C O N S E R VAT IO N
In the end, our society will be defined not only by what we create, b u t b y w h a t w e r e f u s e t o d e s t r o y. John Sawhill
John Biggers, The Song of the Drinking Gourd Tom Bass Regional Park / Houston, TX
M U RA L S
E X P O S U RE W I N D O W S
M ATE R IAL SPEC IAL IST S
F I N I S H ES IN VEST IG AT IO N & AN ALYSIS
PL A S T E R C O N S O LI D ATI O N WA LL C OVERIN G S
A BO U T E V E R G R E E N E 3
MURALS Ar t i s t s ha v e u s e d mu ra ls to de c or a t e a r c hi t ectu re a n d tell s to r i e s f or m i l l e nn ia . In th e Un i t e d St a t e s , mu ra ls g a in ed prom i ne nc e f i r s t in th e A merica n Re na i s s a nc e a nd th en a g a in in th e 19 3 0 s w i t h W PA p ro jects. E v e r G r e e ne ha s co n ser ved ma n y ty p e s of m u r a l s â€“ fro m th o se pa i nt e d on c a nv a s to fresco s â€“ fr om v i r t u a l l y e v er y era . 4
SANTA BARBARA COUNTY COURTHOUSE Santa Barbara / 1929 A supreme example of Santa Barbaraâ€™s signature Spanish Colonial architecture, the Santa Barbara Courthouse is home to historic murals depicting significant moments in Santa Barbaraâ€™s history. Conservators cleaned and restored the murals which depict historic events in Santa Barbara from precolonial times to American rule. Conservators documented existing conditions, repaired damaged plaster and canvas, stabilized cracking paint and inpainted areas of loss. Architectural elements, designed and painted by John B. Smeraldi, were also cleaned, stabilized and conserved.
GOLDWATER HOSPITAL MURALS /
New York City / 1942
In 1942, the WPA commissioned Ilya Bolotowsky, Albert Swinden, Joseph Rugolo and Dane Chanase to paint murals in the Goldwater Hospital, originally known as the Welfare Hospital for Chronic Diseases. The artists, all working in abstraction, painted monumental artworks that stretched the length of the curved walls of the hospital day rooms. First, EverGreene conservators investigated the hospital day rooms and executed numerous small exposure windows to confirm the locations and conditions of the murals so that they may be safely removed from the walls. For the restoration, EverGreene created a negative-air chamber and lead-containment zone (1). This ensured that those working inside the 6 mil double-plastic laboratoryâ€”and those outsideâ€” would not be affected by the lead-based adhesive that originally secured the murals to the wall. The lead adhesive was eliminated with an oscillating multi-tool (2). Once the overpaint was removed, conservators began carefully inpainting areas of loss or damage (3) before applying a protective varnish.
ESSEX COUNTY COURTHOUSE /
Newark / 1906
The Essex County Courthouse is one of Americaâ€™s most significant examples of art integrated into civic architecture from the American Renaissance period. Works by Edwin Howland Blashfield, Kenyon Cox and Charles Yardley Turner grace the walls and ceilings of this Cass Gilbert-designed building. EverGreene was responsible for the fine arts conservation of murals and paintings; the restoration of decorative painted finishes; gilding conservation; the restoration and replication of pastiglia and composition ornamentation; and the refinishing of the wood paneling throughout. EverGreene restored and conserved ten courtrooms and all the significant public spaces.
JOHN BIGGERS MURALS Harris County, TX / 1987
EverGreene conserved John Biggers murals at the Tom Bass Regional Park and Christia V. Adair Park in Harris County. After conducting a conditions investigation, EverGreene conservators consolidated and stabilized plaster damage using a small syringe to inject a Rhoplex mixture into hairline cracks. In addition, flaking and damaged paint was stabilized and loose flakes were reattached by gently massaging the area with a tacking iron. The murals were then cleaned to remove surface soiling. Conservators applied a UV-stable reversible varnish to serve as an isolating barrier between the historic paint and newly applied in-paint. Areas of loss were inpainted using conservation paints.
MATERIAL SPECIALISTS EverG reen eâ€™s conser v at ion st udio k n o ws ma ter ials. Fro m h isto r ic plast er & paint t o mu ra ls & mosaics t o masonr y & wo o d , o u r conser v at or s conduct in vestig a tions, pr ov ide ex per t a n a lysis a nd dev elop t hought f ul trea tmen t met hods.
MATERIAL SPECIALISTS: MOSAICS
BARRY FAULKNER MOSAIC / Rockefeller Center, New York City / 1933 The immense Barry Faulkner mosaic, which occupies five walls at Rockefeller Center, had become soiled over time. EverGreene conservators found that the most effective cleaning solution to dissolve the sebaceous grime on the glass tile surface (1) was acetone, a hydrocarbon solvent. Prior to cleaning, the entire surface was sounded for instability in the cement substrate, grout, or tile adhesion. The conservation team implemented treatments from a rolling tower with three decks to access the 22â€™-tall mosaic. The solvent was applied with a hand swab, gently agitated with a natural bristle brush, and the grime was removed with cotton Webril hand swabs (2). After the solvent fully evaporated, the surface was dusted with a clean cotton cloth. Fewer than 10 tesserae were missing from the mosaic. Replacement missing tiles were cut to the exact size and shape of the original and color matched to complement adjacent composition and tiles. The glass tiles were set into the stable mortar bed with a viscous mixture of acrylic resin, called Rhoplex 1950, which dries clear and is compatible with cement (3).
MATERIAL SPECIALISTS: MOSAICS
HAYDEN PLANETARIUM MOSAIC / New York City / 1935 When the American Museum of Natural Historyâ€™s Hayden Planetarium was being demolished and prior to the construction of the Rose Center for Earth and Space, EverGreene coordinated and implemented the removal (1), storage and conservation of the 12â€™-dm Aztec Sun Stone mosaic (2) set in the terrazzo floor. The mosaic represents the fifth sun, or age, which began with the accession of King Itzcoatl (1427-1440). To remove the 16-ton mosaic intact, a 20-inch-deep section of the floor, including structural I-beams, was cut out. The mosaic was removed through a demolished wall and hoisted onto a wide-load truck for transportation. For removal and re-installation, EverGreene developed technical and engineering solutions for welders and riggers. Mosaic conservation included surface cleaning, reattaching loose tesserae, replacing missing tesserae to match original and regrouting.
MATERIAL SPECIALISTS: METAL
HALL OF JUSTICE / Los Angeles / 1925 The Hall of Justice, constructed in 1925, was the nationâ€™s first consolidated judicial facility. Designed in the Beaux Arts style, its character-defining details include an ornate barrel-vaulted entry hall, gilded ceiling, bronze and iron hardware and fittings and marble walls. EverGreene conserved numerous significant historic materials and features throughout the Hall of Justice: wood and bronze doors at the entrances and elevators; iron stair handrails; bronze casement windows; commemorative plaques; historic mail box and radiator grills; and historic decorative painting and glazed finishes, including stenciling and faux bois on the interior doors. EverGreene retained as much of the original material as possible and where replication was necessary, accurately matched the original to retain the buildingâ€™s historic fabric.
MATERIAL SPECIALISTS: WOOD
COOPER HEWITT SMITHSONIAN DESIGN MUSEUM New York City / 1901 The former Carnegie Mansion, now the Cooper Hewitt Smithsonian Design Museum, underwent a $64M restoration in 2014. As part of the construction team, EverGreene restored the wood finishes, decorative paint, plaster and stone of the historic building. Conservation work in the Teak Room included vacuuming and cleaning all wood surfaces, removing wax and deteriorating shellac, and resurfacing wood as needed. The grand staircase (above) required a complete restoration of all wood surfaces, including the intricately designed wooden banister. Throughout the museum, EverGreene restored the flat and ornamental plaster and repaired the historic Caen stone in the main entryway.
MATERIAL SPECIALISTS: ACOUSTIC
MALTZ PERFORMING ARTS CENTER / Cleveland / 1924
In the early 20th century, a variety of acoustic building materials were used, including Akoustilith, a porous ceramic material that resembles stone. Originally built as Temple-Tifereth Israel, Case Western Reserve Universityâ€™s Maltz Performing Arts Center was in need of restoration. EverGreene cleaned decades of dirt and soot from the walls, performed restoration work and applied protective sealer to over 10,000 sq ft of Akoustilith tile. EverGreene craftsmen also created and installed replacement tiles to match the existing.
UNION STATION Los Angeles / 1939
The upper portion of the Spanish Revival train stationâ€™s walls are clad in an early version of acoustical tile that was in need of cleaning. After completing a conditions survey, EverGreene cleaned the wall tiles, using dry, wet and mechanical methods to remove stains, and replaced damaged pieces. To create replacement tiles, EverGreene developed a formula and fabricated new tiles on site.
EXPOSURE WINDOWS Exp o su re windows ar e cr eat ed with th e g oal of r ev ealing sig n ifica n t decor at iv e paint ing ca mp a ig n s.
The Sherry Netherland / NYC
P ro p rieta r y paint st r ipper s o r so lven ts may be applied ju d icio u sly ov er t he sur f ace of th e sp ecified ar ea. O nce t he n o n - h isto ric paint lay er s ar e so ften ed , they ar e r emov ed t o revea l th e under ly ing sur f ace.
THE SHERRY-NETHERLAND / New York City / 1927 In the 1920s, Joseph Aruta painted the ceiling mural of the Sherry-Netherland, based on Raphael’s frescoes at the Vatican in Rome. When EverGreene began its investigative study in 2013, there was no trace of the mural. After removing several small squares of overpaint and creating exposure windows (opposite), the mural was discovered intact underneath. The process of exposure windows revealed that under more than 10 layers of post-historic finishes – including white paint and faux decorative ashlar stone patterns (2) – a beautiful mural existed. Conservators removed the outer layers of skimcoat and overpaint using mechanical methods, solvent gels and strippers. The final layers of post-historic paint were delicately removed with solvent and swabs (3). Areas of damage and loss were inpainted (4). A critical aspect of the project was that the lobby remained fully operational.
H IS T O R I C FI NI SHES I N VE S TI G ATI ON & AN ALY SI S De c o r a t i v e p a i nt i ng sch emes a re ra rely simp le. W h a t m i ght a p p e a r a s ju st a few co lo rs o n a c e i l i ng or w a l l s u r fa ce is o ften mu ltip le co lo rs o f pa i nt s , gl a z e s an d meta llic fin ish es. Histo ric pai nt s a m p l i ng a nd a n a lysis d eter min es th e media an d b a s i c p i gm e nt s u sed in a p a r ticu la r time of a bu i l d i ngâ€™s hi s t or y a n d in clu d es n o t o n ly p a int s but a l s o m e t a l l i c , clea r a n d tra n slu cen t fin ish es. F o l l o w i ng p r e p a r a tio n , sa mp les a re typ ica lly v i e w e d u nd e r a n o p tica l micro sco p e in o u r la b . T h r ou gh s t r a t i gr a ph ic stu d ies, ea ch in d ivid u a l l ay e r i s i d e nt i f i e d , a ssessed a n d ma tch ed to t h e Mu ns e l l c ol or system. D ep en d in g o n th e pr o j ec t , t hi s i nf or ma tio n is eith er u sed to rest or e t h e o r i gi na l c ol or s o r p a ssed to o u r d esig n ers wh o c r e a t e c ol or p a lettes b a sed o n th e h isto ric fi n i she s . I t â€™s a m a zin g wh a t o n e ca n lea r n fro m a t i n y c hi p of p a i nt . 16
Carolina Theatre Paint Analysis
HISTORIC FINISHES INVESTIGATION & ANALYSIS
CAROLINA THEATRE / Charlotte / 1926 EverGreene conducted field investigations, conditions assessments and a historic finishes investigation to identify the historic color palettes and decorative motifs for the auditorium, promenade, mezzanine lounge, and basement lounge; to determine the feasibility of restoring the historic balcony murals; and to document the condition of historic flat and decorative plaster in these spaces. Samples of painted finishes were collected by driving a hollow steel punch into plaster elements and extracting the existing paint layers. A portion of each substrate was captured with the paint sample, to ensure that the complete stratigraphy could be documented. A total of 75 samples were collected from walls and ornamental plaster elements. The paint analysis indicated that the original decorative scheme emphasized warm yellow and golden tones on textured plaster wall surfaces, with ornamental plaster accented using bright colors highlighted in silver and gold paint. Stenciled motifs included checkerboard patterns at the underside of ceiling beams in the auditorium and mezzanine lounge. Munsell color matches for the original painted finishes were provided. At the egg and dart cornice in the auditorium, tape pulls reveal an overpaint layer of metallic gold. Chemical paint removal and microscopy reveal the original scheme, consisting of a brown base accented with shades of greenish blue, red, and orange. Bright yellow highlights were brushed across the cornice, and then a brown toning glaze was likely applied.
Cross section of Sample 26, auditorium egg and dart cornice, at 100x magnification. The plaster substrate is at the bottom of the image, and the presenting pinkish white layer is at the top. Greenish blue accent and yellow highlight layers are among the original colors.
P LA S T ER C ON S OLI D AT I O N A p r oc e s s of i nj ectin g a b in d in g ag e nt i nt o c r u m blin g p la ster wh i c h r e i nf or c e s a n d h a rd en s th e e xi s t i ng p l a s t e r. 18
Company Room D
PARK AVENUE ARMORY /
Company Room E
New York City / 1860
As part of a comprehensive rehabilitation and restoration of the Park Avenue Armory, EverGreene performed extensive conservation treatments, including plaster consolidation and stabilization (opposite) and paint stabilization and cleaning (1), on the walls and ceilings of Company Rooms D and E and the Board of Officers Room.
WAL L C O V E RI NG S H i st or i c w a l l c overin g s a re e s p e c i a l l y f r a gi l e. Often , th e y ne e d t o b e recrea ted an d E v e r G r e e ne r ig o ro u sly i n v e s t i ga t e s , d ocu men ts an d t e s t s t he e x istin g wa ll c o v e r i ngs t o d e t er min e th e o r igi na l p a t t e r ns a n d co lo rs an d t he c u r r e nt co n d itio n s. O u r d e s i gne r s t hen a p p ly th e s a m e m e t hod o lo g y an d t hou ght f u l ness o f c o ns e r v a t i on t o th e h isto ric r e c r e a t i on of w a ll co verin g s, whi c h i nv ol v e s mech a n ica l, di gi t a l a nd ha nd - a p p lied te chni q u e s .
CLARA BARTON MISSING SOLDIERS OFFICE Washington, DC / 1865 Clara Barton lived in Washington, D.C. during and immediately after the Civil War. Her residence also served as a place to store the supplies she received for her work on the battlefield, and later as an office to handle correspondence concerning missing soldiers. The apartment had been unused for decades, resulting in plaster deterioration and wallpaper disintegration. By creating 13 exposure windows, EverGreene conservators identified 16 different wallpapers and by analyzing paint samples in our lab, several colors of distemper paint on the trim. Ultimately, the wallpapers were digitally reproduced or hand screened and highlypigmented paints were custom-tinted and hand-mixed with a super matte finish to replicate the original. Exposure windows were left throughout the apartment so that visitors can see the original paper, and in some cases, layers of different papers.
ABOUT EVERGREENE EverGreene Architectural Arts is one of the largest specialty contractors, conser vation and architectural arts studios in the United States. Established in 1978, our mission and passion is to provide preconstruction and construction ser vices for significant buildings requiring conser vation, restoration or new design. We believe that the architectural artsâ€”murals, fine art, decorative plaster and paint, gilding, metals, mosaics and other finishesâ€”enrich both our buildings and our communities.
EverGreene is home to the finest conser vators, artisans, and craftsmen in the US. Our conser vators, many of whom hold advanced degrees and are Professional Associates of the American Institute for Conser vation of Historic and Artistic Works (AIC), have an encyclopedic knowledge of historic and contemporar y materials and methods and provide expert analysis. They approach projects holistically, combining traditional and contemporar y conser vation techniques that are best for the historic materials and artwork being conser ved, and within agreed upon budgets and schedules.
R E P R E S E N TAT I V E P R O J E C T S MATERIAL SPECIALISTS
American Museum of Natural History / NYC Call Collins House / Tallahassee Colorado State Capitol / Denver Congregation Ohabai Sholom / Nashville Congregation Shearith Israel / NYC Cooper Hewitt Design Museum / NYC Grand Central Air Terminal / Glendale, CA Granada Theatre / Santa Barbara Hall of Justice / Los Angeles Harvard Hall, Harvard Club / NYC Jacob Burns Film Center / Pleasantville, NY King Street Station / Seattle Medgar Evers House / Decatur, MS Memorial Hall, Harvard University / Cambridge, MA Museo del Barrio / NYC Rockefeller Center / NYC Saenger Theatre / New Orleans Salon Doré / Palace of the Legion of Honor, San Francisco Sergio O’Cadiz Sculptural Facade / Cypress, CA St. Mary’s Hall, Boston College / Boston Union Station / Chicago Union Station / Los Angeles University Club / NYC Yale Club / NYC
30 Rockefeller Center / NYC 140 West Street / NYC Church of the Transfiguration / NYC Curran Theatre / San Francisco Essex County Courthouse / Newark Granada Theatre / Santa Barbara Goldwater Hospital Murals / NYC Greenwood Murals / University of Tennessee, Knoxville Harlem Hospital / NYC Holyoke Public Library / Holyoke, MA John Biggers Murals / Harris County, TX Leger Murals United Nations / NYC Lyric Theatre / Birmingham, AL New York Public Library / NYC Radio City Music Hall / NYC Sacramento Valley Station / Sacramento Santa Barbara County Courthouse / Santa Barbara
Arlington House / Arlington, VA Colonial Theatre / Pittsfield, MA Hegeler Carus Mansion / LaSalle, IL Hollybush Mansion at Rowan University / Glassboro, NJ St. Aloysius Catholic Church / Bowling Green, OH The Sherry-Netherland / NYC Tinker’s Swiss Cottage Museum / Rockford, IL
HISTORIC FINISHES INVESTIGATION & ANALYSIS Bexar County Courthouse / San Antonio Carolina Theatre / Charlotte, NC Eames House / Pacific Palisades, CA Embassy Theatre / NYC Grace Church / Brooklyn, NY Illinois State Capitol / Springfield, IL Kansas State Capitol / Topeka, KS St. Aloysius / Bowling Green, OH Unity Temple / Oak Park, IL
Illinois State Capitol / Springfield, IL Kings Theatre / NYC Mission Concepcion / San Antonio Park Avenue Armory / NYC Richard Rogers Theatre / NYC Wilshire Boulevard Temple / Los Angeles Yale Club Ballroom / NYC
America’s Society / NYC Clara Barton Missing Soldiers Office / Washington, DC Cutler Majestic Theatre / Boston Grand Opera House (Riley Center) / Meridian, MS Medgar Evers House / Decatur, MS Union Station / Chicago
Herbst Theatre / San Francisco Luzerne County Courthouse / Wilkes Barre, PA US Capitol / Washington, DC
C o n se r v a t i o n & R e st o rat i o n Pr e co n st r u ct i o n De si g n B u ild in g & Ar t wo rk Asse ssme n t s D e v e lo p me n t o f Tre at me n t P l an s Or n a m e n tal & F l at P l ast e r S ca g lio la & S pe ci al t y P l ast e r M u r a ls & Ar t wo rk D e co r a t ive & F l at P ai n t i n g G la zin g & S pe ci al t y F i n i sh e s I n t e r io r & E x t e ri o r Gi l di n g S t o n e , Wo o d & M e t al S e r v i ce s A co u st ic P l ast e r N o v a w a ll Aco u st i c F abri c P an e l s S p e cia lt y Co n t ract i n g E n v ir o n me n t al Te st i n g N ew Yo r k 2 5 3 3 6 t h S t re e t , S u i t e 5-C B r o o k ly n , NY 11232 Ch i ca g o | 708.358.1642 Lo s An g ele s | 213.292.6932 S a n F r a nc is c o | 415.429.2711 Wa sh i n g to n DC | 202.869.1011 Front: The Sherry-Netherland / NYC Back: Sacramento Valley Station / Sacramento
Published on Mar 9, 2017