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COMMUNITY PLANNING TOOLKIT

CANADA-GUYANA PARTNERSHIP FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING, 2009 - 2012 GEORGETOWN, GUYANA 3/31/2012


TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1 2. Identify the Community ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 2 3. Engage the Community .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 4 3.1 Purpose ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4 3.2 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4 3.3. Strategy ............................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5 Step 1: Hello, I am…........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................5 Step 2: Do you see what I see? ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................5 Step 3: Let’s get together .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................7 Step 4: Power to the People .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................8 Step 5: Make it Work! ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................9 Step 6: Say it One More Time in Writing... ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................9

3.4. Benefits ............................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9 3.5. Role of the Participants ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 10 3.6 Government Stakeholder Involvement ............................................................................................................................................................. 10 3.7. Establish Issue-Based Working Groups ............................................................................................................................................................. 11 4. Write Planning Documents ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 12 4.1 Community Profile ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 12 i


4.2 Information System............................................................................................................................................................................................ 12 4.3 Community Development Plan .......................................................................................................................................................................... 13 4.4 Feedback & Approval ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 13 5. Implementation ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 14 5.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 14 5.2 Implementing Community Plans and Projects................................................................................................................................................... 14 Step 1: Setting Your Goal .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 14 Step 2: Establishing Timelines ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 15 Step 3: Budget ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 16 Step 4: Identifying Implementing Agents.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 17

5.3 Implementing Community Engagement ............................................................................................................................................................ 19 Community Meetings ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 19 Facilitation Techniques............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 22

6. Monitoring & Evaluation .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 27 7. Environmental Sustainability & Climate Change Adaptation .................................................................................................................................. 31 7.1 Sustainability and Low Carbon Development .................................................................................................................................................... 31 7.2 Risk Management and Disaster Preparedness .................................................................................................................................................. 33 Step 1: Vulnerability assessment .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 35 Step 2: Capacity assessment ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 36

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8. Conclusion ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 37 Appendix A: Glossary ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 39 Appendix B: Example of Reporting: Prior to Engagement ........................................................................................................................................... 40 Appendix C: Example of Reporting: Post Engagement ................................................................................................................................................ 43 Appendix D: How to Facilitate a Meeting .................................................................................................................................................................... 46 Appendix E: Community Profile Template ................................................................................................................................................................... 47 Appendix F: Community Development Plan Template................................................................................................................................................ 50 Appendix G: Stakeholder Analysis ............................................................................................................................................................................... 52 Appendix H: Creating a Community Group.................................................................................................................................................................. 55 Appendix I: SALT Method of Community Engagement ............................................................................................................................................... 57 Appendix J: Facilitation Plan ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 61 Appendix K: Problem Tree Analysis ............................................................................................................................................................................. 64 Appendix L: Tree Notes ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 66 Appendix M: SWOT Analysis ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 67 Appendix N: Pairwise Ranking ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 68 Appendix O: Multi Criteria Evaluation ......................................................................................................................................................................... 71 Appendix P: Reference Materials................................................................................................................................................................................. 72

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This Community Planning Toolkit is a true example of collaboration and team work. It compiles the knowledge and efforts of many people across different organizations. This tool would not be possible without the intervention of the Canada-Guyana Partnership for Community Planning, a CIDA funded partnership project between the Canadian Institute of Planners (CIP) and Guyana’s Central Housing & Planning Authority (CH&PA). Four individuals who worked tirelessly to make this Toolkit possible are Ms. Marcelle Linton, C-GPGP Project Coordinator 2010-2011, Ms. Fayola Azore, CH&PA Development Planner, Ms. Amy Peebles, CIP WorldLink intern 2010-2011, and Mr. JosÊ Canjura, C-GPCP Project Coordinator 2011-2012. The Toolkit is also possible thanks to the hard work and contributions from several other CIP WorldLink planning interns: Ms. Jennifer Bedore, Ms. Katherine Bailey, Ms. Shawna Wilson and Ms. Claire Van Koughnett. The Canada-Guyana Partnership for Community Planning (2009-2012) had as its principal objective the training of Guyanese Public Sector Professionals and Community leaders by means of training & capacity-building programs designed and delivered by Canadian and Caribbean professional planners. The Partnership also supported annual regional meetings and community engagement projects to promote and enhance good planning practice throughout the Region. All project activities were delivered in the context of the preparation of Community Development Plans (CDPs).

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1. INTRODUCTION Planning at the community level has typically been approached from the top down, meaning it is a process started by the agency, either governmental or non-governmental, tasked with bringing about change. As planning practice shifts from a top down to a bottom up approach, which is initiated by the community itself, it becomes increasingly important to recognize the role of the “community” in influencing their own development. Regardless of this fundamental theoretical shift, what better way to plan for the public, than by planning with them? Community planning, in this context, is a process in which the development of a community is undertaken as a collaborative effort between the agencies involved in planning and the people living within the community. The term “community” here refers to a group of people defined by geographic area and common interest. This process is one in which a Community Development Plan (CDP) is prepared in order to provide an overarching guide which will be referred to for all decisions regarding the future development of a community. Each organization involved in community planning has its own methods. For the Central Housing and Planning Authority (CH&PA), this document will act as the in-house guide for community planning. Since no community is the same as any other, this document will act as a broad-based strategy under which community planning and CDPs will be undertaken and prepared. This document outlines the community development process as delineated by the CH&PA and breaks down the organization’s strategy for community engagement. It also provides detailed templates for the documents involved in the Community Planning process. A strong emphasis has been put on community engagement. The strategies provided in this toolkit form a framework for how the CH&PA connects with the public. This toolkit provides a more detailed look at the CH&PA’s strategy for involving the public in the planning process and ensuring that the community has a strong influence on the physical, social and economic development of their area. The following chapters of this toolkit outline how to identify and engage the community, establish working groups, write planning documents, implement projects, prepare effective engagement strategies, monitor and evaluate the process, and incorporate principles of sustainability. It is supported by appendices which provide further clarification, examples of facilitation techniques, and templates for planning documents.

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2. IDENTIFY THE COMMUNITY Carefully defining the “community” in which the community development process will take place plays an integral part in the success of the process. Whether it is a physical definition or a socio-economic definition, the boundaries within which successful community development and community engagement happen must have a clear focus. While it is the role of the CH&PA to encourage the process of development through guidance, the CH&PA must also recognize and foster already existing development within the community. Defining the community will help to foster existing development, as well as create a clear understanding of who you are working with. First defining the community physically will enable a more in-depth look at who lives within those boundaries. Questions that should be asked are: What are the physical boundaries of your community? Is it situated in one place or does it have satellite communities that will need to be included in the development process? When defining your community physically, make sure to explain why those boundaries were chosen. The justification for your physical boundaries will help you to define “who” your community consists of (the next step in the process). “The Bell West Housing Scheme was chosen as an area for engagement because it fell under the Inter-American Development Bank Low Income Settlement Programme and a mandate for community engagement under the Canada-Guyana Partnership for Community Planning. Its physical boundaries were defined as both Phase 1 and Phase 2 of the scheme to ensure that community engagement would continue as the second phase of the scheme comes on stream.” The next step in the process will be to define who makes up the community. This is a detailed description of the demographic attributes of the population you would like to engage. This part of the process will have a direct influence on the type of development undertaken and the goals and strategies of engagement. Once defined, you will discover that the community you are working with has unique attributes which should be factored into any plans for engagement. Through engagement, information about the needs and social dynamics of the community will become evident. Questions that should be asked at this point include: • • • • • • • • •

Who is the community: Who are the people who live in it? Who are the people who contribute to it? Who are the people governing it? Who are the people working in it? What is the community: Is the community a physical space? Is the community a group of like-minded people? Is the community a group of diverse people or groups? What is the purpose of the community: What purpose does the community serve? Is the community focused on a particular subject matter? Does the community participate in particular causes or events? How does the community define itself: Does it identify with particular faiths or beliefs? Does it identify with a particular governing body or group? How will the demographics and social dynamics of the community influence the nature of development? 2


•

How does this factor in to your strategy for community engagement?

Answers to these questions are different in each community. Once they are put together, they should paint a clear picture of the community. The next step is to define a strategy for engagement that is unique to this community and will aid in gathering information and guiding community development in the area.

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3. ENGAGE THE COMMUNITY 3.1 PURPOSE As the CH&PA moves towards a more participatory approach to planning, there is a need to have everyone on the same page when undertaking planning for the purpose of community development. Having a document that outlines the method with which the organization will approach community engagement makes sure everyone in the organization uses the same principles and strategies. This means that all departments within CH&PA can apply the engagement plan together, with the same understanding of why and how they are using these methods. In addition, new staff can read this document and familiarize themselves with the process that CH&PA uses to undertake community engagement. Ultimately, this toolkit is intended to ensure that engagement and development activities are focused on the community and are for the benefit of the community. Remember, no two communities are alike and so the following strategy can and should be adapted to reflect the unique attributes of the community in question.

3.2 SCOPE Knowing how best to approach community engagement depends on a clear understanding of the scope of the engagement effort. Scope in this sense means the who, what, when, where, and how of what you are trying to accomplish. The more articulated your scope, the easier it will be to carry out any form of engagement. When thinking of the scope of your engagement effort, make sure to keep in mind the end target: empowering those we plan for. How you define the who, what, when, where, and how of community engagement will shape the nature of your engagement and its end results. At the same time, the results you want to achieve will shape how you define the scope of your engagement. Think of it as results-based definition (framing the results first and working backwards) Who – Community engagement is a collaborative process between all the stakeholders involved in a community. Whoever will be affected by the engagement effort and its results is who should be involved in it or notified of it. This could include community members and groups as well as local business owners, other government agencies, or charitable organizations involved in the community. What – The main objective is always to empower the public. How you do this depends on what else you want to achieve: are you gathering information, exploring possibilities, or making a decision? When – Consider those you are looking to engage; when are they available? What time of day will you get the desirable turn out for your engagement effort? Make sure to talk to the community members themselves to help you in deciding this. How does the community's availability fit with the broader timeline within which you are working? How long will it reasonably take to get from step to step?

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Where – Go to them. The secret to any good engagement is making the people feel comfortable enough to share their ideas openly and honestly. What better way to do that than to host your event in a space they call their own. Search the community you are working in to see if there is a suitable facility for your event and seek suggestions from community members themselves. This can be an early point of collaboration between the community and CH&PA. How – How will you accomplish your end goal? The greater the level of clarity, the greater the chances of success. The objectives of the engagement effort should be laid out, and the desired outputs and outcomes clearly articulated. The next step will be determining how to reach these objectives.

3.3. STRATEGY STEP 1: HELLO, I AM‌ The first step in engaging a new community will be to introduce yourself to anyone who is already working in the community, such as the Neighbourhood Democratic Council (NDC), Regional Democratic Council (RDC), Regional Housing Officer (RHO), or existing community groups. When introducing yourself to the NDC, RDC, and RHO, make sure to discuss what your strategy is for engaging the community and ask how they want to be involved. After this introduction, your first interaction with the community will be through a community visioning exercise, which is outlined below.

STEP 2: DO YOU SEE WHAT I SEE? Consensus and collaboration are integral components of any community engagement effort. Sharing how individuals see development happening in their community is an important step in the process as it makes sure everyone understands the different priorities and desires of the community members, including you! To gather this information, a community visioning exercise should be conducted.

COMMUNITY VISIONING Community visioning is an exercise in which community members are given the opportunity to share their ideas of what their ideal community would be like in the future. It is done in an informal meeting setting and should take place in the community. The first step in carrying out a visioning exercise is figuring out the best location for the meeting. Consider the ideas outlined in the Where portion of the Scope section above. Once you have found a suitable venue, decide on a mobilization strategy (usually with the help of community members) which will ensure that there is enough community representation to cover all the desires of the residents. It is now time to set the date and invite the people, a simple task, but one that should consider who lives in the community and who governs it. Keep in mind that in a diverse community, people may disagree, and getting input from as many individuals as possible makes for the most accurate information. Informing any regional and local authority, such as the NDC, RDC or the 5


RHO is important. People might speak more freely if they are not present; however, the findings of the exercise should still be shared with them afterwards. If you are able to, consider providing refreshments for the event. This could provide another opportunity to work closely with the community, using local sources for the refreshments. Providing food and drink is also a nice way of encouraging the community to come out to the event and thanking them for participating. Once you have collected the vision words, the CH&PA team members can come together to write a draft vision statement for the community. This statement should be taken to the community to give them the opportunity to have input into the final vision statement. Changes should be made at this point, and the statement should be approved and ratified by the community. The whole purpose of a community visioning exercise is first, to develop a vision statement with the community that will act as a guiding principle for future development and second, to identify possible community projects which will be implemented by the community with assistance and guidance from the CH&PA. The following steps outline how a community visioning exercise can be run: 1.

INTRODUCE THE IDEA OF COMMUNITY VISIONING – LEAD FACILITATOR

• • • 2.

Discuss what community visioning is Make sure to clarify what is needed from each individual Discuss what the final result will be

BREAK INTO SMALL GROUPS TO BRAINSTORM WHAT THE COMMUNITY WOULD IDEALLY BE LIKE IN 5, 10 OR 20 YEARS.

Depending on the original group size, each group should have about 8-10 people in it. This should include a facilitator and, if possible, a note taker. At this point you can ask the group to close their eyes and envision what kind of community they would like to live in. Allow 1 minute for people to gather their thoughts and then go around the group and let each individual share their ideas. If people are having difficulty thinking of what to say or articulating their ideas, the following are topics of discussion which can be used as prompts: People, Housing, Schools, Employment, Health Care, Crime, Transportation, Amenities, Environment and Public Involvement. As people are sharing their ideas, write them down and emphasize that no idea is a bad idea. Make sure to highlight any common themes, as these will act as key components when writing a vision statement for the community.

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RETURN TO THE LARGER GROUP TO DISCUSS COMMON IDEAS AND THEMES THAT HAVE BEEN IDENTIFIED THROUGH THE EXERCISE.

This step of the process is where differences will become evident and consensus will be made. Ask each group to share their ideas and then have an open discussion about what has been shared. Common themes will come out of this discussion which can be used in the creation of the vision statement. 4.

WHEN IT IS ALL SAID AND DONE, INVITE PEOPLE TO MEET THEIR NEIGHBOURS AND ENJOY REFRESHMENTS.

This is the part of the exercise where those involved can enjoy some food and drink with their fellow community members and get to know the people who live near them as well as CH&PA staff. It is also a key time for facilitators to be available to privately hear the concerns or ideas of community members who may not have felt comfortable expressing themselves in front of the larger group. As a wrap-up to this exercise, make sure to provide a number or email at which people can share further ideas. There are often thoughts and ideas after the fact which people should have the opportunity to discuss. Additional Reading Material: For more information about how to accomplish each step of the process, refer to the facilitation techniques outlined in Section 5.3 and Appendix K.

PROJECT IDENTIFICATION AND PRIORITIZATION The visioning exercise will generate discussion of what an ideal community looks like. The natural progression from this discussion is to talk about projects that could be done to achieve the ideal community. Project identification should be done at the same community meeting as the visioning exercise. This will help when thinking of project ideas as the vision ideas for community development will be fresh in residents’ minds. Project identification should be conducted in the small breakout groups used for the visioning exercise. For a detailed explanation of facilitation techniques that can be used to generate project ideas, refer to Section 5.3. Project prioritization can also be conducted at this same meeting. Have the small breakout groups come together for this exercise to ensure communitywide consensus. Use the project prioritization techniques outlined in Section 5.3 to come up with a ranked list of community-wide projects. Once this is done, you will be able to carry out project implementation (Step 4) with much greater ease and efficiency!

STEP 3: LET’S GET TOGETHER The key to engaging any community is identifying those key community members who are willing to commit some of their time to participating in the planning process by joining a community group. These are the people who take a strong interest in the well-being of their community and will make a continued effort towards satisfying community needs. These are also the people who will get the crowd out at community meetings; they are important citizens to have in your corner. While these people will provide momentum to the development process, ensure that you do not rely too heavily upon them as representatives of the greater community. Remember, people with a strong interest may push for their own interests or ideas for the 7


community and neglect the desires of the greater community. They may dominate conversation and alienate quieter community residents who may not feel comfortable talking in this context, which will ultimately lead to community engagement and development that is not in the best interest of the entire community. Ensure that the participants in these community meetings are representative of the group at large. You may find that active residents like these have already formed a community group. If this is the case, the existing community group can act as the point of contact between the community and CH&PA. From here, the main goal is to foster this community group and ensure that it both represents and works with all members of the community. How to work with, and engage community groups will be explained in section 5.3. If a community group has not already been formed, then the goal will be to form a group. At your first meetings with the community, individuals will come forward asking to be more involved and suggesting ways they can take initiative. Introduce the idea of a community group and the role it can play in community development to the community at large. In doing so, make sure to emphasize the importance of this type of collective and ask for volunteers to be part of the group. There may be some resistance from the residents to give up their time. This is why, in your explanation of a community group, a clarification of duties and time commitments should be given. The hope is that those individuals who have expressed the desire to be a part of the planning process and are keen to be key players in community development will decide to join the community group. A description of the process to form a community group is found in Appendix H.

ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES For the community group to function well, it will have to be composed of members with specific, assigned roles and responsibilities. When the community group is first established, its membership will be determined based on who volunteers to be involved. Volunteers should be elected to specific positions by the community. A community meeting should be held with the purpose of electing community group members. At the start, roles can be determined through a simple majority rule vote or by reaching consensus in a discussion. The specific roles to be assigned should include a President, Vice President, Secretary, and Treasurer. Depending on the community, they might want to have other assigned roles such as someone who cleans and maintains a community centre or multipurpose building, someone responsible for organizing sporting events, or someone in charge of fundraising.

STEP 4: POWER TO THE PEOPLE Now that you established a community group, the group must be registered so that it can operate as a legitimate sole entity and work toward completing the community projects that have been brainstormed. Registering the community group is a process done through the Ministry of Labour, Human Services, and Social Security, through the Corps Division, and under the Friendly Societies Act, using the following steps: 1. 2.

Formulate a constitution for the group. This will be the governing document they will work under. Submit the constitution to the Corps Division of the Ministry along with a $2,500 vetting fee. The document will then be reviewed and any amendments that are needed will be communicated to you. 8


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The group will then be registered once the document has been accepted.

Once the group has been registered, it can set up a bank account to manage the funds it will need for its community projects. This may be a step that is completed in the future, as community groups may not have the financial means to set up a bank account right away. The process of setting up a bank account should be shared with the community group. The outline of items needed to set up a bank account is listed in Appendix H.

STEP 5: MAKE IT WORK! Now that the group has been formalized, it can carry out a project! Every community has an idea for a new project they would like to have in their area. Sit down with the community and have a brainstorming session about projects they would like to see come to light. Make sure to differentiate capital projects from community projects here, because inevitably, the topic of infrastructure works will come up. The community needs to focus on projects they have the capacity to do themselves, with the CH&PA playing a facilitating role. CH&PA’s role in this part of the process will be to help the group figure out logistics and ensure their access to helpful resources, such as agency contacts and potential donors and sponsors. Choosing a project to implement can be a long and iterative process, as information about cost and feasibility is gathered, and options are ruled in or out. Now that the strategy has been outlined, take to the streets and make it work! See Section 5.2 for information about project implementation.

STEP 6: SAY IT ONE MORE TIME IN WRITING... Every time you engage with a community it is important to document the objectives and outputs of the engagement both before the actual engagement takes place and directly after. See Appendix C for an example of this type of reporting, and refer to Chapter 8: Monitoring & Evaluation for more details on how to document your successes and lessons learned.

3.4. BENEFITS Moving towards a participatory planning process can be tricky, but when achieved, it provides a great deal of benefit for the public. The integration of the public into the planning process not only creates first-hand opportunities to hear the needs and desires of the community, but also allows the Planning & Settlement department of the CH&PA to engage themselves in more of the on-the-ground work that leads to stronger partnerships between planners and the community. Having a strategy for community engagement will ensure that the CH&PA develops these relationships and helps to foster the full physical, social, and economic development of the communities it works in. One of the greatest benefits of this strategy will be building capacity both within the agency and in the community. Utilizing this strategy will aid in the management of community engagement activities, allow for community-based representation, add a formal process of reporting to the community and the CH&PA, and develop staff and community skills. Carrying out community engagement activities is a joint effort between the Planning & Settlement Development Department and the Community Development & Planning Department, providing the opportunity for knowledge sharing, for creating a 9


collaborative spirit, and strengthening the engagement process. A relatively small amount of effort on the part of CH&PA staff at the beginning of the process can catalyze a sustainable long term initiative for the improvement of a whole community.

3.5. ROLE OF THE PARTICIPANTS Establishing a clear definition of roles within CH&PA and its respective departments is a critical step to ensure the success of this strategy. Within CH&PA, the Planning & Settlement Development Department and the Community Development & Planning Department are tasked with tackling community development. Both departments are involved in the engagement process, but in different facets of it. Coordination and communication between the two departments, and among the CH&PA in general, is critical to maximize efficient community engagement and avoid duplication of effort. It is the responsibility of both the Community Development & Planning Department and the Planning & Settlement Development Department to notify and include other departmental representatives when needed. An interdisciplinary team will produce better results, and the further you spread the infectious desire to engage the community, the better. Keep in mind that the end result is a planning process that is led by the public, with the fostering and nurturing of the CH&PA.

3.6 GOVERNMENT STAKEHOLDER INVOLVEMENT Though CH&PA is tasked with community planning, it is the partnerships and collaboration between key government stakeholders that allows effective community planning to occur. The Ministry of Local Government and Regional Development (MLGRD) plays an important role in implementing community development initiatives. In particular, the Neighbourhood Democratic Council (NDC) is the agent for the on-the-ground development process, once a CDP has been handed over. Involving officials from this ministry and/or councils in engagement efforts will help to not only provide a different perspective on community issues, but will also work towards creating a more open line of communication between the public, CH&PA and the Ministry itself. The active involvement of the NDC in the planning process is necessary for the CDP to be fully implemented once the scheme has been handed over to them. Though the Ministry of Local Government and Regional Development is an important body to engage, there are also other key government stakeholders that will need to be engaged in future planning initiatives. These stakeholders will become apparent through your identification of the community; they will be the government bodies that are involved in different aspects of planning in your defined area. Identification of all stakeholders in the engagement process can be done through stakeholder analysis, a technique outlined in Section 5.3 and Appendix G. Your strategy for engaging government stakeholders will depend on how much they want to be involved in the process. Involving key government stakeholders as early in the process as possible will be beneficial. When setting up engagement efforts, such as community meetings or visioning exercises, government stakeholders should be invited. In the case of the NDC, their presence at these exercises could provide a more managerial perspective, as well as provide them some insight into the needs and desires of the communities they govern. However, there are instances where inviting government stakeholders to community meetings may not be the best way to engage them or the community because some residents may not be comfortable sharing their views when there are officials present. That being said, finding alternative ways to engage them and keep them informed is 10


important. This could take the simple form of a separate meeting to sensitize them to the planning process being undertaken and how it will affect them and their initiatives. If a meeting is not able to take place, going to them might be the answer. This could involve gaining permission to attend meetings they are hosting, or contacting someone from their agency to ask how to begin sharing information. The next steps for engagement can be tailored based on the type of response they have to the initial contact.

3.7. ESTABLISH ISSUE-BASED WORKING GROUPS Much like establishing a community group in each community you are working in, forming issue-based working groups is a key step in enabling the community to address issues they are facing. In this instance, an issue-based working group refers to a group that is formed to discuss and address a particular issue brought up by the community. An example of this would be a drainage maintenance group, whose responsibilities are to maintain drains around the community, educate community members on good practices, and be the people to talk to when residents have issues with drainage. The benefit of creating a group of this nature is that the group’s sole responsibility will be to address a given issue, meaning there is a greater focus on the issue so that it can be addressed with concrete actions. One of the most important aspects of establishing an issue-based working group will be the articulation of what the group actually does. Defining the group and each member’s responsibilities clearly will help to ensure the effectiveness of the group in addressing the issue at hand. Members of an issue-based working group can come from an already established community group. In fact, sometimes these are the best people to choose as they are already committed to improving the quality of life in the community. Whether working group members come from the community group or from elsewhere in the community, it is important that they volunteer for the position, and that they do so with a full understanding of what their responsibilities and time commitments will be. Finding members for the group should be done with the issue in mind. If there are experts on the issue living in the community, try to approach them for membership, as they will have a greater knowledge of how to address the issue. Creating a team that covers the different aspects of the issue would also be beneficial, as that would mean each member has a different specialty and thus a different role in the group. If there are no experts on the issue within the community, look for potential members who are willing and have the time to learn more about the issue. The more they are educated on the issue, the easier it becomes for them to think of ways to address it. Now that we have established an issue-based working group, strategized our approach to engagement, and carried out some engagement initiatives, it is time to write a Community Profile and Community Development Plan. The following section outlines what these documents are.

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4. WRITE PLANNING DOCUMENTS 4.1 COMMUNITY PROFILE A Community Profile is a record of the physical, social and economic realities of a community. It is a document that acts as the basis for further analysis, and the starting point for the formulation of a detailed plan that will be the guide for development in the future. The Community Profile is a report that presents information about the community which you have gathered through your community engagement along with statistical information provided by the Bureau of Statistics. This should include descriptions of the physical area, socio-economic and demographic factors, as well as pictorial references. A more detailed outline of what your Community Profile should include is provided in Appendix E. Also include your observations in the profile, which includes any notes that you have taken during your engagement efforts that are indicative of the community dynamics and that could influence the nature of development. Creating linkages between these personal observations and the statistics you collect will make a well-informed profile. The more linkages that can be made, the greater the understanding of the community will be. This will, in turn, make a strong point of reference for your more detailed Community Development Plan, which is described in Section 4.3. What is most important about the Community Profile is its ability to showcase the attributes of a community to someone who is unfamiliar with it, in addition to serving as a reference for further planning work. The document's quality is gauged by its level of detail and clear presentation of findings. Each time you engage the community, make sure to take detailed notes, as these will help you in preparing this document. And on that note, it is better to capture the information and not use it, than not to capture it all. You never know when information will be of use.

4.2 INFORMATION SYSTEM Part of the purpose of developing a Community Profile is to share information with others about a particular community. Once the profile has been written, it is important to continue information sharing. Creating a system through which to organize and share this information is also important. This should be another point of engagement with the community. Levels of literacy may have an influence on the nature of communication. This is something that should be taken into account when deciding on a system of information sharing. If a community group has been created, this is a matter that should be decided upon with them, as they will be the community representatives. Some examples of information sharing that have been used in the past are: • •

•

A Community Newsletter o This could be mainly illustrated (photos and diagrams) for communities that do not have a high level of literacy. A Website o This would be a great option for a community that has the resources to maintain the website and whose residents have access to computers and the Internet. A Community News board 12


o

This takes the form of a board placed in a central part of the community where anyone can post notices or information. This is a great option for communities whose residents are actively engaged in the planning process.

Creating an information system that is right for your community should be done with consideration for the unique attributes of that community. Use your Community Profile and your observation notes to create an information system that will work for all residents. Not only will it be successful, but it could be the catalyst for community-led engagement.

4.3 COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN By this point in the process, you should have an in-depth understanding of who and what makes up your community of focus. You have spent time in the area with residents, and through this you have gained a much greater understanding of the unique attributes of the community and how you can aid them in furthering their development. The ideas are flowing, so it is time to write them all down. As mentioned in the previous section, the field work and reporting you have conducted thus far is to be used to formulate a Community Development Plan (CDP). This plan will be used to guide future development in the community including socio-economic growth, self-governance, and assessing and addressing community issues. It is important to note that this plan will address the unique needs and wants of the community of focus, meaning the areas that are to be covered in the document may differ from community to community, and the content certainly will. However, there are key areas of development that should be included. The subject matter of the CDP is explained in more detail in Appendix F. It is important to provide clear policies for development in the CDP, based on the information you have gathered from your various engagement efforts and statistical analysis. These policies will be the key reference points for shaping development in the community and can be used as indicators of success once the plan has been finalized and put in to action. This plan should have a long-term focus with short-term milestones. It should be a plan that makes sure to address both immediate and potential future community issues and desires. Development of any kind is not an overnight accomplishment. Therefore, outlining the long-term goals of the community, while identifying the short-term projects that will allow the community to achieve them, creates a plan that will have significant foresight and a greater chance of successfully fostering community development. The CDP is like a road map, guiding the community on the right path to achieving its development goals.

4.4 FEEDBACK & APPROVAL Now that the draft CDP has been written, the next step is to get feedback from both the community and CH&PA. This opportunity for feedback will be your last chance for significant changes; once the document has been approved it will be handed over to the community and local government to use. Feedback from the community will help you finalize your development policies and markers for success. Feedback from CH&PA will take the role of approval. Once the plan is approved, it is time to hand it over to the people. Let them take it forward and plan for themselves, with expertly written guidance. 13


5. IMPLEMENTATION 5.1 INTRODUCTION WHAT IS IMPLEMENTATION? Project implementation is the detailed listing and execution of goals, timelines, costs, deliverables and implementing agents to achieve the objectives of plans, programs, projects or activities. This chapter also discusses tips, techniques, and tools for the effective implementation of community engagement initiatives, including how to gather information, explore ideas, and make decisions with the public.

WHEN DOES IMPLEMENTATION OCCUR? Implementing community engagement efforts can occur at various points in the planning process. It can occur at the beginning if the goal is to familiarize the community with as many planning processes and practices as possible. It can also occur after the planning process has started, or even after it is finished, if the goal is to teach the community how to implement their own community development projects or activities.

5.2 IMPLEMENTING COMMUNITY PLANS AND PROJECTS STEP 1: SETTING YOUR GOAL The first thing to decide is what you are trying to implement. No matter what that may be, it must be articulated in a clear and concise goal, as it will be this goal that will guide you through the implementation process and will allow you to realize when the implementation process is complete. To develop a clear and concise goal, it is important to ensure that it is S.M.A.R.T. This means it must be: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Specific: What is to be accomplished? Who, where, and why are we accomplishing it? Measurable: How much, how many? How do I know when it is being or has been accomplished? Achievable: Is it within our ability to accomplish? Are there any external actors or forces that would impede us from achieving it? Relevant: Does it coincide with and further the community’s vision? Time framed: When will the goal be accomplished?

To illustrate these points, Belle West’s community demonstration project serves as an example. The community group decided that one of the goals of this project was to furnish their new Multi-Purpose building. Their goal is S.M.A.R.T. because it is:

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1. Specific: They know that they want to have furniture made by a local contactor so that they will have a place to hold classes and meetings in the community. 2. Measurable: They know they want 3 tables and 6 benches constructed. 3. Achievable: The community group can achieve it on their own. 4. Relevant: It coincides with and furthers their community’s vision of “A safe and well-maintained community, with strong and dynamic community members, working towards cooperative and collaborative living” in that it provides the community with a place to meet and work together towards their common goals. 5. Time framed: It will take them 3 months to accomplish.

STEP 2: ESTABLISHING TIMELINES As stated in the previous section, all goals must be ‘time framed’ or, in other words, must have a timeline. This is an important step because it ensures that you complete all of the tasks and duties required and that you meet the final deadline. It also ensures that all actors involved are kept on task throughout the life of the project. Depending on the size and scope of your goal, the timeline may extend from days to years. No matter how long the timeline is, it is important to ensure that it is flexible enough to be adapted to unforeseen events, so that the goal can still be accomplished by the final deadline. To illustrate this, Belle West’s furniture project is again used as an example: DATE

DELIVERABLE

September 1st

Start of Project

September 9th

Community group to send out call for estimates to local contractors

September 20th

Community group to deliver at least three estimates to the CH&PA

September 30th

CH&PA engineer to review all estimates and contact contractors to make any necessary changes

October 3rd

CH&PA lawyer to write-up contract

October 5th

Contract awarded

November 15th

Furniture to be completed and to be inspected by CH&PA staff member and community group member

November 25th

Security of the Multi-Purpose Building to be completed (grills, security guard etc.) 15


November 28th

Furniture to be delivered to Multi-Purpose Building

November 30th

Handover Ceremony with the CH&PA, community group and other relevant actors.

STEP 3: BUDGET Another key component of attaining any goal is ensuring that there is enough funding to accomplish it. Funding can come from many sources: CH&PA, government bodies, non-governmental organizations (the UNDP and UNICEF are some examples of NGOs with funding available for community based projects), the private sector, or individuals. No matter the source of the funding, it is essential to properly budget for each deliverable. Going over-budget on one item means not having enough funds for another. To reach your goal, all components must be completed, so it is essential to ensure that they can all be paid for. For Belle West’s furniture project, the budget broke down in the following way: DELIVERABLE

COST

Transportation

Free (provided by CH&PA)

Furniture Estimates

Free (provided by community group)

Engineers to Review Estimates

Free (provided by CH&PA)

Lawyer to write contact

Free (provided by CH&PA)

Furniture

$166,650

Delivering furniture to site

Included in price of furniture

Refreshments for handing over ceremony

$20,000

Total budget

$186,650

The budget was $200,000. From this the team decided that they could afford to buy 3 tables ($15,150 each) and 6 benches ($20,200 each) and still have money for refreshments at the handing over ceremony. It is usually a good idea to have some money left over (contingency) to avoid letting unforeseen circumstances prevent you from meeting your goal.

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STEP 4: IDENTIFYING IMPLEMENTING AGENTS The next key component of attaining any goal is to identify who will implement which component(s). In order to do this, you must first identify all of those agents, whether individuals or entities, which must be involved in attaining the goal. When identifying these agents, it is helpful to also include those who might be able to help you find resources at a lower cost or for free. If a large number of implementing agents are required, it might also be useful to organize them by category, such as: • • •

Beneficiaries Governance (community groups, steering committees, etc…) Providers (suppliers, contractors, etc…)

The following is a list of all implementing agents used to acquire furniture for the Belle West Multi-Purpose Building: 1. 2. 3.

4. 5.

Community group: Main Implementing agent Canada-Guyana Partnership for Community Planning: Funder CH&PA staff: Support a. Project lead & primary liaison to all implementing agents b. Select support staff from Planning & Settlement Development Department c. Engineer d. Lawyer NDC: Support (additional resources and long term support) Community contractors: Providing goods and services

In other projects, additional implementing agents might be: • • • • •

Residents RDC NGOs Other government bodies (specifically with funding or on-going projects in the community) Businesses (local or regional)

Once the implementing agents have been identified, you must then delegate responsibility for each deliverable. It is best to break down and clearly describe each agent’s responsibilities and tasks. When doing so, each agent’s skills and resources should be taken into consideration so that implementation will go as smoothly as possible.

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In Belle West, the deliverables were delegated between all implementing agents as follows: 1.

Community group: Responsible for the bulk of the implementation. Their involvement strengthened the project, as they were more aware of local resources and actors than CH&PA. a. Decide on furniture type, colour, quantity, etc. on behalf of the community. b. Prepare project proposal. c. Find community based contractors for furniture and catering for the handing over ceremony. Acquire estimates, free of charge, for both. d. Ensure that furniture is made to specifications and delivered on time. e. Ensure that the Multi-Purpose Building is secured before furniture is delivered. f. Mobilize community when needed (moving furniture etc.‌). g. Look for alternative sources of funding and resources (attend NDC meetings, approach community members, private institutions, etc.). h. Work closely with the NDC and RDC to build relationships and obtain resources for this and future community projects. 2. Canada-Guyana Partnership for Community Planning: a. Provide funding. b. Ensure funder guidelines and timelines are adhered to. c. Provide advice and strategic support when needed. 3. CH&PA staff: The majority of their deliverables surrounded supporting the community group in implementing their deliverables, to enable them to work independently when implementing future community projects. a. Assist community group in preparing their project proposal (Planning Department) b. Provide designs for furniture (Planning Department). c. Ensure the community group acquires estimates from community contractor in a timely manner (Planning Department) and review the estimate to ensure legitimacy/accuracy (Projects Unit). d. Ensure that furniture is made to specifications and delivered on time (Planning Department). e. Ensure that the community group has secured the Multi-Purpose Building before furniture is delivered (Planning Department). f. Provide the community group with community and funding mobilization techniques/methods if necessary (Planning Department). g. Ensure that the NDC and RDC establish a relationship with the community group to ensure their collaboration in the future (Planning Department). h. Draft a contract for furniture (Lawyer). i. Assist community group with any other issues/needs they may have (CH&PA). j. Ensure funding guidelines, requirements and deadlines are adhered to (logos, security for building, receipts, number of bids, etc.) (Planning Department). k. Organize handover ceremony (press release, send out invitations, etc.) (Planning Department). 4. NDC: Provide additional resources and long term support. a. Provide security guard for Multi-Purpose Building. 18


b.

5.

Establish a relationship with the community group to facilitate their involvement in this and future development projects run by the community. Community contractors: a. Provide goods and services (furniture and food).

5.3 IMPLEMENTING COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT

The general guiding principles of the CH&PA’s efforts for community engagement follow the concept of Participatory Rural Appraisal. This idea emphasizes the role of community participation at all stages of the development planning process. “...what is required is an approach that permits much greater beneficiary involvement in project identification, selection, design, implementation and evaluation. This ensures that local knowledge is utilized, activities are consistent with local resource endowments (human, organizational, material and functional) and that the project process contributes to the 'empowerment' of disadvantaged groups.”5 For more information consult the work of Robert Chambers who advocates the use of this concept for participatory development.

COMMUNITY MEETINGS CH&PA is moving toward more participatory approaches to community engagement. To achieve meaningful participation in the engagement process, this section will outline qualities of an effective facilitator and provide facilitation techniques to ensure active participation by communities. Facilitators can learn a great deal about local issues and community relations through community meetings. Therefore it is important for a facilitator to engage the community effectively. The following are some effective facilitation skills that will maximize community engagement.

FACILITATION SKILLS: Facilitating a community meeting, visioning exercise, or project identification and prioritization exercise involves two main aspects: participative techniques and good facilitation. The following skills will highlight the attributes that will aid in conducting a successful community meeting. Facilitation is Inclusive and Impartial: A facilitator must be perceived as open, approachable, and impartial. Your goal is to empower people to share their ideas and desires for community development. Do not impose your own ideas of a vision or community projects, and avoid leading people towards a vision/project you propose. As a facilitator, build rapport with the community, and ensure positive group dynamics through a friendly demeanor. Encourage individuals to speak and question assumptions. Do not rely or focus upon one strong individual/group as this may alienate all others in the

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community and does not represent a participatory exercise. In general, you must be humble and open to feedback from the community and other CH&PA team members. Awareness of Power Dynamics: The first thing to consider is the power dynamics that are present at the community meeting. Keep in mind that the objective of any participative engagement with communities is to empower the people. Be aware that as a facilitator, community members will perceive that you are in a position of authority; you must be careful not to entrench this idea, after all, a facilitator is one who aids, not one who controls. In community meetings, you will possess situational and social power. Situational power refers to your role as the facilitator and/or chairperson of the meeting; you are seen as the ‘expert’ in this particular situation. Social power refers to your education, title, and perhaps even your race or ethnicity. A facilitator must overcome these obstacles to encourage community members to participate actively. Be approachable and friendly, speaking in an expressive manner rather than in a dull monotone. Use common language and avoid body language that enforces the idea of a power hierarchy (for example, do not run the exercise standing while everyone is sitting, do not point at people, do not single people out). The power that a facilitator should emanate is personal power; this form of power comes from self-confidence, clear communication, creativity and assertiveness. Be aware of your identity in your role as facilitator and work to overcome adversity. We are typically more aware of the parts of ourselves that are different than those around us, for example race, ethnicity, age, gender. We often use different parts of who we are in different situations without thinking about it; as a facilitator you must remember to be objective. Be aware of different identities within the group and how that may affect power dynamics. Methods to deal with dominant speakers and silent group members will be discussed later in the ‘Practical Skills’ section of this chapter. Avoiding Conflict: Working with different communities and their members means that you never know when conflict may arise, especially when talking about sensitive issues within the community. The first step to avoiding conflict: pay attention! Non-verbal cues can provide a lot of insight into a person, especially their comfort level and whether they are beginning to feel frustrated. Pay attention to the body language of the person who is speaking and observe how the listeners react. This may be your first sign that someone is getting frustrated. For example, is their posture relaxed or rigid? Are they wringing or fidgeting their hands? To gauge the comfort level of a person, observe their eyes; are they making or avoiding contact? Is their body open or turned away from the group? These cues will allow you to ascertain whether conflict may arise and whether you are working with a disengaged group. If you sense that people are getting frustrated or disinterested, resume control of the discussion and move on to the next step, which is building rapport. Rapport is the feeling of trust or understanding between you and an individual or group of people. Summarize the issues which have been raised and include input from your own knowledge of the community. If appropriate, share simple ideas from your own experiences from home or abroad; this will illustrate your understanding of the issues and also show that you have things in common with the community. Doing this will help community members feel more comfortable and encouraged to contribute. It is important to re-state the purpose of the exercise throughout the discussion; this will aid in clarifying any misunderstanding which may be the cause of frustration and provide encouragement to those who may have been holding back because they were unclear on what they should say. As a facilitator you must exhibit the appropriate characteristics of your role. This means do not be too submissive or dominating during the exercises; guide the discussion but do not become too bossy. Also avoid behaving out of character; do not check things nervously, work faster, or constantly be checking the time. These actions will indicate to the community that you are not confident and not in control of the exercise. Remember your personal power: confidence, communication, assertiveness. Exert calm control. 20


Appropriate Communication: There are two factors to communication: speaking and listening. The facilitator should make clear, reasonable statements in a cohesive manner. Facilitators should avoid doing the following when communicating with community members: judging, hostile questioning, minimizing/patronizing, ordering/threatening, and asking leading questions that could influence community members’ response. Prior to engagement exercises, it would be beneficial for the facilitator to understand colloquial and idiomatic terminology. This will ensure the facilitator understands the information that is being shared. The facilitator should always value silence. Silence does not always mean people don’t have anything to say, it could simply mean they are thinking about the questions and getting their thoughts together. Do not feel the need to fill the silence by talking; this will discourage people from speaking up. Asking the Right Questions: Begin the discussion by asking an open question. This question will depend on the purpose of your meeting. Once the general discussion has identified the main ideas that were the objective, ask closed questions (with yes or no answers) to confirm words/statements, gain verbal consensus, and to prioritize projects. Reframing Questions: Sometimes reframing a question will help to clarify ideas. You may need to use different language when asking a question to get the responses that satisfies the objectives of the discussion. Rewording may also move people away from a negative stance to a more positive, constructive view. Acknowledge what has been said and ask an open question that gets to the core of the problem. Examples of how to reframe a question can be found in the technique titled ‘Problem Tree Analysis Concept for Visioning’ in the Facilitation Techniques section of this document. Provide Feedback: Provide non-verbal and verbal feedback to show the community you are listening and understanding. Non-verbal feedback includes eye contact, nodding, smiling, focused attention, and recording notes. Verbal feedback includes short phrases, clarifying details, encouraging and asking for more details, summarizing what is said and their feelings to confirm your correct understanding, and affirming or validating their statements. Active Listening: The main reason you are in a community is to identify issues and help community members find solutions. This requires active listening on your part. Pay attention and concentrate on what the person is saying. If you find it hard to concentrate, try repeating the words they are saying in your head. This focuses your mind and reinforces the complete message the person is trying to convey. Do not interrupt the speaker; this will frustrate them and may cause them to lose their train of thought. Use a combination of the three points above, with the active listening technique, to ensure that community members know you hear them and understand their message.

PRACTICAL FACILITATION SKILLS: The following are examples of other practical skills that should be used when facilitating a community meeting or engagement exercise: • •

Enable people to clarify their thoughts- if a person needs to explain their idea further, do not rush them, encourage and support them while they are getting their ideas together Let people know their opinions are valued- this will help to build rapport and encourage people to participate who are being passive. If people are quiet, thank each individual after they speak to remind them that their input is valued. Make it clear that you are taking notes. There may be

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the mentality that it doesn’t matter what they say because the ‘government doesn’t listen to me.’ Ensure you reiterate the fact that the exercises are conducted to identify the community’s vision, the community’s projects, and the community’s future development. Help people to own their problems, take responsibility for them, and think of solutions- this will aid in the empowerment of the community and ensure that community projects will be implemented. This is a sustainable form of community project implementation because community members are thus able to provide solutions by their own means, using their own resources. It also helps to bring cooperation and social harmonization to the community as residents are pooling their resources and acting as a resource to others. For a facilitation process which focuses on community ownership of their problems, see Appendix I. Break out into small groups- this will help to control discussion and allow people to speak more comfortably. An ideal group size is between 1520 people; do not have more than 25 in one group. Always return to the larger group to share ideas. This will ensure the whole community understands the thoughts and ideas of their fellow residents. Ensure everyone has the opportunity to speak- avoid singling people out; however, provide encouragement through facial expression and making people feel comfortable. Let the group know that they can always contact you after the discussion. Always be available after the general discussion in case people would like to speak to you, provide a paper and pen for community members to write their ideas, provide the contact number at the CH&PA. To deal with a dominant speaker, resume control of the discussion by speaking in a low voice so people need to be quiet to hear you (you will find other community members will come to your aid at this time to support you) or try using a ‘talking stick’ or some sort of object that the community must be holding before speaking. When making decisions, ensure you hear from everyone; if people are not vocal, make eye contact and nod/shake your head to them and they will respond in the same way, giving you their answer. By doing this, you are silently able to include them in the process. Make an impartial, clear record of the discussion- it is useful to have a note taker with you to do this, but if not, there are examples of note taking templates that facilitators can use to organize their thoughts, keep the discussion on track, and provide prompting if you forgot/get lost in the process. Be energetic- energy will provide momentum to the discussion allowing more issues and ideas to flow!

FACILITATION TECHNIQUES First, it is imperative to state that the facilitator and the team must be briefed on the community prior to engaging in these exercises. This includes background information, status of electricity/drainage/roads, occupancy, quantity and status of core houses, status of Transport/title, and any other relevant information to the community. This information should be shared with all team members included in the community meetings because it may be their first encounter with the community. All facilitation techniques should be explained to all team members prior to the meeting so that they understand the process, can provide outside input, and also step in as facilitators if need be. This stage in the community engagement process is essential to carrying out a successful participatory exercise.

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THE FOLLOWING TECHNIQUES MAY BE USED IN COMMUNITY MEETING FACILITATION, VISION EXERCISES, AND COMMUNITY PROJECT IDENTIFICATION AND PRIORITIZATION (also included is note taking templates and facilitation plan templates to assist in engagement exercises before the meeting): Facilitation Plan: A facilitation plan will help to organize the community meeting and ensure facilitators stay on track and achieve their objectives. A good facilitator will have a plan, but also be able to adapt and be flexible depending on what arises once you are in the community. It is essential that you prepare all team members with the outline of the meeting to ensure each person can keep the meeting in check. A facilitation plan should be brought with each member of the team on the day of the exercise for reference. The facilitation plan should include: Introduction- background to the community Aims-the overarching reason for the engagement exercise Objectives- the specific outcomes you are trying to achieve Skills- a list of facilitator skills for reference/ guidance for impromptu facilitators Things to Avoid- a reminder to facilitators/ guidance for impromptu facilitators Activities- a detailed breakdown of the day’s events, including guidance questions for facilitators, with timing and assigned facilitator Materials- a list of things you will need to ensure nothing gets left behind For an example of a facilitation plan, please see Appendix J.

DURING THE MEETING: Information Gathering: 1. Metaplan: A metaplan is a way to collect ideas using cards and/or sticky notes. This technique is ideal to use when participants first start talking about the realities in their communities, either positive or negative. It can also be used as a method for generating vision words. It will establish themes and allow you to understand the feelings of the community better. To do this, give each person a card/sticky note. Have them write down one thing that they like/dislike about the community or one vision word. Alternatively, you may be the scribe and the community members will tell you their word. Once you have the words written, pin them/stick them to a large piece of chart paper. Now, organize the cards/sticky notes into groups or themes. The result is a categorization of community member’s feelings about their community. From here, you can move on to project identification/prioritization. 2.

Participatory Mapping: Participatory mapping is an exercise that helps to empower local communities and aids in the protection of community resources. The objective of the exercise is to have participants draw/label areas within their communities that are assets, have importance to them, or are problem areas. This provides a mental and spatial understanding of the community. 23


The process of conducting a participatory mapping exercise can occur two ways: hand-drawn maps created by the community or spatial plan maps from CH&PA for community members to draw on. Either way emphasizes the knowledge of the residents and achieves the same result. Both have their own benefits: Hand Drawn: Getting the communities to hand draw the maps will offer additional insight into their perception of community space, such as distances and scale. Also, some community members may not be aware of the actual layout of the scheme and get disoriented when looking at the spatial plan. Give residents a piece of chart paper and markers. Ask them to draw their community, and label important areas and assets, as well as problem areas. For ease of understanding, use different colour markers. As the community members are labeling the map, have them explain why the area is considered an asset/problem etc. Once you have a consensus of the features and general understanding of them, you are able to move on to discuss these ideas in more detail. Spatial Map: Using the actual spatial map of the community will help people visualize the reality of the layout. This will aid in the future when deciding where to put projects or resources. To complete the exercise using a spatial map, do the same steps as above but have them label the map directly. Using a spatial map may require additional explanation to allow community members to get their bearings; coming prepared with a landmark already labeled may help. Exploring Ideas: 1. Problem Tree Analysis Concept for Visioning and Project Identification: The idea of a problem tree is looking at an issue and getting to the root of the problem. This technique is used for getting your vision words and subsequent project ideas. Often, when conducting community engagement exercises, residents will begin by listing problems that they have in the community. This may cause the exercise to get off track and you may find it difficult to achieve your objective. The problem tree concept helps you to navigate the discussion back to the main point through a series of questions. Ultimately, you are identifying a problem and solution: list the problem, understand the underlying value which will generate your vision words, and come up with a community identified solution- your community projects. For a detailed explanation of the Problem Tree, see Appendix K. This exercise is complimented by the note taking template titled ‘Tree Notes’ (Appendix L). 2. SWOT Analysis: SWOT analysis is the evaluation of the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats of a project or idea. It will help you better understand the details of a project / idea which will lead to the decision of whether it will be pursued. To complete this exercise, draw a grid so that each category has its own box. Ask the question “What are the strengths of this project/idea?” and so on for each SWOT category. List each point that the community thinks of when answering the question in the appropriate box. For an example, see Appendix M. 3. Carousel Brainstorming: This is an active facilitation technique to explore the details of community ideas/projects. Use this technique after you have established community themes/projects identified by the community. It will get community members up and out of their seats and interacting with each other. To begin, individually write down all the themes/projects identified by the community on a large piece of chart paper. Tape them to the wall/lay them on the ground in a circle with gaps in between them. Break up the attendees into small groups, depending on the total number (usually 4-6). Have each small group stand next to a piece of chart paper with a theme on it; 1 group per theme. Ask each group to write down their ideas that pertain to the theme; these could be the positives of the theme, the negatives, alternative 24


suggestions, etc. Once finished, have each group move to the right, so that they are now in front of a new piece of paper and new theme. Have each group read the ideas already written and add their own. Continue with this movement until each group has had the opportunity to comment on every theme. At the end, discuss each theme and the ideas put forth, identifying community projects or initiatives that could result from them. Decision Making: 1. Pair-wise Ranking: This technique will help you to prioritize community projects. It is a simple idea of comparing projects against one other to determine which one is preferred. At the end of the exercise, the project that appears most often will be the first priority project. A matrix is created to aid in the organization of this process. In a large group, the majority will decide which project is preferred; in a small group a consensus should be reached. This exercise can be used to prioritize projects in your smaller breakout groups and with the community as a whole. For an example, see Appendix N. 2. Sticky Dot Ranking: This is an interactive exercise that will rank the priority order of community projects. It is completed by listing all suggested community projects on a large piece of chart paper, either horizontally or vertically (whichever way gives you the most room), separated by lines. Hand out 3 pieces of sticky notes to each community member. Invite them to come up to the chart paper and place one sticky note next to their preferred project, symbolizing one vote, to indicate what they would like to see in their community. They may use their sticky notes however they like, for example one sticky note next to three different projects, or three sticky notes next to one project if they really want it. At the end, tally all the sticky notes next to the projects. The project with the most votes is the first priority; the project with the second most is the second priority etc. This is an equitable way of prioritizing projects and ensuring each community member has an input and feels comfortable doing so even if they are too shy to speak in front of a group. 3. Multi-Criteria Evaluation: Multi-Criteria Evaluation is useful when the group cannot reach a consensus or there are many important aspects to consider when prioritizing a project. It helps to rank the options against the important criteria to ensure they are all considered. This exercise may be difficult to explain and for community members to understand, so discretion must be used when deciding to use this technique. To start this exercise, list the projects in a vertical column down the side of a large piece of chart paper. List the important criteria in a row along the top of the chart paper to create a table. Give the community members counters (stickers or sticky notes) to use as indicators of how strongly they feel about a criteria and their subsequent desire for a project. The numbers of counters are calculated based on the number of projects multiplied by the number of criteria (for example, 3 projects and 3 criteria: 3x3=9 counters per person). Community members allocate their counters to each of the projects and criteria based on what they feel is most important to them. Once this is completed, count the number of counters for each project. The project with the most counters is the first priority project. For an example of this, see Appendix O; below is a template to aid understanding.

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AFTER THE MEETING A post engagement debrief should be held among facilitation team members. At this meeting, team members can share how they feel the engagement activities went and identify things that were done well and areas to be improved upon. This discussion will allow facilitators to learn how to make their next meeting even better! Engagement activities, outcomes, and next steps should be documented and shared with colleagues. For an example of how to write a Post Engagement Report, see Appendix C.

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6. MONITORING & EVALUATION Monitoring and evaluation are key stages in the planning process. In order to ensure the “success” of any engagement effort, there must be opportunities to track and evaluate the process as it progresses. Monitoring your engagement efforts will involve setting up a system appropriate to your particular engagement strategy that can be used to track the progress of the initiative. Tracking systems typically entail writing a detailed strategy, including the following information: • • • • •

Proposed timeline of strategy Consultation objective – what the consultation is looking to achieve Involved participants – who will be involved in the engagement Proposed methodology – how engagement will be achieved Stages of engagement o Each stage should have the following information outlined: 1. Objective of the engagement 2. Target Group 3. Timeline 4. Resources required 5. Proposed venue 6. Proposed date 7. Expected output 8. Participant’s roles

It is important to distinguish the difference between the outputs and the outcomes of the project at the beginning of the engagement process. Outputs are the immediate results of your efforts, such as the development of a CDP and successful implementation of a community project. Outcomes are broader objectives, such as community empowerment, increased security, or active children and youth. The outcomes are determined through the initial needs assessment. Outcomes answer the 'so what?' question, explaining the final purpose of the activities you and the community have carried out together. The outcomes to be evaluated should be listed in the objectives section of the strategy document, and should be different from but clearly related to the expected outputs. To make your final evaluation of the project easier, make a note of the baseline condition of the community. Keep track of what they have, as well as what they need. For example, if increased social cohesion is one of the goals of your engagement efforts you should make note of whether there are community organizations (formal or informal) operating in the area as this will affect what the end result has to be in order for you to have achieved your expected outcomes. You can use both the data from household surveys and from comments at public meetings to form the baseline.

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Once this information has been articulated, you can monitor the progress of your engagement efforts. Based on this monitoring system, a feedback and evaluation process can be formulated. Creating an opportunity for feedback at every stage of your strategy will enable you to have a greater understanding of the “success” of your initiatives. Success is in quotations here because it will be dependent on the objective of your engagement and expected outputs. Once you have decided upon a monitoring system and created opportunities for feedback, you can evaluate your engagement initiatives. Evaluation refers to the systematic and objective assessment of an on-going or completed project. This assessment will include the design, implementation, and results components. Evaluation can come in many forms and on many scales; evaluation of the CH&PA's activities on a broader scale and longer timeline occurs at a management level, but individual projects and engagement strategies should also be evaluated in an informal manner by the staff who are involved. There are a few concepts to keep in mind when writing up your evaluation, which you can write as a short one or two-page "Lessons Learned" document. This document should be written after the process has been completed, using the knowledge and experiences gained along the way, and should be shared with your colleagues so that they too can learn from your experiences. Four criteria can be used as the headings to structure your evaluation: fairness, efficiency, effectiveness, and sustainability. To evaluate the process, use the criteria fairness and efficiency. To evaluate the outcomes, use the criteria efficiency, effectiveness, and sustainability. Efficiency is used in evaluating both the process and outcomes to ensure your work plan and outcomes are appropriate. This makes for a combination of process-based and results-based evaluation. Fairness: This section evaluates the process and the techniques you chose to use. It explains whether or not the process was inclusive and fair for all members of the community. Some questions to guide the evaluation would be: • • • • • •

Did the mobilization strategy give everyone in the community the chance to participate? How many people attended meetings and/or volunteered? Was the group of volunteers representative - by gender, age, income level, or area of the community, etc.? Were the techniques you used relevant and appropriate? Why or why not? Does the chosen project benefit everyone in the community or only a select group? What would you do differently next time?

Efficiency: This section refers to the amount of time and effort given by both staff and the community. Some questions to guide the evaluation would be: • • • • • •

Was the process cost-efficient? Were objectives achieved on time? Was staff/residents' time used efficiently? Did activities take place as planned? Did meetings run longer than expected? Was project implementation delayed? What major factors influenced achievement of results? What would you do differently next time?

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Effectiveness: This section describes whether or not you achieved what you set out to do. Some questions to guide the evaluation would be: • • • • • • •

To what extent were the goals and objectives (outcomes) reached? Is the situation after project completion different from the baseline situation? If so, how? What real difference has it made to the beneficiaries? How many people have been affected and in what ways? Is the community happy with the results? What major factors influenced the achievement of results? What would you do differently next time?

Sustainability: This section describes what you expect the long-term benefits to be in the future, and whether or not the process of community organization you started will continue. Some questions to guide the evaluation would be: • • • • • • •

To what extent can the benefits continue after CH&PA participation ceases? Will the community group continue to operate and do other community projects? Will it work with the local government (NDC & RDC) to implement the CDP? Who was involved and what are they doing differently now, as a result of your efforts? Did your efforts cause a change in people's behaviour? If so, how? What major factors influenced or will influence this sustainability? Does the community have the knowledge and resources to maintain the programming or infrastructure that was created through the community project? What would you do differently next time?

Make sure that it is the beneficiaries, the local people in the community, who are at the centre of the report. Since you are doing this work for them, it is important to focus your analysis on how the activities involved or affected them, and what the results are from their perspective. In the same way, too much focus on outputs instead of outcomes misses the point of the entire exercise and makes for an incomplete evaluation. Honesty is important – be critical! More than just explaining whether the outcomes were achieved, it is important to explain how they were achieved or what went wrong. If the strategy had to be changed to overcome obstacles, explain what the challenges were and what you did to overcome them. Make sure to explain the environmental factors that contributed to the success or failure of your efforts in each section. To aid in your explanation, think about whether the process and outcomes were influenced by the following factors: • • •

If it was a rural or an urban area? The capacity of the local government? The occupancy level of the community? 29


• • • •

If the community was low or middle income or both? The community's access to resources? Geography? Political or bureaucratic constraints?

Some of the guide questions might be best answered by the community itself. Use key contacts within the community as an information source for the evaluation. There may be valuable lessons the community discovered through the process which can be useful for similar endeavours in the future. Consulting with colleagues and superiors can also provide useful insights about what to include in the evaluation.

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7. ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY & CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION 7.1 SUSTAINABILITY AND LOW CARBON DEVELOPMENT Steps can be taken to improve sustainability at the community level by focusing on environmentally-friendly initiatives. While there are many largescale initiatives that can be pursued, it is more appropriate to consider achievable, community-level actions. Some areas of focus for communities in Guyana include: WALKABILITY AND ACTIVE TRANSPORTATION

Walking and other forms of active transportation such as bicycling, which do not rely on the use of motor vehicles, provide many personal health benefits as well as environmental benefits such as reduced vehicle emissions. MATERIALS AND LABOUR

The use of local materials when constructing houses and infrastructure contributes to low carbon development because fewer emissions are generated in the transportation of materials. However, it is difficult to assess in a simple way which materials provide an environmental benefit over others. There is a complicated relationship between location, available labour / local materials and the impacts / benefits of different materials to human health. Canadians, Americans and Europeans have developed a great deal of literature to help planners, engineers and consumers learn more about how to best choose sustainable materials. For an excellent guide refer to the Canadian Mortgage & Housing Corporation’s “Sustainable Building: A Material’s Perspective": http://www.cmhc-schl.gc.ca/en/inpr/bude/himu/coedar/upload/Sustainable-Building-A-Materials-Perspective.pdf TREE AND VEGETATION PLANTING

Trees and other vegetation planted within the community create a cooler micro-climate and filters pollution from the air. The root systems of plants are an important natural flood management system which draw water from the ground and reduce flooding and erosion during storm events. It is also important to protect and preserve larger forested areas, especially mangroves and forested wetlands along the coast which provide protection against storms and coastal erosion. GARBAGE AND WASTE MANAGEMENT

Proper garbage and waste management is important for the beauty and health of the community. Poor waste management practices can make problems with flooding worse when garbage blocks the drainage systems. Proper management of garbage through a neighbourhood collection service is preferable; however, responsible on-site disposal methods (e.g. burning, burying) can also reduce the health and safety risks posed by garbage in the community. Community composting is an environmentally and economically sustainable way to manage organic waste. 31


DRAINAGE MAINTENANCE

The effectiveness of the drainage systems designed for housing schemes can be maintained through regular upkeep performed by members of the community. This includes ensuring that the drains are clear of garbage, vegetation or other debris that can stop the flow of water. Individual households can be responsible for the drains next to their homes while communal facilities can be maintained as part of a community project. WATER CONSERVATION

Water shortages are an expected threat as a result of climate change in Guyana. At the community level, it will be important to explore ways to conserve water such as more efficient use of existing water supplies and exploring alternate water supply forms such as rainwater collection. ENERGY CONSERVATION

Electricity supply shortages may increase in the future. More shortages could mean that the available supply will be more expensive. Energy conservation measures at the community and household level will save resources and money. The Guyana Power & Light Corporation (PGL) offers some useful tips for energy savings: General Tips:

• Turn off equipment that will be idle for long periods of time. • Maintain equipment regularly for efficient performance. • Install Energy Management Systems (EMS). These are devices that range from simple on/off time clocks controlling a single system, to sophisticated computerized systems that monitor energy consuming areas or systems and provide control dependent on prevailing conditions. Lighting:

• Replace incandescent lighting with high efficient fluorescent or LED lighting. An 18-watt compact fluorescent, for instance, puts out as much light as a 60-watt incandescent. Also, good quality fluorescent lamps last almost thirteen times longer than incandescent lamps, which means even more savings can be achieved in replacement costs. • Increase the output of your lights by regularly removing grease, dust and other dirt from bulbs, fixtures, lenses, lamps and reflective surfaces. • Use natural lighting wherever possible. • Install occupancy sensors in offices and other low traffic areas that will keep lighting off when not needed. Motors:

• Turn off motors, when not in use. • Use timer controls to operate equipment (such as irrigation and pool pumps) at set scheduled times. • When replacing or purchasing new electric motors invest in systems with higher energy efficiency ratings.

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• Match motor size to the horsepower requirements of the task. This guarantees the motors will be operating between 75-100% of full load where they usually are most efficient. • Use adjustable speed drives in situations where you may not need full power from the motor at all times. Variable speed drive motors allow the matching of the input power of the motor to the load requirement. • Establish and keep up with maintenance schedules on electrical and electro-mechanical systems. This should include performing regular cleaning and maintenance on your motors, tightening belts and pulleys to prevent slippage, lubricating motors and drives regularly to reduce friction, and replacing worn bearings. Office Equipment:

• Turn off computers, printers and other office equipment when you are not using them, especially overnight and on weekends. • Use the energy saving or sleep mode on computer monitors to save energy. • Choose the smallest computer monitor that meets your needs. Larger monitors require more power. • Consider having employees use lap top computers, since they use up to 90% less electricity than standard desktop computers. • Use ink jet printers for very low volume printing. They use just 4% of the electricity used by typical laser models. • Use a multi-function printer/scan/fax machine, as it will use much less power than the three separate machines combined. Air conditioner:

• Select air conditioners based on the size of the area to be cooled and schedule of operation of the area(s). • When purchasing new air conditioning units, request the more efficient model or those with high energy efficiency ratio (EER) i.e. 10 or higher. • Do not set air conditioner thermostats to the lowest setting e.g. 16oC but to moderate levels like 20oC to allow efficient operation. • Occupancy sensors can be used to control AC units in areas where they may be inadvertently left on. • Central air conditioners are typically more efficient than comparable split units, but they tend to be “operated” inefficiently by being poorly maintained or used to cool unnecessary areas. • Keep your filters clean and maintain air conditioning units in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations. • Ensure air conditioned areas are properly enclosed to minimize hot air infiltration via doors and windows, or heat gain via poorly insulated roofs and walls. • Add or repair insulation to ducting, roofing, and other building envelope components to reduce cooling requirements.

7.2 RISK MANAGEMENT AND DISASTER PREPAREDNESS The overall scientific consensus is that climate change is a serious and urgent global challenge. The world’s climate is changing as a result of increased greenhouse gases (including carbon dioxide) which are produced by burning fossil fuels and forests, industrial processes, agriculture and deforestation. On the international scale, Guyana’s rainforest absorbs more carbon than the amount of carbon Guyana produces. . However, Guyana is very vulnerable to the impacts of climate change which are expected to include higher temperatures, rising sea levels, as well as an increase in the frequency and intensity of severe weather events, storms, flooding, droughts and heat waves. Availability of fresh water is expected to decrease along with agricultural 33


output. The low-lying coastal strip of Guyana is the location of approximately 90% of the national population, as well as the commercial and industrial centres, the seat of government, a large portion of the national infrastructure, and Guyana’s prime agricultural lands. This area is vulnerable to the impacts of climate change because it is below sea-level. Planning for risk management and disaster preparedness, particularly related to climate change, should be included as part of the community consultation process. This will enable people living in vulnerable communities to identify and analyze risks and hazards in their local environment, and to adopt behaviours that will make their homes and communities safer and able to respond to disasters. The involvement of community members is a critical way to learn about local experiences and perspectives of the main hazards, obstacles, needs and issues that exist. During community engagement activities, include exercises that allow community members to share their knowledge on past natural disasters and their management and adaptation to them. This discussion may be combined with other planning-related community meetings when local residents are invited to express their needs for their community. For examples of engagement techniques to facilitate this discussion, refer to Section 5.3, particularly the sections Information Gathering and Exploring Ideas. There are several national and international organizations operating in Guyana which can contribute expertise and resources toward planning for climate change impacts. Responses to climate change must be area- and region- specific. These could include actions to reduce the intensity of hardship, distributing the burden of losses over the region or nation, changing the location of activities, moving from affected areas, or restoring damaged areas. Two useful guides which can be used by communities when assessing risk and planning for adaptation are the “Climate Change Adaptation Planning: A Nunavut Toolkit” prepared by the Canadian Institute of Planners and the “A Practical Step by Step VCA Guide” prepared by the Red Cross. Both toolkits include broad principles which can be applied to communities in Guyana: • • • •

Community knowledge and community input into the planning process are important components of adaptation. This includes the identification of priorities and proposed actions. An action plan should be developed, which can be widely distributed in the community to result in maximum community involvement. A simplified format such as a flyer or poster is a useful tool to inform a greater number of people. It is important to prepare an implementation strategy which sets out tasks, roles, responsibilities and timelines to ensure that actions are taken. A “who does what” chart assigning roles and responsibilities as well as a budget should be included. A monitoring, review and revision procedure should exist to address gaps in original knowledge, especially because climate change science is always changing and because implementation may take place at a different pace than expected.

There are two main steps to prepare for disasters: 1. 2.

Vulnerability assessment – to identify areas that need to be improved and adapted for disasters Capacity assessment – to identify actions to be taken to ensure preparedness

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When assessing climate change risks in the community, the vulnerability and capacity assessment guide prepared by the Red Cross provides helpful direction. In addition to consulting with members of the community, the persons preparing the assessment may systematically observe people, relationships, places and activities to identify hazards and capacity. The following areas of focus should be included in the Vulnerability assessment and the Capacity assessment: • • • • •

Infrastructure – drainage, building types and layout, sewer system, availability of utilities and essential services Vulnerabilities – fire risk in public buildings, stampede risks in enclosed areas, drowning risks, risk of buildings collapsing Socio-economic context – quality of homes, cleanliness of environment, family structure and care giving arrangements, living conditions, whereabouts of persons during the day Livelihoods – main household income, asset constraints Lifestyles – daily routine, family structures, community interaction, capacities, skills, meeting places, community leaders and teams

STEP 1: VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT An example of a simplified risk and opportunity assessment template is shown below. This template can be used to determine priority actions that should be taken to adapt to the impacts of climate change. RISK OR OPPORTUNITY

Flooding from nearby river

EXPECTED FREQUENCY (rare, sometimes, often) sometimes

EXTENT OF DAMAGE (low, moderate, high) moderate

COST OF ADAPTATION (low, moderate, high)

ECONOMIC IMPACT (low, moderate, high)

EASE OF IMPLEMENTATION (easy, moderate, difficult)

high

high

moderate

ADAPTATION ACTION

Alter site grading

PRIORITY

1

RECOMMENDED LEAD AGENCY

Ministry of Housing

Source: Adapted from “Climate Change Adaptation Planning: A Nunavut Toolkit”

Other data collection techniques include: •

Community mapping which is used to identify vulnerabilities and capacities related to living conditions, behaviour and environmental factors. Community maps should include an overview of the main features, separate maps for each hazard and risk in the community, and a map of resources and capacities. A historical calendar which provides insights into past hazards and changes in their nature, intensity and behaviour. These can include diseases, access to food, work, main disasters, violence, crime, trees and lifestyles.

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• •

A seasonal calendar which can be used to show different natural, economic, social and cultural events which take place in an annual cycle. It identifies periods of stress, hazards and vulnerability and what the coping strategies are. An institutional and social analysis which shows key organizations, groups and individuals in a community along with their relationships and relative importance. When evaluating the extent to which organizations can support the needs of the community, consider geographic proximity as well as relevance to the community.

STEP 2: CAPACITY ASSESSMENT Once the data about risks and vulnerabilities has been collected it must be transformed into an assessment of capacity to address these risks. The information collected in the community is not useful until action areas and capacities have been identified. A template to assist with this process is shown below. ISSUES, PROBLEMS, HAZARDS

RISKS, VULNERABILITIES

ACTIONS TO CREATE CAPACITY

Alter site grading Seasonal flooding -

Water damage to housing and infrastructure Erosion of soil

Plant trees to reduce erosion

TIMELINE (short, medium, long)

FINANCE NEEDED

RESOURCES NEEDED

TECHNICAL EXPERTISE NEEDED

Long

Yes

Land (local authorities), labour (community), construction materials (donors)

Yes (engineering, construction)

Long

Yes

Land (local authorities), labour (community), seedlings (donors), maintenance (community

Yes (agricultural)

Source: Adapted from “A Practical Step by Step VCA Guide”

The Vulnerability and Capacity assessments will both provide a collection of valuable information which can be used to guide further community actions to reduce the potential impacts of climate change and natural disasters. The Capacity assessment is particularly useful as a starting point for pursuing next steps as it identifies what is needed next, particularly finances, resources, and technical expertise. It may be possible to pursue some of the actions to create capacity at the community level, although it is likely that additional aid and resources from climate change adaptation agencies, government and private donors will need to be pursued. It is essential that sustainability, risk management and disaster preparedness initiatives be effectively shared with local communities. CH&PA staff, therefore, has to include these topics of discussion into their community engagement activities and visioning exercises. Similarly sustainability and risk 36


management issues need to be included and addressed in community profiles, CDPs and information systems. In other words, communities need you to learn more about what they can do to make their communities more sustainable and less vulnerable to natural disasters.

8. CONCLUSION Congratulations! You have successfully engaged the community and provided them with a guide for their development. This document has been written as a guide to the community planning process used by the CH&PA, but there is always room for continued engagement. Now your role will be to facilitate project implementation and continuous engagement, much like the initial facilitation involved in the establishment of a community or issue-based working group. This part of the process is an exciting one, as you get to see the community’s ideas come to fruition.

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APPENDICES

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APPENDIX A: GLOSSARY Capital Projects – Projects for the construction, transformation, or renovation of permanent infrastructure. Community Projects – Projects for the development of social infrastructure within a community. These are spearheaded and carried out by the community. For example: Youth Programming. Consensus – An agreement in the judgment or opinion reached by a group as a whole. Cultural Capital - Non-financial assets that include educational, social, and intellectual knowledge. Facilitate – To assist in accomplishing objectives. It requires active participation by the facilitator (somebody enabling something to happen) to engage and involve the others in accomplishing the objective. Facilitator- A person who guides community engagement activities G.I.S. (Geographic Information Systems) – Integrates hardware, software, and data for capturing, managing, analyzing, and displaying all forms of geographically referenced information. Guiding Principle – A statement that articulates shared community values, underlies the planned vision and mission, and serves as a basis for integrated decision making. Human Capital - Refers to the stock of competences, knowledge and personality attributes embodied in the ability to perform labour so as to produce economic value. IDB – Inter-American Development Bank. Outcome - The end state after a project or initiative has been implemented. Outcomes usually take the form of measurable objectives, and can be immediate, medium, or long-term in scope. Output - The immediate result of a specified project or activity. Outputs are tangible objects, like a final document or a completed structure. Social Capital - The attitude, spirit and willingness of people to engage in collective, civic activities. Over time, social capital builds to what can be termed as social infrastructure, Stakeholder – Any person, organization, or agency that has some sort of interest in what works you are doing or that may be affected by your work. Vision Statement – A statement that captures the long-term picture of what the community wants to become. A vision statement must be inspirational, memorable and reflect the desires of those with vested interests.

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APPENDIX B: EXAMPLE OF REPORTING: PRIOR TO ENGAGEMENT BELL WEST – COMMUNITY CONSULTATION STRATEGY Proposed timeline: November 30th and December 13th, 2010 Consultation Objective(s): To create an open dialogue between community members, NDC and the CH&PA concerning planned development, as well as determine a community vision for growth and development in the Bell West area. Involved Participants: Mrs. D. Bess-Bascom, Ms. A. Smith, Ms. A. Peebles, Ms. N. Paul, Mr. I. Indarjeet, Mr. G. Persaud, Mr. H. M. Khemraj, Mr. S. Shakur, Mr. S. Shivran, Mr. S. Baksh, Ms. Baguandas, Mr. Yankanah, and the Bell West Community Development Association. Proposed Methodology: 1. 2. 3.

Information sharing session with key community representatives Open house session with community members, community group representatives (facilitated by CH&PA) Community festival DETAILS OF CONSULTATION STRATEGY FOR BELL WEST

STAGE 1 - INITIAL INFORMATION SHARING SESSION I. II. III. IV.

Objective: to share information about CH&PA’s proposed engagement efforts as well as discuss consultation techniques and process of notification. Target Group: Community Group representatives Timeline: 1 Day, 1 hour session – November 30th Resources Required: Brief preamble on visioning for discussion (CH&PA).

Output I. Proposed Venue: Multi-purpose building at Bell West II. Proposed date: 13th December 2010 III. Flyer distribution – will be done by community group. Participants' Roles: Mrs. D. Bess Bascom – Liaison/Facilitator Ms. A. Peebles – Facilitator Ms. N. Paul - Rapporteur STAGE 2 – OPEN HOUSE SESSION WITH PHASE 1 RESIDENTS

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I.

II. III.

IV. V. VI.

Objective: a. To share information about current and future development in the Bell West area with residents. b. Facilitate the articulation of a vision statement for Bell West Phase 1 Target Group: Residents of Bell West Phase 1 Methodology: a. Open house session – presentations on current and future development in the Bell West area b. Community visioning exercise – working group session, which will help the community to articulate a vision for the future of the area. Timeline: 2 hours Date: December 13th 2010 Venue: Bell West multi-purpose building

I.

Output: a. Sensitization for residents to development in the area b. A community vision statement c. Identification of community projects II. Resources Required: Maps, Flip Chart, Pens, Note Pads, and Highlighters. Participants' Roles: Mrs. D. Bess Bascom – Liaison Ms. A. Peebles – Facilitator Ms. N. Paul – Facilitator Ms. A. Smith – Rapporteur Mr. I. Indarjeet – Technical expert STAGE 3 - COMMUNITY VISIONING EXERCISE (PHASE 1 RESIDENTS) I.

II. III. IV. V.

Objective: a. Facilitate the articulation of a vision statement for Bell West. b. To formulate one community group for the area. c. To prioritize community projects. Target Group: Residents of Bell West Phase 1 and allottees of Bell West Phase 2 Methodology: a. Community visioning exercise – working group session, which will help the community to articulate a vision for the future of the area. Timeline: 1 Day, 2 hour session ( Early January) Resources required: Maps, Flip Chart, Pens, Note Pads, and Highlighters.

1. Output: a. A clearly articulated community vision statement b. Identification and prioritization of community projects 41


Participants' Roles: Mrs. D Bess-Bascom – Liaison Ms. A. Smith – Rapporteur Ms. A. Peebles – Facilitator Ms. N. Paul – Facilitator Bell West CDA- Coordinator

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APPENDIX C: EXAMPLE OF REPORTING: POST ENGAGEMENT Internal Memorandum Planning & Settlement Department Meeting Minutes: December 8, 2010 In Attendance: Ms. Donell Bess-Bascom – Community Development Specialist Ms. Andrea Smith - Senior Planning Officer Ms. Roxanne Ross – Assistant Community Development Specialist Ms. Norlyne Paul – Planning Officer II Ms. Amy Peebles- Community Development Planning Intern Mr. Ferlin Pedro - Systems Administrator

During the afternoon of December 8th, 2010, a community consultation was held in Area “B” Lusignan. Objectives: 1. 2. 3.

4.

Select a name for the remaining street that does not already have one. Identify street representatives for the streets that do not already have them. Present findings from the community development plan. a. Specific identification of key needs/issues that arose during the process of compiling the CDP; N.B. these have informed the types of projects needed as indicated in the CDP. Formalize a community group and choose roles for the members

Objective #1 Topics Discussed • • •

Andrea asked for suggestions for the street name. Daisy Street was the only option presented that had not already been used Voting showed that Daisy Street will be the street name. 43


Objective #2 Topics Discussed •

• • •

Streets without representatives were identified. o White Rose St. o Antelope St. o Tulsie St. o Marigold St. o Daisy St. o Sunflower St. Mr. Ramnath Parsram was elected as street representative for Sunflower St. No one volunteered to take the role of street representatives for the streets who did not already have them. o This was due in part to there not being enough people in attendance from each street to carry out a proper voting process Discussed the possibility of the current street representatives being members of the community group o The community agreed with this.

Objective #3 Topics Discussed •

Norlyne presented findings from the community development plan o Observed that it is important to practice presentations before they are delivered.  This will aid in staying on track and making sure the message of the presentation is delivered The presentation consisted of a chart outlining the specific identified needs garnered via the questionnaire/survey. o Norlyne discussed what had already been done in terms of addressing the identified needs and what will be coming on board in the future. The organization of the community group was identified as the next need to be addressed. o The community group was formed during the consultation

Objective #4: Topics Discussed •

Discussed the idea of making the current street representatives members of the community group o Community agreed with this.

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• •

• •

Asked people to volunteer to be additional members o No one volunteered. Met with current street representatives about formalizing the community group after the meeting. o Discussed choosing who would play what role.  Treasure – Mr. Ramnauth Parsaram  Secretary – Mrs. Jenny Nadira Harriprashad  Public Relations – Ms. Lelewattee Vissoon o It was decided that the chairman and vice chairman positions would be decided amongst the group when Mohammed was able vote as well, as he was not able to attend the meeting. Three officers of the community-policing group volunteered to be on the community group. o Clairmont Haxel o Mohammed Khan o K. Jamaladen Pictures were taken of the community group. o Just Mohammed needs to have his picture taken. It was discussed that there would be another meeting in the beginning of the new year.

Prepared by: Amy Peebles

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APPENDIX D: HOW TO FACILITATE A MEETING Meetings are a good way to share ideas and organize effective action. They should be accessible, friendly, effective, organized, motivating and action focused. There are many different things you can do: Invite a speaker, organize a skill-sharing session, or host a social event. Location: When your group plans a meeting, choose a quiet, centrally-located place. Dedicated meeting rooms in a community centre, school, or community club, work best, but somewhere like a restaurant is fine if it is not too noisy. In summer it can be fun to hold a picnic meeting in a public park. If you meet at the home of a group member, ensure that everyone who plans to come has clear directions and the person's phone number. Maintaining Decorum: The meeting chairperson should be polite but firm; he/she must be able to keep the discussion focused and move through the agenda. This role could be handled by the same person at each meeting, or it could be rotated among members of the group. Another useful suggestion is that group leaders or the most active members should not run all the meetings. It is essential also to adopt a standard decision-making format that everybody understands and accepts. For example, is total consensus necessary, or a majority vote, or the agreement of a quorum? Agendas and Minutes: Often, a simple written agenda can help your meeting stay on track. It could be sketched point-form on a blackboard or on a flipchart. Avoid pitfalls by seeking general agreement on the agenda at the start of the meeting. Also ask for a volunteer at the start to take the minutes, or the summary, of the meeting. Write down action points and key decisions for reference at the next meeting. This will help people who were not present, but are interested in staying involved. The important thing is that the group's decisions are recorded accurately for later reference.

FACILITATION RESOURCES Robert’s Rules of Order - http://www.robertsrules.com/ The classic manual for conducting just about any kind of meeting. Although the Rules were initially intended to guide parliamentary procedure, there is now even an “In Brief” version for the benefit of clubs and charitable organizations. Toastmasters International - http://www.toastmasters.org/ A worldwide organization for better public speakers and communicators. Among the many skills they offer, you can learn how to run a meeting.

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APPENDIX E: COMMUNITY PROFILE TEMPLATE STEP 1: OBTAIN THE DATA The following page outlines how to obtain statistics from the Bureau of Statistics, Guyana. The data is available online. It is faster to retrieve information on each community from this website than conducting individual surveys. However, if the opportunity to do a questionnaire/survey presents itself, it may be beneficial to do one as it gives a more finite and up-to-date look at a given community and allows for first-hand observation of community dynamics. Here are the instructions for retrieving the data: • • • • • •

Go to the website: http://www.statisticsguyana.gov.gy/ On this page, the home page, scroll down to where it says “Population & Housing Census 2002 (Town, NDC and Village Level Data)” Beside this title, click on “More” This will take you to a new page. Scroll down and download the “Village Level Data” This Zip Folder will contain a set of tables that contains statistical data on each village, categorized by region. What region is your Community Plan in? For example, if it’s in Region 2, then scroll down until you reach the Region 2 section and find your village within that section. Extract the data that pertains to your area. Utilize this data to create tables and charts that will display the current conditions of the community. For each section of the Community Profile, pick the relevant data.

STEP 2: ORGANIZE THE DATA INTO HEADINGS, CHARTS, AND MAPS

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Below is a list of headings which could be used to organize the information in the community profile. These may vary slightly from community to community as some communities may have unique issues or attributes that need to be highlighted. 1. INTRODUCTION 2. LOCATION AND BACKGROUND 2.1 Location and Boundaries 2.2 Area 2.3 Governance 3. DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE 3.1 Population and Size 3.2 Age Distribution 3.3 Gender Distribution 3.4 Ethnic Ratio 3.5 Religious Affiliations 4. SOCIO-ECONOMIC PROFILE 4.1 Labour Force Participation 4.2 Employment by Industry 4.3 Education 5. TRANSPORTATION 5.1 Circulation 5.2 Commute to Work 5.3 Commute to School 6. WASTE MANAGEMENT 7. COMMUNITY FACILITIES AND SERVICES 8. SUMMARY 9. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS APPENDICES

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Include graphics, charts, and images: insert photos that tie into what is written. For example, pictures of community facilities – schools, health centre, etc. The following is a list of charts and maps that should be formulated to display the statistical information or physical location of the area within the regional or local context. They are used as visual representations of data from which to draw analysis from. Chart 1: Age Distribution Chart 2: Gender Distribution Chart 3: Ethnic Ratio Chart 4: Religious Affiliation Chart 5: Labour-Force Participation Chart 6: Employment by Industry Chart 7: Education Levels Chart 8: Mode of Transportation to Work Chart 9: Mode of Transportation to School Chart 10: Garbage Disposal Methods Map 1: Regional Context Map 2: Local Context For more guidance on developing a Community Profile, look at previous profiles which have been written for other communities and talk to the staff in the Planning & Settlement Department at CH&PA.

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APPENDIX F: COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN TEMPLATE Community Development Plans (CDPs) follow different formats depending on the unique context of the community. What is important is that all of the important information about the community's plans for development is included in an organized manner. The following is list of headings which could be included in the format of a CDP. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Table of Contents List of Maps & Charts 1. INTRODUCTION & BACKGROUND 1.1 Community Context 1.2 Methodology 1.3 Stakeholder Consultations 2. VISION 2.1 Vision Statement 2.2 Goals and Objectives 2.3 Design Rationale 3. RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT 4. COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT 5. INSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENT 6. OPEN SPACES 7. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS 8. DESIGN & AESTHETICS 9. TRANSPORTATION 10. INFRASTRUCTURE

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11. IMPLEMENTATION 11.1 Implementation Matrix Within each of core chapters (the sections about residential, commercial and institutional development, open spaces, environmental considerations, design and aesthetics, transportation, and infrastructure), the chapter should include lists or information about opportunities & constraints, policies, and proposed projects. The Implementation Matrix lists all the activities which must be done to accomplish the goals set out in the CDP and complete the development of the community. It should include the following headings: Project Component 1. Infrastructure 2. Lot Allocation 3. Community Facilities Etc.

Activities

Responsible Agency

Timeline

Budget

The CDP should use charts, tables, and graphics to help display information in a clear and concise manner. Use photographs of existing conditions within the community as well as examples of what the community would ideally look like after development occurs according to plan. The following is a list of maps which could be included in the CDP: Map 1: Location Context Map 2: Proposed Land Use Map 3: Street & Drainage Networks Map 4: Open Spaces & Reserve Sites Map 5: Social Services & Facilities Map 6: Access & Circulation For more guidance on creating a Community Development Plan, look at previous plans which have been written for other communities and talk to the staff in the Planning & Settlement Department at CH&PA. Keep an open mind, and look for policy inspiration from both public comments at consultation meetings and best practices from around the world.

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APPENDIX G: STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS

Stakeholder Analysis Using this template will help you to identify those people you need to involve in your engagement efforts. It will also allow you to identify any conflict, relationships, or communication barriers. This will help to ensure you are effectively engaging all relevant people and that their participation will be meaningful. The grid is based on power and interest; you are determing the level of power and interest each stakeholder has. Once you have decided their level of power and interest, it will indicate the level of involvement they should have. Grid Explained: The vertical axis of the grid indicates high and low power. The horizontal axis of the grid indicates low and high interest. Therefore, the bottom left corner will be the stakeholder with the lowest level of power and the lowest level of interest. The stakeholder in the top right corner is the stakeholder with the highest level of power and the highest level of interest. High power, highly interested people: these are the people that are your priority when engaging. They should be the people you engage with the most and most often, and those who you need to make the greatest effort to satisfy. High power, less interested people: these are the people that need to be involved in the enagegment process to the extent that they are satisfied and aware of your efforts, but that are not as directly or greatly impacted by your efforts. Low power, highly interested people: these are the people that should be kept informed of your efforts and can provide guidance to ensure there are no major issues and provide details to your project. Low power, less interested people: these are the people that should be kept informed of your efforts; however, they will not greatly affect your project.

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Stakeholder Prioritization Grid

Example: For a community meeting, the stakeholder prioritizatio would look something like this: High power, high interest: Community residents, Allottees High power, low interest: RDC and NDC Low power, high interest: Projects Department, contractors, suppliers, donors Low power, low interest: Collegaues in Community Development and Planning Department, Planning Department

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RDC

Community residents

NDC

Allottees

CD&P Department

Projects Department Suppliers Contractors

Planning Department Donors

Once you have completed this prioritization, you can answer the following questions: Is there any conflicting interests? Is there any existing relationships? Is there any communication barriers? Answering these questions will help you to understand the stakeholders you are working with. From here, you can plan tailored engagement activities appropriate to the stakeholders involved.

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APPENDIX H: CREATING A COMMUNITY GROUP

Creating Community Groups

Step 1: Ask the community if anyone is interested in forming a community group and make a list of volunteers with names and contact information. The community group should be 5-9 persons. Emphasize the fact that it should be representative of the whole community, for example if there are existing sports, cultural, spiritual, or management groups already formed, have a person from each group be represented in the community group. If not, ensure there is a good mix of male and females and varying age groups.

Step 2: Explain the structure of the community group, providing details on the tasks of each member. The members of the community group will include: Chairperson:

assists in the management of the group; plans and runs meetings; acts as a spokesperson of the group; organize participation with residents of the community

Vice Chairperson:

acts as Chairperson in their absence; assists Chairperson; organize participation with residents in the community

Treasurer:

keeps an overview of the finances; record all financial transactions; reports financial situation to group members; collecting donations; paying fees/bills; organizing fundraising projects

Secretary:

supports the running of the meeting; takes notes on issues raised, status updates, and topics mentioned during meetings and shares at the beginning of each meeting; record attendance; reserve meeting places for meetings and events; create and maintain a list for communication; act as public relations for the group

Members:

representatives of the community who actively contribute and support the initiatives of the group

Once you have explained the roles of the community members, explain how to conduct a community meeting. Share the document titled Community Groups Explained with the community group; this has an explanation of the roles and the steps for conducting a meeting. Here are some points that should be mentioned: 1. 2. 3. 4.

Call a meeting on a regular basis; either bi-weekly or monthly depending on the activity of the group Arrange a consistent date and time to make it easier for people to remember The chairperson should call the meeting to order, which represents the starting of the meeting Attendance should be taken.

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5.

6. 7. 8. 9.

The secretary should read out the minutes from the previous meeting so that everyone is reminded and aware of what was discussed. The secretary should make special note of any issues or discussion that are carried over from the last meeting (i.e. anything that wasn’t settled on or required further information gathering). Start by addressing/updating the issues carried over from the last meeting. Resolve these. Move on to new business: this is the opportunity for community members to raise new issues or suggest projects or fundraising activities General discussion and agreement upon next steps/actions to be taken for particular issues, projects, or activities Once everyone has had the opportunity to raise new business, and there is nothing else to discuss, you may call the meeting to close

Step 3: Conduct a fair election process of each role in the community group. To do so, have a nomination process where all interested parties who would like to act as one of the executive roles either nominates themselves or another resident who they think would be fitting. If nominating another resident, the resident must accept the nomination. Nomination must be ‘seconded’ by another resident, to confirm eligibility for that role. Once all interested persons have been nominated, you may proceed to voting. Carry this out at your discretion, either by secret ballot if you sense there may be some tension or conflict, or by a simple raising of hands.

Step 4: Writing the Articles of Association. There is a standard form to be filled out supplied by the Ministry of Labour, Human Services, and Social Security through the Friendly Societies Act; CH&PA has copies of this form. Bring this form to the community and assist the community group in filling out the specific details.

Step 5: Creating a Bank Account. The group will need the following items to successfully set up a bank account: • • • •

$5000 GYD for opening fee Certification of Registration 3 signatories with their ID cards Minutes from the community meeting that outlines the establishment and list of signatories

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APPENDIX I: SALT METHOD OF COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT SALT Method of Community Engagement (Copied and modified from The Constellation http://communitylifecompetence.org/en/) For more information, guidance, and knowledge sharing opportunities: Guyana Competence Contact person: Autry Haynes Email: hayaut@hotmail.com Tel: +5922704177 Website: https://www.facebook.com/home.php?sk=group_15874214750648 Step 1: Create a Community Vision A. Individual Dream • Think of the things that you think an area should have to make it a nice place to live in. Dream of that ideal community; what is it like? • Draw a picture of that ideal community. (It’s ok if you’re not good at drawing. It’s the dream that is important!) B. Small Group Dream (divide participants into small groups of about 8-12 persons) • Bring your drawing to the small group • Show your drawing and explain your dream of an ideal community • All members of the group take turns showing his/her drawing and explaining it to the other group members • After hearing of everyone’s dream and explanation, the group discusses the similarities and differences of the dreams, and together draws a group picture which reflects the dreams of all members C. • • • •

Community Dream Each group selects someone in the group to present the group drawing to the whole group/community All the members listen and appreciate After hearing of every group’s dream and explanation, the facilitators discuss the similarities and differences of the dreams, and together draws a community picture which reflects the dreams of every group Facilitator asks whether participants are happy about the result, whether they would like to add something else to make the community dream even better. More ideas/dreams can be added until the participants are satisfied.

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Step 2: Assessing Current Realities •

Based on their vision, the community comes up with practices that lead to that vision. A practice refers to attitudes and processes of community members. List these practices and have the community carry out a self-assessment of their level of commitment to those practices. For each practice, people assess their community at a level between 1 and 5:  Level 1: We know, but not enough to act (we are aware)  Level 2: We know enough to be able to act (we react)  Level 3: We act once in a while (we act)  Level 4: We act voluntarily (continuous action)  Level 5: We act naturally (part of our life-style)

Vision: to have an active community Practice Recognition of components of active lifestyle Access to facilities Mobilizing resources Organizing opportunities for activity Inclusion of all community members in activities Mentality of active life

Level 2 1 1 3 3 5

Step 3: Project Prioritization and Strategy • • • • •

Mobilize ideas from participants in the group as a whole. Ask the question: “What needs to be done to make our community dream come true?” Have community members list as many as possible. These suggestions will be your community projects. Prioritize the list of projects using prioritization techniques listed in the section Decision Making. Prioritization should be based on what the community feels is important and most practical, most do-able with their current resources and capacities Participants divide into 3 groups based on their interests and each group makes a plan of action for one of the selected activities. Each group presents the action plan to the group as a whole for comments, discussion, and suggestions. In addition, participants can also choose several other activities in the list that they feel are important and can be done with assistance from existing agencies/organizations that they know, and make action plans to access the necessary assistance. An Action Plan should be created to document the following: the priority projects, the actions to be done to achieve them, a timeline with staged targets, who is responsible for each action, costs/inputs, and indicators of whether their targets have been met. List the community vision at the top to keep the group focused on achieving their vision. Indicators should be something that measures the results of the actions; 58


there will likely be 3 indicators to represent the 3 projects. Each indicator and project should contribute to achieving the community vision. Cost/inputs means any financial costs required to complete the activity; input refers to the effort of the person to complete the activity. The following is an example of an Action Plan Template (adapted from the Action Planning Toolkit created by Civicus http://www.civicus.org/). Community Vision: To have an active community Indicators: a way to measure results- Sports activities planned regularly at the playground Project Activities Timeline (begin by, Person Responsible complete by) Development of Soil infill January 5 2012Dr. Robert, Maggie Playground January 15 2012 Mae,

Ground leveling

January 20 2012January 30 2012

Jude, Eleanor, Maxwell

Fencing

February 3 2012February 28 2012

Lucy, Rita

Installation of football posts

March 1 2012- March 7 2012

Johnny, Julia

Costs/Inputs Soil cost; transport of soil cost; cost of laborers to distribute soil; Maggie Mae’s time organizing works; Dr. Robert’s time supervising works Cost of machinery rental; Eleanor’s time organizing rental Maxwell’s time completing works; Jude’s time supervising works Material cost; laborers cost; paint cost; Lucy and Rita’s time supervising and painting Julia’s time organizing and liaising with Ministry of Sports to fund project; Johnny’s time aiding and supervising works

Project 2 Project 3

Step 4: Measurement of Progress At this stage, measure the progress of the community in completing activities and achieving the goal of a community project. Carry out another selfassessment to measure the progress the community has made; progress will be illustrated through the change in level. This will help the community learn if their actions are taking effect or if they need to modify their activities to achieve their ultimate project goal. The following is an example of a Progress Measurement template: 59


Practice and Initial level (from the selfassessment framework)

Description of current level

Description of Target level

Actions to reach the target

How do we know we made progress?

Access to facilities (1)

2- we know the opportunities to receive funding for playground development; we have contact information to apply for funding; we are currently filling out the application form

5- we have daily access to the playground

-submit form for funding

-we receive receipt of funding application submission and processing

-work with Ministry for Sports on playground development

-we receive status updates from Ministry for sports on works

-soil infill -soil is deposited on playground -ground leveling -ground is leveled off -fencing -fence is erected -installation of football posts -football posts put up -schedule of playground activities -schedule of activities is distributed to all community members

Practice 2…

Practice 3…

Step 5: Learn and Share Communities and facilitators do an After-Action-Review (AAR) to learn from their own action. It provides the opportunity to reflect on their performance immediately after any activity. At an AAR the group considers 4 questions: • • • •

What was supposed to happen? What actually happened? Why were there differences? What can we learn from this?

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APPENDIX J: FACILITATION PLAN Facilitation Plan: Non Pariel Community Visioning and Project Prioritization November 5, 2011 4p.m. Introduction: Non Pariel, also known as the ‘abandoned airstrip’ is located 12kms from Georgetown on the east coast of Demerara. The area is being developed by CH&PA to provide low and middle-income residential lots. Non-Pariel falls under the Inter-American Development Bank’s second Low Income Settlement Programme (LIS2). Under the LIS2 is the Core House Pilot, a project to provide a starter house to persons of low income. There are 18 core house sites in Non Pariel, with 9 of the 18 houses already built and occupied. The remaining 9 core houses will commence construction beginning November 7, 2011. Currently, the occupancy rate is low in Non Pariel. There is a mix of residential and commercial lots. The residential area totals 284, 68% of which are low-income and 32% middle-income. Commercial development is generally restricted to small, home-based businesses located along the main access road and corner lots. There is one large area designated as a playground, along the main access road. Further down the same road, is a large area designated as public open space. There are several plots designated as reserve sites throughout the scheme. Aims: 1.

To engage with residents and work cooperatively to envision a strategy for growth within the community.

2.

To encourage residents to identify community based projects that will contribute to a sense of community and increase the quality of living within the area.

Objectives: 1. 2. Skills: • • •

To identify a vision to guide the future development of the community. Identify a list of priority projects in the community.

Active listening and understanding Help people to ‘own’ their problems, take responsibility for them and think of solutions Providing feedback: clarifying details, affirming/validating, summarize content to confirm correct interpretation 61


• • •

Reframing a question: to move people from a negative stance to discuss a positive way forward Avoiding conflict: build rapport, be aware of warning signs of frustration, acknowledge statements and summarize to ensure agitated person is aware we understand and value their opinion Value Silence: give community members time to collect their thoughts and ideas

Things to Avoid: • • • •

Minimising/patronising Ordering/threatening Leading questions that aim to pre-determine the response Judging or labelling

Materials: Flip chart paper, markers, note taking template, name tags Activities: Time 4:00-4:15 (4:304:45)

Activity Introduction

4:15-4:20 (4:454:50)

Visioning Exercise Explanation

4:20-4:35 (4:505:05)

Visioning

Notes • • • • • • • • •

4:35-4:45 (5:055:15) 4:45-4:50 (5:155:20)

Sharing Vision Words Project Identification Explanation

• • • •

Introduce the facilitators Describe the Site Plan Provide FAQ Information

Facilitator Roxanne

Explain concept of Visioning Explain Visioning Process Break out groups Begin by asking if anyone has questions about the process What is important to you in a community? What words can you use to describe what you want your community to be like?

Fayola

Share vision words from each group Write on flip chart paper Explain project identification and prioritization Explain difference between Capital and Community projects

Fayola

Fayola, Roxanne, Shawna

Shawna

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4:50-5:15 (5:205:45)

Project Identification/Prioritization

• • • • •

5:15-5:30 (5:456:00)

Sharing Projects and Prioritization Conclusion

• • • •

Begin by asking if anyone has questions about the process Emphasize the suggestion of Community projects Use the concept of Problem Tree for identification of community projects Pairwise ranking to prioritize projects Use: question reframing, affirming/validation

Fayola, Roxanne, Shawna

Reconvene as whole group Share top 3 priority projects from each break out group Pairwise ranking of all projects to identify top 3 community priority projects Closing remarks

Shawna and Claire

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APPENDIX K: PROBLEM TREE ANALYSIS

Problem Tree Analysis Concept: Visioning and Project Identification Through this exercise, you will identify the community’s vision and the desired community projects. This process will allow community residents to take ownership of their problems and develop community solutions in a participatory manner. Community members will feel a sense of validation because they have been given the opportunity to express their concerns relating to the community. As a facilitator, you are able to support community residents to address their real needs from within the community. Complete this exercise using the Note Taker’s Template ‘Tree Notes’ Step 1. List problems identified by all participants. Step 2. Translate the negative issues into a realized positive state— the underlying values of the issue Step 3. Identify vision words based on the values of the community Step 4. Identify a ‘means-end’ relationship between the value and vision to determine community projects that will achieve/satisfy the values and vision of the community Example: 1. Problem/Issue: No Street Lights Example Question: Why are street lights important to you?

2. Underlying Value: Security Example Question: What words do you associate with the feeling of security?

3. Vision Words: Safe, Secure, Comfortable, Confident

4. Project: Policing Group/Neighborhood Watch concept

Example Question: What can you do to make your community safe, secure, comfortable?

If the community does not immediately identify problems/issues, start the exercise from the ‘Underlying Value’ box and ask the following questions to generate discussion: • What is important to you in a community? • What words can you use to describe what you want your community to be like? • What do you want to see happen in your community? If the community begins the discussion by identifying a project, write the project in the first box and continue the exercise in order.

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Example: Project:

Policing Group

Example Question:

Why is a policing group important to you?

Underlying Value:

Security

Example Question:

What words do you associate with security?

Vision Words:

Safe, Secure, Comfortable, Confident

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APPENDIX L: TREE NOTES

Theme 1

Theme 2

Theme 3

Theme 4

Theme 5

Theme 6

Problem/Issue

Underlying Value

Vision Words

Project

Note: If the community does not immediately identify a problem/issue, start the note taking process from ‘Underlying Value’ box. Likewise, if the community begins by identifying a project first, start by listing the project in the first box and continue with the ‘Underlying Value’ box.

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APPENDIX M: SWOT ANALYSIS

SWOT Analysis: Exploring Ideas SWOT analysis is the evaluation of the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats of a project or idea. It will help you to better understand the details of a project or idea which will eventually lead to the decision whether it will be pursued. To complete this exercise for an idea or project, draw a grid so that each category has its own box. Ask the question “What are the strengths of this project/idea?� and so on for each SWOT category. List each point that the community thinks of when answering the question in the appropriate box. Strengths: characteristics of the project/idea that give it an advantage over others Weaknesses: characteristics of the project/idea that give it a disadvantage over others Opportunities: external chances to improve the project/ community/community members Threats: external elements that could cause trouble to the project/community/community members

Strengths

Weaknesses

Opportunities

Threats

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APPENDIX N: PAIRWISE RANKING

Pairwise Ranking: A Participative Prioritization Tool Pairwise Ranking is a prioritization method. This matrix may be used to prioritize community projects that have been identified by residents. Facilitators can use this prioritization method in their break out groups to identify the top 3 projects within the group. A consensus oriented discussion should be used to complete the matrix in a small group. Facilitators may also use this exercise in large groups, to determine overall project prioritization within a community. A majority rule system should be used to complete the matrix in a large group. How:

1. 2.

The first step is to have community members identify community projects. List these projects numerically. Construct a pairwise matrix. Each box in the matrix represents the pairing of the two projects and will be used to compare the two projects against each other. Example:

3.

Rank each project by comparing them against each other. Have the residents determine which of the two projects is preferred. For each project that is preferred, write the number in the appropriate box. Repeat with each project identified so that each project is compared against the other. Example: Project 1: Policing Group Project 2: Community Group Project 3: Community Map Project 4: Pedestrian Walkway Project 5: Street Signs

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1 and 2 are compared: 1 is preferred

The first box will be comparing a Policing Group and a Community Group. Whichever the residents decide they prefer between the two, write the number in the first box.

1 and 3 are compared: 1 is preferred

The second box will compare a Policing Group and Community Map. Once the first column has been completed, comparing Project 1 to all other projects, begin the second column, comparing Project 2 with the remaining projects. Continue until all columns have been complete and all boxes are full.

When the matrix is complete, it will look something like this:

4.

Count the number of times each project number appears. The projects will be ranked/prioritized based on the number of times it appears in the matrix.

Project

1

2

3

4

5

Count

4

2

1

0

3

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Priority

Note:

First

Third

Fourth

Fifth

Second

If there is a tie between two projects (the same count for both), look at the box that compares the two projects, the project that is written in that box receives the higher ranking.

5.

Reconvene as a whole group. List the top 3 priority projects from each breakout group on a large piece of flip chart paper. Create a matrix based on the number of total projects identified. Carry out the pairwise ranking exercise, comparing each of the top priority projects to determine the priority projects of the community as a whole. When comparing two projects, ask the residents to raise their hand to indicate which project they prefer. Use majority rule to determine which project is preferred.

6.

Complete the prioritization table to determine the ranking of each project. The result is a list of prioritized projects, determined through a participatory approach to community engagement

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APPENDIX O: MULTI CRITERIA EVALUATION Multi-Criteria Evaluation: Prioritization Technique This technique is used to rank projects in priority order. It measures criteria against community projects to understand which value is most important to a community. It ensures that all important values to a community are considered when ranking a project. Steps:

1. 2. 3. 4.

Create a table listing the projects in a column and the criteria in a row along the top. Calculate the number of counters each person receives by multiplying the number of projects by the number of criteria. Have the community members allocate their counters based on their preference/what is most important to them. People should weight their distribution based on their strongest-weakest feeling. Count the number of counters allocated to each project. The project with the most counters is the priority project.

Example: This shows the results of one person completing the exercise with their 9 counters.

Criteria Project

Increased Security Street Lights

IIIIII

This person has indicated that ‘Increased security’ is most important to them because havethey put most Increased This Increased person hasResults: indicated that ‘Increased security’ is most important to themthey because have of put most of their coun their counters in that box. The next most important thing employment youth # of activity Counters to this person is ‘Increased employment’ because they 6 put the next greatest number of counters in that box, followed by ‘Increased youth activity’.

Playground Farmers Market

I

1 2

II 71


APPENDIX P: REFERENCE MATERIALS Aslin, Heather and Brown, Valerie. (2004). Towards Whole of Community Engagement: A Practical Toolkit. Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry. Government of Australia. Bowron, Beate and Davidson, Gary. (2011). Climate Change Adaptation Planning: A Nunavut Toolkit. Canadian Institute of Planners. Dorfman, Diane. (1998). Mapping Community Assets Workbook. Strengthening Community Education: The Basis for Sustainable Renewal. Northwest Regional Education Lab., Portland, Oregon. International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. (2009). A practical step by step VCA guide for Red Cross and Red Crescent field practitioners and volunteers. International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, South East Asia Regional Office. Kretzman, John and McKnight, John P. (1996). Assets Based Community Development. Willey Periodicals. Kusek, Jody Zall and Rist, Ray C. (2004) Ten Steps to a Results-Based Monitoring and Evaluation System: A Handbook for Development Practitioners. The World Bank. Turner, Mark and Hume, David. (1997). Governance, Administration and Development: Making the State Work. West Hartford, CN: Kumarian Press. P.146.

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Community Planning Toolkit