long and complicated?” – Andrew McAllister, my favorite English teacher in high school The KISS Principle: “Keep It Simple and Short (or Straight-forward)”

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Tip #1: Breaking Down Long Sentences A few points to consider in Step 2 “Clean up�: keep the most important information only Simpler idea, wording & phrases Avoid colloquial language Active voice Rearrange the order of sentences

How to implement it in oral communication?

Tip #2: Being clear with Pronouns Rewriting process

Any idea?

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Tip #2: Be Clear with Pronouns Be explicit – name the pronouns

Rearrange sentences to see if it makes more sense

Ask others to edit or proof-read

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Tip #3: Being Aware of Cultural Differences Are you afraid of unintentionally offending a foreign business contact? Do you feel that cultural differences are unpredictable? You need not be afraid because there are patterns to cultures! ● Where do cultural differences exist? ● What are common to all human beings? ● How many different types of cultures are there? Think about these for a moment!

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Tip #3: Being Aware of Cultural Differences A culture has many different dimensions, for example:

Individualistic vs. Community-oriented

Direct vs. Indirect communication

Learn about them and many more online! Punctual vs. Tardy

Understanding cultural differences, Geert Hofstede

Conservative vs. Agressive risk taking

High vs. Low power distance

Past/ Present/ Future orientation

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Tip #3: Being Aware of Cultural Differences What are common to all human beings? Can you think of more? How about “the need to be understood�?

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Tip #3: Being Aware of Cultural Differences So now we know about cultural differences and common human needs. What do we do next? 1. Try to understand why people do certain things and behave in certain ways. Any other idea?

2. Cultural exchange – express your feelings & explain your way if there is a conflict. 3. Help others to become culturally aware too. (for example, give them this presentation) 4. Focus on common goal/objectives. 5. Come to a compromise on how to work together. E.V.L International Consultings Ltd. (Ireland)


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Tip #4: Complete Sentences Not Always Effective When and how many complete sentences? Titles & headings (in writings)

As little as possible

Bullet points Best avoid

During business meetings/ presentations/ interviews

Capitalization rules

Not always

During small talks or lunch breaks Sometimes

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Tip #4: Complete Sentences Not Always Effective Reasons for not using complete sentences: 1. Easier information absorption for receivers, 2. Quick expression of own opinions and/or feelings, 3. Request for quick responses from others, 4. Need for transitional words or phrases

, and/or

5. Need to display an appealing, perhaps even charming, personality. Expressions Phrases Exclamations

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Tip #5: Explaining Colloquial Language & Acronyms Types of language to be aware of: • Slangs • Jargons

• Ironies

• Idioms

• Metaphors

• Expressions

• Similes

• Figures of speech

• Acronyms

• Proverbs

• Abbreviations • Shortened forms

These are informal language and best avoided when: 1. We do not know the message receivers in person, OR 2. Our message receivers do not know these languages well

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Tip #5: Explaining Colloquial Language & Acronyms Differences + examples of abbreviations, shortened forms & acronyms: 1. Abbreviations

1. Shortened forms

Dr. (doctor)

tux (tuxedo)

Jan.-Dec.

auto (“automatic” or “automobile”)

Mon.-Sun. i.e. (“that is”) N. America (north America) dept. (department) w/o (without)

1. Acronyms FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation) the US (the United States)

Rob/Bob (Robert) Should’ve (should have) who’s (“who is”/“who has”)

NY (State of New York) FAQ (frequently asked questions)

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Tip #5: Explaining Colloquial Language & Acronyms If possible, observe if the receivers are: • looking confused, • awkwardly silent, • giving a strange response, and/or • any other non-verbal feedback that confuses you Explain in standard English and/or give examples. Try to catch yourself when you use any colloquial language or acronyms. Pay special attention to: • local colloquial language • technical acronyms • internal acronyms (within your company & suppliers, etc.) E.V.L International Consultings Ltd. (Ireland)


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Tip #6: Checking Understanding Common Mistakes Yes/No questions

Why are these mistakes? What should we do then? Any idea?

Insulting others’ intelligence

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Tip #6: Checking Understanding Strategy 1: Double-checking as a message receiver May me double-check with you? What I think you just said is that… Is that correct? If I’m understanding you correctly, you are saying that… Is that right? Hum, sounds like you are saying… Am I right?

What I am hearing so far is that… Am I understanding you correctly?

Do you mind if I recap? What we have established so far is that…

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Tip #6: Checking Understanding Strategy 2: Ask politely, Be specific, and Explain your purpose

KEY: Ask receivers to do us a favor by repeating information back to us.

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Tip #6: Checking Understanding Strategy 3: Explain needs/requirements, Show understanding & support (a.k.a. express empathy), AND Ask open questions • “what,” “why,” “which,” “when,” “how”

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Tip #7: Explaining What We Are Doing Very helpful even with business people from our “own culture” Common complaints:

I am not psychic!

I am not a mind-reader!

Message Receiver

Don’t expect others to understand: • Our expectations for others, • What we are doing & why we do it, OR • Our feelings Observe non-verbal feedback from receivers • Don’t wait until they ask E.V.L International Consultings Ltd. (Ireland)


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Tip #7: Explaining What We Are Doing A common, useful English tip: Assume the readers don’t know anything about the subject but are intelligent. • Intelligent message receivers can think & decide for themselves. • Be careful: We are explaining things to adults, not to children. Explain: • Facts/details • Examples • Logics (why we think/behave this way)

• Why we are explaining

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Tip #8: Asking for Clarification Whenever We Don’t Quite Understand For simple questions

Could you give me an example? What do you mean by “…”? I don’t quite understand. Could you explain it in a different way?

Feedback

I’m sorry but could you speak slower for me?

I didn’t catch that. Could you say it one more time?

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Tip #8: Asking for Clarification Whenever We Don’t Quite Understand For complicated issues, raise the level of importance by focusing on: • Purpose • Goals, and/or • Company’s interests It is important to us that we fully understand this. Could you give us more detail? What are we trying to achieve through this?

Could you clarify this point for me? I have to understand it in order to do my work.

Feedback

What were your considerations when you made this decision?

How can we achieve this short-term goal? E.V.L International Consultings Ltd. (Ireland)


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Tip #9: Offering Constructive Criticism n Being Critical

• Personal attack, • Placing importance in finding out who is at fault, • Little consideration of the worth of those “at fault,” AND/OR • Little tolerance to human mistakes. n Constructive Criticism

• Finding out the real problem in systems/procedures, • Recognizing that someone who made mistakes is still valuable, • Recognizing the worth of team work & team spirit, • Tolerating human mistakes, AND • Improving systems/procedures. E.V.L International Consultings Ltd. (Ireland)


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Tip #9: Offering Constructive Criticism What Would Make a Criticism Constructive? Focus on improving systems/procedures, Focus on what’s in common, •

team’s objectives and/or company’s interests

Focus on improving the performance of the team •

through team work (e.g. double-checking) & team spirit

Use positive language •

Suggest a well thought-out plan (but can be simple) – with a defined evaluation method

• Follow up with the progress & control the progress

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Tip #10: Being Assertive at Work Assertive Rights

in English-Speaking Cultures 1

1. The right to have my own values, beliefs, opinions and feelings, 2. The right to a fair hearing for my values, beliefs, opinions and feelings, 3. The right to have needs and wants that differ from others’ needs & wants, 4. The right to ask others to respond to my needs & wants, 5. The right to say “No” or refuse requests without feeling guilty or selfish, 6. The right to be wrong sometimes, AND 7. The right to have others respect my rights

Compare against your own culture: § Belief: Well-being of each employee is a necessity in the workplace. § Violation of any right above might result in legal problems. E.V.L International Consultings Ltd. (Ireland)


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Tip #11: Handling Hostility at Work Strategy 1: “Don’t take it personally.” • You are not alone – just walk away before you really get hurt. Strategy 2: Be Firm But Polite • Show self-confidence, control negative emotions. • Remember that you are a valuable member in the company. • How to say “No” politely in English?

More ideas?

“I’d love to, but …”; “I’m sorry, but …”; “Excuse me, but…”

Strategy 3: Magic Phrases from Dan O’Connor 2 “That’s interesting. Tell me more.” “That’s interesting. Why would you say/do/think that?”

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Tip #12: Improving Communication with a Particular Individual Understanding the person 1. His/her communication style 2. His/her decision-making style 3. His/her work style 4. His/her primary love language (discovered by Dr. Gary Chapman)

5. What makes him/her happier Focus on the objectives of the company/cooperation Make him/her enjoy working with me Show understanding & support Building rapport E.V.L International Consultings Ltd. (Ireland)


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More Resources on Communication 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

KISS principle Paraphrasing Rewriting process Editing, proof-reading Team building Teamwork Team spirit Team morale Active listening Allen Guthrie writing tips

1. SMART goal 2. Locke's goal setting 3. Goal setting theory 4. Being assertive at work 5. Assertive techniques 6. Geert Hofstede cultural dimensions 7. Cultural differences 8. Maslow's hierarchy of needs 9. Handling negativity at work 10. Career Boot Camp Rich Alexander

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Business Writing Combines Written and Visual Communications!

Types of business writing (pg.38) Making presentation slides (pg.46) Visual Aids (pg.49) E-Mails (pg.53)

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Types of Business Writing What do the following have in common? •

Reports of findings and recommendations

Meeting summaries

Progress reports

Report Writing

And what do these have in common? •

Sales letters

Press presentations & publications

Proposals

Essay writing

Persuasive Writing

We will not cover the formats of common business writing. There are plenty of resources and samples online. Please . E.V.L International Consultings Ltd. (Ireland)


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Types of Business Writing What do the following have in common? •

Agendas

Meeting minutes

Action minutes

Action plan

Thank-you letters

Job acceptance letters

Press release

Product design specifications

Informative Writing

We will not cover the formats of common business writing. There are plenty of useful resources and samples online. Please . E.V.L International Consultings Ltd. (Ireland)


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Business Informative Writing In the first 2 paragraphs (6-7 sentences each paragraph), tell your readers: • 5 W's: Who, where, what, when, how • Why they should care about your subject

Use active voice as much as possible because readers will: • Find your writing more interesting • Read faster • Remember more content

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Business Report Writing Research on subject (if necessary) • source reliable & accurate? Analyze information • progress • objectives met? • room for improvement • change in plan?

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Business Report Writing Present information and/or findings • organization & flow logical? • concise? (brief and complete?) • main ideas easy to extract?

Plagiarism is the crime against intellectual properties of others.

Cite references •

APA style

MLA style

and more!

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Persuasion vs. Manipulation Persuasion has a good intention to benefit all parties. •

Aim to create a win-win situation

If you wouldn’t do what you recommend others to do, it’s manipulation. •

Self-interest only

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Persuasive Writing in English The below essay writing structure applies to persuasive writings in general: Introduction •

Thesis statement

Body – each paragraph has: •

Topic sentence,

Claims & support/evidence, AND

Concluding sentence

Conclusion Any difference from what’s in your culture? If so, make sure to do research & learn about how to write well with this structure.

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Business Persuasive Writing Language of selling: (with examples 8) No sell (a.k.a. factual) Charlie's Nightspot, 1 N. State St., attracts a young, style-conscious clientele.

Soft sell (a.k.a. slanted) Charlie studied with Chef Francois, whose students include Wolfgang Puck.

Medium sell (a.k.a. mildly promotional) For a meal you'll remember, call Charlie at 555-1189.

Hard sell (a.k.a. strongly promotional) Call this weekend to reserve a special evening at Charlie's.

Overkill (a.k.a. hype) A rare opportunity to dine in the same room with celebrities! A meal at Charlie’s will leave your friends wondering: “Now, why don't I do things like that?” E.V.L International Consultings Ltd. (Ireland)


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Business Writing: Presentation Slides

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Making Presentation Slides What do you like/dislike about the following presentation slides?

1. 2. 3. 4.

http://www.cdc.gov/tb/topic/research/BehavioralProceedings/Section4_App/AppB_slides/Kawamura_Behavior/images/Slide9.gif http://www.hkepc.com/database/images/15.40.32.12.10.2007.X38%20and%20X48%20Express%20Chipset%20FSB%20and%20D DR%20Feature%20Comparison.jpg http://www.athena-software.co.uk/extWebSite_2008/templates/penelope_architecture.png http://blogs.guardian.co.uk/technology/archives/images/Google_framework-1x.gif

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Making Presentation Slides Low complexity on each slide Turn complicated explanations into visual aids If you will be speaking You are the focus of the presentation, not the slides only keywords on slides Font size – large enough for the audience in the last row? If you won’t be speaking Make your readers think along during reading Font size – large enough on paper or computer screen? Select simple and contrasting colors

for readability E.V.L International Consultings Ltd. (Ireland)


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Business Writing: Visual Aids

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Visual Aids Common Types: Histograms Bar charts Pie charts Line charts Flow charts Organizational charts Scatter plots Function graphs Venn diagrams Tree diagrams E.V.L International Consultings Ltd. (Ireland)


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Visual Aids How to choose the right visual aids format? Research on types of visual aids Research on how to develop visual aids Try all relevant formats Ask others to help you decide (the more, the merrier!)

Take a look at “Systems Diagramming� from OpenLearn, The Open University (UK)

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Visual Aids Attention! Title all visual aids, Label x and y-axis, Keep relevant data only (or de-highlight irrelevant data), Reduce complexity, Check if font size is large enough for reading, Maintain style throughout the document, Choose simple colors, Careful with color-blind combinations (red-green & blue-yellow), AND Explain the meaning (with caption AND in text)

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Business Writing: E-Mails

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Business Writing: Emails Language may be formal, informal or a mixture of the two. Common usages: •

Sending formal business letters (saving money on postage)

As a quick official notice

Asking for an action or a response

Before AND after a meeting or an important phone call (e.g. agenda and report)

As a short voice-mail message

Emails are not instant messages (MSN, Skype, AIM, ICQ, QQ, etc.) Be careful with your words – emails are written proof and will be kept in files!

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Business Writing: Emails When are EMAILS better than phone calls? • complicated figures/numbers (that does not require explanation) • significant time-zone difference • official holidays in contact person’s country

No more than 2 emails please!

• personal conflict-resolving I will send you the details in an email.

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Business Writing: Emails When are PHONE CALLS better than emails? • Need IMMEDIATE action/response • Receiver doesn’t check his/her emails often • May need to explain a lot • Need a simple answer

Hi, Mr. Jones? This is Jean Brown from Roro Tech. I am calling regarding …

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Subject Line in Email Make it easy for others to find the email in a much later day

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English Email Greetings Greetings (a.k.a. Salutations) “Dear” + capitalized title is a formal greeting •

When you don’t know the recipient(s) well, AND

When you want to stay professional

Find out more greetings online!

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Formal Email Greetings Variants of “Dear” + capitalized title •

“Dear” + First Name (common in the USA)

“Dear” + Dr./Prof./Mr./Mrs./Miss/Ms.

“Dear” + Job Title (e.g. President of the…)

“Dear” + Targeted Customer Group (e.g. Dear Customer, Dear Subscriber)

Native English-speaking women DO mind if you address them incorrectly (Mrs. for married and Miss for single women). So it is best to address women with “Ms.” How to find out if your contact is a man or a woman? Any idea?

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Finding Out Your Contact’s Gender A suggestion: Pick up your phone! Hi, I am Sarah Jennings from Roro Tech. I would like to speak to Hellami Parha. Yes, this is. How may I help you? Yes, Mr. Otto referred me to you. I’m calling regarding…

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Informal Email Greetings 1. “Hi all” (for 2 or more people), “Hi,” “Hello,” or “Hey” • When you’ve worked with the people a lot 2. No greeting at all or just the person’s fist name • When you know the person very well (e.g. in the same office, work with each other on a daily basis)

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Addressing Formally or Informally? Cultural Differences In some cultures (e.g. many Asians and Germans), many insist on being addressed formally in business, e.g. Mr. or Ms. • Just ask the recipient what he/she prefers! Do you prefer to go by your last name or first name?

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Content of Emails 1. Giving Information, Leaving Messages, or Sending Reports (Please refer to “Business Informative Writing” and “Business Report Writing”)

2. Asking for Action/Response 1. Name the specific action or response 2. Give a specific timeframe 1. “ASAP (as soon as possible)” is not effective Would you please give me a call when you receive this email? Please schedule an 1-hr meeting with me this week to discuss this issue. Please fill out the form and return it back to me by the end of this month.

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Spelling and Grammar in Emails Do you know that there are a few ways that will harm your professionalism? Make sure to: Show sincerity by spelling out VERY informal abbreviations: • Please (instead of “pls”) • Thanks (instead of “thx”)

In fact, you will anger your Englishspeaking contact with these 2 abbrev.

Spell-check before sending Check grammar before sending • Spell-check cannot catch certain mistakes

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Right Before Closing “Please do not hesitate to contact me if there is any question.” “If there is any question or comment, please feel free to contact me.” “Please let me know if you need more information.”

English-speaking people really like this. Find more variations with the following keywords: If you have any please

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Common Formal Closings in Emails 1. “Yours sincerely” / “Sincerely yours” / “Sincerely” 1. For very formal letters/emails 2. Usually followed by a real signature (or an image of the signature) 2. “Regards” / “With regards” 1. Only in emails 1. “Best wishes” / “Best regards” 1. More informal than “Yours sincerely” 2. Friendlier than “Regards” 3. Only in emails

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Common Informal Closings in Emails 1. “Cheers” / “Take care” / “Have a great day” 1. Quite personal 2. Followed by informal signature 2. No closing 1. Very informal 2. Only within the company

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Email Signatures Comply with your company’s official rules! Be Careful: • with personal motto or a famous quote • informal signature for the 1st email with a new contact

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Formal Email Signatures Contains at least: •

full name,

job title,

department name, AND

company name

Common options: •

company address and/or website

phone and/or fax number

• email (made available to forwarded email recipients)

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Informal Email Signatures When to use informal signatures? • A long email thread between you and the contact • Your contact already has your contact info • You would like to be addressed differently (e.g. go by first name)

… … Best, Anita Kelly

… …

Please call me Anita!

-Anita

… Regards, Anita Kelly Tel:+353 8722398

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Out-Of-Office Auto-Reply Email How to be helpful in your email: Comply with your company’s official rules! Be careful with humor. It can backfire. Give information about your absence • the period of absence OR your return date, AND • your ability (or inability) to reply emails while away Divert work to coworkers who can help in urgent cases • names, AND • contact information

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Out-Of-Office Auto-Reply Email Here is an example of a helpful out-of-office email.

a Microsoft template (http://office.microsoft.com/en-gb/templates/e-mail-message-outof-office-reply-formal-TC010251618.aspx)

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Last Words on Business Writing Readability is the key. •

Writing is useless if the receiver cannot receive the message.

5 steps of rewriting process 1. Review the 12 tips for effective communication, 2. Review the other 5 writing tips, 3. Review objectives for your writing, 4. Ask others to proofread

and give you feedback, AND

5. Rewrite, rewrite, and rewrite! Again, ALL writings in business are written proof!!

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Oral Communication in Business ยง General tips (pg.75) ยง Telephoning (pg.78) ยง Meetings (pg.85) ยง Presenting (pg.91) ยง Small talk (pg.94)

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Page 75 HelloWorld! Effective Communication in a Global Workplace

General Tips for Oral Communication Voice and pronunciation Accents

Please remember the following from non-verbal communication: Body language Facial expressions

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Page 76 HelloWorld! Effective Communication in a Global Workplace

Voice and Speaking Pronounce words clearly Speak slower when not face-to-face or 1-to-1 Tone (shows moods) • Positive tones – relaxed, friendly, enthusiastic, etc. • Negative tones – angry, impatient, indifferent, etc.

Intonation • Vary pitch to keep audience interested • Monotone and flat voice put people in sleep

Emphasis (makes meanings clear) • “I CALLED early today” vs. “I called early TODAY”

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Page 77 HelloWorld! Effective Communication in a Global Workplace

Communicating with Accents Everyone has an accent – it is OK. How to reduce communication problems caused by accent? • Find a quiet place to communicate • Observe the pattern of communication problems − For example, many find it difficult to distinguish Asian’s pronunciations for “R” and “L”

• Review the 12 general tips for effective communication If you have a very strong non-native accent and would like to reduce it, please see our handout “Resources for English Learning.”

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Page 78 HelloWorld! Effective Communication in a Global Workplace

Oral Communication: Telephoning

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Page 79 HelloWorld! Effective Communication in a Global Workplace

Telephoning in Business to learn about common phrases and langauge Leaving a voice-mail message Recording a voice-mail greeting Answering calls Making calls

What do I have the most trouble with business calls?

Interacting with automatic response systems (a.k.a. interactive voice response)

Note: Automatic response systems will not be covered here. Telephone conferences will be covered in meetings/confrerences. E.V.L International Consultings Ltd. (Ireland)


Page 80 HelloWorld! Effective Communication in a Global Workplace

Leaving Voice-Mail Messages 5 Steps: Provide your name + company name, State the reason of your call briefly,

This is Theresa from Charlie’s Guest House. I am calling because …

Ask the person to call back (give a time frame), Leave your contact number, AND Repeat your contact number again. Please give me a call before 12 o’clock tomorrow. My number is 000-0000. I repeat, 000-0000. Goodbye. How to leave voicemail to find more sample scripts online. E.V.L International Consultings Ltd. (Ireland)


Page 81 HelloWorld! Effective Communication in a Global Workplace

Recording Voice-Mail Greeting 4 Steps: This is Theresa of Charlie’s Guest House.

Provide your name + company name, State that you are not available,

Ask the person to leave a message/information, AND State what you will do with the messages. I am currently not available. Please leave your name & phone number, and I will get back to you ASAP. Thank you. Voicemail greeting script to find more sample scripts online. E.V.L International Consultings Ltd. (Ireland)


Page 82 HelloWorld! Effective Communication in a Global Workplace

Voice-Mails & Cultural Differences Voice-mail machines popularity not uniform around the world • almost default: e.g. the USA, the UK − traditionally customer-friendly cultures

• almost none: e.g. Germany − belief: “If it’s important enough, they will call again.”

Hum, no voicemail machine. How can I leave a message? Any idea?

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Page 83 HelloWorld! Effective Communication in a Global Workplace

Answering Calls 1. Comply with your company’s official rules!

Charlie’s Guest House. This is Theresa. How may I help you? 1. Determine the purpose of the call. 2. Listen actively and be helpful. 3. Gather information

• Caller’s name and contact information • Information provided by the caller.

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Page 84 HelloWorld! Effective Communication in a Global Workplace

Making Calls 1. Remember your purpose of calling. 2. Give clear information 3. Send clear requests

P as in “Peter” and B as in “boy.” Then followed by the number 8.

4. Listen actively and gather information •

Feedback/response of the other side

5. Think about what actions to take next

I need this info before the weekend. Would it be OK if I call again on Thursday? Telephone English to find common phrases online. E.V.L International Consultings Ltd. (Ireland)


Page 85 HelloWorld! Effective Communication in a Global Workplace

Oral Communication: Meetings

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Page 86 HelloWorld! Effective Communication in a Global Workplace

Business Meetings & Cultural Differences The functions of meetings vary among cultures. For example: 1. Announcing news/decisions officially, e.g. Latinos 2. Generating ideas AND making decision, e.g. Americans, Germans 3. Generating ideas, but superiors make decision, e.g. French 4. Building team spirit, e.g. Americans And more!

Meeting rules also differ. For example: 1. Phone ringing is unprofessional, e.g. Americans, Germans 2. Phone ringing constantly is professional, e.g. Arabs, S. Europeans E.V.L International Consultings Ltd. (Ireland)


Page 87 HelloWorld! Effective Communication in a Global Workplace

Business Meetings & Cultural Differences So, what could we do during a meeting with international contacts? 1. Ask and adapt to the local meeting culture 2. Introduce AND explain a new culture 3. Do (1) for a few meetings AND do (2) over time 4. Send your contact person this presentation

What should we definitely do? Remind each other the objectives of cooperation, Show sincerity and openness, AND Clarify any cultural misunderstanding E.V.L International Consultings Ltd. (Ireland)


Page 88 HelloWorld! Effective Communication in a Global Workplace

Meetings in English-Speaking Culture What is unique? Emphasis on creativity and innovation therefore Emphasis on an open discussion for all participants which means that 1. Disagreements are just as valuable as agreements, 2. Reasoning and evidence are the keys of persuasion, AND 3. Everyone has equal rights in the meeting therefore developed Brainstorming, mind maps, and other methods/tools E.V.L International Consultings Ltd. (Ireland)


Page 89 HelloWorld! Effective Communication in a Global Workplace

Meetings in English-Speaking Culture When to call a meeting? Need to exchange/generate ideas

When to call a meeting

Need to make a decision with consense Need to build a strong team spirit Need to check progress Need to ensure clarity When NOT to call a meeting? Only to announce news please send it via email

2 or more unrelated subjects/goals break down to more meetings E.V.L International Consultings Ltd. (Ireland)


Page 90 HelloWorld! Effective Communication in a Global Workplace

Business English for Meetings To learn common English phrases in meetings, • • • • •

Calling meeting Conducting/holding meeting Participating in meeting Asking giving opinions Agreeing disagreeing in meeting • Describing trends •

Making suggestion in meeting

Appologizing

Heding

• • • • • • • •

Interrupting in meeting Avoiding being interrupted Clarifying Asking for clarification Making proposals Rejecting proposals Moving on to next topic Going back to previous topic

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Page 91 HelloWorld! Effective Communication in a Global Workplace

Oral Communication: Presenting

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Page 92 HelloWorld! Effective Communication in a Global Workplace

Common Presenting Mistakes 1. “Long” opening (when audience knows the title of presentation already) 2. Trying to be funny with opening (but audience does not find it funny) 3. Self-introduction “too short” or “too long” 4. No agenda or overview slide for a meeting 5. Speaking too fast because of time constraint • Check if you have irrelevant information or too much information

E.V.L International Consultings Ltd. (Ireland)


Page 93 HelloWorld! Effective Communication in a Global Workplace

Common Presenting Mistakes 1. No eye contact with audience when speaking 2. Moving feet or arms non-stop 3. Stiff body 4. Repeating information unknowingly • Prepare and practice your script 5. No summary at the end

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Page 94 HelloWorld! Effective Communication in a Global Workplace

Oral Communication: Small Talks

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Page 95 HelloWorld! Effective Communication in a Global Workplace

Small Talks in English-Speaking Culture Some cultures need small talk, while some others don’t see it important. English-speaking cultures like small talks during lunch time or breaks. Topics for small talks • Weather & condition of travel are always safe • Politics & sports are allowed • Asking about family or marital status is considered inappropriate (unless the person mentioned about his/her family before) Compare against your own culture! to find out more about cultural differences.

E.V.L International Consultings Ltd. (Ireland)


Page 96 HelloWorld! Effective Communication in a Global Workplace

Small Talks with Global Business Contacts How to find out what people really mean by what they say? The slow ways (but work): • Observe interactions between people from the same culture, OR • Ask people from that culture about it

How about this? • Take initiative and express your confusion, then ask for what happened

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Last Words on Oral Communication Be aware of misunderstanding caused by non-verbal communication • Review the 12 general tips for effective communication

Make it clear and meaningful for others • Find out what is important to them • Combine with written communication • Organize your materials

Prepare and practice beforehand!

E.V.L International Consultings Ltd. (Ireland)


Page 98 HelloWorld! Effective Communication in a Global Workplace

More Resources on the Internet Language Instruction for Newcomers to Canada (LINC) Documents. http://atwork.settlement.org/sys/atwork_library_detail.asp?doc_id=1003369#cim • LINC 1-4 Classroom Activities • LINC 5-7 Classroom Activities: Volumes 1 & 2 LINC 5-7 Classroom Activities (Vol. 1 and 2) e-Resources http://www.moresettlement.org/linc5-7.web/index.html

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References 1.

John Allison, Rachel Appleby, and Edward de Chazal. The Business: Advanced Student’s Book. Oxford: Macmillan Education, 2009. Page 50. Print.

2.

Dan O’Connor. “4 Magic Phrases You Can Use to Respond to ANYTHING.” Power Diversity, 2009. [online] http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g5RknemM8Hw

3.

“Typeface” Wikipedia Encyclopedia. Wikipedia Foundation, Inc. 2011-02-15. [online] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Typeface#Roman_typefaces

4.

“Persuasive Business Writing” Empire State College, Writing Center. Saratoga Springs, NY, USA. Access 2011-02-16. [online] http://www.esc.edu/esconline/across_esc/WritingResources.nsf/frames/Persua sive+Business+Writing?OpenDocument

5.

“Using English on the telephone.” Teaching Business English to Speakers of Other Languages. Page 102. English Training Centre. 2005.

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Effective Communication in a Global Workplace  

Disclaimer: This presentation is not intended to teach everything about business English or communication, but (a) to introduce/review many...