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colour models pms hexachrome spot colour gamut rgb cmyk halftone monotone duotone

co l mo our de ls

design for print

colour models


pantone matching system The accuracy of color is critical in design. What you see on your monitor is never what will appear on a printed sheet, designers need a standardized color key. It can be very frustrating to see the logo you worked hard to create look deep blue on the client’s

letterhead, blue-greenish on his business card, and light blue on his very expensive envelopes. A way to prevent this is by using a standardized color matching system, such as the PMS.

Though Pantone is not the only color standardization system, it is the most widely used and the one that most printers understand. Aside from being able to have consistency, Pantone Colors allow you to use colors that cannot be mixed in CMYK. Pantone offers chip books that help designers see how colors look on coated, uncoated, and matte stock. Pantone Colors are

distinguished by numbers and a suffix. While the number indicates the Pantone Color itself, and

is standard across all types of stock, the suffix indicates the media or stock, which affects how the ink is formulated to achieve the specific color.

gamut spot colour colour models


dealing with colour

spot colour

monitors which previously could not be

In offset printing, a spot color is any color

CMYK primaries were modified into more

generated by an ink (pure or mixed) that is

design for print

printed using a single run. The widely spread offset-printing process is composed of four

spot colors: Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, and Key

(black) commonly referred to as CMYK. More advanced processes involve the use of six

spot colors (hexachromatic process), which

add Orange and Green to the process (termed

duplicated in print. In Hexachrome, the existing chromatic inks, with orange and green being

added to the traditional equation. In addition to reproducing more brilliant continuous-tone

images, Hexachrome is capable of accurately reproducing over 90% of the PMS Colors,

almost twice the number that can be obtained

using conventional four-color process printing.

CMYKOG). The two additional spot colors


reproduction of faint tints using CMYK colors

In color reproduction, including computer

world use the term spot color to mean any color

gamut, is a certain complete subset of colors.

are added to compensate for the ineffective

only. However, offset technicians around the

generated by a non-standard offset ink; such

as metallic, fluorescent, spot varnish, or custom hand-mixed inks.

hexachrome Hexachrome is an ultra-high fidelity six-color

process printing system developed by Pantone, Inc. It’s large color gamut, compared to

four-color process printing, makes it possible

for the first time to more accurately reproduce

a wide range of both vibrant and subtle colors

that can be defined and displayed on computer

graphics and photography, the gamut, or color The most common usage refers to the subset of colors which can be accurately represented in a

given circumstance, such as within a given color space or by a certain output device. Another sense, less frequently used but not less

correct, refers to the complete set of colors

found within an image at a given time. In this

context, digitizing a photograph, converting a digitized image to a different color space, or

outputting it to a given medium using a certain output device generally alters its gamut, in the

sense that some of the colors in the original are lost in the process.

hexachrome and gamut examples

cmyk rgb colour models





design for print

four colours The CMYK color model (process color, four color) is a subtractive color model, used in color printing, and is also used to describe the printing process itself. CMYK refers to the four inks used in some color printing: cyan, magenta, yellow, and key (black). Though it varies by print house, press operator, press manufacturer, and press run, ink is typi-

cally applied in the order of the abbreviation. The CMYK model works by partially or entirely masking colors on a lighter, usually white, background. The ink reduces the light that would otherwise be reflected. Such a model is called subtractive because inks “subtract� brightness from white.




colour on screen The RGB color model is an additive color model in which red, green, and blue light are added together in various ways to reproduce a broad array of colors. The name of the model comes from the initials of the three additive primary colors, red, green, and blue. The main purpose of the RGB color model is for the sensing, representation, and display of

images in electronic systems, such as televisions and computers, though it has also been used in conventional photography. Before the electronic age, the RGB color model already had a solid theory behind it, based in human perception of colors.

halftone colour models design for print

Halftone is a reprographic technique that simulates continuous tone imagery through the use of dots, varying either in size, in shape or in spacing. Halftone can to refer specifically to the image that is produced by this process. Where continuous tone imagery contains an infinite range of colors or greys, the halftone process reduces visual reproductions to a binary image that is printed with only one color of ink. This binary reproduction relies on a basic optical illusion—that these tiny halftone dots are blended into smooth tones by the human eye. At a microscopic level, developed black-and-white photographic film also consists of only two colors, and not an infinite range of continuous tones. Just as color photography evolved with the addition of filters and filt layers, color printing is made possible by repeating the halftone process for each subtractive color—most commonly using what is called the “CMYK color model”. The semi-opaque property of ink allows halftone dots of different colors to create another optical effect—full-color imagery. When different screens are combined, a number of distracting visual

effects can occur, including the edges being overly emphasized, as well as a moiré pattern. This problem can be reduced by rotating the screens in relation to each other. This screen angle is another common measurement used in printing, measured in degrees clockwise from a line running to the left.Halftoning is also commonly used for printing color pictures. The general idea is the same, by varying the density of the four primary printing colors, cyan, magenta, yellow and black, any particular shade can be reproduced. In this case there is an additional problem that can occur. In the simple case, one could create a halftone using the same techniques used for printing shades of grey, but in this case the different printing colors have to remain close to each other to fool the eye into thinking they are a single color. To do this the industry has standardized on a set of known angles, which result in the dots forming into small circles or rosettes. The dots cannot easily be seen by the naked eye, but can be discerned through a microscope or a magnifying glass.

halftone colour moldels design for print

The images are separated for printing with process cyan, magenta, and yellow inks. Key (black), is also used to minimize ink use.

monotone colour models design for print

Monotone image is an image that has been created by using different tones of the same colour. Any colour can be used when using this printing process however in print terms it is more commonly used to produce grey scale images made from black ink. Duotone is a halftone reproduction of an image using the superimposition of one contrasting colour halftone (traditionally black) over another color halftone. This is most often used to bring out middle tones and highlights of an image. The most common colors used for this process are blue, yellow, browns and reds. Now due to recent advances in technology, duotones, tritones, and quadtones can be easily created using image manipulation programs. Duotone color mode in Adobe’s Photoshop uses an imaging process that computes the highlights and middle tones in a black and white image then allows the user to choose any color ink as the second color. In the case of the examples on this page, the violet monotone image has been made into a duotone by adding orange. This makes the duotone turn to a maroon red colour.

paper stocks coated paper uncoated paper art gloss coated paper matt coated paper silk coated paper cast coated paper laid woven watermarked paper carbonless - self copy paper pulpboard bank and bond newsprint recycled paper paper thickness weight


design for print

paper stocks

choosing the right paper

choosing the right paper coated paper

matt coated paper

This type of paper has a coating, usually of

Plain paper which has received a special

Coated papers are available in a gloss,

coated papers have no surface shine, and

requiring a fine finish, which is why coated

coated paper. The images will not have

Most of the leaflets you get through your mail

coated paper, however, applying a gloss seal

the travel agent and the fancy programmes

printing inks do not dry and harden as well


that use of a seal varnish is recommended to

uncoated paper

relatively inexpensive.

china clay, which gives it a smooth finish.

coating to give a smooth, matt finish. Matt

silk or matt finish and are used for projects

a slightly “toothy” feel, rougher than a gloss

paper is sometimes referred to as ‘art’ paper.

quite such a lift as when printing onto gloss

box, the glossy brochures you pick up from

varnish can often improve this. In addition,

you buy at concerts are printed onto coated

on matt coated stocks as on gloss, meaning

This type of paper doesn’t have a coating and is therefore not as smooth as coated

prevent ink rubbing. However, seal varnish is

silk coated paper

paper. You will use uncoated paper in your

Plain paper which has received a special

uncoated papers are used for business

coated papers have a low surface shine,

laser printer and photocopier. Premium

stationery and are becoming increasingly

popular for use in prestigious brochures and catalogues as an alternative to the more commonly used coated papers.

art A paper which has received a special coating to give it a smooth gloss finish. It’s meaning

is often confused but it is more easily termed

coating to give a smooth, silk finish. Silk

and are not as toothy feeling as matt coated papers, or as smooth a feel as gloss coated paper – a good compromise between matt

and gloss coated paper. Again, inks do not dry or harden as well as on gloss coated papers, and the use of seal varnish is recommended.

cast coated papers

as a gloss coated paper.

This paper has a very high gloss finish

gloss coated paper

surface is then polished by stainless steel

See definition for Art Paper. Gloss coated

papers have a high shine and a very smooth surface, ideal for producing printed items for promotional work. The finish of the paper

achieved by using a special coating and the drying cylinders. It is often used for different packaging requirements.


gives the ink a high degree of “lift”, giving

Paper with a pattern of parallel lines at equal

images in particular. Ink dries well on gloss

as a premium quality of paper with a textured

vibrant colour and definition to printed

coated paper, making a seal varnish (to

protect the ink from rubbing and marking) less likely to be needed.

distances giving a ribbed effect. It is classed

pattern of parallel lines, similar to hand made paper. Commonly used for business stationery.

choosing the right paper paper stocks

choosing the right paper

woven A paper which shows an even texture rather than a parallel line pattern. It has a uniform

surface, not ribbed or textured like laid paper. Again, used mostly for business stationery.

design for print

watermarked paper An impression is pressed into the top of the

sheet on manufacture. This is normally used in high quality writing papers eg Conqueror.

newsprint Mechanical pulp print paper containing a

small percentage of chemical wood pulp.

Grammage 45 - 50 g/m2. Mechanical pulp is

produced by grinding wood mechanically and is used in cheaper papers.

recycled paper New paper which is made entirely or in part from old paper.

Clients can have their own watermark put into a sheet if required.

carbonless - self copy paper Paper specially coated to produce an image in black when pressure is applied. Used

extensively in sets. There is a top, middle

and bottom sheet with the coatings applied accordingly.

pulpboard Matt uncoated boards in white or tinted

ranging from 200 micron thickness to 750 micron.

bank and bond Bank paper is under 63g/m2. Both are

essentially stationery papers supplied in a variety of colours with a matt uncoated

finish. Bond paper is a term commonly

used to describe economical uncoated wove papers. You will probably use bond paper in your photocopier and fax machine.

paper thickness It is normal practice to specify the ‘

thickness’ of paper by its weight in grams

per square metre (GM or GSM). A low quality photocopier paper is usually around 80gsm; a good quality letterhead around 120gsm; a fast food menu around 130gsm, a flyer

around 300gsm; and a business card around 400gsm.

weight Paper is graded by weight, a manufacturer’s 150gsm paper may seem slightly bulkier

or thicker than a competitor’s product. Also

uncoated papers tend to be bulkier than their coated counterparts, whilst matt and silk

coated papers tend to be bulkier than their gloss coated counterparts. A paper’s GSM

rating is a good guide to how ‘thick’ or ‘stiff’ the paper will feel but always ask for paper samples if unsure. Card (or ‘board’ as it is

usually called in the industry) is sometimes

measured in microns (a micron is 1000th of a millimetre).

format a sizes b sizes c series envelopes ra sizes sra sizes us sizes newspaper


A size formats paper formas design for print

dimensions of series paper


height x width

height x width


2378 x 1682 mm

93.6 x 66.2 in


1682 x 1189 mm

66.2 x 46.8 in


1189 x 841 mm

46.8 x 33.1 in


841 x 594 mm

33.1 x 23.4 in

chart to the right gives a visual explanation


594 x 420 mm

23.4 x 16.5 in

example A5 is half of A4 size paper and A2


420 x 297 mm

16.5 x 11.7 in


297 x 210 mm

11.7 x 8.3 in

international usage


210 x 148 mm

8.3 x 5.8 in

The A series paper sizes are now in


148 x 105 mm

5.8 x 4.1 in


105 x 74 mm

4.1 x. 2.9 in

Mexico. The A4 size has become the


74 x 52 mm

2.9 x 2.0 in

speaking countries such as Australia, New


52 x 37 mm

2.0 x 1.5 in

Zealand and the UK, that used to use


37 x 26 mm

1.5 x 1.0 in

sizes were adopted as the formal standard

The dimensions of the A series paper sizes, as defined by ISO 216, are given in the

table in both millimetres and inches (cm

measurements can be obtained by dividing mm value by 10). The A Series paper size of how the sizes relate to each other - for is half of A1 size paper.

common use throughout the world apart from in the US, Canada and parts of

standard business letter size in English

British Imperial sizes. In Europe the A paper in the mid 20th century and from there they spread across the globe.

diagram of paper sizes from A0 to A10

B size formats paper formats design for print

dimensions of series paper


height x width

height x width


1414 x 1000 mm

55.7 x 39.4 in

The dimensions of the B series paper


1000 x 707 mm

39.4 x 27.8 in

table in both millimetres and inches (cm


707 x 500 mm

27.8 x 19.7 in


500 x 353 mm

19.7 x 13.9 in


353 x 250 mm

13.9 x 9.8 in


250 x 176 mm

9.8 x 6.9 in


176 x 125 mm

6.9 x 4.9 in

The B series paper sizes were created in


125 x 88 mm

4.9 x. 3.5 in

covered by the A series. This system gives


88 x 62 mm

3.5 x 2.4 in


62 x 44 mm

2.4 x 1.7 in


44 x 31 mm

1.7 x 1.2 in

sizes, as defined by ISO 216, are given in the measurements can be obtained by dividing

the mm value by 10). The B Series paper size

chart to the right is a visual explanation of how the B paper sizes relate to each other.

why was it created? order to provide paper sizes that weren’t

a useful property for enlarging and reducing documents.

diagram of paper sizes from B0 to B8

C size envelope paper formats design for print

dimensions of C series envelope


height x width

height x width


1297 x 917 mm

51.5 x 36.1 in


917 x 648 mm

36.1 x 25.5 in


648 x 458 mm

25.5 x 18.0 in


458 x 324 mm

18.0 x 12.8 in

compared to a sheet of A4 paper.


324 x 229 mm

12.8 x 9.0 in

why were they created?


229 x 162 mm

9.0 x 6.4 in

C envelopes sizes are defined as the


162 x 114 mm

6.4 x 4.5 in


114 x 81 mm

4.5 x. 3.2 in

geometric mean of A4 and B4. This produces


81 x 57 mm

3.2 x 2.2 in

envelope that will neatly hold the A series


57 x 40 mm

2.2 x 1.6 in


40 x 28 mm

1.6 x 1.1 in

As defined by ISO 216, are given in the table in both millimetres and inches (cm measurements can be obtained by dividing the mm

value by 10). The diagrams to the right show the size of each of the envelopes when

geometric mean of the A and B sizes with

the same number i.e. C4 dimensions are the a size between the two that makes an

paper of the same size, thus a C4 envelope

is perfect for an A4 sheet of paper unfolded. It should be noted that C format envelopes also

have an aspect ratio of 1:root2 and because of this an A4 sheet folded parallel to its shortest

sides will fit in a C5 envelope and folded twice will fit a C6 envelope.

diagram of C series envelope sizes

C size envelope paper formats design for print

C4, C5 and C6 envelopes

was known as DIN Lang, but DL is now

The diagrams to your right show C4, C5

Lengthwise’. This size is defined in the ISO

and C6 envelopes compared to A4 paper size (the envelope being shown in yellow

with the paper shown as white) as can be seen in the diagram the C4 envelope can

contain an A4 sheet, the C5 envelope can contain an A4 sheet folded in half (an A5

sheet) and the C6 envelope can contain an A4 sheet folded in half twice (an A6 sheet). This is the reason that you will sometimes

see these envelope sizes being referred to

as A4 envelope size, A5 envelope size and A6 envelope size.

One of the most widely used business envelopes, the DL format does not

fall under the C series sizes as it has a different aspect ratio. This envelope

originated in Germany in the 1920’s and

more commonly expanded to ‘Dimension

standards for envelope sizes, as the standard would have been remiss in omitting the most commonly used business envelope size.

DL envelopes The dimensions of DL are 110 x 220 mm (4 1/3” x 8 2/3”) and as such the DL envelope will hold an A4 sheet of paper folded into 3

equal sections parallel to its shortest sides. Despite complaints from manufacturers of automatic enveloping machines that it is

slightly too small for reliable enveloping and the introduction of a C6/5 envelope at 114

x 229 mm, the original DL size continues to be most commonly used.

RA and SRA sizes paper formats design for print Table of RA Paper Sizes RA0 to RA4 RA and SRA paper formats


height x width

height x width


1220 x 860 mm

48.0 x 33.9 in


860 x 610 mm

33.9 x 24.0 in

cover untrimmed raw paper for commercial


610 x 430 mm

24.0 x 16.9 in

larger than the corresponding A series


430 x 305 mm

16.9 x 12.0 in

sizes to allow for bleed on printed material


305 x 215 mm

12.0 x 8.5 in

bound publication.

Table of SRA Paper Sizes SRA0 to SRA4

The RA and SRA paper formats are defined by ISO 217 “Paper - Untrimmed Sizes� and printing. The RA and SRA sizes are slightly

that will be later trimmed to size, often for

To obtain paper sizes in centimetres,

convert mm values to cm by dividing by 10. The aspect ratio (the ratio of the width to


height x width

height x width

SRA0 1280 x 900 mm

50.4 x 35.4 in

SRA1 900 x 640 mm

35.4 x 25.2 in

SRA2 640 x 450 mm

25.2 x 17.7 in

SRA3 450 x 320 mm

17.7 x 12.6 in

SRA4 320 x 225 mm

12.6 x 8.9 in

the height) of the RA and SRA sheets is 1:

root 2 (1:1.4142) as for the A series sheets. Unlike the US untrimmed paper sizes, the RA and SRA paper sizes do not form any part of the calculation of paper weight.

US paper sizes paper formats design for print

US paper formats North America, including the US, Canada and parts of Mexico, is the only area of the

first world that doesn’t use the ISO 216 standard paper sizes, instead they use Letter,

Legal, Executive and Ledger/Tabloid paper sizes and those that have been formalised in ANSI Y14.1M - Metric Drawing Sheet Size & Format.


Width x Height

Width x Height

Aspect Ratio


216 x 279 mm

8.5 x 11.0 in



216 x 356 mm

8.5 x 14.0 in


Junior Legal

127 x 203 mm

5.0 x 8.0 in



279 x 432 mm

11.0 x 17.0 in


print processes digital print risograph flexography pad printing offset litho rotogravure foil stamping screen printing letter press

print processes

digital print colour moldels design for print

digital print

Digital printing refers to methods of print from a digital based image directly to a different variety of media. It usually refers to professional printing where small run jobs from desktop publishing and other digital sources are printed using large format and/or high volume laser or inkjet printers. Digital printing has a higher cost per page than more traditional offset printing methods but this price is usually offset by the cost saving in avoiding all the technical steps in between needed to make printing plates. It also allows for on demand printing, short turn around, and even a modification of the image (variable data) with each impression. The savings in labor and ever increasing capability of digital presses means digital printing is reaching a point where it could match or supersede offset printing technology’s ability to produce larger print runs of several thousand sheets at a low price. Digital Printing takes a different approach assembling each image from a complex set numbers and mathematical formulas. These images are captured from a matrix of dots, generally called pixels, this process is called digitizing. The digitized image is then used to digitally controlled deposition of ink, toner or exposure to electromagnetic energy, such as light, to reproduce images.

The mathematical formulas also allow for algorithms to compress the data. It also give a method of Calibration or Color Management Systems which helps to keep images looking the same color despite where they are view or printed. One important function that the mathematical formulas allowed was the development of a common language for digital printing it is called PostScript and was developed by Adobe. To see what PostScript looks like open a PDF or EPS in a text editor, the code seems very intricate but to a computer it just a simple code of instructions. One of the most important advantages that Digital printing offers is a quicker response time due to its minimal press setup and it’s built in multicolor registration system. This eliminates many of the upfront, time consuming processes that can cause analog printing methods to have a slower turn-around time. Another advantage of Digital printing is the ability of offer variable printing; this means that each printed piece can have different information on it providing personalization and customization unmatched by analog processes.

risograph print processes

Risograph is a high-speed digital printing system manufactured by

the Riso Kagaku Corporation and designed mainly for high-volume photocopying and printing.

Increasingly, Risograph machines have been commonly referred to as a

RISO Printer-Duplicator, due to their common usage as a network printer as well as a stand-alone duplicator. When printing or copying multiple

quantities (generally more than 20) of the same original, it is typically far

less expensive per page than a conventional photocopier, laser printer, or

design for print

inkjet printer. The original is scanned through the machine and a master is created, by means of tiny heat spots on a thermal plate burning voids (corresponding to image areas) in a master sheet. This master is then

wrapped around a drum and ink is forced through the voids in the master. The paper runs flat through the machine while the drum rotates at high speed to create each image on the paper. This simple technology is

highly reliable compared to a standard photocopier and can achieve both very high speed (typically 130 pages per minute) and very low costs. A

good lifespan for a risograph might involve making 100,000 masters and 5,000,000 copies.


flexography colour moldels design for print


Flexography (often abbreviated to flexo) is

Flexographic plates can be created with analog

flexible relief plate. It is essentially a modern

areas are raised above the non image areas on

a form of printing process which utilizes a version of letterpress which can be used

for printing on almost any type of substrate, including plastic, metallic films, cellophane, and paper.

It is widely used for printing on the non-porous substrates required for various types of food

packaging (it is also well suited for printing large

areas of solid color). Flexography or flexographic printing uses flexible printing plates made of

rubber or plastic. The inked plates with a slightly raised image are rotated on a cylinder which transfers the image to the substrate.

Flexography uses fast-drying inks, is a

high-speed print process, can print on many

types of absorbent and non-absorbent materials, and can print continuous patterns (such as for

giftwrap and wallpaper). Some typical applica-

tions for flexography are paper and plastic bags, milk cartons, disposable cups, and candy bar

wrappers. Flexography printing may also be used for envelopes, labels, and newspapers.

A flexographic print is made by creating a

positive mirrored master of the required image as a 3D relief in a rubber or polymer material.

and digital platemaking processes. The image

the rubber or polymer plate. The ink is transferred from the ink roll which is partially immersed in

the ink tank. Then it transfers to the anilox roll (or

meter roll) whose texture holds a specific amount of ink since it is covered with thousands of small wells or cups that enable it to meter ink to the

printing plate in a uniform thickness evenly and quickly (the number of cells per linear inch can vary according to the type of print job and the quality required).

To avoid getting a final product with a smudgy or lumpy look, it must be ensured that the amount of ink on the printing plate is not

excessive. This is achieved by using a metal

scraper, called a doctor blade. The doctor blade

removes excess ink from the anilox roller before inking the printing plate. The substrate is finally sandwiched between the plate and the impres-

sion cylinder to transfer the image. The sheet is then fed through a dryer, which allows the inks

to dry before moving on.In the case a UV ink is

used, the sheet does not have to be dried, but is dried from UV rays.

design for print

colour moldels

pad printing

pad printing

Pad printing is a printing process that can transfer a 2-D image onto a 3-D object. This is accomplished using an indirect offset (gravure) printing process that involves an image being transferred from the clichĂŠ via a silicone pad onto a substrate.

Pad printing is used for printing on otherwise impossible products in many industries including

medical, automotive, promotional, apparel, and electronic objects, as well as appliances, sports

equipment and toys. It can also be used to deposit functional materials such as conductive inks, adhesives, dyes andlubricants. The unique properties of the silicone pad enable it to pick the image up from a flat plane and transfer it to a variety of surfaces, such as flat, cylindrical, spherical, compound angles, textures, concave, or convex surfaces.

offset litho colour moldels design for print

offset litho A lithograph is a type of printing process during

The most common ways of litho applications include:

reproduced; the final product is also known as

books. Compared to other printing methods, offset

which original works of art can be printed and

a lithograph, which is an authorized copy of an

original work created by an artist or other skilled craftsmen.

The printing process for creating lithographs is

different from other traditional methods, mainly

because it does not require the print-maker to first etch

newspapers, magazines, brochures, stationery, and

printing is best suited for economically producing large

volumes of high quality prints in a manner that requires little maintenance. Many modern offset presses use computer to plate systems as opposed to the older

computer to film work flows, which further increases their quality.

the image into metal plates. Prints can be made of

The actual process of printing is quite involved.

metal plate, or images from paintings or drawings can

pre-press production. This stage makes sure that

original works of art, first created on the stone table or be duplicated with this method. If the print quality of a

lithograph is excellent and the production numbers are low, it may have significant value in the art world. Offset litho printing is a commonly used printing

One of the most important functions in the process is all files are correctly processed in preparation for

printing. This includes converting to the proper CMYK

color model, finalizing the files, and creating plates for each color of the job to be run on the press.

technique in which the inked image is transferred (or

Every printing technology has its own identifying marks,

printing surface. When used in combination with the

edges are sharp and have clear outlines. The paper

“offset”) from a plate to a rubber blanket, then to the

lithographic process, which is based on the repulsion of oil and water, the offset technique employs a flat

(planographic) image carrier on which the image to be printed obtains ink from ink rollers, while the non printing area attracts a water-based film (called

“fountain solution”), keeping the non-printing areas ink-free.

as does offset printing. In text reproduction, the type surrounding the ink dots is usually unprinted. When

halftone is used, the dots are always hexagonal though there are different screening methods (AM and FM).

rotogravure design for print

colour moldels


Rotogravure (Roto or Gravure for short) is a

The rotogravure press is not restricted to just paper

engraving the image onto an image carrier.

printed on through several processes that include

type of intaglio printing process; that is, it involves

In gravure printing, the image is engraved onto a

or foil. In fact, materials such as plastic or foil can be electrostatic pull and applied pressure.

cylinder because, like offset printing and flexography, it

A rotogravure press includes an ink fountain engraved

newspaper photo features, the rotogravure process is

roller. The engraved ink fountain cylinder is versatile

uses a rotary printing press. Once a staple of a

still used for commercial printing of magazines, post

cards, and corrugated (cardboard) product packaging. With gravure printing an image is etched on the surface

cylinder, a doctor blade, a dryer, and an impression enough to be changed to meet the requirements of

each job layout. Generally, these changes are made by adjusting its circumference.

of a metal plate or cylinder so that the image you want

Each color on a rotogravure press has its own

part of the plate (unlike relief printingwhere the image is

in the publishing profession. CMYK stands for cyan,

to print is in the recesses or depressions not the raised raised). The recesses are filled with ink and the raised (non-printing) portions of the plate or cylinder are

wiped or scraped free of ink leaving the ink only in

printing unit. These colors are referred to as CMYK

magenta, yellow, and key, with “key� being a the print name given to the color black.

the recesses. The paper or other material is pressed

Besides printing, a rotogravure press also has the

transferred to the paper. Rotogravure presses can

is commonly used for holding together magazines and

against the inked plate or cylinder and the image is produce a vast range of print jobs. They can be as narrow as labels used on envelopes or shipping

packages, or as wide as 12 feet (about 3.66 meters) wide rolls of vinyl.

capacity to produce saddle stitching. Saddle stitching

brochures. Rotogravure presses can print magazines that have a long run with over one million copies.

rotogravure foil printing design for print

Foil stamping

Foil stamping, typically a commercial print process, is the

application of pigment or metallic foil, often gold or silver, but can also be various patterns.

There is also pastel foil which is a flat opaque color or white special

film-backed material, to paper where a heated die is stamped onto the foil, making it adhere to the surface leaving the design of the die on the paper. Foil stamping can be combined with embossing to

create a more striking 3D image. It is still regularly used in many

applications and can achieve results that are virtually impossible by

any other method. High gloss metallic, holograms, wood grains. The composition of the foil means that it adheres to a vast range of materials and is protected by a really tough lacquer.

screen printing colour moldels design for print

screen printing Screen printing or silk screening is a printing

four different screens. The screens are usually placed

flat surfaces.

to be properly aligned or registered with each other.

technique particularly suited for flat or relatively

The heart of the process involves a fine mesh or

screen that is tightly stretched around a rigid frame.

The areas that are not to be printed are masked out

on a rotary press which allows the different color prints Some screen-printers have fully automatic presses

that do not require any manual labor other than set-up and loading/unloading.

on the screen. To create the print, the framed screen is

There are a variety of ways that the screen can be

dollop of thick ink. A squeegee is then used to press

masking fluid directly on the screen. This technique

positioned over the item to be printed along with a the ink through the screen.

The masked areas prevent ink from passing through,

but the unmasked areas allow the ink to be imprinted on the material. The final step is to send the item on

masked. The most straightforward way is to apply

is suitable for simple one or two color graphics but is

ineffective for more complex prints. For multicolor jobs, screen-printers often use photosensitive emulsions to create the masked areas.

a conveyor belt through a heat-tunnel. This curing

First, the design is created on a clear piece of plastic

materials can be stacked or packaged. Properly cured

the entire surface of the screen and then dried. The

process ensures that the inks dry quickly so that they inks will remain on the printed substrate even under harsh conditions.

If more colors are desired in the final design, the process is repeated with different screens. Therefore, a

design that requires four different colors would require

film. Meanwhile, a photosensitive coating is applied to film is placed on the prepared screen and they are exposed to bright light. After a period of time, the

exposed areas can be washed off the screen with water which makes the screen ready to print.

design for print

colour moldels


letter press

Letterpress is relief printing. It involves locking movable type into

the bed of a press, inking it, and rolling or pressing paper against it to form an impression. It was the normal form of printing text from its invention by Johannes Gutenberg in the mid-15th century until the 19th century and

remained in wide use for books and other uses until the second half of the 20th century.

In addition to the direct impression of inked movable type onto paper or another receptive surface, letterpress is also the direct impression of inked printmaking

blocks such as photo-etched zinc “cuts� (plates), linoleum blocks, wood engravings, etc., using such a press. Letterpress printing remained the primary way to print and distribute information until the twentieth century, when offset printing was

developed. It was also an extremely important technological innovation, making printed material available to a wider range of classes of people.

binding and folding perfect bind japanese stab stitch bind double loop ringbind screw and post bind thermal tape bind ringbind (folder) saddle stitch bind single fold roll fold z-fold conertina fold gate fold

binding folding

book binding print finishing

key 1. perfect bind 2. japanese stab stitch bind 3. double loop ringbind 4. screw and post bind

design for print

5. thermal tape bind 6. ringbind (folder) 7. saddle stitch bind

Book binding is a technical craft for the

The signatures are bound together with heavy

a single volume.

although some modern bookbinding techniques

connection of individual pages of a book into

It is practiced both on a high intensity commercial level to produce the millions of books which are

waxed thread so that they cannot pull apart,

use glue instead because it is cheaper and much quicker.

printed every year, or it can be performed by hand,

Finally, the bound pages are enclosed inside a

Bookbinding is an ancient technique, with examples

durable, preventing damage to the inside of the

by artisans who are creating one of a kind books.

of bound books in durable materials like vellum dating back thousands of years.

Whether books are being bound for large scale

commercial sale or special occasions, bookbind-

ing involves a few basic principles. The pages are

printed, using a technique called imposition where up to sixteen pages are printed front to back onto

one sheet of paper called a signature. The signature is folded into a section of text which is then bound

and trimmed to free the folded edges. A short book

may only contain one signature, while lengthy texts may have hundreds.

protective cover which is designed to be sturdy and book. This stage of bookbinding leaves the most

room for creativity and fun on the part of the artist. At one time, book covers were often beautiful and ornate, made from materials like leather or wood, and embossed or studded with gems. Modern

commercially produced books usually have covers made from sturdy paper or cardboard, but it is still possible to find deluxe books bound in leather for special collections.

book binding examples










paper folding print finishing design for print

Leaflets that are folded are usually used for advertising or marketing purposes. There are many types of folds, only the most popular types are listed here.

Although it is difficult to put a date on when some of these folds were first used,

it is evident that their popularity boomed when the first mass production printers were introduced.

single fold

concertina fold

This type of fold is mainly used for

A concertina fold is a continuous

some creative business cards with half

printed material in an accordion-like

brochures, postcards and I actually saw fold as well.It is usually constructed by

folding an sheet of paper once, creating 2

equal halves. The inner pages are usually used for the content, while the front and the back page presents some company information.

roll fold Roll folds consist of four or more

panels that roll in on each other. The roll

in panels must get incrementally smaller to be able to tuck into the respective

panels. One of the benefits of a roll fold is that it can have multiple panels, but rolls into a compact package.

z - fold The “Z” style offers an advantage for

multi-page letters to be collated and hand inserted for mailing. Because the pages

nest together, the letter is opened with the pages in sequence. Folding the sheet of

paper twice (the outside left panel folds to the left and the inside right panel folds to the left, forming the brochure cover)as a result it shapes as the letter “Z”.

parallel folding of brochures and similar fashion, that is with folds alternatively made to the front and back in zig zag

folds. Because they do not nest (as in Letter Folds) panels can be the same size

gate fold The gate fold is very attractive as the

succession of message presentation is dramatic. It requires e ither handwork or specialized equipment. Lining up

images that cross over the inside flaps can be very difficult. The left and right edges fold inward with parallel folds and meet in the middle of the page without overlapping.

paper folding examples

Print Production Manual  

By Eve Warren ( BA )Graphic design Leeds College Of Art

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