CONTENTS PART A : 00. INTRODUCTION 06 01. ARCHITECTURE AS A DISCOURSE
02. COMPUTING IN ARCHITECTURE
03. PARAMETRIC MODELLING
PART B : 04. CASE STUDY 0.1 05. CASE STUDY 0.2:
06. INVESTIGATION 07. DEVELOPMENT PART C
ARCHITECTURE AS A
Architecture is a superior form of art which comprehends all forms of visual arts. The façade and the exterior design of architecture can be viewed as a two dimensional form of art such as painting, while the overall three dimensional design of architecture could be seen as a sculpture. However, architecture being seen as only a form of visual art is understatement and should not be conceived as a subsystem of visual art. Although architecture is expected to express the creative mind of its designer, we also expect architecture to reflect on its surroundings, historical background and social status and if it is a modern building, we expect for it to be revolutionary in some way. Architecture exists because a person or a community needs it to exist for its roles listed, not because an individual artist wants to express their creative ideas. This shows that architecture just isn’t a form of art but an autopoietic system – an individual system that communicates and interacts with many other systems. Therefore, to analyse architecture it should be analysed as a discourse and be it observed and communicated through many different mediums.
Lou Ruvo Centre for Brain Health Las Vegas Frank Gehry 2009
The Center for Brain Health by Frank Gehry is sure to interest the crowd with his wonky and constructivist style of design. The design of the building disagrees with the usual rectangular or simple geometric buildings, which reflects on architecture as a form of ‘art’. However, this architecture does not only stop with a ‘pretty’ two-dimensional façade. The steel material reflects the lighting and its change of colour through day and night is spectacular. The shape and the crazy change of the colour also reflect on the use of the building as a research centre for brain disease.1
1. http://www.dezeen.com/2010/06/17/lou-ruvo-center-for-brain-health-by-frank-gehry Image Source: http://www.dezeen.com/2010/06/17/lou-ruvo-center-for-brain-health-by-frank-gehry
ARCHITECTURE AS A
Naga Tower creates discourse through its differentiation from traditional Indian architecture and through the symbolics of its form. Naga, or snake symbolizes spiritual truth and energy – the civilization was represented in the building with twisting and curving form of the design. The concept also shows the duality and vitality of ‘Naga’, as the joining of two separate-looking buildings. These building shows how architecture is not only a visual experience but can also stand as a symbol and a sign to communicate with the public.2
Naga Tower Gandhinagar, India
Image Source: http://designsatire.wordpress.com/2012/08/03/naga-towers-in-gandhinagar-india
Computer aided designing can create more possibilities in architectural designing process. As Kalay stated in Architecture’s New Media (2004), computers are great analytical engines that can store great amount of information which still allows easy search of information and errors. Computers can also analyse, keep track of, and group its stored information for the designers’ efficiency. It also does not tire like humans and does not make silly arithmetical mistakes. However, to design with a computer, the designer must be able to recognize its textual, numerical, graphical and auditory message and be able to manage the information. Also, computers cannot design something by itself; there needs to be a designer with creativity behind it to instruct the computers to design for possibility of creating a work of art.
Frank Gehry creates his designs by traditional model making, but still uses computation to create refined final model. This shows that computational designing is a must in finalizing a masterpiece architecture in this present.
Kalay states two different design processes – ‘problem-solving’ and ‘puzzle-making’. ‘Problem-solving’ process generates multiple solutions, which will be tested against goals and constraints and seeks for the best solution. The ‘puzzle-making’ process seeks for goals that match the spatiotemporal constraints of the design problem. These processes of designing both require various ideas to be generated and the ideas may need to be edited time to time accordingly to suit the goals and constraints. Computers come in handy in these situations as they can generate various prototypes effortlessly. They will be able to generate more ideas and changes can be made to the design quick and easy. Computational design can create more chances of finding the best solution for the design problem. Therefore, to create a great project, there needs to be a skilled designer with creativity and intellectual ability to work with computers.
CCTV Tower (the image on the right) was built with computing technique. The architecture’s design intent of the lopsided structure would have been difficult to calculate the balance and would have wasted time and effort. With the aid of computer, it became much simpler and reduced errors in the structure.
CCTV Tower Beijing, China 2004
Image Source: http://www.nathanielmcmahon.com13
Thumb Print Building Thailand Frank Gehry 2009
The complex structure of the Thumb Print Building had to be designed with computing. It would be difficult to calculate each of the surface structures and eidt any structural errors with traditional designing.
Image Source: http://pinterest.com/pin/276338127106030951
In the earlier days, the public has been critical to something new and used to take a while to accept innovative ideas. Even though the Eiffel Tower by Gustave Eiffel and the Crystal Palace by Joseph Paxton has been recognized, it has not been at its time of construction. Digital technology hasnâ€™t been around for too long in architectural designing, while it has been widely used not only for designing but also monitoring performance and features in many different fields including aeroplanes, aerodynamic, cars and many more. It is now time for architecture to use computation more actively in our design process. In the past, it has been difficult and expensive to make any complex designs. For this reason, architecture designs were mostly stuck with orthogonal and linear, while the curvy contours and plastic shapes were seen everywhere in life. With development of computation, it became easier to design smooth and complex shapes in architecture and the digital technology made it possible to fabricate buildings with various types of materials. This opened up great possibilities for architecture towards new forms and creating spatial qualities and psychological feelings to the viewers, hence, once itâ€™s developed, it can lead to substantially different design and creativity.
PARAMETRIC There is more to architecture than just aesthetics and when being designed, it has to be structurally and functionally efficient as well. Traditional designing process can allow more freedom of creativity and free flow of generating ideas; however, structural and functional issues has to be considered throughout the design process and calculations and fixing errors can get complicated and time consuming. Computational design can save time and editing effort in designing process as computers do not make silly mistakes and makes editing and locating errors in a design easy with simple commands. Although computational design may limit oneâ€™s creative expressions, through parametric designing, we can achieve unexpected solutions to the design process. Parametric modelling creates its dynamic forms using set parameters and mathematical calculations by defining their relationships. This can create unexpected and vibrant forms with a tweak of a set parameter. This way, it covers the limitation of creativity of an architect using computational designing and provides variety of new ideas and quick and effortlessly and also makes it easier to generate complex designs with higher precision.
Parametric model of Birdâ€™s Nest Stadium
Image Source: http://myclipta.blogspot.com.au/2012/06/beijing-stadium-birds-nest-olympic.html
Image Source: http://www.mondoarc.com/projects/Architectural/209848/the_birds_nest_stadium_beijing_china.html
Birdâ€™s Nest Stadium Beijing, China
Galaxy Soho Beijing, China Zaha Hadid Architects 2009
Image Source: http://www.architectsjournal.co.uk/the-critics/patrik-schumacher-on-parametricism-let-the-style-wars-begin/5217211.article
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Art615 Pavilion Students of Aalborg University
Panelisation The Ar t615 Pavilion was the end product from a studio under taken by 4th semester architecture students from Aalborg University. Intending to link Computer Numerical Control (CNC) fabrication and parametric modelling, the students wanted to create an art pavillion for a crime-related park in Denmark, and in the process create a safer environment for visitors. The semi-closed nature of the pavilion was generated in Rhino from a series of experimentations to create the variability and undulation. â€œParametric modelling in Grasshopper allowed us to tweak all parameters controlling the form, until we were satisfied wth the structural abilities and overall aesthetic.â€? The realisation of their design into reality was down by CNC-fabricating a series of vertical and horizontal profiles so the form would be selfsupporting. These profiles would be notched to allow for the placement of MDF panels, which were the result of a definition in Grasshopper. Using Grasshopper, they were able to resolve the fabrication issue of the large panels by creaing a puzzle joint that would connect smaller segments together successfully.
CUT CASE STUDY
To recreate the structure of the pavilion, a series of horizontal profi les were lofted to generate the overall form. In Grasshopper, “Surface Frames” were applied to the surface, to generate planes perpendicular to points on the surface, which were input via number sliders.
The MDF-wood panels of the Art615 pavilion had to be placed along the surface: creating the base geometry in Rhinoceros and referencing it into Grasshopper, the module was then “Orient(ed)” to locate itself on the planes generated along the face of the surface. The gaps between the layers can be linked to the spaces in the original installation, to allow for light and sound to pass through selectively. This is not a recreation that can be put through to fabrication (due to a lack of knowledge on how to generate waffle system and the necessary profiles). Initial attempts to recreate the case study were unsuccessful: in the case of using the component “Divide Surface”, the tiles were oriented in the X-Y plane, rather than inclined in respect to the varied inclines of the loft.