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Social Fusion: Housing for the Ages, Object Turns Subject

A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of the Architecture Department in Partial Fulfillment or the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Architecture at The Savannah College of Art and Design

By

Evan Alexander Gray Savannah, GA June, 2012


objec-t


s-ubject

THE SYMBOLISM OF PROCESS


Ideas, like all living organismums, are creatures of evolution. While these two practicioners of evolution are devided among the ability to be animate and inanimate, there creation remains the same; a durivitive of a need that through a series of trial and error finds the need that has always been calling for thier existance. The space, or rather places that ideas and organismums cross polinate is what man has come to call architecture. These contradictory manisfestations seem to be the only places on earth that assign highly animated words such as “life,” “rythmn”, “active” and “inactive” to describe an inanimate objects. We consider this only possible for the simple fact that these places of architecture are the only places of inanimate being that we as animate creatures occupy, fill, and live our lives, making these places so important we catorgrize them in under the same pretenses as food, and water.


This is usually the part where the author gives thanks to the people who influenced and help make their ideas a reality. That is not good enough. As shown to the right of the index the letters G.T.N are depicted. Group Think Now is a culmination of all the persons responsible for providing the real time inspiration and feedback that all problem solvers need to be successful. They are my peers, friends, family, and unexpected happenings that occur every day. They are just as important as any user group, design firm, piece of data, or a successful 2 in the morning brainstorming session. It is astonishing to note how, without hardly realizing it all the people who are listed as a part of G.T.N participate in the most random, disorganized flow of thoughts, yet somehow all thoughts, criticisms, and helping hands successfully conjoined down to what is a natural progression of ideas, with a efficiency that rivals that of organized institutions. So it is to G.T.N that any significance of this book should go to, even if it is just a title on the cover, for these people are the ones I look to as true genius and without these people this project would have never existed.Thank you.


Committe Chair: Professor A. Ronaszegi Department Chair: Professor S. Singesion Committe Member 1: Professor S. Olin Committe Member 2: Professor M. Jones Group Think Now(G.T.N) [U.S]: L. Fraley J. Catenacci C. Nicolas M. Gray A. Wanamaker C. Epps M. Painter R. Gray M. Meade J. Gray C. Zumstein S. Evans K. Butcher L. Ayres C. Snowden B. Gray C. Buckner T. McGowan [Saudi Arabia] A. Munshi [Venuzula] A. Lucas [Vietnam] H. Ngo F. Ngo [Iceland] R. Petursdottir [Hungary] A. Ronaszegi M. Ronaszegi [China] K. Ko [Puerto Rico]

[Pakistan] F. Rind Rand Gharaibeh [Honduras] J. Tejeda


List of Figures OBJECT [Part I] Abstract Defining the Problem 1.0 - Historical Analysis Yesterday is what makes tomorrow, tomorrow

TURNS [Part II] 2.0 - Trouble Shooting What stays and goes for age in place living

SUBJECT [Part III] 3.0 - Contextual Research Road Mapping Observational Context 4.0 - Conceptual Design The Beginnings of an Architectural Translation of the Road Map The

5.0 - Schematic Design Making it real

SYMBOLISM [Part IV]

6.0 - Design Development The imagery of a symbol of

PROCESS [Part V] 7.0 - Conclusion The result of process Final Boards

Works Cited-Bibliography


List of Figuers Figure

Source

1.01

“Work House” Online Image. http://dawsr.wordpress.com. 10/16/2011

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“Almshouse Etching” Online Image. http://dawsr.wordpress.com. 10/16/2011

1.04

“Townsend Almshouse” Online Image. University of Buffallo Archives. 11/02/2011

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“Social Security Signing” Online Image. http://www.civilrights.org/seniors/. 10/23/2011

1.06

“Hill Burton Act” Online Image. www.barrowregional.com/About/History 10/16/2011

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“Hill Burton Act” Online Image. www.barrowregional.com/About/History 10/16/2011

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“Medicare Card” Online Image www.ssa.gov/history/lbjsm 11/06/2011

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Diagram By Author

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Diagram By Author

1.11 “Boston’s Pauper Institutions” Online Image. ElderWeb. www.elderweb.com 10/09/2011 1.12 “Boston’s Pauper Institutions” Online Image. ElderWeb. www.elderweb.com 10/09/2011 1.13

“Pac-Man Metaphor” Online Image. Pacman.com 2/6/2012

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“Mountain of Money” Image by Author 2/14/2012

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Figuer

Source

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“Three Key Points Icons” Image By Author 2/7/2012

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“Cartoon-’Been Here Long?”. Online Image. Cartoonstock.com. 10/23/2011

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“Townsend Almshouse” Online Image. University of Buffallo Archives. 11/02/2011

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“Space making us, us” Image By Author 3/22/2012

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“Intergenerational Housing- Bad Rappenau” Online Image. ASIR.com

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3/21/2012

“Positive Gains via Greenery- Lalling France” Online Image. explow.com 3/18/2012

“Programatic Modular- Zurich” Online Image. www.hsp-architekten.ch 11/09/2011

“Residential Home for the Elderly- Masans” Online Image. www.pushpullbar.com 11/09/2011

2.06

“Tunnel Through Cost Barrier” Book Scan, Natural Capitalism, Chapter 6, Tunneling Through the Cost Barrier

2.07

“Home for the Elderly-Kvernass” Online Image. kvernaas.no 3/14/2012

2.08

“Co-Housing for the Aged- Ingolstadt” Online Image behnisch.com/ 3/22/2012

2.09 3.01

“Wozoco’s Apartments” Online Image. MVRVD.nl 3/16/2012

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objec-t


s-ubject

THE SYMBOLISM OF PROCESS


object


Abstract Defining the Problem

10


Relevance: This thesis lies in the sheer numbers the retiree community will increase by. Within the next two decades, the baby boom generation will retire at the average rate of 10,000 retirees per day. It is currently argued that various pension funds, as well as social security, is not structured to yield to such a high volume of users. Additionally life expectancy A inevitable and irreversible truth to after the age of 65 has increased steadily from growing old lies within the spaces we live, and 70 to 78.7 over the last 50 years, showing no how deep of an impact these spaces have in our signs of slowing down. Simply put, within the daily lives. When we consider both of concepts of next two decades there will be more retirees than growing older (specifically our senior years) we ever before living longer lives (on average) that are continually reminded just how critical a space ever recorded. Additionally issues such as being is that is purposfully conditioned to meet the ever separated from family members, economic draining changing lifestyles we live as we age. from living cost, and the environmental toll senior homes take, it becomes more and more obvious Proposal: that the restructuring of the current retirement home methodology, in all aspects needs to be This thesis intends to target a aged in reorganized to have a longer lasting, and more place residence that through anaylitical process sustainable approach. connects user group, to site anaylsis, and building program; this connection between user site anayliss The upcoming large and sudden influx of and building program is critical in order to acheive baby boomers coming into retirement will already sucessfull consideration of three key targets; in of itself reshape the way we look at retired Preserving and nurturing economic, environmental, living. Everything will be re-looked via the retiree and social resources not only for its current baby boomers; how society deals with long-term inhabitants but for all generations to come. By investments as people live longer, the ability for embracing these three key components, rather than the environment to support a climax of a consumer simply acknowledging them, a spatial diagnosis is generation, and the social role our elders play and created that no longer is prescribed by anything shape our society with. Within this breath, it only less than the immediate user. The architectural makes sense we should begging to restructure a resultant is the ability of space and program to retirement home whose program will become more continually evolve with user. In doing so, spatial applicable to this new social era and generation prescriptions are now only diagnosed upon user of retirees. By absorbing the three components as activating the encompassing architecture. Thus mentioned above we create a spatial environment avoiding the need for user to continually readapt based on adaptation of long-term solutions, not and relocate to a one size fits all spatial prescription ineffective one size fits all problem solving. The solely imposed by economic, environmental, social resulting architectural manifestation will only then resource scarcity. properly reflect the true aspirations of a generation who single handily shaped contemporary western society and culture. Thus yielding a life style more applicable to the values of free will and not constrained by standards and shortcomings, fully

11


1.0 - Historical Analysis What is yesterday, makes tomorrow, tomorrow

12


Retirement or nursing homes (depending

on level of assistance needed) have become perfect "units" of measurement in this sense of spatial reflection. Units may house a variety of options depending on economic, environmental, and social factors, reflecting the complete spectrum of independent to dependent (assisted) living, and from desirable to undesirable living conditions.

Further they are prefect reflections of

how we as a society address the aging process, what we as a society expect from our elderly, and what the elderly can expect from society. In order to understand this cultural manifestation better,a exploration of the historical makings of the retirement home is necessary. This will address not only the functions of retirement homes, but also the economic, environmental, and social drivers of the American retirement home from its historical beginning to its current makings.

1.01

By utilizing history, this thesis may derive

a critical position under the three categories of economy, environment, and society, making note of how and why retirement homes currently work the way they do, and what methods should be utilize or reexamined. Only then can we derive appropriate actions, to successfully prescribe the correct architectural tools to escape the island we have all come to call assisted living.

13


Retirement home history can trace its

1768 the Maryland General Assembly passed a law

lineage back to the dark ages of Europe. At this

requiring several counties, including Anne Arundel,

time they were a product of religious institutions

to establish almshouses in order to give shelter and

called almshouses. They were funded almost

work to the county’s poor. Funding was provided

continued along with the task of sheltering

Living cases we by taxes levied from county residents, and the site A descriptio location was dictated to be of rural setting. Any Almshouse Chicago met close proximity to the growing city of Annapolis follows; Infam was considered as a procurer of temptations (7.) mismanagemen conditions, and The resident population of these institutions was of inmates, the alms of broad spectrum. Men, women, children, and regarded as a refuge of (5.) Itroof, is from these horrib the elderly divided by sex, lived under one that community leaders first in dormitory or ward style conditions. Only the to provide a form of assisted livin elderlyhandicap that did not entail conditions of terminally ill, and the permanently were resort as seen in the almshouses. separated into

society’s poorest of poor and subsequently

hospital wards in

society’s dumping ground of it’s elderly. It was

some cases. The

not long before the almshouse role in society

rest of the inmate

made its way to the newly founded America’s.

population

By the 18th century such states as Maryland

was called, was

had made it commonplace to require counties

a

entirely by charity and were almost always run by practitioners of the church. It was the task of these institutions to act as refuge for society’s destitute families, terminally ill (mentally and physically,) and abandoned elderly. As the years past and Europe found itself in the midst of the age of imperialism and almshouses branched into a variety of more recognizable modern names; work houses, poorhouses, asylums, yet the name almshouses

to

establish

as

it

mixed

almshouses

in order to deal with the displaced poor of society. In

1.02

“bone of our bone, an 14


opulation as it was called, was a mixed of people from those who needed opulation as it was called, was a mixed of people corrections, those who needed corrections, orphans, and orphans, andfromthe elderly. the elderly.

conditions in most ere less than humane. Living conditions in most cases were less than on of the Cook County humane. in what is today the A description of the Cook County tropolitan area stands as Almshouse in what is today the Chicago mous for its corruption, nt, deplorable livingmetropolitan area stands as follows; Infamous maltreatment for its corruption, mismanagement, deplorable shouse was living conditions, and maltreatment of inmates, f last resort ble conditions the almshouse was regarded as a refuge of last t took action resort (5.) It is from these horrible conditions that ng for our last community leaders first took action to provide a

conditions of last resort as seen in the almshouses. By the turn of the 19th century, women’s and church groups began to establish special homes for the elderly. This was done out of necessity of vconcern that worthy individuals of their own ethnic or religious background might end their days alongside the most despised parts of society. As wmrote the organizers of Philadelphia’s Indigent Widows and Single Women’s Society one of the nations earliest old age homes (1823) our efforts have preserved many who once lived respectfully from becoming residents of the Alms House. The founder of Boston’s Home for Aged Women

form of assisted

living for our

(1850), explained their institution as- a haven for

elderly

not

those who were bone of our bone, and flesh of our

that

did

entail

flesh (2.) These private institutions, although successful, hardly put a dent in the actual rate of elderly entering almshouses. By the turn of the 20th century almshouses had become the main source of disposal for the

elderly who could

no longer keep

themselves financially

going or physically

nd flesh of our flesh” 15


Ederly population within almshouses: 1880-1923

50%

those in need either struggle on their own or enter

an

almshouse.

Actions such as these led the

25%

percentage of population that was elderly in almshouses to skyrocket. From By the turn of the 20th century

almshouses had become the main source of disposal for the elderly who could no longer keep themselves financially going or physically function in daily life. Some states, like Pennsylvania became so dependent on sending their elderly to almshouses they would periodically revoke outdoor relief in the form of money, wood, or clothes, demanding that

16

1880

1880 to 1923 alone the percentage of elderly within almshouses went from 33 percent to 67 percent (2.) These alarming increases became a hallmark to a hard truth of an industrialized society and the lacking role there was to play for our elderly. Abraham Epstein an early pension advocate declared that such institutions as almshouses clearly revealed the inability of elderly persons to succeed in the industrial world. Epstein wrote in 1929, stands as a threatening symbol of

1900


institutions that often were just as unregulated if not worse than the public almshouses of the past. For these very reasons the Hospital Survey and Construction Act the deepest humiliation and degradation before all wage-earners after the prime of life (2.)

It is from these grounds that in

1935 President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed the Social Security Act matching grants to each state for Old Age Assistance to retired workers. Simultaneously a retiree was denied his or her pension if they were taking residence in a public institution (almshouse.) This was done to discourage the use of these neglected almshouses and other public care facilities. As Supreme Court Justice Benjamin Cardozo wrote the hope behind this state is to save men and women from the rigors of the poorhouse as well as the haunting fear that such a lot awaits them when the journey’s end is near (2.) This created a mass transformation from public operated institutions to the beginning of the modern privatized retirement home. Sadly this law of no pensions dedicated to retirees living under public institutions became a mere excuse for the majority of these public institutions to change over and privatize once public institutions. These newly founded privatize institutions almost always kept the same current management, operations, and standard of living, yet they could now collect residents monthly annuities. Additionally it forced possible recipients who wanted to collect pensions to move out of public institutions into privatized

1920

was passed in 1946. This act became the first time federal funds were allocated to help survey existing state hospitals and health centers, to make sure they were compliant to current regulations and codes.

This act became the first time federal

funds were allocated to help survey existing state hospitals and health centers, to make sure they were compliant to current regulations and codes. Also it was allocated that the federal government could allow federal funds to build brand new state of the art hospitals upon approval. This act was only semi-successful in accomplishing its set goals, yet the Hill-Burton Act as it was called became the next big turning point. It is no surprise then that shortly following this acin the early 1950’s amendments to the Social Security Act required that sates must establish some form of licensing for retirement homes. The ban on providing federal moneys to residents of public facilities was also lifted, thus began the concept of channeling federal moneys to health service providers (4.) By 1954 federal funding had been granted for construction of retirement homes in conjunction with a hospital. Additionally federal money was reserved to provide assistance for private and public retirement homes. This too relayed the signal that the federal government was finally making a stab at raising the quality of care for its collective elderly population. Upon until now it has been a pretty strait forward historical progression on what we as a society declare acceptable or unacceptable when deciding

17


often producing more harm than good. Further deciding on how to treat our elderly.From here

federal funding throughout the 1940’s and 1950’s

summary can be concluded, (via the three key

became a first rate way to not only provide the

points of economics, environment, and society)

funds for much need state and private institution

up to the point in history this paper has left of at

construction but also a way for the federal

(1960.)

government to mandate a standard of codes and regulations upon state and private acceptance

The Reaction of Action, Key Point Response:

of

federal

money.Environmentally

speaking,

living conditions seem to be the source of initial

Economically the premise for creating

public out cry towards the standards almshouses

almshouses was on the basis that the said inmates

had originated from.

were no longer able to support themselves

common knowledge that the urban placement of

physically as well as economically. Even more

almshouses should be in that of a detached part

evidently is the growing trend that as historical

of the urban landscape, if not rural. The Anne

economic growth became more and more related

Arundle County almshouse and Boston’s principle

to industrialization (1880-1930’s specifically.)

Almshouse on Long Island stand testament to this

Space in society for the elderly became smaller

ideology. Both reside far away from city center.

and smaller, thus concluding that as Abraham

In a positive light this allowed these centers to

Epstein put it [Industrialization]a threatening

become somewhat self-sustaining in the sense of

symbol of the deepest humiliation and degradation

agricultural production and some minor industries

before all wage-earners after the prime of life (2.)

like carpentry or sewing. Yet these institutions were

Simultaneously the ability for almshouses to run by

almost always severely under funded and never

charity and or local taxation was replaced in the

had enough available infrastructure to create a

1930’s by Social Security in an attempt to reduce

industry of substantial or self supporting size.

the ever-rising cost per inmate in conjunction with

the elderlies projected growth rate. It is here that

detached the general public from contact with

we observe that although there was an out cry for a

these inmates. Shutting off public contact opened

change of these living conditions, action was only

the door for wide spread scandal and mistreatment

taken by higher authority, in this case the federal

at these homes, simply because these places

government only when they realized financially

although public, were not literally kept a part of the

almshouses were a growing cost issue rather than

urban community, rather cast out in the surrounding

solution. Third the introduction to Social Security

landscape. Further the disdain for living conditions

provided a new source of financial freedom for the

was a direct product of building miss management,

retiree, yet was hardly enough income to actually

and one size fits all construction techniques. This

sustain a real life from. This one size fits all solution

is seen first hand from the New England Magazine

set the limit for the elderly to just barley get by,

April 1898 article on Boston’s principle Almshouse

18

Negatively

In the beginning it was

speaking

these

locations


The Reaction of Action, Key Point Response: (Graphicly speaking) Process of assisted-living till 1960A.Almshouses B.President Rosevelt sigining the Social Secuirty Bill C.Regulated assisted-living instituion D. Hospital created under the HillBurton Act E. Secuirity Identification Card used to collect on benefits.

A.

B.

E.

D.

C.

1.04-.08

According levels of social isolation of assisted living untill 1960: A.Almshouses B.President Rosevelt sigining the Social Secuirty Bill C.Regulated assisted-living instituion D. Hospital created under the HillBurton Act E. Secuirity Identification Card used to collect on benefits.

A.

legal

federal

communal/state

B.

C.

institutional

D.

systematic

E.

1.09

The human made into__________due to assisted living untill 1960: A. Almshouses B.President Rosevelt sigining the Social Secuirty Bill C.Regulated assisted-living instituion D. Hospital created under the HillBurton Act E. Secuirity Identification Card used to collect on benefits. a space

A.

a piece of legislation

B.

a regulated space

C.

a designated space

D.

a identification card

E.

1.10 19


on Long Island: In construction, the women’s

stands testament as a product of a community's

dormitory is of the open-timber work style. Its

initiative, charity, and compassion that refused to

exterior walls are filled with terra-cotta blocks

let their elderly become inmates of almshouses.

over the ordinary in respect to cheapness and

Socially it seems that the smaller and more

incombustibility however is not as damp-proof

closely knit communities (social micro) are able to

as fire-proof. One minded efficient construction

incorporate and utilize the role of the elderly more

techniques seem to have become a hallmark

effectively in a social setting than say on a larger

in sacrificing living conditions to make due for

industrialized communal scale (social macro.) It

economic restrictions, or gains, thus plaguing

seems that this observation is merely apart of the

environmental standards well into the 40’s and

human condition; the closer and more personal

50’s. As noted the first federal codes and standards

an issue is to you (geographically or morally) the

were enforced upon the Hill-Burton act of 1946

more likely that you are to deal with it in a manner

(3.) Once again it seems that a seemingly good

that would reflect how you yourself would like to

idea was sense then plagued by a one size fits all

be treated in that same situation. Government

mentality. By simply capitalizing only on the bad

action such as vThe New Deal and Social Security

state and private institutions the existing successful

became a new moral high ground and ideology

institutions were never capitalized on, or learned

passed outward from capitol hill to the rest of the

from, but instead required to standardized there

nation. Although these social policies even in their

practice to meet accordance with new federal

infancy were not as successful as some might have

regulations in order to receive their share of federal

hoped, it marks a point in history where our largest

funding.

social institution (the federal government) is taking

Socially speaking history so far has shown

the lead role of conservationist. In this case it was

a broad spectrum of social and human capabilities.

social conservation that lead our policy makers in

On one hand the misuse and mistreatment of

act such regulation, opening a whole new realm of

almshouse regulations and there inmates, detail

ideology of what our government and society can

how certain factions of people are prone to capitalize

provide for one another as a whole.

on the misfortunes of the less fortunate and even

our elderly. It seems that it was commonplace to

history has detailed the result of the economic,

consider someone of lesser fortune than yourself,

environmental, and social actions and reactions

was there for, of lesser value as a whole. Thus

that occurred in response to how the elderly have

these opinions were successfully reflected within

fit into society. By this time (1960) society has

the spaces society sent these lesser people to

acknowledged that the elderly pose a growing need

live. Equally was the admirable actions taken by

and place within society. From 1960 onward this

communities and social fractions to produce a

paper will conclude exactly how these reactions

higher alternate option for the elderly other than

of yester year came about to manifest itself

the almshouse. Boston's Home for Aged Women

into the current programmatic and architectural

20

From

medieval

Europe

until

1960,

1.11


manifestation we call the modern retirement

once again re-altered the image of retirement

home.

home to what Representative David Pryor called halfway houses between society and the cemetery. This horrible down turn in living conditions came to light within the shadow of the Moss Amendments of 1968. This blatant disregard of the law sent a whirlwind of new federal regulations over the next decade including new reforms on Social Security in 1972 and amendments to the Older Americans Act in 1973. Most importantly these new standards

1960-Present:

provided ways for retirement home residents,

and their families to fast track any complaints or

1965 saw the passing of the Medicare and

violations of care, lack there of at retirement homes

Medicaid acts. Together these two programs

(2.)

would give federal assistance in health insurance

for the elderly (Medicare) and the financially

conditions came to light within the shadow of

strained (Medicaid.) The ability to have subsidized

the Moss Amendments of 1968. This blatant

health insurance as well as the ability to collect

disregard of the law sent a whirlwind of new

Social Security gave further financial freedom to

federal regulations over the next decade 1.12

the elderly. Medicare further fueled institutional

including new reforms on Social Security in

standards via the Moss Amendments (1968.)

1972 and amendments to the Older Americans

These amendments allow said institutions to

Act in 1973. Most importantly these new

receive Medicare payments only if those recipients

standards provided ways for retirement home

comply with the most up to date federal retirement

residents, and their families to fast track any

home regulations. With federal and state funding

complaints or violations of care, lack there

acting as a financial backbone, it is no wonder

of at retirement homes (2.)Even still the mid

that by 1976 the number of nursing homes grew

1970’s were plagued by further continuation

by 140 percent. Additional the number of nursing-

of retirement home scandals. The smoking

home beds increased by 302 percent, and the

gun to this issue may lie within the very

revenues received by the industry rose 2,000

governmental regulations and funding trying

percent. The majority of this growth was seen

to regulate retirement home quality control. By

in the private industry, thus by 1979, 79 percent

now there were two basic types of institutions,

of all institutionalized elderly persons resided in

Intermediate Care Facilities (ICFs,) and

commercial run institutions (2.) Large-scale growth

Skilled Nursing Facilities (SNFs.) An ICF is

within the commercial industry also produced

an institution for peoples who do not require

large-scale scandals and substandard care. This

constant care of a skilled nurse (ICF facilities

This

horrible

down

turn

in

living

21


1.13

ICF Lobyist

Privatization

Federal regulation

Investors/Politican values

Medicare, Medicaid benefits Quality of living for elderly


do not require the same amount of skilled nursing

Planning and Resources Act of 1974 that required

personal or resources thus on average are cheaper

all retirement home facilities to obtain a Certificate

institutions to run.) SNF’s on the other hand are

of Need. Additionally the Omnibus Reconciliation

there for those that do need a full time nursing care

Act of 1987 became the single largest reformation

program, thus staff and resources hold a larger

in retirement home regulation, adding new cost and

operating cost.

regulation requirements to meet code compliance.

During

1971

the

federal

governments

Further the Medicare Catastrophic Coverage Act in

issued that ICF may be eligible to draw on funds

1988 relaxed Medicare’s enrollment requirements

covered by Medicaid. This meant that by 1982

and lengthened its beneficiary period. A large

Medicaid was dispersing 4.98 billion dollars to ICF

source of income for these new expenditures did

institutions. This is in contrast to SNF institutions,

not come from across the board in federal or state

that were now only receiving 4.43 billion dollars,

taxes but instead by utilizing tax surcharges and

a curious occurrence considering ICF federal

premium increases within the Medicare program

reimbursement was technically to be held within

recipients (4.)

90 percent of states average SNF funding. With

the rise of ICF's the level of care concept was

detracted

created, thus creating a multitude of new problems

entire basis of institutional funding was by that

ranging from how a patient is recommended to

of calculated reimbursement, where through a

a ICF or SNF, classifying at what exact point a

series of calculations based on historical pretext,

patient needs or doesn't need a SNF program

the next fiscal year is calculated and distributed

and what to do with a patient who's condition

accordingly. This led to an environment where

changes while residing at an ICF (4.) In order to

unforeseen adaptations could not be accounted

gain quality control the government re-organized

for. Simultaneously it led very little growth in

federal funding reimbursement on a “reasonable

environmental quality by free will. In a sense it

cost-related basis,” as apposed to the arbitrary

almost mandated that the only changes that would

fee draw schedule most institutions sourced

be made through a reimbursement method would

from in the past. This once again helped put the

be those mandated by the federal government, if at

federal government in control of regulations and

all.

standards, yet the over all cost to these programs

went up.

home population as the elderly population grew

Annual cost nearly quadrupled from 1970’s

simultaneously. Like wise Medicare retirement

average annual resident fee of 5,100 dollars to

home expenditures increased significantly, putting

1985 23,300 dollars in 1985. From 1985 to 1990

a large strain on the program.

it rose to an even higher average of 30,000 per

The Balanced Budget Act in 1997 met this with

annual resident (Figure 2.8. Price increases

an abrupt haut, cutting the amount of money sent

can be directly attributed to The National Health

through Medicare to pay retirement homes.

Medicaid from

reimbursement environmental

methods

also

quality.

The

The 1990’s saw a steady rate in the retirement

23


$30,000

In response this triggered the bankruptcy of

can safely assume the projected rates of nursing

four large retirement home chains, thus proving

home facilities will rise (8.) Unfortunately quality

how dependent commercial institutions are on

control issues are still being found within these

government funding (3.) Yet by 2000 the retirement

institutions, and less than satisfactory conditions

home industry had become a 100 billion dollar

are still a frequent occurrence in more than one

industry, largely at the expense of Medicaid,

instance.

Medicare, and out of pocket private expenses (2.)

A series of 1999 reports, the U.S. General

Currently the U.S find itself holding 16,995 nursing

Accounting Office, found that still more than

home facilities, of which 66 percent are for profit,

one-fourth of the homes had deficiencies

27 percent non-profit and 7 percent government

that caused actual harm to residents

controlled. Roughly 1.5 million elderly currently

or placed them at risk of

reside in nursing homes, with twenty two percent

death or serious injury

of the 5.3 million people who are 85 or older reside

(6.)

in one of these facilities. 7 an additional 350,000 residents also reside in Continuing Care Retirement Communities, of which this number has only

$20,000

increased sense then. Population growth within the next 20 years details shows population of people 65 or older will grow to one in five people by 2030. By following data that it is expected that everyone 65 and over has a 43 percent chance of residing in a nursing home within some portion of their s e n i o r

$5,000

years, w e

1990

1980

1970, annual cost of residential fees


1.14 SCALE: 1 dollar : 1 foot = a mountain of cost mount everest (29,092 ’ : $ 29,092) burj dubai tower (2,723 ‘ : $ 2,723) a pile of money (30,000 dollars annual average at 1990)

25


The Reaction of Action, Key Point Response:

As the total number of long distance elder care

Economics, Environement, Society

rises so does the cost associated with traveling care providing to our loved ones. A 2004 study

The condition under economic influence

by Met Life Mature Markets Institute shows that

seems to be a driving factor in all realms, whether

long-distance care has risen from on average 196

the obvious in the scale of affordability, and

dollars per month 1997 to 392 dollars in 2004.

environmental conditions, or the not so obvious

Factors such as job altercation, missed days of

influence economics has on ethics and codes.

work, and automobile cost all add into play (8.)

Even the price we as society are willing to pay in order to consider something morally sound or not has all been proven by history as a matter of economics. Factors such as Medicare, Medicaid, and Certificates of Need are seemingly positive ways of insuring federal regulation is required. These are positive ordinances yet can easily be turned negative via loopholes and grey areas

$

within legislation. One example was the utilization of turning known SNF's into ICF's to lower over head cost by taking advantages of relaxed ICF standards while still collecting Medicare pensions was a seemingly similar money making scheme run by nursing home operators when almshouses declared themselves private institutions without switching over management in order to collect Social Security for their residents. It seems as a whole the economic factor has grown into becoming a new source of nursing and retirement home abuse. Abuse taking place not so much in the physical manifestation, but rather the all encompassing, yet invisible hand of economics. This aspect of abuse is being further capitalized in our built environment by the ever-growing American suburban sprawl, and how we as a society are distancing ourselves further and further from one another, geographically and simultaneously financially.

26

1.15


Environmentally a multitude of situations

within these institutions. Once again, there physical

have both added, yet degraded from nursing home

placement within the urban landscape has lent

living. Within the top ten deficiencies of nursing

these establishments into becoming institutional

home facilities five of these aspects can be related

islands, trapped within the vast landscape of

directly to environment including but not limited to;

suburbia. Surveys show that more than 50 percent

Accidental environment, food sanitation, quality

of all nursing home residents reside too far away

of care, infection control and housekeeping. Even

from relatives to constitute any sort of daily, or

worse is the absence of the social environment

weekly visit. Even more disturbing is that 60 percent of all residents never receive visitors while residing at these institutions (8.) These statistics when faced as a collective produce an environment that is hard to reside in at any age in life. For this very reason it is no wonder that one of the leading epidemics in current assisted living culture is that one third of all residents show signs of depression (8.)

The biggest issue still lies within society; what

is the role of the elder within our society? For most this is still a seemingly awkward question at best, even with today's heavier standards on collective senior health care. If anything history has shown is that by not knowing where our elders place in society lies, this group of people becomes sourced as expendable. Without societal place, what were once members of society who shared the same stage as the rest of society become branded as mere backdrops to our stage. As history has shown before us, it is the very act of discarding our elderly has lead to the abuses and mistreatment we as a society have reflected within the history of assisted living. It is at the brink of this question, we may find a solution, by addressing the problem indirectly, by firstly looking to the stories reflected within the spaces that we live our lives in.

1.16

27


Recalculating Route; Economy, Environment, and

living home. To put this in perspective, it is common

Society, The Ultimate GPS:

practice to buy homeowners insurance that covers house fires, even though the odds of a house fire

In terms of ill treatment economics is at

happening are less than one percent. So why not

the foreground of the assisted living agenda. As

guarantee ourselves some spatial insurance?

mentioned earlier, within a twenty-year span the

Are these current conditions something we would

cost of assisted living has increased six fold. In

acknowledge as desirable for ourselves? The

order to have a sense of place within society, our

branding left by Hospital Survey and Construction

elderly must first have a space they themselves

Act of 1946 has somehow grown into a cultural

can call home, home without the worry of relocation

taboo that the general consensus of retirement

due to financial strains, a place of permanence.

homes should be of hospital like living conditions

Further the current systems economic plan looks

and aesthetic. Yes, this does have it's functional

at the resident as primary source of income. From

makings but why are these functions key pieces

there they utilize said income to cover building cost,

in design aesthetic? A reworking of architectural

resources, and overhead. By basing soul income

program would prove statistic after statistic that

on a per resident basis, it is easily to confuse each

factors such as natural daylight, ventilation, and

individual resident as a living pay check towards

plants can produce better returns on patient moral,

maintain and better building performance and in

recovery and length of life.

the case of the 66 percent of the for profit nursing

homes, higher profit margins. Space is a container

work place is gained by these implants, further

and medium of time, and if we hold true to the

reducing error, and improving on service quality.

western philosophy of time is money, than space

Once again, a sense of place is also important to

equals money.

better devise a place of our elderly with society.

By shifting the predominate income focus

Environmentally speaking this comes into practice

away from the individual residents and placing that

by reshaping common CCRC, and other assisted

burden on the architecture we can begin to see

living program methodologies of moving resident

how socially, it will be easier to brand our elderly as

from place to place based on the stages of their

people, not subsidiaries to fund the 100 billion dollar

health. Therefore a new architectural embodiment

retirement industry. The architectural result will

will rather reflect the user, not have the user

produce spaces that are far more self-sustaining

readapt to spatial reflections diagnosed by level of

than current standards, bringing building operating

care recommended by doctors.

cost, and resource expenditure to a minimal, or if

we dare think it, even profitable.

Environmentally this thesis asks society to

remember that there is a 43 percent chance that we too will one day call these spaces of assisted

28

Further, employee performance within the


A Critical Object: Place and Permanence

A space that requires it’s user to under go as few transitions as possible

and focuses rather on permanence will be key in accomplishing the finding of permanent place, environmentally, physically, mentally and socially. Finally the biggest architectural challenge to our three key points lies within the social urban fabric that society cloaks itself. This cloak provides identity and solace, a civic warmth if it were a physical manifestation. It is under this cloak we must re-emerge this new architectural manifestation of assisted living. By connecting the space that serves our elderly to the very community they are from. The more seamless the connection between community and space, the better society will come to acknowledge our elderly’s place. Economically, proximity of community and relationship to society shows that on average it is two thirds cheaper to care for an elder via community setting rather than institution (8.) Environmentally, community settings over institutional programs result in a one to one and half year longer life expectancy (8.) Further it lies within the architecture to make this space attractive not just for it’s predominate user group, but also attractive in the eyes of the families, relatives, friends, and employees that will come to use this space as well. Guilt and obligation should be replaced with feelings of desire and longing to return to these houses for our aging population. This final spatial acknowledgement can serve as the ultimate gesture to and reminder to not only our aged but society as a whole that we are all one in the same, thus our social bonds equally shared no matter at what state of life. 29


turns


2.0 - Trouble Shooting Space defining who we are

32


2.01

33


Intergenerational Housing- Bad Rappenau Architect -ASIR Architekten/

34

Case Study 1: Age as a polyculture

2.02


intention and it’s user either positively or negatively, regardless of the designers true intentions. By diagnosing the assisted living

As architecture serves as a social

via it’s “patient history (as examined in essay

reflection to what we as a society need, there

one)” this thesis can successfully narrate a

lies a similar truth in what is reflected by society

process of design whose only methodology

in how society addresses implications deemed

is that of preserving and nurturing economic,

problematic, and the processes utilized to

environmental, and social resources not

solve these problems. This thesis will provide a

only for its current inhabitants but for all

series of proposed solutions on how to design

generations to come within the assisted living

and build a more effective and comparable

archi-type. Congruently an extra amount

“retirement home” manifestation in order

of spatial consideration will be dedicated to

to solve the problem ridden archi-type of

the permanence of growing older. Allowing

assisted living. As mentioned previously these

the space and program to continually adapt

solutions have been broken down into three

to its user, thus affording its user spatial

key components of economics, environment,

permanence, rather than depend on the user

and society. Each key component has been

to continually readapt and relocate to new

considered under the appropriate architectural

spaces, based on his or hers life path within

context, thus allowing us to consider existing

assisted living.

implications of assisted living, what attributes are beneficial to keep, and what attributes

Troubleshooting Contemporary Assisted Living

need to be redesigned within these three key

components.

No system is perfect, like wise no system

is entirely imperfect either. Assisted living for

Just as a doctor diagnoses and prescribes

society’s seniors is no exception. Within this

their patients a possible cure to an ailment,

system there are both elements that do and

it will be the duty of this thesis to not only

do not work in realms of this thesis’s key

diagnose the obsolete design within assisted

components of economy, environment, and

living but also provide a road map that will

society.

cure such existing design ailments within the assisted living archi-type. Further it will be the

What does work:

duty of this thesis second essay to investigate the process of curing such an ailment.

In terms of economics the existing

Examining not only how process serves as a

assisted living infrastructure, like all things in

reflection of who we are, but addressing how

society, is driven off of commerce. Assisted

process itself can indirectly affect the design’s

living is no exception and within its history it

35


has been commerce that has dictated assisted

of income, family and community support and

living from the social security enactment all

self-help;

the way to improved living standards, and federal subsidization of assisted living. It

Ability to live in environments that are

has been the ability of commerce to provide

safe and adaptable to personal preferences

mediums which allocate quick, creative, and

and changing capacities;

effective responses. As guided by the “invisible hand” these responses (in their own right)

Ability to reside at home for as long as

will also be fundamentally honest in order to

possible;

maintain a stable market in order to as William McDonough puts it “to generate prosperity.”

Ability

to

utilize

appropriate

levels

Regulation has proved to be a major force

of institutional care providing protection;

within commerce as well. Regulation in its

rehabilitation and social and metal stimulation

simplest intentions becomes the perfect

in a humane and secure environment;

medium to instill a mass “minimum standard of living,” creating a set standard for the

Ability to enjoy human rights and

collective to live by and depend on.

fundamental freedoms when residing in any

Environmentally assisted living has grown into

shelter, care or treatment facility, including full

an image stable quality that if presented to its

respect for their dignity, beliefs, needs and

historical beginnings, would not even recognize

privacy and for the right to make decisions

itself. The most successful environmental

about their health care and the quality of their

implications have been the enactment of

lives.

universal design under the American’s with Disabilities Act. Further declaration by the

Socially, assisted living has never been

United Nations Principles for Older Persons

better off than it is now, in regards to its up and

(resolution 46/91), recognizes the importance

coming user group. This current enthusiasm

of living conditions and hosing for the elderly.

is derived from the social phenomena created

Five categories have been developed marking

by the large influx occurring within our

key principles for the status of older people,

elderly population due to the “baby boomer”

including independence, participation, care,

generation of the mid 1950’s and throughout

self-fulfillment and dignity. Architecturally

the 1960’s. By sheer demand in numbers

these manifestations fall under five further

this up and coming “new” seniors have been

key principles:

able create a demand of social justice and design equality that is just too large for the

Access to adequate food, water, shelter,

rest of society to not follow in pursuit. Rightly

clothing and health care through the provision

so due to the primary fact that this these

36


social trendsetters are the same generation

process utilizes to go about achieving the

that initiated civil rights, the environmental

intent. These methods within the realms of

movement, women’s rights, equality in the

economics, environment, and society produce

work place, workers rights, and countless

a whole list of issues brought forth as indirect

other civil liberties that we enjoy and utilize on

negative side effects of process attempting to

daily basis as Americans. It will be these same

bring to life its design intent. Likewise, if the

large scale numbers and refusal to accept

design intent of assisted living is to produce

constrains set by standards and shortcomings

an environment that does not limit the daily

within the existing assisted living programs

functions of the elderly, provides health care,

that will give full force momentum in a call

keeps living standards in check through the

to action of reworking current assisted living

laws of commerce and government subside,

design flaws.

while promoting society’s concern for the health and happiness of our elderly, then why

What does not work:

this system still treated with a lenses of deconomic segregation, environmental limits,

What is currently wrong with assisted

and social guilt? It all comes down to the

living is not necessarily the intensions of

ability to understand the difference between

design, but the process. Simply put, design

an idea and how one achieves making that

is the intention of an idea, while process is

idea a reality.

the actual method used to bring the design to life. Currently there is a large gap within

Variety of assistant living cost is made

the design intent of assisted living, and the

dependent on variety of value. Therefore,

methods of

the less of a cost an institution is the more cost becomes confused with value. People only start concerning themselves with the cheapening of cost as a component of value, therefore dramatically sacrificing quality of living; 

To provide a minimum standard of quality

of living and cost control, the government utilizes regulation. In the world of assisted living this is manifested in Medicare, Medicaid, Positive Gains via Greenery- Lalling France

and Social Security just to name a few. A

Architect -Yann Brunel

system is created where the cost of assisted

Case Study 2: Circulation atrium

2.03

living is subsidized by these programs;

37


(federal aid) dominates how people decided 

Assisted living institutions respond in

there financial future, strictly limiting variety.

kind by collecting on these subsidized revenue

Additionally the best attributes of commerce

programs on a per-resident basis. Indirectly

(the ability to create, quick and innovative

the elderly become mediums of extraction

responses to a problem) are made lazy by

in which private institutions collect revenues

institutions

through;

subsidies. This allows no real motive for these

piggybacking

on

government

institutions to change programs that do or 

Through ambiguous process of law

do not work, making the only obligations of

making, and profit driven motif, institutions

change to fall under whatever standards the

find loop wholes and roundabout way to

government may be requiring. Further sense

increase subsidy levels and collections through

the only investment these institutions have

the federal government, thus increasing the

to make in their residents is that of the act

cost six fold sense in 1978;

of collecting subsides and life savings of a said resident, there is no reason for these

In most cases federal financial aid only

institutions to provide a medium of which

awards participants after they have completely

a resident may “re-invest” their finances in,

eroded away there finances. There is no reward

even if to ensure economic stability within

based on prevention of financial deterioration,

each resident. Once again, there is no motive.

there for less incentive to maintain finances.

Even if a resident uses their entire life savings

Further there is no motivation for institutions to

on living expenditures, a minimum standard

provide alternate means of financial security,

is always guaranteed by federal financial aid

for they are already guarantied there income

(miraculously even if they themselves do not

via federal subsidies and aid;

have this allocated in their budget) creating no concern of economic preservation on the

When federal programs like Medicare

individual level. Thus society finds is a senior

come onto the budget chopping block as

population becoming more and more finically

all things political do, and as it did in 1997

imbalanced, requiring an inflated need of

with the Balance Budget Act, the closing of

economic assistance.

four large nursing home chains detailed how people’s financial mobility and freedoms are

Now

consider

the

environment

of

the first to go in situations like this.

assisted-living. As mentioned, its history has come a long way to produce the current

The end result produces an economic

standards utilized currently. These large

system based to cater to variety, yet creates

improvements have been made solely in part

a scenario where a one size fits all application

by the strict stresses applied to functional

38


requirements needed to house an effective

In the name of function and safety,

assisted living program. Modern design intent,

restrictions are put on other programmatic

details that functional components such as

elements needed to make a building successful

universal design and the ability to circulate

(i.e. where core circulation takes place, hall

appropriate medical programs efficiently and

way typologies, and even the procession into

effectively take soul priority when influencing

the building itself ;

the built world in terms of assisted living. Simultaneously an environment should be

Often budgeting an over functional

created that provides notions of a much

design creates a cost gap that squeezes out

more personable and “homey” atmosphere.

any other possible programmatic solutions.

The following contemporary process goes as

Example: Sacrificing operable windows for

followed:

non-operable windows in attempt to salvage a budget that was over drawn due to large

Function takes soul ownership in the

elevator expenses;

form of codes and regulations to ensure the building program effectively deals with the

Budget constraints and strict functional

large number of staff and residents (of who

specifications create a material list that is

potentially require medical attention at any given time ;

Programatic Modular- Zurich Architect -Hasler, Schlatter Partner

2.04

Case Study 3: Grid layout and building circulation

39


often hazardous in of its own. Example: the

rights to be shared by all, including, fresh air,

very florescent light bulb specified to create

abundant natural light and connections to the

a standard foot candle value also contains

outside environment. These implications have

a small amount of mercury. Unfortunately

undoubtedly created an environment of limits,

the same mercury used to light the bulb is

not limitless possibilities.

also responsible for causing Crohn’s disease, cardiovascular issues, emphysema, and joint

The social premise of assisted living is

pain;

one of the many side effects to the process of the industrial revolution. It was society’s

Unknowingly

when

the

buildings

response to provide a place of refuge for an

lifecycle is complete these hazardous building

aging population that no longer had context

materials, renowned for their inexpensive

within the economic or environmental plan

cost, will be thrown away, being reabsorbed

of the industrial movement. Thus creating a

into the natural world, being made pestilence

design intent that socially requires a type of

for a new generation of life at an astronomical

architecture to create effective and efficient

cost.

spaces for the exclusive elderly, where they may spend the rest of their days knowing they

Unknowingly, the design intent has

created an environment that speaks more of

contradictions

than

universal

will be provided for and secure. Below is the listed contemporary process:

design.

Unfortunately intensive functional designed

creates

de-evolution,

for the elderly, security has taken the

warping or eliminating of other programmatic

geographical location and separates site from

elements that are needed to make successful

urban center, based similarly on the “peaceful

building. Ironically the very materials of the

and secure dislocation” that the asylums of

building also contribute to less healthier

yester year were derived from;

an

environmental

In order to provide spaces “designated”

environment. Heavy metals, petrochemicals, and a whole slurry of carcinogenic compounds

are all standard elements within modern

requires other people of this same age group

building materials. It seems that in the

to reside in communal numbers within these

name of budget and specifications the built

designated spaces;

environment

has

forfeited

the

Social

effectiveness

and

efficiency

common

sense of not to build spaces of health and

rejuvenation out of toxic materials. Further the

“generational zoning” depletes factors that

blind nature of functional based process has

contribute to key social cycles that are needed

denied the user group of basic architectural

for successfully diverse societies. This is

40

Categorizing

people

by

means

of


facilitated by the dislocation these institutions

social structure within western living does not

have from the urban center;

account for incorporating the senior into the family unit, thus leaving a very limited choice

ď ś

By outsourcing societies elderly to

on what to do with loved ones when they can

designated spaces society experiences a

no longer live on their own. Often detached

loss of cultural and social intergenerational

far away from any urban center these facilities

identity;

provide no real social pull or incentive other than the feelings of obligation one has to

ď ś

Depletion of identity results in society

visit a relative residing in these institutions.

considering elderly people liabilities, not

Further by institutions concentrating just on

assets. These feelings are solidified by simply

keeping their residents in one place (because

not knowing who are elderly are anymore,

they are liabilities rather than assets) there is

and our elderly not knowing where or what

no real incentive to provide means to connect

their place in society is, turning former social

the residents to the outside world. By creating

subjects into mere objects.

spaces exclusively for a certain age, the social environment created (both in and out

Hardly any family member wants to move

of the institution) becomes a monoculture of

their loved one out of their existing home and

generations. Further the spaces the residents

into a foreign environment. Yet current

reside in, do little to tell of that individuals

Residential Home for the Elderly- Masans Architect -Peter Zumthor

Case study 4: Cost not sacraficing quality

2.05 41


story, unlike their former home or community

into unnaturally large conglomerations of

may have done, tearing on the sense of

people that same age. These conglomerations

permanence.

relationship

have no real incentive to interact with the

community has to our elderly in regards to

remainder of society and thus these people

permanence and vice versa works only when

take on the pretense of obligation, rather than

both parties are socially placed together. Just as

social asset of communal identity.

The

symbiotic

worse it denies the younger generations of that same community a sense of intergenerational

Process,

permanence. It is from there that younger

Intention

The

Roadmap

of

Design

generations displace value on their elders, and vice creating a social “monstrous hybrid”

where people are no longer assets, but only

life is that of a harmony of improvisations;

liabilities.

improvised in response to the unpredictable

nature of turning idea into reality, by

The process of bringing a design to

When combining the key components

combining melodies from different methods

as listed above, the end result produces a

and bringing them together at an instant

world much different than the intensions of

point to harmonize a desired outcome. If

the design. In summary society can expect

“improvisation is too good to leave to chance”

this out of the following contemporary

as Paul Simon once put it, why leave process

process within assisted living: Finically the

and all its harmonies of improvisation to

majority of all residents will be so drained

chance? So far this thesis has detailed the

from the expenditures of assisted living that

repercussions of what happens when designs

they will leave this world with little to nothing

leave the improvisation of process to chance,

(monetarily speaking) to pass on their loved

and how disastrous this can be to the harmony

ones, sacrificing independence and pride of

of process. Now, briefly step back and begin to

providing for the family even after passing

imagine a world where positive design intent

away. Environmentally a condition is created

is dictated simultaneously with a positive and

that will hopefully lead to living longer, in a more

an intentional process. The infinite attributes

peaceful and comfortable state. Ironically the

of improvisation found in process are never

very composition of this sanctuary is composed

left to chance, rather harnessed to create a

of materials all the way to the micro level that

road map to design intention. The closer the

induce pain and death, and once disposed

methods of process reflect design intent, the

of will spread on to infect the generations of

more similar a physical manifestation of the

tomorrow. Socially, in attempt to provide a

original design intent will be.

dedicated space for society’s elderly, society has single handedly segregated the elderly

42

Within the world of assisted-living a


realm of security, diversity, and unrestricted

living that preserves and nurtures economic,

opportunities

all.

environmental, and social resources not

Financial restraints become lifted, as residents

only for its current inhabitants but for

invest in the very space they live in as a

all generations to come, while providing

means of procuring their life savings, while

adaptable spaces that directly respond to

using architecture as a financial buffer

growing older,” then naturally the process

between

living

should be same. For the remainder of this

expenditures. A once poisonous environment

paper this thesis will begin to look at different

lacking in architectural diversity is now made

methods of process whose focus is that of

an environment of cleansing and healing.

preservation and nurturing. Preservation, as

The architecture surrounds the user in a

defined, is the acting of upholding something,

program that delicately walks the line of

while nurturing is the act of encouraging

public and private, enabling fresh air, sunlight,

something to flourish. Architecturally speaking

appropriate views and social exchange. The

this thesis creates a new assisted living archi-

very materiality of these spaces solidifies

type; upholding something within its natural

one’s health rather than poison it slowly. Best

state, while providing as much encouragement

of all when it comes time to dismantle these

as needed to allow positive growth. This

materials they can be organized back into

statement will be the ultimate focus under

their appropriate nutrient cycle, becoming

the three main components of this thesis,

assets of the future, not a toxic liability.

ensuring an appropriate architectural process

Socially these centers provide refuge and

of preservation and nutriment is applied to

security for the elderly while acting as a social

economics, environment, and society. The

architectural medium. No longer retained to

appropriate architectural response further

a static place, the architecture and program

allows each of the three key components to

of this new institution provides a social icon.

continually talk to one another in a closed

A perfect representation of disregard for the

looped system. Ever relating and acting as

current status quo, a version of assisted living

permanent beneficiary concepts, process and

that equally reflects in itself the values of an

programs within this architectural system.

is

made

themselves

available

and

assisted

to

upcoming baby boom generation and soon to be user group.

Economics

Connect the Dots: Design Intent, Process, and

Sense the creation of Social Security in

the Three Key Componets

1937 society, and government has attempted to provide a realm of financial freedom and

If the thesis design intent is stated

mobility to society’s elders. But as detailed

as: “creating a new archi-type of assisted

earlier, these processes result in applications

43


of “one size fits all scenarios� that only reward

most cases it cost less to save more, because

financial

prevention

you are doing so on a large scale as shown

and often distribute financial aid diagnosis

below the more effective a system is holistically,

unevenly amongst participants. Additionally is

the less complex it may have to be, allowing

the issue of how the elderly become means of

the user to omit various programs that in a

extraction between assisted living institutions

traditional system would add to entire cost.

issues,

rather

than

and the federal subsidies allocated. In order to preserve and nurture the financial wellbeing of

By optimizing the whole system and enacting

a senior resident, one must look into methods

the right steps, in the right the right sequence

of reducing overall cost at the newly proposed

efficiency can be translated into savings. By

assisted living archi-type. This can include

keeping in mind that once again, a more

systematically, reducing initial construction

planned and intentional process is the most

cost building overhead (maintenance and

effective way to influence cost. The graph

energy consumption), and reducing rent fees.

bellow details how this cycle is preformed over the life cycle of design.

Tunneling through the cost barrier�

By utilizing whole system engineering and a

explains the how the first step in price

planned cost effective design process may

reduction is whole-system engineering. This

allow for maximum value to least amount of

premise is based on the simple notion, that in

cost. A perfect example of whole system

2.06

44


engineering and planned cost effective design

money waiting to be made. By utilizing the

is the Rocky Mountain Institute in Snomass

space a resident rents from the institution,

Colorado. Through supper insulation, and

one could think of their apartment unit as

passive solar heat gains, the 80 person R.M.I

a monthly investment or subside, much like

eliminated the need central heating system,

the government already allocates through

save two small wood stoves. R.M.I is a perfect

its existing financial aid programs. Each unit

example that by affording an extra amount

could then utilize the architecture of carbon

of capital within concept, planning and

neutral� design as well as its ability to purify

construction of how the building was insulated,

the air, earth, and water that cycle around it.

they then could successfully omit the large

Carbon neutral design techniques can then be

cost to install, maintain, and provide energy

leased at the going market rate, to any buyer

for a central heating system. This reduced

who wants to invest in emerging technologies

the overall cost of the entire project, not to

but does not have enough capital to make

mention the monthly capital gains included by

their own full system investment. Further the

eliminating a heating bill.

institution could collect tax incentives and

The next step is providing an economic

recoup environmental cleanup cost through

platform that nurtures a residences finances.

state and federal programs. Right now the

Under the notion that time is money, and all

state of Maryland is undergoing a large

space is, is encapsulated time, therefore

nitrogen reduction program to reduce the

Home for the Elderly- Just North of Oslo Architect -Kvernass

Case study 5: Form harmonious with function

2.07 45


excessive amounts of nitrogen run offs into

effectively back to their appropriate biomes.

the Chesapeake Bay. Instead of the state

This is just one example of the many closed-

subsidizing enough anaerobic septic systems

loop profit direct capital incentives that could

to cover new sewer treatment designers

be implemented. Covering not just capital

could implement a series of dedicated living

in the terms monetary means but also the

infrastructure that rids vsewer of these

natural capital our economy and very lives are

nitrogen’s naturally. These systems (in large

so dependent on.

efficient quantities) could also mitigate areas that are not conducive to living infrastructure”

Environment

or even the standard anaerobic systems now being standardized. The end result is

The environment as defined by stands as

in replace of the state spending money to

the circumstances or conditions that surround

provide solutions to make the problem of

one. So naturally this thesis will enable

nitrogen reduction less bad, the architecture

circumstances of preservation and nutriment

of this institution could be design to already

around the user group. The first step to

incorporate solutions that eliminate the

this success, is acquire an environment that

problem all together, in this instance through

not only serves the appropriate functions of

the use of wetland bioremediation. Essentially

accessibility, and proper circulation, but also

then, the institution could be paid in return,

serves to the programmatic features of natural

for not making the situation “less bad” but

light, fresh air, and appropriate views to the

eliminating it all together. A monthly fee based

surround exterior environment. As important

on how many pounds of nitrogen is removed

as these the functional makings are, it is just

from the water system would be sent to the

as important to note how critical these natural

state and made a part of the states nitrogen

programmatic features are.

reduction expenditures. The state receives nitrogen free water, while reducing the

infrastructure cost of anaerobic septic systems

programs (reduced lighting cost, reducing or

while simultaneously restoring its damaged

eliminating all cooling cost) these programs

wetland ecosystem (a system that in of itself

have continually proven to reduce patient

can restore large amounts of natural capital

recovery time, as well as minimize depression

while reducing the current pollution problem.)

and increase over all happiness. The in

The institution then receives a monthly

St. Gallen in Switzerland recognizes these

gratuity (that would then be used to lower

necessary components and has centered the

living expenditures for residents) or subsidy

entirety of the architecture on filling each unit

for doing such a service, while all the mean

with as much light, operable windows and

while returning natural nutrients, safely and

views to the outside as seemingly possible.

46

Besides the obvious benefits of these


This has resulted in an over 90% rating of

nutrients (materials that once discarded can

“very happy� within the resident community.

decompose without harming the environment, such as cotton.)

of

In the realm of providing circumstances nurturing

surroundings

this

thesis

These materials are the heavy metals

draws attention to the process of how this

and carcinogenic culprits of our world such

architectural environment will be built and

as zinc, cadmium, and mercury just to name

the materials to do so with. The largest

a few. Once eliminating these undesirables,

task will be to rid the standard materials list

construction on an environment that truly

of assisted-living construction of as many

encapsulates preservation and nurturing of

materials possible that contain undesirables.

one’s health can be obtained. Additional it is

Undesirables as William McDonough describes

important to ensure these materials can be

in the book Cradle to Cradle are materials

returned back and recycled appropriately for

that cannot be put back into their appropriate

the next generation of users. It is in this single

nutrient flows.

breath that the true mission statement of this

institution starts speaking in; providing a world

That is to say they are neither technical

of preservation and nutriment for not only this

nutrients (materials that can be infinitely

generation but all who will come after it as

recycled, such as copper) or biological

well.

Co-Housing for the Aged- Ingolstadt Architect- Behnisch

Case study 2: Natural light at its best

2.08 47


Social:

becomes the breeding ground for outdoor

Socially the architecture must provide

activities, events, and increased daily social

ways to the means of connecting people.

interaction. A common room, café and chapel,

Programmatically this can be achieved in a

also act as social elements that preserve a

mixed use program. Mixed use ensures there

healthy intergenerational relationship between

is an element that caters to all generations

young and old.

of users. The Carmelite Monastery in BonnPutzchen Germany does just that. The

This directly coincides with nutriment

monestary incorporates 68 units all composed

of the social makings between society and

of a mixture of the elderly and young. Key

the elderly. By injecting a continuous flow of

programmatic elements work double time to

intergenerational exchange, neither young

not only encompasses the mentioned natural

nor old user group is allowed to go socially

light, fresh air, and views are also used to

stale. The closed loop-cycle of senior identity

act as social mediums. The first of which is a

and wisdom is passed along, while the vigor

large courtyard in the center of the complex.

and new perspectives of a young age transmit

Various landscaping techniques and the overall

back, always stimulating each other and

orientation of the two wings of the monastery’s

ensuring mutual health.

apartments make the courtyard a “backyard living room” of sorts. This interstitial space

Wozoco Housing for the elderly- Holland

48

Architect-MVRDV

Case study 3: Social mixer, not monoculture

2.09


It is exciting to think that an age in place residance, the former centers of last resort and end of the road thinking, will be transformed into prototypes for centers of rebirth. Rebirth not only in the sense of securing the appropriate economic, environmental and social means for a safer future, but rebirth in what it means to grow old. By utilizing the truly good nature of humanity and how we look after those who have given so much to us, is key inspiration within the design intent of this thesis. Respect is then dictated in the actions, the very process, used to make this idea a tangible reality. It is in this process that a foundation is laid, a new standard in how by rethinking the negative the positive can be achieved. Within the old adage our actions speak louder than our words� permanence becomes the ultimate byproduct process. It is within this permanence the seed of preservation and nutriment is infinitely planted.

49


subject


3.0 - Contexual Research Road Mapping Observational Context

En

52


$

53


Contexual Research Derived from the previously demonstrated graphical road map.

Before any work was under taken to outline possible concepts an architectural road map

was required to somehow summarize the above investigations on how process, design intention, and design outcome are all interconnected and formulate together. Further work was done to make this road map not as specific to just one user group, but general enough to be applied to whomever may require an investigation into design process, yet detailed enough that it may ask and map the appropriate questions to show all individual’s needs. For the sake of this thesis, this theory was titled the “Symbolism of Process� and it can be further defined bellow:

Symbolism of Process: Design Intent=Design Outcome. By uniting the natural process of observation with humanities attention to symbol, positive design arises to discover, retain, and create places without limits. The honesty in success, not to the architect, but rather the user, once more says yes to design. Thus the process reflected in architecture that seeks observation and optimism becomes a symbol in of itself, evolving architecture from an

object to a subject making

it once more worth believing in.

As detailed above, the road map titled Symbolism of Process defines the greatest tool evoking and objects to subject, is the observation of its needs and how those needs can be utilized to serve themself and others. The following pages will detail this described road map graphically. In the form of detailed site analysis.

54


Site Anaylsis via Road Map

The result of this process makes a programmatic family tree. 1. You can use this family tree as a graphic tool to better understand the most effective ways to create a building program that responds and unifies both user and site when or where deemed necessary. 2. You can graphically observe how user, b.p.r, and site all influence and evolve the overall architectural program. Instead of looking at each instance in a singular position, the road map enables the reader to read design objectives, understood by site analysis, being identified through the specific user group all at once. This graphical exercise completes a much more unified site analysis, context study, design goal matrix, and contextual background research than traditional means. Further by working backwards as one uses a family tree, you discover the “parent couple� to the latter program generation, thus showing what part of the program resulted from what earlier makings.

55


light is allowed to enter a space. Preception and value of place is heightened as well as a lower energy bill.

Environment

Better air circulation allows for healthier respiration, thus better oxidizing cells, warding off disease and grogyness. Ventiliation is necessary to prevent sickbuilding syndrom and circulate air through highly insulated walls.

1.

Ventilation

Site Analysis

Site Analysis Data

56

Gardnes can act as mediums for social interaction, sources of income as well as therapeutic spaces when promoting a healthy well being among elderly.

ght

1.

Accesiblity to Gardens

Economic

$

Site Analysis

Natural outdoor spaces are necessary for helping the elderly. They provide public, as well as private spaces and the according range of activities that can be properly used to adess and protangonize behavior, health, and personal thought.

site specific 2. Utilize 3. b.p.r to better understand how site data of economics, environment, and society work with one another on a unified operating level.

3.

$

1.

Outdoor Interaction

Site Analysis

Social Building Materials “Ecological Capitalism”

Contemplation space is neccessary when dealing with the “last years” of our lives. By allowing architecture to make paralles to natural process, one may better understand their place, purpose, and direction within thier final years.

2.Building

Instead of affording mechanical process to produce artifical results, utilize the surrounding environment. Ecological process should be considered capital, and can reduce great overhead when obcured as capital.

building program relationship. This is done to develop a b.p.r that is specific in incorperating local site conditions.

Materials used for construction should not be of toxic nature. Tectonicly, the building should be that of a “Cradle to Cradle” cycle, for both its current, and futuer users.

existing site 1. Take data and apply to

Formulate under the appropriate user group “lens.” In this circumstance our user group is 40% 65+ in age and 60% 64 and under, in a appartment residence.

Program Relationship

$

The “Living Process”

architectual 5. 4. Provide “means” to achieve appropriate b.p.r utilization under the needs of our user group.

4. 5. Orientation Needs [description list]

3.01

4. [description list]

5. Building Program

4. 5.

[description list]

Spatial Humanity


Provide architectual “ways” to achieve the means for our user group to fully utilize b.p.r.

6.

Combine step 5 and 6 to create a main building program.

7.

Apply main building program to the three building typologies: the “U-block,” “extruded rectangle,” and “doughnut”

8.

By applying perscribed data and results from steps 1 -7 a better applicaple architectual hybrid can be formulated from our typical residential building typologies; a couple of possible examples are shown below

7.

U-block

8.

Main 6. Building 7. Spaces

extruded rectangle

7.

doughnut

Here is a more detailed look... 57


existing site 1. Take data and apply to

building program relationship. This is done to develop a b.p.r that is specific in incorperating local site conditions.

3.02

58


59


site specific 2. Utilize b.p.r to better

understand how site data of economics, environment, and society work with one another on a unified operating level.

3.03

60


61


3.

Formulate under the appropriate user group “lens.” In this circumstance our user group is 40% 65+ in age and 60% 64 and under, in a appartment residence.

3.04

Example: Please note the following detail. As shown on next page: The Equitable Use icon list a set of sub group icons, a “dominate” (the larger icon) and “receive” gene (the smaller icon.) These are placed over top the focus icon to provide a road map DNA sample in order to dictate where, and why the need of Equitable Use derived from within the road map.

62

dominate

recesive

offspring title

Equitable Use

3.05


3.06

architectual 4. Provide “means� to achieve

appropriate b.p.r utilization under the needs of our user group.

63


5.

Provide architectual “ways� to achieve the means for our user group to fully utilize b.p.r.

6. 64

3.06

Combine step 5 and 6 to create a main building program.


8.

7.

Apply main building program to the three building typologies: the “U-block,” “extruded rectangle,” and “doughnut”

3.07

By applying perscribed data and results from steps 1 -7 a better applicaple architectual hybrid can be formulated from our typical residential building typologies; a couple of possible examples are shown below

65


Final road map arranged inseqence

1.

2.

3.

4. 5. 6. 7.

8. 66

Take existing site data and apply to building program relationship. This is done to develop a b.p.r that is specific in incorperating local site conditions. Utilize site specific b.p.r to better understand how site data of economics, environment, and society work with one another on a unified operating level. Formulate under the appropriate user group “lens.” In this circumstance our user group is 40% 65+ in age and 60% 64 and under, in a appartment residence.

3.

2.

Provide architectual “means” to achieve appropriate b.p.r utilization under the needs of our user group. Provide architectual “ways” to achieve the means for our user group to fully utilize b.p.r. Combine step 5 and 6 to create a main building program. Apply main building program to the three building typologies: the “U-block,” “extruded rectangle,” and “doughnut” By applying perscribed data and results from steps 1 -7 a better applicaple architectual hybrid can be formulated from our typical residential building typologies; a couple of possible examples are shown below

1.


8. 4.

5.

6.

7.

3.08

67


Site Context- Annapolis Maryland A more detialed look at information derived from the previously demonstrated graphical road map.

3.10

Site location (Bertt Jabbins Marina), listed in red

68

3.11


Site proxemity

3.12

Main road artires

3.13 69


Spacial Descrpitions

Derived from the previously demonstrated graphical road map.

Appropriate acess to the outdoors and waterfront that is the life line that makes Annapolis what it is, is critical. The building space and site orientation should promote full views of and provide direct acess to the surrounding outdoors and water ways.

Convience, social mixing space. Allow outdoor activities to occur along with physical and metal stimulation. Convience, in-resident help, social mixing space. Social mixing space, gathering area, escape. Social mixing space, economic stimulous, generation bridging.

Social mixing space, physical wellness.

Mental relaxation Social mixer, economic stimulous, cultural bridge See above and bellow. Social mixer Passive, economic stimulous, iconic

The functions listed to the left are designed to provide an element of humanity, making home feel more like home.

70

3.14


Quantitiative Program Analysis

Derived from the previously demonstrated graphical road map.

1,000 sq. f.t. > 2 acres 2,000 sq. f.t. 5,000 sq. f.t. 4,000 sq. f.t. 4,000 sq. f.t.

5,000 sq. f.t.

existing 30,000 sq. ft. x.15 of toal x.15 of toal Added rought subtotal- 60,000 sq. ft. Additional sq. ft.-

3.15

Parking-30 spaces covered11,250 sq. ft.

20 spaces uncovered7,500 sq. ft. Backdoor services1,000 sq. ft

71


4.0 Conceptual Design The beginnings of an architectual translation the road map

72


73


Concept: social hinge A combination of 3 residential typologies.

One of the largest task of the building program is to arrange it in a style that affords

maximum social contact, without a denial of privacy. A main circulation corridor and entrance affords this opportunity. This “social hinge” is placed at the end axis of two wings, making a deconstructed “U block” with “extruded rectangle” like integration for the wings. All the mean while the “social hinge” acts as primary circulation corridor with atrium, giving it the effect of the mention “donought” typology.

Extruded Rectangle -Typology 1 Most economic, affords powerful direct views and orientation in one main axis.

U Block -Typology 2 Offers more variety in views and day lighting than typology 1. Facing wings may deny privacy in some planning situations.

Donought -Typology 3 Lets large amounts of light in both exterior and interoir facing spaces, centeral common “court yard” condones itself as the most commumanof the three typologies.

74

4.01


Space Parti-Diagram Egress

od B

Extruded Rectangle -Typology 1

Neighborho

U Block -Typology 2 Donought -Typology 3

Primary Circulation

od

ho bor

A

igh

Ne

Su b

Ci rc u

lat

ion

Egress

4.02

75


Form Progression responding to mentioned planning and urban context

4.03

76


4.04

77


78 N

Site Plan

4.05


Floor 1

4.06

3.

5. 3. 3. 3.

6.

2.

4. 1.

1. Pool 2. Resturant 3. Commercial 4. Covered Parking 5. Exposed Parking 6. Lobby/Atrium

79


Floor 2

4.07

1.

5.

2. 3.

4.

1. Living Unit Type 4 2. Living Unit Type 5 3. Gym 4. Back Yard “ramp” 5. Common Room/Atrium

80


Floor 3

4.08 2.

5. 3.

4.

1.

1. Living Unit Type 1 2. Living Unit Type 2 3. Living Unit Type 3 4. Back Yard “ramp” 5. Common Room/Atrium

81


2. 3.

5.

5.

4.

4.

5. 4.

6.

Section 1

1. Living Unit Type 5 2. Living Unit Type 4 3. Living Unit Type 3 4. Living Unit Type 2 5. Living Unit Type 1 6. Commercial Unit 7. Pool

1.

7.

Section 2

82

1. Living Unit Type 5 2. Living Unit Type 4 3. Living Unit Type 3 4. Living Unit Type 2 5. Living Unit Type 1 6. Atrium/Lobby 7. Pool

5.

5.

4.

4.

5. 4.

4.


5. 4.

5.

5.

4.

4.

1.

7.

4.09

5.

5. 4.

5. 4.

2. 6.

3.

4.10

83


4.11

Massing View From Dock

Experiencal Vignette from “back yard� ramp

84

Building Massing Variations


4.12

4.13

85


5.0 - Schematic Design Making it real

86


5.01

87


Schematic Design Applying Code Analysis to text conceptual massing

The building technical fits a standard R-4 Type Residential Building with a bottom for of

M Type Mercantile Units. A decision was made to go ahead and design the building to provide legal code clearance for a type I-1 Institutional building anyway. There is no immediate plan to retro fit this building to allow for 24 hour care to its acting residents (thus requiring I-1 classification), but in doing so in advance there is room to allow the building to grow and adapt to its users given needs as they may decide to do so. Further by not classifying this building as an I-1 classification, the user groups are not confined to a large amount of legal obligations and standards that are imposed by institution classifications, the very standards that in often do more harm than good and may even restrict necessary growth within our three key points (as detailed in chapter two. This gives the user the best of both worlds, R-4 Type residency living (where building usage is better determined by live in residences, rather than an outside institution with cumbersome legal obligations), yet having the ability to pass over into I-1 status if desired.

Instiutinoal Type 1- Occupancy Type Restrictions Max. Travel Distance

Sprinkled 250’, Unsprinkled Not Premitted

Max. Common Path ofEgres Travel Largest Area that may have only one means of Egress Minimum Length of Dead End Corridor Door Width

75’ 10 Occupants 20’ Min. 32”, Max. 48”

Min. Stair Width

44”, 36” if 49 or fewer

Min. Corridor Width

44”, 36” if 49 or fewer

Emergency door or window egress from sleeping areas required

88


Schematic Design Applying CodeAnalysis to text conceptual massing

Instiutinoal Type 1- Height and Area Limitations Max. Height, aResidential Sprinklered Sprinklered, Other

60’ 4 Floors, Unlimited Area Unlimited Height, Area

Mercantile Type 1- Occupancy Type Restrictions Max. Travel Distance Max. Common Path ofEgres Travel Largest Area that may have only one means of Egress Minimum Length of Dead End Corridor Door Width

Sprinkled 250’, Unsprinkled 200’ 75’ 49 Occupants 20’ Min. 32”, Max. 48”

Min. Stair Width

44”, 36” if 49 or fewer

Min. Corridor Width

44”, 36” if 49 or fewer

Instiutinoal Type 1- Height and Area Limitations Max. Height, aResidential Sprinklered Sprinklered, Other

75’ 3 Floors, 24,000 sq. f.t 75’, Unlimited Area

*All construction Types will be built under Type 4 construction, 18” thick site cast load bearing walls divided the unit spaces, while steel framing provides the structure for the double skin roof system.

89


Schematic Design Reforming Design

With the application of code analysis and elementary light studies the building layout was

reformulated to have more shallow apartments, and shortened corridor lengths. The original “U block” master form is now a contorted U block, where the far south wing has been reoriented to for better views, privacy and solar gain, while still allowing the circulation corridor to face the “back yard” ramp. Atrium/Lobby Appartments Commercial N

Floor 1

90

N

Floor 3

N

Floor 2

5.02


Schematic Design

Primary Egress

Circulation and Egress

Circulation Secondary Egress

N

Floor 1

Floor 3

N

5.03

N

Floor 2

91


Schematic Design “Neighborhood”

The contorted “U block” typology, serves as platform to orient the buildings three separate

wings into 3 different “neighborhoods.” Building circulation, view placement, and way finding was altered to appear more urban in placement rather than an architectural reparative. Each neighborhood has one face that looks outward towards waterfront views, while the parallel face looks inward on building circulation. The adjacencies to all three wings provides an overall unity to the architecture as a whole while still enabling personal space and views to be established. The neighborhood population consist of no more than five units per neighborhood, allowing social exchange on a micro level (neighborhoods,) radiating outward to the macro level (the building complex itself, and even the marina.)

Waterfont Views

Minor view, facing marina and backyard “the ramp”

Main circulation

1 92

Neighborhood number (name and personalization to be left to the residents to decide)


3 1

2

Floor 2

6 4

5.04

Floor 3

5

93


Schematic Design Program Distribution, Building Mass Assembley

5.05

Open atrium provides visual secuirty between vertical circulation

Building “hinge� acts as wayfinding point

Program offers a variaity of income provisions

Back courtyard offers over 3 acres of restored forest, wetlands and gardens

Proper solar orientation and large windows insure there is always natural daylight

94


Proper wind orientation and operable windows insure there is always air circulation

Building material, and living arangments ensure user is never over stressed and can be provided for

Building materials conditioned to follow a cradle to cradle mentality

Load bearing walls ensure there mass is also utilized for thermal resistance and consistancy

Back yard ramp creates a circulation condition that never requires user to use stairs or elevator to go to any floor of building

95


Summer Sun

45’ Winter Sun

39.5’

27’

14.5’

2’

96

5.06


Schematic Design Detail Section

A large push of this thesis was to develop a building system that would allow for maximum

passive gains, and passive retention. A simple yet effective wrapping roof element that acts as a double skin in areas of direct solar gain was used to solve this problem.

The first task was to give the walls a R value of 19 minimum, and allow the roofing

element to hold an additional R value of 45. The air gap in between the roofing element allows hot air to be trapped in the winter time, while operable vents expel it away from the interior walls in the summer time. The additive of awning and clear story windows for extra light gain and air flushing were added as well. Contextual Needs

Architectual Solution Roof- Standing Seam Metal Roof-Light Blue

7/16” OSB Sheathing

12” Soy Based Insulation Foam-R 45

3/4” Recycled wood pearling Strips

Wall- 7/16” OSB Sheathing

6” C-Channel Metal Stud

R-19 Compact -Non formaldehyde/batt-insulation

2” Soy Based Spray Foam/prevent air infiltration

Floor- Bamboo/ and or Cork Finish Floor 2” Toping Slab, Concrete 1/2” Radiant floor heating coils 8” Pre Cast Slab, 25’ span #8 Rebar 6” o.n.c

5.07

97


South, down the ramp

Southeast, towards neighborhood 1

98

5.07


Birds Eye looking North

5.08

99


The


The

symbolism


6.0 Design Development The workings of a symbol

102


103


Design Development Systems design and further building workings

Design Development process was reserved to further develop a majority of the passive systems the building had only truly mentioned until now. A more thorough and detailed site plan was created as well. Final imagery and illustrations were also taken place during this phase as shown later.

Solar orientation refined

Prevailing winds absorbed

Views not obstructed

6.01

104

Site Plan


N

6.02

105


6.03 106

N

First Floor


1 1 1 1. Unit Type 1

1

2. Unit Type 2 5

3. Unit Type 3

6

4. Lobby/Atrium 5.Laundry Room

4 6

6. Common Space

2

7. Backyard/Ramp

2 2 2 2 7

3 3 3 3

6.04 3

107


1 1

1

1 1. Unit Type 4

1

2. Unit Type 5

1

3. Unit Type 3 5

4. Lobby/Atrium 4 5. Common Space 2

6. Backyard/Ramp 2

2

2 2 2 6 3 3 3 3

3

108

6.05


6

3

1

7 5

2

4 5

8

4 1. Double Skin Roof Wall Rap 2. Awning Windows 3. Green Roof 4. Cast In Place Concrete 5. Wall System 6. Radiant Wall Heat System* 7. Clearstory Windows

6.06 8. Cedar Shakes

*Further Explained on next Page

109


Design Development Passive Systems

Solar heat collected via solar array Heat conduct through radiant transmition via primary tubes embeded in wall core Additional heat may be accquired by additional radiant floor heat tubing

6.07

Radiant wall heating is the most suitable of all radiant heating systems in terms of constant control and room temperature stability. Heating control through solar array systems and flash burner electric/gas heaters are highly compatible for system back up in case one or the other fails. Bellow details the location of how the structural wall system and its core act as a direct chase to house the radiant pipes from floor to floor.

= Placement of radiant wall core. *Please note all walls are oriented within 8 degrees of solar south.

6.08

110 Floor 2

Floor 3


3/4 to 2/3

heat supplied via geothermal

1/4 to 1/3

heat supplied via radiant walls

A closed loop geothermal submerged directly into Back creek provides the most economical, and effective source of geothermal energy, using the water as an excelent thermal conductor.

6.09

Building materials that are: Biological Nutrient (safley biodegradable)

Technical Nutrient (effectivley, or infinetly recyclable)

6.10

111


Design Development Passive Site Materials were chosen under two considerations; First was to express a form mass as a solid body, such as the ramp with corten steel. The second was to express the long linear elements of building form in soft yet directive linear composition, hence the use of cedar and baton siding. East Elevation

6.11

6.12 corten steel

Site Section

112

horizontal cedar boards

cedar shakes

white batton sidding

6.13


The main task of site design was to capture water runoff and release it slowly into the adjacent bodies of water, filtering it in the process. This was to take place in three key stages, wetlands restoration, retention ponds, and finally oyster reef. Phytoremediation, and oyster reef

1.

2.

1. Wetlands:water filter

6.15

3.

6.14

2.Retention ponds: filters water, allows heavy metals to collect in consolidated areas, and cleaned more effectivley via pond liner 3. Oyster Reef: marine habitat restoration rand water filter (one oyster can filter up to 50 gallons of water a day)

113


Prespectives

6.16 Backyard ramp

114

Backyard ramp

6.17


6.18

Front yard common space

115


Unit Type 4

Lobby

116

6.19

6.20

6.21


6.23

Unit Type 5

Lounge Space 6.22

117


118


6.24

119


of


of

process


7.0 Conculsion The result of process

122


123


conclusion

notion of social life, in all ages requires a

this thesis has come to find resides under

degree of stimulation and reciprocation from

the same inevitable and irreversible truth

its corresponding age groups that make us

that introduced such a thesis almost nine

who we are. It is under this ever revolving

months ago; the undeniable relationship we

social cycle that we as people come to view

as subjects have to transform space, and

one another as subjects, not objects.

the reciprocating action space has towards

ourselves in transforming our lives. In this

thesis’s instance it seems the issue for aged

concerned it is important to note once more,

living cannot be asked, or solved only on the

this problem is not entirely solved via the

shoulders of architecture. Architecture, as

architecture, no more as it can solve itself

has been shown throughout the pages of this

as purely a social movement. It will take a

book has the ability to respond responsibly

combined notion of a social catalysis, (the

to its time and need, letting the happenings

up and coming baby boomers) a symbol

of life revolve around spaces design with

(architecture,) and a process (a process

true intention, yet in the end, it still requires

of symbolism) that allows both entities to

its user subject, without the subject stimulus

speak to one another seamlessly and only

a space is just a space, an object, never a

then, what was once object (both user and

subject.

Socially the elderly require this

space) has now turned subject. As this

same form of attention, to complete the

thesis has detailed, architecture has played

proposed social transformation of object

in its oldest role to humanity, acting as a

turns subject. Even more ironically every

symbol for all others to regard its users by.

124

The

only

appropriate

As the notion of aged living is


In this thesis’s case an apartment building

groups, and combine them accordingly.

was created under the pretense specifically

Ironically the solution to aged living is not

for the elderly. The end result turned out to

being found in just the elderly and the space

be much more, quickly revealing that the

they inhabit, but rather all walks of life and

best way to serve the aged is providing first

the notion of spaces that they may all better

a social polyculture of a multitude of ages

share. By creating a place that notions

and social programing, second a variety

all walks of life, rather than just one, its

of economic ways and means to enhance

understandable that all may benefit in the

monetary

process, and continually do so throughout

mobility,

and

third

freedom

via passive systems and environmental

time spent in this world.

understanding. Interestingly enough this thesis hypothesizes that by providing these additives, not only would the aged benefit, but rather all would find increased benefit (as revealed as far back as chapter 3) in our three key target areas of economy, environment, and society.

It is in response to the above statement

that this conclusions main derivative to aged living is to create and promote populations of natural amounts of people from all aged

125


Defense 2 board

126


127


Defense 3 board

128


129


Final Boards The result of process

130


7.01

131


132


7.02

133


134


135


Annotated Biliography

and makings of contemporary assisted living. 5. "Almshouses." Chicago.

1.

Feddersen, Eckhard, and Insa Ludtke.

Web.

08

Encyclopedia Oct.

2011.

of

<http://

encyclopedia.chicagohistory.org/pages/1735.

Living for the Elderly: A Design Manual. Berlin:

html>.

Andreas Muller, 2009. Print.

-Detail of accounts at the Cook County

-Case study and design reference on the role

almshouse in the 19th century.

contemporary architecture plays with assisted living.

6.

GAO, Nursing Homes: Additional Steps

Needed to Strengthen Enforcement of Federal 2.

"THE HISTORY OF NURSING HOMES."

Quality Standards, 3 (March 1999.)

Foundation Aiding The Elderly - Home. Web.

-Third party watchdog for political affairs on

7 Oct. 2011. <http://www.4fate.org/history.

assisted living.

html>. - Abridge history of assisted living.

7.

"Almshouse Period History of the

Anne Arundel County Almshouse." 3.

"The

Online

NewsHour:

Timeline

www.

historiclondontown.org/. 2009. Web. 5 Oct.

- Nursing Homes in America." PBS: Public

2011.

Broadcasting Service. Web. 08 Oct. 2011.

index.php/historyarchaeology

<http://www.pbs.org/newshour/health/

period>.

nursinghomes/timeline.html>.

- Almshouse history within Anne Arundle

-Interactive timeline on the history of

<http://www.historiclondontown.org/ almshouse-

County Maryland.

retirement homes. 8. 4. Home

Giacalone, Joseph. The U.S. Nursing Industry

(Contemporary

Industry

Studies). Armonk: M.E. Sharpe, 2001. Print. - A deep investigation in the current framework

136

"Nursing Home Statistics." EF Moody

Home. Web. 09 Oct. 2011. <http://www. efmoody.com/longterm/nursingstatistics. html>. - Data for current assisted living projections.


12.

Kane, Rosalie. The Heart of Long-

McDonough, William, and Michael

Term Care. New York: Oxford UP, 1998. Print.

Braungart. Cradle to Cradle. New York: North

- Current dominance of nursing homes as the

Point, 2002. Print.

principal institution of long-term care. It offers

-This text covers the basis of closed loop

a series of alternative models where both

systems. Blending both science and art to

services and housing can be provided in a

create spaces, and products that acknowledge

way that allows long-term consumers to enjoy

full life cycles economically, socially and

dignified, "normal" lifestyles.

9.

environmentally. 13. “Almshouse Period History of the 10.

Hawken, Paul, Amory Lovins, and L.

Anne Arundel County Almshouse.”

www.

Hunter Lovins. Natural Capitalism, Creating

historiclondontown.org/. 2009. Web. 5 Oct.

The Next Industrial Revolution. New York,

2011.

Boston, London: Little, Brown and, 2000.

index.php/historyarchaeology

Print.

period>.

- Provides examples how the natural world

- Almshouse history within Anne Arundle

and closed loop systems can be enabled to

County Maryland.

<http://www.historiclondontown.org/ almshouse-

provide more efficient and cost effective than 14.

traditional methodologies.

“Nursing Home Statistics.” EF Moody

Home. Web. 09 Oct. 2011. <http://www. 11.

Feddersen, Eckhard, and Insa Ludtke.

Living for the Elderly: A Design Manual. Berlin:

efmoody.com/longterm/nursingstatistics. html>. - Data for current assisted living projections.

Andreas Muller, 2009. Print. -Case study and design reference guide to the psychology and phenomenology spaces

15. McDonough, William, and Michael

have on the aging process, and the

Braungart. Cradle to Cradle. New York: North

contemporary architecture plays.

role

Point, 2002. Print. -This text covers the basis of closed loop

137


systems. Blending both science and art to create spaces, and products that acknowledge

17.

Kane, Rosalie. The Heart of Long-Term

full life cycles economically, socially and

Care. New York: Oxford UP, 1998. Print.

environmentally.

- Current dominance of nursing homes as the principal institution of long-term care. It

15.

Hawken, Paul, Amory Lovins, and L.

offers a series of alternative models where

Hunter Lovins. Natural Capitalism, Creating

both services and housing can be provided

The Next Industrial Revolution. New York,

in a way that allows long-term consumers to

Boston, London: Little, Brown and, 2000.

enjoy dignified, â&#x20AC;&#x153;normalâ&#x20AC;? lifestyles.

Print. - Provides examples how the natural world and closed loop systems can be enabled to provide more efficient and cost effective than traditional methodologies.

16.

Feddersen, Eckhard, and Insa Ludtke.

Living for the Elderly: A Design Manual. Berlin: Andreas Muller, 2009. Print. -Case study and design reference guide to the psychology and phenomenology spaces have on the aging process, and the contemporary architecture plays.

138

role


Architectural Thesis