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Non-denominational progressive Christian ​there's a lot a lot of people who study been studying this Flat Earth thing on their own the only way you can do it you sort of get the books out get the into now and you you know you sort of study you look at the ball and a lot of people have had a big awakening a big realization a big change in their frequency it is big it's like space doesn't exist anymore you know the planets this infinite universe in space big stars big Suns all being smashed up hello and welcome to Flat Earth versus round Earth that last clip is from a flat earther named wakey-wakey which was reloaded from another youtuber named Joshua star days mark night of wakeywakey has a prominent voice in the Flat Earth community and has convincing videos about the subject I recommend checking him out if you haven't already first off I want to say thank you the responses to my first video worked great thank you guys for being so awesome and nice and give me plenty of research as you can see one of the user named own Eve sorry if I'm pronouncing it wrong gave me plenty of homework to do which is awesome thank you for now I'll see how many I can get to in this video so before moving forward I first like to address what Neil deGrasse Tyson said about the shape of the earth he stated that the earth is more accurately referred to as an oblate spheroid and it's also pear-shaped so what does that mean how much would it affect different calculations according to Google the circumference of earth at the equator is about twenty four thousand nine hundred and two miles and the circumference on the meridian lines is twenty-four thousand eight hundred and sixty miles that is a difference in circumference of only point zero zero one seven percent if we look back at the scale model of Earth we can see if there is any visual difference the diameter are used for this model is seven thousand nine hundred and twenty six miles using the oblate spheroid calculations the diameter of the Equator would be seven thousand nine hundred twenty seven miles and the diameter of the Prime Meridian would be seven thousand 913 miles so we need to add one mile to the x-axis which is one point seven six pixels on this scale and subtract 13 miles from the y-axis which is twenty two point eight eight pixels on this scale visually the change from a perfect circle is basically non-existent when calling the earth pearshaped or doing curvature calculations the difference from a perfect sphere is incredibly small for example if we calculate the curvature over 150 miles on the equator then the drop would be fourteen thousand nine hundred ninety four feet and on the meridian line would be fifteen thousand and twenty feet that's also a difference of only point zero zero one seven percent so even though technically that is not nothing we most likely will not need to be that exact in future calculations I will however try to factor that in if a certain proof needs a very precise number so a proof I forgot to cover in my first video it ships over the horizon ball Arthur's claim that a proof of the Earth's curvature is that ships disappear hull first over the horizon and that's because it's being hidden by the curvature of the earth the rebuttal by flat earthers is that it only appears that way because of our perspective referring to zetetic astronomy Rowbotham illustrates several examples of the lower part of objects disappearing before the higher portion what I found to be the most interesting argument is flat earthers say that by using a good zoom camera you can watch a ship appear to go over the horizon and then bring it right back into view by zooming in they claim this can only be done if the earth is flat but I don't think that's technically a hundred percent true depending on the elevation of the camera it is definitely possible on the ball earth model for a ship to disappear to the naked eye and then reappear by zooming in with a camera but I did happen to come up with an idea to potentially test both theories at once if you or a friend has a boat in a nice zoom camera then this should be pretty easy to do on a fairly calm sunny day first try to find a spot near the water where you can place the camera on a tripod at a very low elevation like two to three feet you can use a smartphone to mark your location and double-check your elevation then have someone on the boat use a GPS or smartphone to track their location and start heading directly away from the camera have them head to a distance where the boat should be hidden by the curvature for example if the boat was at a height of six feet above the water and the camera was at an elevation of three feet then the boat should not be visible at six miles if the earth was a ball if you can see the boat with the camera at six miles then that would be good evidence the earth is flat but if you can't see the boat anymore then raise the camera up by four feet or higher if the boat starts to become visible when the camera is raised over four feet that would be good evidence the earth is a sphere let me know if you guys have any possible ways to test these theories the next suggestion I received was show the drop of the horizon line from high-altitude balloon footage in my last video I showed the drop of the horizon from a plane so would it be much different from the balloon footage the first video I looked at was posted by Robert Orkut and was taken from an HD camera at a hundred and twenty thousand feet because of the distortion of the camera there is no point for me to analyze the

curvature but we can still analyze the drop of the horizon in relation to eye level so I grabbed a screenshot from the video and opened it in Photoshop just like my last video I placed a line at the horizon at one hundred twenty thousand feet the horizon would be four hundred and twenty five miles away in four hundred twenty five miles the earth would drop twenty two point nine miles on the sphere earth model which is about point zero five percent so calculating the pixels from the bottom of the image to the line point zero five percent would be about twenty five pixels so if the earth was a sphere then the horizon would be here on a flat plane once again not as big as I thought it would be looking back at the video as the camera angles up and down the horizon goes well above and below the two lines so this would be very difficult to use as proof of the horizon dropping or proof of it remaining at eye level the other highaltitude footage I looked at was the reuploaded one posted by wakey-wakey it was an interesting video of a panoramic view using sound bites from different flat earthers the footage was taken from a height of 18 miles which is less than the previous clip at about 95,000 feet this panoramic was also created from a distorted lens in my last video I did happen to show what the curvature should look like from eighteen and a half miles if the earth was a sphere which turned out to be less than you'd think it would be from that high up using the same method as before I took a screen cap and measured the pixels from the bottom to the horizon line at ninety five thousand feet the horizon would be three hundred and seventy eight miles away in three hundred seventy eight miles the drop would be eighteen point zero six miles or about 0.04 eight percent in this image that would be about thirteen pixels so if the earth was a sphere then the horizon would be here on a flat plane once again this makes it very difficult to prove either theory so some of you wanted me to analyze some specific examples referring to the Earth's curvature and line of sight going back to another question from the same user they wanted me to analyze a video posted by Terry Robinson in his video he examines photos that he took from Oahu taken from kawaii about ninety miles away in the video he states the first picture is taken from Wei Lua River Overlook at about two hundred to three hundred feet the island of Oahu has an elevation of about four thousand feet he also shows another picture of the island taken from the airport he states that this elevation would be about fifty feet I do wish he was more exact on where the pictures were taken but I will still analyze the information he provides first off looking at an elevation map of Oahu it appears that there are large sections that are above about three thousand feet this should give us an idea of how much of the island we should be seeing on the sphere model the highest peak is at about four thousand and three feet since we know that we have to at least be seeing the highest peak in the images I'm going to use that location to measure distances first I would like to look at the image from the airport so in Google Earth I measured the distance from the airport - hoo-ahh whose highest peak to be about 84 miles the area around the airport ranges from an elevation of 80 to 150 feet I'll use 150 feet because I'm just testing if it would be possible to see on the sphere earth model using the calculator if we input an eye level of 150 feet 4000 feet for the peak and 84 miles for the distance then the island would be visible over 800 feet should still be visible if the earth was a ball looking at the other image he states that it was taken from Wailua River overlook unfortunately I do not know much about the island and I couldn't seem to find the exact location of the Overlook so I just used areas around the Wailua River this area is the Wailua River State Park with an elevation ranging from 200 to 400 feet and is about 88 miles from the peak this area is the Wailua homesteads with an elevation ranging from 300 to 500 feet and is about 89 miles from the peak going back to the calculator if we use a distance of 89 miles and the peak height of 4000 feet we can look at the differences of eye level at a 500-foot eye level over 1400 feet of the island would be visible at a 400-foot eye level over 1200 feet would be visible 300 foot eye level over 900 feet would be visible and finally at an eye level of 200 feet over 500 feet of the island would be visible so I highly encourage him to retake the pictures and bring a GPS or smartphone to get the exact location of the picture or use a camera or smartphone that has geo-tagging capabilities using that and the exact distance to the peak of oahu he could potentially have a strong case to prove his theory maybe even take pictures at different elevations to see how low would still be visible overall he did a great job he just needs a little more specific information so the last proof I want to analyze in this video was posted by a user named Jamal Williams he asked me to critique the following image in the image we can see a co-lead elba to the island of corsica which is about a hundred and five miles if we are looking at a distance of 105 miles then the earth should curve down about 1836 feet on either side of the central peak of the arc if we can see eight thousand eight hundred and seventy-eight feet to the peak of Corsica then shouldn't we be able to see the 18 hundred foot drop which is 21% of that he also linked some pictures from zetetic astronomy and states that we should see this to some degree but instead we see this so what should we be seeing on the sphere earth model going back to the scale model 105 miles of curvature would look like this not much visible curvature at all but maybe we can work with it looking back at the image provided it is unfortunately low quality and very pixelated but I'll still try to analyze it and work with what I have first I cranked up the contrast to see the islands a little bit better and then measured the height of Corsica it's difficult to see an estimate but I measured a height of about 20 pixels there is

no way of knowing if we're seeing the entire island from the base to the top but I'll just assume that we are now I'll add a straight line and zoom in on the edge it was difficult to match up the line to the horizon due to the low resolution but I did the best I could looking over to the far left it does appear to curve away from the line very slightly 21% of 20 pixels is about 4 pixels if I measure from the line to the drop it appears to be about 2 to 3 pixels so technically speaking the image does seem to imply a slight curvature but not much at all overall it doesn't appear to be very convincing either way but what do you guys think I'm honestly not sure on this one so at the end of round 2 both fighters are standing their ground looking at the fight recap 1 although it is more accurate to say that the earth is an oblate spheroid it will be easier to do calculations using a perfect sphere and it shouldn't affect the results by a substantial amount - there seems to be good explanations for both models in respect to ships disappearing over the horizon but some carefully planned tests could potentially prove one theory over the other 3 looking at high-altitude balloon footage the drop in eye level is still pretty small and would be difficult to prove either theory for if we estimate the information provided it is possible for Oahu to be visible on the sphere earth model and finally the image showing a 105 mile stretch of water appears straight at first but looking closer does appear to imply a slight amount of curvature but that could easily be debatable so thank you to everyone who commented and sorry if I haven't gotten to your question yet but I am trying to get through all of them again please do not hesitate to comment and provide feedback let me know if I've made any mistakes if there's something to add more detail on specific topics to cover in the future or just general questions and suggestions thank you guys so much for watching and I hope to see you for the next round Fu Foundation School of Engineering and Applied Science.