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TALL BUILDINGS IN HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS FORHISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS WITH HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS AROUND HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS AND HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS AT HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS BEFORE HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS AFTER HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS ABOVE HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS BEYOND HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS OVER HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS INTO HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS UNDER HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS BELOW HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS AMONG HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS AS HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS BEHIND HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS BESIDES HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS BETWEEN HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS BUT HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS AMID HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS DESPITE HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS FOLLOWING HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS FROM HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS INSIDE HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS OUTSIDE HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS LIKE HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS OFF HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS ONTO HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS OPPOSITE HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS PAST HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS NEAR HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS SINCE HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS REGARDING HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS PLUS HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS BY HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS EXCLUDING HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS CONSIDERING HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS TOWARDS HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS DURING HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS PER HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS VERSUS HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS VIA HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS UNLIKE HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS REGARDING HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS SINCE HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS UNTIL HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS UPON HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS THROUGH HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS VIA HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS WITHIN HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS WITHOUT HISTORIC CENTERS


TALL BUILDINGS IN

HISTORIC CENTERS


This publication has been prepared as part of the thirteen week graduate thesis research program in the Northeastern University School of Architecture in the Fall 2012 as part of the ARCH7130 course. All research and content in this publication was produced by the Tall Buildings in Historic Centers studio research team.

Published by Northeastern University School of Architecture 360 Huntington Avenue Boston, Massachusetts 02115 Copyright Š 2012 by Northeastern University School of Architecture All rights reserved


Tall Buildings in Historic Centers Research Team

Paul DiMiceli Christine Greene Dan Joyce Reem Kanoo Hao Li Jeanette Lin Tim Loranger Melissa Murphy Evan Parkinson

Led by

David Turturo


6

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers

Welcome to Tall Buildings in Historic Centers. This book is the visual impulse of our shared search into the subject. Though slim in volume, the plot is stacked with information specific to the disparate stratospheres of landmarks-organizations and tall buildings - because often the two collide. What interests us about this study is not just the finite practice of the collision – with its metrics, legislations, and countless built examples – but also the broader disciplinary problem (or promise) that the collision poses for architecture. The possibility that the surging capital motives of private real-estate development and the weight of social value can exist side-by-side – or bound – reassures the role of the architect in the future shaping of cities. More profoundly, this alludes to the responsibility an architect can hold in shaping history and capitalism. For example, the extent to which our history remains in the public domain is not set in stone. Neither are the limitations that civic groups determine for our signature skylines. There are two traits that distinguish this volume amongst analyses in architecture today. The book pursues “urbanity” as opposed to context and “axonometry” rather than experience. In other words - this research strives to illustrate the conditions of collectivity: the intersections of memory, space, regulation, and ambition on the one hand; then to articulate these in three measurable dimensions. It is in this vain that we study constraints and precedents. For example civic groups like the Boston Redevelopment Authority, play an important role in shaping Boston’s skyline.


PREFACE We define the following to be used throughout this book. Tall Building noun any realized building of at least 240 feet in height, determined as the necessary minimum for the accurate comparison of world-wide city centers History noun the evolution and record of past phenomena that can be objectively studied and criticized in the creation of a contemporary model rooted in current times and traditions Center noun a place or group of buildings where a specified activity is geographically concentrated; the point from which an activity or process is directed, or on which it is focused

Precedents


Historic Organizations Zoning Code Financing

Paris New York Milan London Dubai Chicago Hong Kong Bejing Boston

CONSTRAINTS 13

CITY CENTERS 01

8 Tall Buildings in Historic Centers


Precedents

Scraping Infrastructure 33 Arch Street Old State House One Penn Plaza PanAm Building Prudential Tower The Standard Hotel

Scraping Neighbor 500 Park Ave Atlantic Wharf Bank of America Tower Citicorp Center Customs House Tower Exchange Place Hearst Tower Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary Penn Mutual Tower

Scraping Neighborhood John Hancock Tower One Boston Place Seagram Building Seven World Trade Center

PROJECTIONS 125

TALL BUILDINGS 85


CITY CENTERS


2

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers

5

5

1

1

0 mi

Paris

0 mi


5

5

1

1

0 mi

New York City

0 mi

City Centers


4

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers

5

5

1

1

0 mi

Milan

0 mi


5

5

1

1

0 mi

London

0 mi

City Centers


6

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers

5

5

1

1

0 mi

Dubai

0 mi


5

5

1

1

0 mi

0 mi

Dubai (continued)

City Centers


8

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers

5

5

1

1

0 mi

Chicago

0 mi


5

5

1

1

0 mi

Hong Kong

0 mi

City Centers


10

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers

5

5

1

1

0 mi

Beijing

0 mi


5

5

1

1

0 mi

Boston

0 mi

City Centers


3’

1’

10’

2’

34’ <30’ or <1/4 MAX. DIAGONAL DIM.

10 0’

0’

0

1

D C B

>2.5W 6’

250’ MAX. 44” MIN. 50’ MAX.

≥44”

FAR =

A 15’

20’

L1

20’

15’

H 15 ft min

15’

10’

5’

or st

s ie

5

or st

s ie

L

B

4

1

4

1

7

7

B

00

15 ft min

00

25’

0

295’

0

2

1

155’

465’ (max H)

SB 3

295’

S

155’ 400’ (max H)

5

S

70’ (street wall)

125’ (street wall)


CONSTRAINTS

MBTA railway people tree canopy MBTA railway stop flight lines

1000’

1,000’ 700’

’ 12

Maximum height

Maximum height

and setbacks as

and setbacks as

determined in

determined in

design review

design review

50’

35’

200’

$100 / SF = $1,000 ft yr

total lot area (TLA)

100’ 50’ 0’

15’

40’

35’ 350’ (max H) 235’

35’

400’ (max H)

115’

90’ (street wall)

4

39

2

ie or

st

s

ie or st

23

1

or st

ie

s

10

o st

rie

s

5

0’ 10

0’

42

48 s ie 400’ (max H) or 300’ st

125’ (street wall)

ie or st

42

ie or

st

s

s

s

00

1

7

00

00

125’ (street wall)

s

50

40

ie or st

s

7

ie or st

13

s

7

or st

s ie 5

0’

ie or st

s

5

40

13

s

8

1

rie

4

ie or st

st

25

s

21

ie or

2

3

10

o st

35’

0

4

33

48

total building area (TBA)

$ / SF = lease value yr

100’

100’

40’

15’

36

400’

ie or st

s

ie or st

s

13

ie or st

s


14

In history-laden Boston there are many sites protected by the Boston Landmarks Commission (BLC) and the National Trust of Historic Places (NTHP). The BLC controls the process in which a Boston building can be considered a landmark. Separate from the NTHP, the Commission follows a similar format to the national trust. Buildings to be considered for landmark designation are nominated by an individual or group who feels as though the building merits such recognition. It is primarily façade elements that are considered for landmark designation and may include fenestration, texture, street presence and architectural elements. With this effective preservation process securely in place, Bostonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s rich history is increasingly woven into new development of tall buildings. Facades are the most common relic in the realization of new tall buildings.

Historic Commissions

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers

facade reacts to landmark modern column grid modern texture/facade sensitivity to landmark historic facade historical elements preserved historical street presence remains


PROCESS TO BECOME A BOSTON LANDMARK

PUBLIC

TESTIMONIAL

PRIVATE

HEARING

WRITTEN PETITION SUBMITTED

CITY HALL HEARING

Testimonial submitted to Boston Landmarks Commission

Initial meeting open to the public Report ямБled after hearing

VOTE VOTE BY THE COMMISSION Proposal must be approved by 2/3 of the Commission

MOTION PASSED STRUCTURE NOW A LANDMARK Signed into law by the mayor of Boston

PROCESS TO BECOME A NATIONAL LANDMARK

PUBLIC

REGISTRATION BUILDING IS EVALUATED Building must be 50 years old Structure is then placed on the Federal Register

PRIVATE

REPORT

REPORT PREPARED BY CONGRESS Advisory board makes comments on report in preparation for the testimony

VOTE ADVISORY BOARD VOTES Board has 30 days to approve or deny landmark request

MOTION PASSED LANDMARK IS ESTABLISHED Property is placed on the National Register 6-8 weeks after Advisory Board Vote

Constraints


16

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers

1,000 ft


1775 1826 2012

Constraints


18

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers


Constraints


20

Landmarks in Boston are mainly dictated by the regulations of the BRA and the Landmarks Commission. (from left): Individual buildings can be designated as landmarks also districts can be declared landmarks. Zones of preservation are also another common way to control development around a protected site. Building heights adjacent to, or on top of landmarks are controlled by groups such as the BRA and the BCDC.

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers


PROCESS TO CHANGE A BOSTON LANDMARK

PUBLIC

PRIVATE

APPLICATION

REVIEW

APPLY BUILDING PERMIT

LANDMARKS HEARING

Application for building permit submitted to Landmarks Commission

Building characteristics such as texture, facade work, and architectural elements are considered

VOTE VOTE BY THE COMMISSION Proposal must be approved by 2/3 of the Commission

MOTION PASSED WORK MAY BEGIN Building permit granted and work may begin


Flour and Grain Exchange Building Stock Exchange Building

Ames Building

Old South Church

Trinity Church

Church of the Covenant

Bunker Hill Monument

Park Street Church

Old North Church

Faneuil Hall

Old South Meeting House

Old State House

1900

1800

1700

22 Tall Buildings in Historic Centers

1000’

700’

400’

200’

100’ 50’ 0’


Constraints

One Hundred Eleven Huntington

International Place

Exchange Place

John Hancock Tower Federal Reserve Bank Building

One Boston Place

Prudential Tower

Christian Science Center Tower

John Hancock Berkeley Building New England Telephone Building

Citco Sign New England Mutual Life Insurance Building

United Shoe Machinery Company Building

Custom House Tower

2000

1900


28

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers

General District Zoning Laws Exceptions IMS

121A

URD

PDA / EDA

Pre-review Planning Meeting Applicant Initiating the Reivew Putblic Notice (within 45 days) BRA Review and Approval (within 60 days) Certificate of Consistency Zoning Commision Approval Issurance of Permit The Boston Redevelopment Authority (BRA) dictates zoning restrictions in Boston. Zoning tells developers where they can build, how tall they can build, and how some qualities of shared spaces can be preserved. While general district codes apply to most of the city, there are exceptions in some districts that allow developers the opportunity to build taller. This section will focus on the potentials of these Planned Development Areas (PDAs) and latent opportunities to reinvent Bostonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s historic skyline. (clockwise starting top left): Institutional Master Plan Urban Renewal Development 121A Designation Planned Development Area

Zoning


PRIVATE

PUBLIC

INSTITUTION

ECONOMIC

GOVERNMENT

COMMUNITY

IMS

121A

URD

PDA

INSTITUTIONAL MASTER PLAN

121A DESIGNATION

URBAN RENEWAL DESIGNATION

PLANNED DEVELOPMENT AREA

Zoning exceptions for institutions over 100,000 sf

Gives BRA power to create zoning for specific sites

Clear parcels for development

Public Process

Needs to relate to institution’s overall plan

Allows re-negotiation of pre-established property tax (15 years max.)

Parcels owned by BRA

Have to prove how it fits into context of environment

Requires approval by zoning commission

$$

Constraints


30

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers

L1

H

L

(opposite): A: Street Wall B: Height 1 C: Height 2 D: Maximum Height SB: Setbacks (top): L: Length of wall parallel (or within 45o of parallel) to lot line, measured parallel to lot line. L1: Length of wall parallel (or within 45o of parallel) to lot line, measured parallel to lot line at greatest length above the height below which no setback is required. H: Height of building above the height below which no setback is required.

25â&#x20AC;&#x2122;


D C B A

15 ft min

less than 90 ft

Boylston St

1

2

3

SB

SB

15 ft min

less than 65 ft

SB

Boylston St

Constraints


32

FAR =

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers

total building area (TBA) total lot area (TLA)

FAR is the measurement that determines the volumetric coverage of the built area within its plot. The higher the allowable FAR of a district, the more dense it becomes with built fabric. (left): The city is scaled in height according to each districtâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s maximum allowable FAR. (right): The zoning of the city allows opportunities to add density through Planned Development Areas (rendered in blue).


Constraints


Tall Buildings in Historic Centers

24 ’

district zoning height limit

34

ie or st

s

21

100 ft

13

s

lot coverage: height: stories: TBA: TLA: district FAR:

40% 60 ft 5 20,000 sf 10,000 sf 2

Government Center lot coverage: height: stories: TBA: TLA: district FAR:

70% 120 ft 5 70,000 sf 10,000 sf 7

10

0’ 10

0’

Fixed Story Height: 12 ft

lot coverage: height: stories: TBA: TLA: district FAR:

24% 396 ft 33 80,000 sf 10,000 sf 8

Fort Point lot coverage: height: stories: TBA: TLA: district FAR:

23% 156 ft 13 30,000 sf 10,000 sf 3

PDA lot coverage: height: stories: TBA: TLA: district FAR:

23% 156 ft 13 30,000 sf 10,000 sf 3

88 ’

23 ’

70

77

77% 156 ft 13 100,000 sf 10,000 sf 10

Bulfinch Triangle lot coverage: height: stories: TBA: TLA: district FAR:

ri

o st

88% 96 ft 8 70,000 sf 10,000 sf 7

es

10

0’ 10

PDA

Fixed Site: 10,000 sf

s

ie or st

8

North End Business

12

ie or st

s

0’ 10

40

s

North End Waterfront lot coverage: height: stories: TBA: TLA: district FAR:

10

13

0’ 10

40% 60 ft 5 20,000 sf 10,000 sf 2

s

0’ 10

lot coverage: height: stories: TBA: TLA: district FAR:

ie or st

0’ 10

North End Local Business

5

0’ 10

s

40

5

ie or st

ie or st

ie or st

50 ’

23

33

Cambridge St. North lot coverage: height: stories: TBA: TLA: district FAR:

50% 120 ft 10 50,000 sf 10,000 sf 5

ie or st

s


36 ’

lot coverage: height: stories: total area: lot area: district FAR:

40% 300 ft 25 100,000 sf 10,000 sf 10

42

ie or st

s

Leather District / South Station lot coverage: height: stories: TBA: TLA: district FAR:

86% 84 ft 7 60,000 sf 10,000 sf 6

PDA lot coverage: height: stories: total area: lot area: district FAR:

36% 468 ft 39 140,000 sf 10,000 sf 14

4

Dorchester Bay lot coverage: height: stories: TBA: TLA: district FAR:

40% 60 ft 5 20,000 sf 10,000 sf 2

s 5

4

0

5

rie

o st

Neponset River lot coverage: height: stories: TBA: TLA: district FAR:

40% 60 ft 5 20,000 sf 10,000 sf 2

rie

o st

s

s

7

Midtown Cultural lot coverage: height: stories: TBA: TLA: district FAR:

70% 156 ft 13 90,000 sf 10,000 sf 9

PDA lot coverage: height: stories: total area: lot area: district FAR:

48% 504 ft 42 200,000 sf 10,000 sf 20

7

7

8

o st

ie or st

13

0

86 ’

PDA

4

0’ 10

86% 84 ft 7 60,000 sf 10,000 sf 6

7

s rie

0’ 10

lot coverage: height: stories: TBA: TLA: district FAR:

13

s

0’ 10

40% 60 ft 5 20,000 sf 10,000 sf 2

ie or st

0’ 10

lot coverage: height: stories: TBA: TLA: district FAR:

Chinatown

s

s

0’ 10

Charlestown

7

s

0’ 10

0’ 10

40 ’

5

rie

o st

ie or st

s

42

s

0’

25

6

40 ’

39

rie to

ie or st

8

8

4

Huntington Ave / Prudential lot coverage: height: stories: TBA: TLA: district FAR:

77% 156 ft 13 100,000 sf 10,000 sf 10

PDA lot coverage: height: stories: total area: lot area: district FAR:

48% 504 ft 42 200,000 sf 10,000 sf 20

ie or st

s


Tall Buildings in Historic Centers

ing

ton

St.

36

Wa sh

1 5

Milk St.

St

.

Boston Common

hi ng

to n

2 W as

35’

2 15’ 35’

15’

4

H

235’

35’

115’

Hawle

15’ 10’

Fr

an

St

.

kli

n

n

.

St

hi ng

to

.

15’

400’ (max. H) 155’ 90’ (street wall)

15’

10’

275’ (max. H) Es 155’ se xS 90’ (street wall) t.

15’

.

15’

25’

Tr em

Tr em

on

tS

on

t.

tS

t.

W as

hi

ng

to n

St

.

5

300’ (max. H) 235’ 155’ 90’ (street wall)

r ua St

W as

hi

ng

to

n

W as

hi

St

.

ng

to n

St

15’

t.

tS

2

4

3

.

St

625’ (max. H) 155’ 90’ (street wall)

W as

St

1

Midtown District

10’

y Pl

t.

in

yS

kl

wle

ton

an

Ha

St.

Fr

Wa sh ing

3

15’

90’ (street wall)

35’

y

le

aw

350’ (max H)


ston

Boly

1

St.

ston

Boly

St.

4

2 .

ti

un

H

3

e Av

.

setbacks as 465’ (max. H) 155’ 80 (street wall)

setbacks as determined in ere St.design review

Huntington Ave. District

ston

80’

determined in design review Dar

setbacks as

. Av e on

St.

y 2

40

in gt

uth

design review

lle Al

4

tmo

determined in 80’ 155’ 242’ (max. H)

lic

ere St.

10’

b Pu

Belvid

ti

un

H

St.

and setbacks as

e Av

Hu nt

design review

311’ (max. H) 155’ 80 (street wall)

t. rt S Stua Maximum height

.

on

t ng

ere St.

e Av

St.

ston

setbacks as

Belvid

ti

un

H

on

t ng

1

Boly

determined in

design review

32’

1

Boly

determined in

125’ (entry facade)

Belvid

1

on

t ng

Constraints


38

Midtown District

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers


Huntington Avenue District


40

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers

20’

20’

15’

nd

2

St. 15’

10’

an Atl

ela

e Kn

tic

5’

e. Av

co

Lin t.

ln S

1

125’ (street wall)

70’ (street wall)

155’

155’

1

South Station EDA

295’

295’

400’ (max H)

2

465’ (max H)

50’

3 40’ 2

40’

1

North Station EDA

1

400’ (max H) 125’ (street wall)

s

au

C

ay

ew

.

St

Nashua St.

Nashua St.

35’ 400’ (max H) 300’ 125’ (street wall)

2

s

au

C

ay

ew

.

St


Maximum height and setbacks as

1

determined in design review

Downtown District

1

Maximum height and setbacks as

1

determined in design review

Boston Proper District_Backbay

1

Constraints


42

South Station District

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers


North Station District


44

Downtown District

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers


Boston Proper District


46

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers

Kne

elan

dS

t.

2

Marg

inal

1

5’

Rd.

Kn

ee

la

nd

St .

300’ (max. H) 90’ (street wall)

1

Chinatown District

2

1

d

lan

ee

Kn

.

St

50’ (from the end dock)

2

12’ (from the side of the dock)

250’ (max. H) 250’ (max. H)

Fort Point Harbor Water Front District

1

2

125’ (max. H) 90’ (street wall)


Fort Point Harbor Water Front District


48

Chinatown District

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers


Constraints


54

Building height, width and other characteristics are influenced by code in every building. Code alters dimensions such as corridor widths, elevator cab sizes and stair-rise and run. More broadly, the location of cores, egress stairs and the distance between them is also a result of the rules established by code. These are life safety issues that specifically address the spread of flames along with other potential dangers for those occupying the building. There are also quality of space issues addressed by code that may include light sharing and access to air. This section outlines code requirements for both the larger measures within a building as well as the smaller scale human comfort conditions.

Code

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers

diagonal distance (dashed, top) building height spandrel panel core ďŹ&#x201A;oor to ďŹ&#x201A;oor height building length building width


UNDER 75 FEET

OVER 75 FEET

OVER 120 FEET

OVER 420 FEET

LOW RISE

HIGH RISE

HIGH RISE

SUPER HIGH RISE

IBC & LOCAL CODE APPLIES

HIGH RISE CODE CHANGES APPLIES

ADDITIONAL FIRE SERVICE ACCESS ELEVATOR

ADDITIONAL EGRESS & HIGHER RATING

Must be constructed of noncombustible material

No fewer than two fire service elevators required

Additional exit stairway or fire elevator required

Shafts and vertical penetrations must be enclosed to prevent the spread of smoke and fire Stair enclosures are to be seperated by at least 30 feet or not less than 1/4 the length of the max. diagonal dimension, whichever is less

Hardened exit and elevator shafts, concrete or masonry accepted (risk categories III and IV also) Min. bond strength for sprayed fire-resistant materials increases

Constraints


56

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers

50’ max.

<30’ or <1/4 max. diagonal dim.

44” min. >2.5W

250’ max.

(top): These This illustrate two plansthe illustrate constraints the constraints of exit access of exit access (IBC 1016.1), (IBC 1016.1), corridorcorridor width (1018.2), width (1018.2), dead dead ends ends (1018.4), (1018.4), and stair andenclosures stair enclosures (403.5.1). (403.5.1). (opposite, top left): To prevent the spread of fire, exterior openings that are within 5 feet horizontally must be separated separated with withthe thebelow belowstory storybybyatatleast least 3 3 feet.This feet. Thisisistypically typicallydone donewith withaa spandrel spandrel panel panel.or in a masonry building by utilizing punched openings. (opposite, top right): Minimum ceiling height is typically 7’-6”, (opposite, right):but As itbuilding may beheight reduced increases to 6’-8” from in some 75’ (left) instances. to 120’ (middle) an additional fire-service access elevator is required. At 420’ (right) egress (opposite, right): requirements change As building as well height as increases fire resistance from 75’ (left) to 120’ (middle) an additional fire-service ratings. access elevator is required. At 420’ (right) egress requirements change as well as fire resistance ratings.

≥44”


58

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers

65/5/37,500 sf Type II - A

UL/UL/UL Type I - A

(right): Allowable building height, number of stories and proportional floor area may be limited due to occupancy group and construction type. Also defined by construction type, fully sprinklered buildings may be allowed reductions in fire-resistance ratings. (opposite, left) A typical plan for a high rise office building. (opposite, middle): A transfer slab is needed at every floor where there is a transfer between elevator banks. (opposite, right): In super tall, those taller than 1,000 feet, banking of elevators are needed to minimize the shafts in the core. At every 15 floors a shift of elevators and at every 36 floors a skylobby is used. Next to the banking of elevators there are also shuttles that lead a person directly to the upper floors.

I - Type A

I - Type B

II - Type A

55/3/19,000 sf Type III -B

II - Type B

High Rise <420’

High Rise Other than F-1, M, S-1

Columns supporting floors have no reduction in fire rating.


Constraints


60

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers

3’ 1’ 7’ - 6” min. ceiling height. 6’ - 8” no more than 50% of egress path may be reduced to

10’ 2’

34’

15’

(left): Minimum ceiling height is 7’-6”, but it may be reduced to 6’-8” in some instances. (right): Exterior openings are to open to the outdoors to yards and court. Yard and court sizes are set to provide minimum dimensions for light wells and backyards of multistory buildings so that these areas provide real light and air to the spaces they serve. (opposite, right): If an interior room is shared with the main room it must have the minimum of 10% of the interior square footage opening in order to allow natural light from the main room.

6’


10% of 25sf

Constraints


62

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers


1775 2012

1826

Constraints


64

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers


Constraints


66

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers

building height

plan size

building articulation

The costs inherent in realizing tall buildings are a major influence in shaping the Boston skyline. Design components, construction methods, and lease and land values are examples of the types of costs that determine the viability of a tall building. Many tall building designs incorporate features that are highly desired by a variety of different user groups; provision of amenities justifies higher than average lease rates, necessary for the building owner to make back some of the buildingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s initial costs. Land value is arguably one of the more significant constituents in placing tall buildings within the larger city extents. In a city of great historical significance, the distribution of its landmarks in part determines the value of Bostonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s districts and consequently the clustering of its tall buildings.

Economic

lift strategy building facade

building proportion

building structure

building uses site constraints


$$$$

STRUCTURE

SITE WORK

CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION

ADDITIONAL PROCESSES & COSTS

$$

$$$$

UTILITY

WATER

$$

EROSION

TABLES

UNION

FACADE CONTRACTORS’ PRELIMINARIES

STEEL CONSTRUCTION

INFRASTRUCTURE

CRANES

$$

$$

LANDMARKS

$$

BCDC

$$

SOILS

ENGINEER

SOILS

ENGINEER

$

$

$

$

$$

PERMIT

DESIGN

$$$ Constraints


68

Different methods of construction affect the cost of tall buildings. Here, typical processes for poured-inplace concrete and steel construction are shown, common construction methods for tall buildings in Boston.

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers


70

(above): Class A buildings represent the highest quality of leasable commercial space and are often commercial buildings constructed after 1970. They provide leased spaces by suite and consequently house many different tenants. Typical vacancy is 5.5%. (center): Class B buildings are the second highest quality of commercial building leases available. These buildings were commonly built from 18001925 and have undergone significant renovations to incorporate features such as elevators, lobbies, heating systems, and replacement windows. They also offer property leased by suite. Typical vacancy rate is 18.9%. (right): Class C buildings are characterized as suboptimal commercial property for leasing conditions, and represent the lowest rating for commercial space. They typically are buildings built from 1800-1925 that have not undertaken appropriate levels of renovation.

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers


72

Desired features and amenities may raise the consumer value of a tall building and enable higher lease rates to offset the buildingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s initial construction costs. These amenities include street frontage, retail, parking, proximity to services and public transit; corner offices, security, elevators, and an inviting lobby.

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers


74

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers

1,000’

100’

100’

$ / SF

= lease value

yr $100 / SF yr

= $1,000 ft

A comparison of the heights of current and potential future tall buildings with the relative lease values of these buildings presents a more dense Boston skyline. Historic landmarks provide scale and logic for tall building clustering.


Constraints


76

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers


Constraints


78

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers

$380/sf

The land values of Bostonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s many districts are determined by a number of factors, such as availability of unoccupied parcels. A mapping of historical landmarks across the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s individual districts reveals correlations between the presence of history, tall buildings, and high land value. (clockwise starting top left): Central Boston, $380/sf; Back Bay, $302/sf; South End, $174/sf; Charleston, $118/sf; Fenway/Kenmore, $109/sf; South Boston, $44/sf; East Boston, $40/sf; Jamaica Plain, $32/ sf; Allston/Brighton, $30/sf; West Roxbury, $27/sf; Mattapan, $23/sf; Hyde Park/Roslindale, $22/sf; Dorchester, $18/sf; Roxbury, $16/sf.

$95/sf

$0/sf


Constraints


TALL BUILDINGS


86

The John Hancock Tower is obliquely placed at the southeast corner of Copley Square in Boston’s Back Bay, adjacent to H.H. Richardson’s Trinity Church and the John Hancock Berkeley Building. Its singular, monolithic form and trapezoidal floor plan accentuated the sharpness of this angle and minimize its presence within the square. A highly reflective glass façade mirrors the historic architecture surrounding a triangular entry plaza at the tower’s base. At upper levels, the tower disappears into the afternoon sky reflected in the facade. The placement, shape and reflectivity of the tower combine to honor the historic architecture and reduce the impact of a sixty-story building on the neighborhood.

John Hancock Tower

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers


Constraints


Tall Buildings in Historic Centers

One Boston Place

0 20

One Boston Place is situated at the intersection of State and Washington Streets in Bostonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s historic financial district. The corner is home to the Old State House and the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s first skyscraper, the thirteenstory, masonry structure Ames Building. The dark and structurally expressive 600 foot tower is among the tallest in the city and commands a sense of permanence amid the skyline while diminishing its presence at the ground level, meeting it at only the core and each corner. The sides of the base are open and do not compete with the historic architecture opposite each street.

ft

600 ft

88


Constraints


90

The Seagram Building steps back from Park Avenue in midtown Manhattan and surrenders space to an urban plaza in response to the neo-classical Racquet Club of McKim, Mead and White directly opposite. The plaza creates habitable public space in the dense urban environment and reflects the architecture of the historic club through materiality, symmetry and the classical proportioning of the towerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s structural bays. An abstract representation of a neo-classical column can further be found in the composition of the tower and expressed in the vertical fluting of the mullion applique.

Seagram Building

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers


Constraints


Tall Buildings in Historic Centers

Seven World Trade Center is located within the dense urban fabric of lower Manhattan in close proximity to the World Trade Center Memorial. The oblique plan and reflective façade of the building cloud its profile so that is seamlessly vanishes into the sky. This effect respects the adjacency of the memorial and produces a minimal impact on the sensitive site. It also creates an airiness not found in the surrounding buildings and a welcome contrast to the neighborhoodâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s density.

Seven World Trade Center

0

25

ft

75 ft

668 ft

92


Constraints


94

to be contiguous with the existing 500 Park Avenue building. It was required to contain an area as a great as possible, despite the siteâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s small size. The new building complements the original one by maintaining the masonry context o f old Park Avenue Curtainwall elements reminiscent of the original 500 Park Avenue are interwoven with a granite facade to integrate the two buildings. A cantilevered glass volume enlarges the footprint of the tower.

500 Park Avenue

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers


Constraints


96

Atlantic Wharf is located along Bostonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s historic Fort Point Channel and incorporates three existing mercantile buildings. The Russia Building which fronts Atlantic Avenue is preserved in its entirety while the brick facades of the other two buildings are renovated and form the base of the thirty-twostory tower. The restorations of the old warehouses preserve the texture of the historic site and recall its once maritime industrial function, a theme that is expressed throughout the buildingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s details. The primary entry is located between the Russia Building and the base of the tower, creating a ninety-foot atrium that highlights the brick façade at the rear of the Russia Building.

Atlantic Wharf

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers


Constraints


98

The Bank of America Tower is sited at the northwest corner of historic Bryant Park in midtown Manhattan and preserves the existing façade of the Henry Miller Theater on Forty-Third Street. Landmark policy allows the theater interior to be reconstructed while restoring the exterior as an element in the tower’s façade and retaining an important piece of Broadway history. The canopy height in the park and the massing of the surrounding buildings influence the form of the tower at its base near the park.

Bank of America Tower

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers


25’-0”

Constraints


100

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers

Citicorp Center is located on Lexington Avenue in midtown Manhattan on the site of St. Peterâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s church, originally built in 1905. To accommodate the historic structure, the building is set on four nine-story stilts positioned at the center of each façade that allow its corners to cantilever seventy two feet above the church and a public plaza below. This cantilevering is possible because of a structural system consisting of six eight-story inverted chevron trusses that transfer their load onto the four centered piers. 9 stories

Citicorp Center


Constraints


102

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers

The Custom House Tower that features prominently amid Boston’s waterfront skyline was an early twentieth century addition to the original, midnineteenth century Greek revival building which forms the tower’s base. At the time of its construction, the tower was allowed to exceed the city’s 125 foot height limit because it was federally owned, making it the tallest building in the city for half a century. The structure of the tower preserves the historic dome at the center of the old building and creates an expansive public space within it. 140’

Custom House Tower

75’


Constraints


104

Exchange Place is located at the intersection of State and Congress Streets in Bostonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s historic financial district, steps from the Boston Massacre site. The 500 foot glass tower steps back from its State Street front and retains the twelve-story, rusticated stone façade on the nineteenth century Boston Stock Exchange. The primary entrance, on Congress Street, is placed between the rear of old building and the base of the tower, creating a six-story atrium that highlights the connection to the historic building and contrasts the architectural styles.

Exchange Place

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers


Constraints


106

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers

40 ft module spans 4 floors

The Hearst Tower utilizes the cast stone façade of the original, 1928 headquarters building as the sixstory base of a 600 foot glass tower. The initial plan of the old building proposed the future construction of a skyscraper; it was delayed by the great depression and realized nearly seventy years later. The contrast between the historic façade and the tower’s steel structure is displayed in the open atrium space a level above the public entry. This structure forms a diagonal grid on the tower’s façade and stands out amid its surroundings near Columbus Circle in midtown Manhattan.

Hearst Tower


Constraints


108

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers

The Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary consists of the original 1824 building and an addition that expands the space within the boundaries of the existing site while maintaining as much of the old building as possible. The tower accommodates both constraints by adding vertical space that stays within the tight limits and slipping over the shell of the original building. It utilizes three large piers to receive the forces of the tower above without obstructing the faรงade of the historic building. 3 stories

Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary


Constraints


110

The Penn Mutual Tower is an addition to the existing tower facing the Independence National Historical Park. The site also has the historic Pennsylvania Fire Insurance Company building with an Egyptian Revival facade designed by John Haviland in 1838. New tower design retained the historic facade as a freestanding screen at the base, relating to the beginning of the company and maintaining a historic scale responding to the Independence. The old facade gives scale to the new tower. The recessed entry to the new tower is around the facade, not through it, creating an interesting contrast between the new glass facade and the old stone facade. On the side of the tower detached screens of square openings shaded the curtain wall, transforming the old facade into a modern application.

Penn Mutual Tower

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers


Constraints


112

33 Arch Street rests upon a small footprint in the dense and irregular fabric of Downtown Boston. To maximize floor space the building utilizes a wingshaped plan and cantilevers twenty floors over an adjacent garage and retail structure. The existing garage connects to parking on the first six levels of the building. An existing street at the center of the block passes through the building at ground level to maintain established street patterns while providing access to the parking levels.

33 Arch Street

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers


Constraints


114

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers

65 ft

The Old State House was at one time the tallest building in Boston and now serves as a colonial history museum and entrance to the MBTA orange and blue line transfer station directly beneath it. The underground addition of the railway provides added strength for the original masonry structure and guarantees public interaction with the building outside of museum hours. The construction of the subway lines isnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t the only change the building has witnessed since the eighteenth century as the skyline of downtown Boston has dramatically grown and now dwarfs the site on all sides.

Old State House


Constraints


116

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers

40 0â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

â&#x20AC;&#x2122; 90

One Penn Plaza is located a block north of Madison Square Garden and Pennsylvania Station in midtown Manhattan. The building sits atop multiple levels of underground retail and parking infrastructure which provide direct connections to the Long Island Rail Road concourse in Pennsylvania Station. The ground level is raised several feet and populated by public plazas and retail space, including the top level of a three-story box store. The narrow building is positioned perpendicular to the major avenues and creates an adjacency with the Pennsylvania Plaza complex along the entire block.

One Penn Plaza


Constraints


118

The PanAm building is positioned at the center of Park Avenue in midtown Manhattan, between Grand Central Terminal to the south and the Helmsley Building to the north. Several lanes of traffic are accommodated to pass around and through the three buildings to maintain a continuation of the major avenue. The double-height entry level is raised one floor to accommodate the elevated railway that formerly occupied Park Avenue, resulting in a tripleheight ground floor condition that retains lost history. The 800 foot tower sits atop the Metro North Railroad platforms and serves as the modern backdrop in Park Avenue perspectives of the two historic buildings.

PanAm Building

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers


Constraints


120

The Prudential Tower is a piece of the twenty three acre complex that was formerly home to the Boston and Albany Railroad yard. The complex was originally commissioned as a regional expansion project by the Prudential Insurance Company who partnered with a developer planning to extend the Massachusetts Turnpike into Boston by following the Albany line. Bostonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Back Bay and South End neighborhoods are connected by the multi-use complex which conceals the highway and passenger rail systems transporting thousands of commuters to the city each day.

Prudential Center

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers


Constraints


122

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers

265’

The Standard Hotel straddles the elevated High Line in New York’s historic Meatpacking district. The linear public park was developed as an alternative to demolishing the abandoned rail line once pivotal to the industrial commerce of Manhattan’s West Side and creates valuable open space in the dense neighborhood. The hotel uses concrete piers and steel trusses to span the width of the High Line and invites pedestrians to pass underneath and experience the elevated mass. Concrete and glass in the hotel’s façade reflect the industrial style still evident in the surrounding urban context.

The Standard Hotel

100’


Constraints


124

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers


PROJECTIONS


126

(left) The Reflective Skyscraper: The skyscraper becomes the means of reflecting whole historical neighborhoods. (right) Additive Skyscraper: Since much of the zoning areas without set height limits are already built upon, the additive skyscraper allows these dense areas to grow taller through its own independent system.

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers


128

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers


130

(left) Second City: The transfer floor, a code requirement, opens up a whole new public/semi-public space 36 floors above the city. (right) Earthscraper: An inverted skyscraper in Boston’s Copley Square exposes systems already present within the city and allows for buildings of unrestricted “height.”

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers


132

(left) Real Estate Towers: The expanding upper floors maximize financial gains where property is most valued. (right) Parasite Towers: New towers merge programmatic elements of the existing city. They create density and height without the added burden of buying land.

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers


134

(left) Face Up-lift: Reskinning the existing fabric can create height and revitalize the face of the existing fabric. (right) Cityscraper: A skyscraper in Bostonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Charles River creates new opportunities to connect the city to its surrounding fabric, as well as providing new frames of viewing the city. This structure also becomes a method water capture and cleaning.

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers


136

(left): As the value of land increases in the prominent areas in the city more tall buildings are going to be built therefore a gradient of blue PDA towers are built from the lower land value to the higher land values (right) Scraping the Skies: To avoid the height limitations caused by interrupting flight paths, the tallest towers in the city become the airport, while the runway is supported by towers of the urban fabric. This allows the city the rest of the city to grow vertically, without restriction.

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers


138

(left) Elevated City: If everything is elevated over the flight lines, new passages of automobile, lobby spaces, and pedestrian are created at a higher level. (right) Building on Building: The new city becomes another layer of history (due to economic issues and water line rising) another city is built on top where the airlines run through the new layer. The connection between the historic layer and the new layer are the mbta lines traveling vertically.

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers


APPENDIX


BIBLIOGRAPHY

“Architectural details: Walter Gropius.” Architectural Record, Feb. 1965, 133-148. Ascher, Kate, and Rob Vroman. 2011. The heights: anatomy of a skyscraper. New York: Penguin Press. “Assessing Online - City of Boston.” City of Boston.gov. City of Boston, 2012. Web. 31 Oct. 2012. <http://www. cityofboston.gov/assessing/search/>. Benjamin, Walter, “The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction” (1968) in Illuminations, ed and tr. Hannah Arednt, Fontana, London. “Boston Civic Design Commission.” Boston Civic Design Comission - Boston Redevelopment Authority. Boston Redevelopment Authority, n.d. Web. 31 Oct. 2012. <http://www.bostonredevelopmentauthority.org/bcdc/ bcdc.asp>. “Boston Landmarks Commission.” E-mail interview with Caitlin Greeley. 19 Sept. 2012. “Cityofboston.gov - Official Web Site of the City of Boston - Thomas M. Menino, Mayor.” Landmarks Commission. N.p., n.d. Web. 01 Nov. 2012. <http://www.cityofboston.gov/landmarks>. Frampton, Kenneth. “7 World Trade Center.” SOM Journal 3 (2012) International Code Council, Building Officials and Code Administrators International, International Conference of Building Officials, and Southern Building Code Congress International. 2012. International building code. Falls Church, Va: International Code Council. Jett, Megan . “The Standard New York / Ennead Architects” 28 Jan 2012. ArchDaily. Accessed 31 Oct 2012. <http://www.archdaily.com/201783> Appendix


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Manfredo Tafuri: 9780064301084: Amazon.com: Books. N.p., n.d. Web. 31 Oct. 2012. <http://www.amazon. com/Theories-History-Architecture-Manfredo-Tafuri/dp/0064301087>. Mitchell, Ehrman B. Mitchell/Giurgola, Architects. N.p.: Mulgrave, Victoria - Images Pub Group, 1986-1998. Print. “Memorandum: Boston Civic Design Commission, October 2001.” Boston Redevelopment Authority, n.d. Web. 31 Oct. 2012. <http://www.bostonredevelopmentauthority.org/pdf/documents/bcdc/A%20CONTEXT%20 FOR%20BCDC%20PROJECT%20REVIEWS.pdf>. Mumford, Lewis. “What is a City?”, en Richard T. LeGates y Frederic Stout, The City Reader. London: Routledge, 1996. “Pan Am building, N.Y.C.” Architectural Record, May 1963, 151-158. New Oxford American Dictionary, Third Edition, Angus Stevenson and Christine A. Lindberg (editors), 2096 pages, August 2010, Oxford University Press Schliemann, Todd, Tara Leibenhaut-Tyre, Megan Miller, Mark Plechaty, Erik Madsen, and Craig D. Tracy. “Case Study: The Standard Hotel, New York.” CTBUH Journal, 2010. Web. 31 Oct. 2012. <https://www.ctbuh. org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=KfS%2BUs7vm8E%3D&tabid=749&language=en-GB>. Tafuri, Manfredo. “Theories and History of Architecture [Paperback].” Theories and History of Architecture: “The Standard Hotel New York.” Metals in Construction, Spring 2010. Web. 31 Oct. 2012. <http://www.siny. org/media/projects/Standard.pdf>.


“The Standard Hotel New York.” Projects: Hotels and Residences. Ennead Architects, n.d. Web. 31 Oct. 2012. <http://ennead.com/>. ***Definition of Community from Villa Victoria: “local trust, intergenerational closure, the increased safety generated by informal social control and the presence of many eyes on the street…” (pg 168)

Appendix


GLOSSARY

Atmosphere noun the pervading tone or mood of a place, situation or work of art Aura noun the distinctive atmosphere or quality that seems to surround and be generated by a person, thing or place Capitalism noun an economic and political system in which a countryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state Center noun a place or group of buildings where a specified activity is geographically concentrated; the point from which an activity or process is directed, or on which it is focused Code noun a systematic collection of laws or regulations Community noun a group of people living in the same place or having a particular characteristic in common; a feeling of fellowship with others, as a result of sharing common attitudes, interests and goals Constraint noun a limitation or restriction Contextualism noun a doctrine that emphasizes the importance of the context of inquiry in a particular question District noun an area of a country or city, especially one regarded as a distinct unit because of a particular characteristic


148

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers

Economics noun the branch of knowledge concerned with the production, consumption and transfer of wealth; the condition of a region or group as regards material prosperity Finance noun the management of large amounts of money, especially by governments or large companies Globalization noun process by which the experience of everyday life, marked by the diffusion of commodities and ideas, is becoming standardized around the world History noun the evolution and record of past phenomena that can be objectively studied and criticized in the creation of a contemporary model rooted in current times and traditions Landmark noun an object or feature of a landscape or town that is easily seen and recognized from a distance, especially one that enables someone to establish their location Orthography noun a system of symbols, the conventions of a written or visual language Perspective noun a particular attitude toward or way of regarding something; a point of view Precedent noun an earlier event or action that is regarded as an example or guide to be considered in subsequent similar circumstances


Preservation noun the action of preserving something Private adjective belonging to or for the use of one particular person or group of people only; provided or owned by an individual or an independent, commercial company rather than by the government Projection noun an estimate or forecast of a future situation or trend based on a study of present ones; the presentation or promotion of someone or something in a particular way Public adjective of or concerning the people as a whole; done, perceived, or existing in open view Real Estate noun property consisting of land or buildings Significance noun the quality of being worthy of attention; importance; the meaning to be found in words or events Tall Building noun any realized building of at least 240 feet in height, determined as the necessary minimum for the accurate comparison of world-wide city centers Zoning noun an area or stretch of land having a particular characteristic, purpose, or use, or subject to particular restrictions Appendix


150

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers

Scraping Neighborhood:

Scraping Neighbor:

John Hancock Tower, 80 - 81 Architect: Henry Cobb, I.M. Pei & Partners City: Boston, Massachusetts Floor Count: 60 Height: 790 ft Completed: 1976 p80 - 81

Seven World Trade Center, 86 - 87 Architect: David Childs (SOM) City: New York, New York Floor Count: 49 Height: 743 ft Completed: 2006

CitiCorp Center, 92 - 93 Architect: Hugh Stubbins City: New York, New York Floor Count: 59 Height: 915 ft Completed: 1977

One Boston Place, 82 - 83 Architect: Pietro Belluschi City: Boston, Massachusetts Floor Count: 41 Height: 601 ft Completed: 1970

Atlantic Wharf, 88 - 89 Architect: CBT Architects City: Boston, Massachusetts Floor Count: 32 Height: 395 ft Completed: 2011

Custom House Tower, 94 - 95 Architect: Peabody, Stearns, and Furber City: Boston, Massachusetts Floor Count: 32 Height: 496 ft Completed: 1915

Seagram Building, 84 - 85 Architect: Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Philip Johnson City: New York, New York Floor Count: 38 Height: 516 ft Completed: 1958

Bank of America Tower, 90 - 91 Architect: CookFox Architects City: New York, New York Floor Count: 57 Height: 1,200 ft Completed: 2009

Exchange Place, 96 - 97 Architect: WZMH Architects City: Boston, Massachusetts Floor Count: 40 Height: 510 ft Completed: 1984


INDEX Scraping Infrastructure: Hearst Tower, 98 - 99 Architect: Foster and Partners, Gensler City: New York, New York Floor Count: 46 Height: 597 ft Completed: 2006

33 Arch Street, 104 - 105 Architect: Elkus Manfredi City: Boston, Massachusetts Floor Count: 33 Height: 477 ft Completed: 2004

Pan Am Building, 110 - 111 Architect: Emery Roth and Sons, Peter Belluschi, and Walter Gropius City: New York, New York Floor Count: 59 Height: 808 ft Completed: 1962

Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, 100 - 101 Architect: Walk Jones and Francis Mah City: Boston, MA Floor Count: 15 Height: 171 ft Completed: 1973

Old State House, 106 - 107 Architect: Original, Unknown City: Boston, Massachusetts Floor Count: 3 Height: 65 ft Completed: 1713

Prudential Tower, 112 - 113 Architect: The Luckman Partnership City: Boston, Massachusetts Floor Count: 52 Height: 749 ft Completed: 1964

Penn Mutual Tower, 102 - 103 Architect: Mitchell/Giurgola Architects City: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Floor Count: 22 Height: 375 Completed: 1975

One Penn Plaza, 108 - 109 Architect: Vornado Realty Trust City: New York, New York Floor Count: 57 Height: 751 ft Completed: 1972

The Standard Hotel, 114 - 115 Architect: Polshek Partnership Architects City: New York, New York Floor Count: 20 Height: 265 ft Completed: 2009

Appendix



Tall Buildings Test