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ARCHITECTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY

E VA N G E L O S S TAV R A K A K I S

ΗOF B OG E N R E V I S I T E D

UNIT: ARCHITECTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY PROF.: MARC DUJARDIN

DESIGNING FOR HYBRIDITY FROM A PERSPECTIVE OF ADAPTIVE URBANISM

DATE: JUNE 2014

E VA N G E LO S

S TAV R A K A K I S

2014


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Com.Wonen Stadswonen PWS Vestia housing corporations

and purchased the Hofplein line railw


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“LOOK AT SITUATIONS FROM ALL ANGLES, AND YOU WILL BECOME MORE OPEN.” DALAI LAMA

way viaduct from the Dutch Railways.


ARCHITECTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY

ΗOF B OG E N R E V I S I T E D DESIGNING FOR R HYBRIDITY FROM A PERSPECTIVE T OF ADAPTIVE T URBANISM

E VA N G E LO S

S TAV R A K A K I S

UNIT: ARCHITECTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY PROF.: MARC DUJARDIN DATE: JUNE 2014


3 JOINED FORCES

35 PROJECT: LOCATION

5 CONTENTS

37 RESEARCH FRAMEWORK

9 INTRODUCTION

39 RESEARCH FRAMEWORK II 41

RESEARCH FRAMEWORK III

11 “UNCONTACTED” TRIBE

43 RESEARCH FRAMEWORK IV

13 CULTURAL DIFFERENCES

45 KEYWORDS

15 WITHIN THE DIFFERENCES

47 URBAN LAYERS

17 STEREOTYPES

49 SCHEMATIC DIAGRAMS

19 IDENTITY ANALOGIES

51 LOCATION/CONTEXT/VIEWS

21 ARCHITECTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY

53 VIADUCT ASSEMBLY LAYERS

23 PLANNING

55 PROJECT ASSEMBLY LAYERS

25 GENERAL VIEW

57 HAPTIC

27 PAX COLUMBIA

59 PROGRAM

29 SCALE 1: COUNTRY

61 CONCLUSIONS

31 SCALE 2: CITY

65 BIBLIOGRAPHY

33 FOUNDING # DESTRUCTION OF THE CITY

67 CREDENTIALS

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7 “AAN DEN SLAG ROTTERDAMMERS”


ROTTERDAM, NEAR HOFPLEIN TRAIN STATION. POST DESTRUCTION MONUMENT

gahetna.nl


Description: World War II. Reconstruction of Rotterdam. Monument with a flashing neon sign with the call :

"to the battle, Rotterdammers know how to tackle“ Rotterdam in 1945. Near railway viaduct Hofplein..

Netherlands, Rotterdam, circa 1946.

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Photographer: unknown


IN TRODUC TION

newswatch.nationalgeographic.com


SCIENCE AND THE GREATER IMAGE Ever since human societies have been documented, it looks like there has always been a cultural zoning around them that gives specific values to a society. Those values can be used to tell apart one such society from the other from the point of view that modern science looks at the history and its events. The values offer a narrative that extends through space and time and eventually reaches the present times (..) while it decodes certain trends-beliefs and its underlying foundations. These tools for analysis are important in that they can help to promote our understanding of the human species and their choices as they develop over time. There is also an existential cause that they serve as they provide answers to sets of questions that link to the collective

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identity level.


"UNCONTACTED" TRIBE AMAZON INDIANS IN BRAZIL PHOTOGRAPH COURTESY: GLEISON MIRANDA, FUNAI/SURVIVAL

news.nationalgeographic.com


"UNCONTACTED" TRIBE “Famously photographed aiming arrows at a passing aircraft two years ago, an "uncontacted" tribe in Brazil's Acre state (map) appears thriving and healthy in new pictures—the most detailed yet of the Amazon group—experts say. Though referred to as uncontacted, the Indians—pictured by a palm-leaf hut—are thought to have had limited interaction with outsiders but prefer to remain isolated, according to José Carlos Meirelles, the Indian-affairs specialist who led the team that took the new pictures in April 2010. The images were captured from about 1.2 kilometers away during an annual monitoring flight organized by the Brazilian government. In keeping with federal policy, the team did not make direct contact, for fear of introducing diseases or harming the tribe's environment and culture. "They always get scared when they see an aircraft, but this tribe is used to seeing commercial flights—Boeings and local jets—flying over the region," said the newly retired Meirelles, who for 40 years

news.nationalgeographic.com

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worked for FUNAI, Brazil's indigenous-rights agency.”


greekarchaeology.org.s113745.gridserver.com

Written sources are rather silent regarding this region. However two inscriptions found at Delphi, record a territorial conflict between four cities in this area. It may well be that our site is Peuma, one of the cities mentioned in these inscriptions.

CULTURAL DIFFERENCES & SIMILARITIES

Walter Gropius, "From the Block to the Bar", diagram 1920

grids-blog.com


CULTURAL DIFFERENCES & SIMILARITIES The cultural differences between societies from an Architecture Anthropology point of view contribute to the attempt to make up for their identity, in the way it relates to their habitual styles, planning techniques, materiality utilization and rituals among other. We may speak of an historical passport validated through their passing from territories and history, through space and time, and furthermore through building those up. These societies may belong to various parts of our world but when deeply compared, although they can be identified in their own unique way, traces leading to similarities can also be spotted and revealed providing for drawing of a greater

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picture of the humane common grounds.


WITHIN THE DIFFERENCES [THE STICHING FACTORS] NEW CULTURAL HYBRIDITIES EMERGENCE jongearchitecten.nl


WITHIN CULTURAL DIFFERENCES These special humane properties (their cultural similarities) are the hard stitching elements may bond our societies and people all together no matter the cultural, gender, racial or other differences. To these stitching factors and its creation, I would like to focus in my project study. To pay attention to the pieces that bear the potential to link the differences. It is as if a meeting spot, an "interaction space" is there to be found, to be motivated. Such "spaces" have already been present throughout history in different scales and patterns. From merchants’ crossroads of the past to the currents ones and from international athletic events to the modern societal blending of race, color in the end lives and its traditions. This is where cultures and people's ideas meet, this is where people can promote the potential to further built upon such original paths and by that action to explore new cul-

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tural hybridities in the making.


“600,000 MIGRANTS ARE LINED UP ALONG NORTH AFRICAN COAST READY TO ENTER EUROPE THIS SUMMER WARNS ITALY”

DEPARTURE FROM STEREOTYPES FOR THE SAKE OF CO-EXISTANCE

europeandailynews.org


STEREOTYPES VS CO-EXISTANCE In some cases there are political and also cultural theories coming from an older stock of beliefs that are attached to the cultural differences as separators (diagram). Cultural differences have been repeatedly named as central reasons for modern societies’ social integration failures. Especially in the Western world. These while large immigration (legal and illegal) waves are coming from the developing and 3rd world. Our societies need to address the isssue. Are such restraining positions good? Why is it the so many wise administrators in the politics and the free market world fail to offer a new vision to that issue? In my point of view any approach drawing a separatist line is doomed to fail beforehands. To provide constructive answers to notions such as, acceptance, social inclusion, co existence, collaboration a clear understanding of a multileveled structure of the world is necesarry and even easier to obtain in our techno-logical world. More conscious approaches to cultural identity differences that can be utilized. We need to work with rather than against the differences. The will to take a step forward towards an efficient-hybrid societal reality in which

A knowledge tool in a shared context of co living spaces.

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difference will be regarded a comparative quality rather than a red line.


ANALOGIES BETWEEN CULTURAL IDENTITY AND ITS MANIFESTATIONS IN THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT

bbc.com bonitabolivia.blogspot.be vimeo.com/75328510


CULTURAL IDENTITY ANALOGIES We can find analogies of the narrative that describes cultural identities within the built environment that we inhibit. The cultural identity owing its origins to historical/empirical wisdom that has been imprited in the DNA of individuals and societies is being expressed as forms of dressing, celebrating, mourning while it also includes particularities that relate to they way of living, sharing, building. They get more specific as the scale goes down to factors such as orientation, accesibility, plans layout.. These cultural expressions are also further manifested in the building materials used. Each period/habitat has provided with site specific general physical, sociological, economic and other conditions which have been translated into different cultural aspiratrions. (diagram showing time and progress of built built environment eg port Rotterdam)

We cannot escape cultural difference and blending. What we can do is try to extend the horizons of old stereotyped beliefs that blur the possibilities of a sustainable co-existence. The objective is to trigger fresh ideas so that new positions can emerge towards an

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enhanced understanding of "the other".


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WHAT DOES A MULTI SCALAR ARCHITECTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY ANALYSIS OFFER?

Source: Baumeister Journal Issue: August 1, 2012


THE SIGNIFICANCE OF ARCHITECTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY ANALYSIS In speaking about "The others" the part within communities that stand out for any reason, we refer to people who in general share a certain degree (in some cases those are not the same ethnic groups but share common cultural origins etc.) of homogeneity. And if we wanted to take things into exremes we should also speak about sub groups of people whose fashion of living relates in such a way that ethnicity barely has any role to play (skaters, climbers, scientists etc.). This kind of common grounds makes up for interesting cultural identities within the already mentioned more genealogical/ethnic ones. Architectural anthropology analysis begins with a more distant in scale observation of a cultural context and as such shall offer generic but prevailing characteristics. Then zooming further down to reach the neighborhood and individual level more details are revealed that demonstrate that the very same broad cultural origin may in parallel produce very different cultural particularities at a different scale level. My assumption is that even if the numbers cannot always speak the truth they still provide with vital views that help to what is to become an understanding of

need to be taken into account as well.

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the cultural norm of a particular group in focus. While individual particularities


Luci Lu Luci cioo Co osta'ss wi winn nnin nn inng en entr tryy fo tr forr Br Bras asilililia as ia's ia 's Pililot ott Plan coomp mpet ettititio ioon. Sour So So rce ce:: Caasa de Lu Luci cioo Co ci Cost sta. st a.

HOW DO WE CHOOSE TO PLAN? BETWEEN THEORY OUTPUT AND PRAGMATISM.

issuu.com “Learning From Brasilia”


THEORY VS PRAGMATISM There is a barrier that separates theory from reality so that expectations and processes may vary from the way they can propose solutions through the study plans to what can actually be applied in real life scenarios. I should point out that in my opinion this is a fallacy and trap that we tend to accept unquestioned, undoubted or even being somehow weak against the system that overlooks and in the end takes the decisions to be taken as to what is going to be realized in the end. We rarely dare to take radical steps forward because the study numbers may reveal this or that, so that we lose the element of the unexpected, the element of surprise in the end the opportunity for something new to emerge from the creative approach of different people. The opportunity sometimes lies in the moment in which just an infrastructure may be provided but the function will be creatively and by improvisation determined by the users entirely. The question arises. How can we develop infrastructures for a flexible purpose? Infrastructures that will have one general purpose. Can this idea of the infrastructure serve an heterogeneous public audience to fit in the location specific needs and at the same time be

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utilized in a completely open-free-creative way by its users?


RO ROT OTTE OT TTTE TTER ERD ER ERDA RDA DAM D AM A M [[ow [own [o wn w n iimp mp pre rressi ess es ssio siion io onist o sstic tic icc m map p vvi view w]] w

FIRST THINGS FIRST

Own Master Dissertation “HOFBOGEN REVISITED designing for hybridity from a perspective of adaptive urbanism”


THE GENERAL VIEW Before I get on with the analysis which derives from the current identity of place and its peoples it is necessary to first approach and exploit the differences. The diferences and similaritiesw they both form the analysis that wants to confirm a better understanding, the potential of a more responsible answer to the given tasks. In order to realize the objective for a a place that can celabrate flexibility, inclusion, adaptability, integration. The characteristics that I am going to speak about make up for a necessary cultural framework. This will start form the level of the country. The Netherlands is then downscaled to the level of the city. Rotterdam. Finally I focus on the Hofbogen historical viaduct and its surrounding neighborhood. In that way I seek to explain the reasons and perhaps even the roots of certain behaviors, traditions, approaches etc. The analysis can then start to rank dif-

ethnic groups utilize in their daily routines.

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ferent cultural systems, that people, belonging to different


ANDS ND N D DSS

Yeaar off EU Year EU entr en enntry ntry: y: FFoundi ounding nnding ng membe member eerr (1 (19 1952 1 95 952) 52) 52 Capita pital cit ccity: ci i y: Amste Amsterdam sterda rdam d m Total al are aarea rea: e : 41 41 526 526 km² km m² Popula P Pop ppulatio ulaaation: tio ion: 16.4 m million illionn Currency: Curre rrency ncy: y Mem ember mbe of thee eu eeuroz uroz rozo ro one sincee 1 1999 9 (€ (€) €) Scchengen Schenge genn aarea are rea: rea re M Me Mem Member eember ber of of the t Sch Schenge ngen area since sinnnce ce 19 1985 98 9 85 8

europa.eu/about-eu/countries/member-countries/netherlands/index_en.htm upload.wikimedia.org


COUNTRY OVERVIEW “The Netherlands, as the name indicates, is low-lying territory, with one-quarter of the country at or below sea level. Many areas are protected from flooding by dykes and sea walls. Much land has been reclaimed from the sea, the Flevoland polder being the most recent example. The Dutch Parliament (or Staten Generaal) consists of two chambers. The first, with 75 members, is indirectly elected and has limited powers. The second chamber, or lower house, is directly elected. Members of both houses serve a four-year term. Given the country’s multi-party system, all governments are coalitions. Industrial activity in the Netherlands predominantly consists of food processing, chemicals, petroleum refining as well as electrical and electronic machinery. It has a dynamic agricultural sector and is well known for its plants and cut flowers. The port of Rotterdam is the busiest in Europe, serving a vast hinterland which stretches into Germany and central Europe. The Netherlands has a history of great painters. The 17th century was the age of the Dutch Masters, such as Rembrandt van Rijn, Johannes Vermeer and Jan Steen. The 19th and 20th centuries were no less remarkable for their high-calibre artists like Vincent van Gogh and Piet Mondriaan. Well-known Dutch specialities include raw herring, smoked eel and pea soup,

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as well as a wide variety of cheeses such as Edam and Gouda.�


1660

1652 engelfriet.net/Alie/Hans/rotterdamin1652kaart2.jpg

FOU FFOUNDING O OU UNDIN ING NG G THE TH HEE CCITY IT ITY TY Y CCITY CIT ITY DESTRUCTION DES EST ST TRUCTIO ON Bombing i Extends

1947

originals.dotkadata.com


ROTTE DAM Rotterdam owes its existence to the place where the small peat river the Rotte flowed into the Nieuwe Maas (which was still called the Merwe at that time). Around this point, a small settlement developed. The local people and the counts of Holland liked to keep their feet dry and wanted to reclaim the peat bogs that were threatening this. They therefore decided to raise the banks of the Nieuwe Maas slightly and dam the Rotte (fourth quarter of the 13th century). Rotterdam now existed. On 7 June 1340, Count Willem IV granted Rotterdam a city charter. At that time, the city had a population of around 2000. Trading city. The people of Rotterdam had a very enterprising spirit. They did not stay in fishing and small-scale trade, but went into large-scale trade and fitting out/preparing ships to sail. This new strategy was possible thanks partly to the fact that Rotterdam had good domestic connections by water, such as the Merwe and the Schie. And the strategy worked! Because Rotterdam overtook Dordrecht as trading city in the 17th century. This was despite the fact that Dordrecht had the ‘staple right’, which meant that the city had a monopoly on handling all goods transported along the Beneden-Maas. The Oude Haven and the Nieuwe Haven were created in the 14th and 15th century respectively. The latter was filled in after the Second World War, using rubble from the war. portofrotterdam.com/en/Port/port-in-general/Documents/20100726_EN/index.html

WW2 DESTRUCTION Between 10 and 14 May at least twenty air raids on Rotterdam will take place, conducted by the Luftwaffe (10), the Military Aviation (5) and Royal Air Force (5). The total number of deaths among the civilian population is estimated at 850-950. On 11 May, at midnight a heavy bombardment by the Luftwaffe. The aim is the barracks of police forces on the Westersingel and accommodation of troops to the Robert Fruinstraat. Among other things, the Schietbaanlaan affected by several direct hits. There are 40 deaths. The Dutch armed forces lost during the May Days in Rotterdam and surroundings by bombing and shelling total of 185 soldiers. Of these, 33 belonged to the Royal Navy and 152 to the Army.

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brandgrens.nl/


SITE LOCATION

I Make Rotterdam / Alliantie Luchtsingel p/a ZUS [Zones Urbaines Sensibles] BV Schiekade 189 3013 BR Rotterdam + 31 (0) 10 2339409 info@imakerotterdam.nl


Within the theme of both sustainability and universal design approaches, the research and design studio "HOFBOGEN REVISITED - Designing for Hybridity from a Perspective of Adaptive Urbanism", will explore the urban and to a greater extent the architectural specificaties of working in an area, the former Hofbogen train station. The Hofbogen viaduct has a particular meaning and value on different spatial and anthropological levels while its historical length makes for a uniquely specific re-use project exploration. Being an old infrastructure it also plays a significant role to the general identity of the city and its collective memory. When we speak about the city of Rotterdam and its the nature as a city, identity plays very important role because of the almost complete destruction of the city and its infrastructures during the WW2 by the German Nazis. Along identity, the notion of infrastructure is also of great importance to the city of Rotterdam. The fact that Rotterdam is not just any port city but one of the most advanced in the world reveals a lot about the nature of the city. The Port of Rotterdam is well known to have developed for itself, for the city and for the country in the end, a world status recognition because of its super capacity to handle trade goods at every level that the international trade shipping industry may ask for. Because of its technological advancements and super infrastructures that can accomodate the largest super cargo ships of the world. Thereby the notion of infrastructure is a timeless value and concept for this city. The question that spontaneously comes to mind deals with the importance and extends to the idea of INFRASTRUCTURE. In my repeated visits to Rotterdam I came to realize the variety in the characteristics that consist the port city of Rotterdam. My emphasis was placed on the central district and the Hofbogen viaduct. Again a big infrastructure of its times that actually was active up until 2010. A rather out of context and dependant monument within our site. Now, the infrastructural nature of the city of Rotterdam is apparent all around, in the canals, the towers and their plinths and “public spaces�, in the wide open site specific locations (eg the NAi))and of course its links over water, the bridges. I can say that the notion of the infrastructure is in many different ways, present in the city as a whole as it is in our project test site, the Hofbogen viaduct. A critical research question regarding the nature of the city and our location most notably becomes obvious

anticipated to meet the Rotterdam's social, political and economic objectives.

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through the current reality and the the history of the city. Still the aim of new programs and strategies are


STUDIO THEME & RESEARCH APPROACH

Own Master Dissertation “HOFBOGEN REVISITED designing for hybridity from a perspective of adaptive urbanism”


The former Hofbogen train station and its almost 2km arched viaduct still stands at the exact same point where it came to be build back in 1903! A monument of one of the first reinforced concrete structures, it was once considered the biggest building of its in the Netherlands. It still stands proud “carrying” an important part of the history and its (dramati) events. However, in many of its parts it is deprived, projecting on its “skin” and structure over 100 years of existence. Apart from acting as a reminder of the history of the city, its snake-like continuity as a structure asks for exactly that symbolism to be taken to its next step. In 2008 when the track line was officially put off duty and a new high tech central train station was inaugurated at a very close proximity, discussions arose as to what should be now done with this 2km long historical "Monument" situated right at the edge of the city centre diviiding the city or at least being a hard border element within the core of the urban tissue of the Centre district of Rotterdam. As a part of the reserach methodology in our studio I looked in to the history and also at a number of debates and proposals that eventually resulted in the naming of the Hofbogen Viaduct, a protected national monument. The debating period of time about the prospects of the Hofbogen Viaduct was in fact a breeding period during which the opportunity to re-address and emphasize anew the ambitions of its territory got stronger and more confident. Initially the case of demolition as in the NY Highline Viaduct, was aborted even as an idea. The involvment of the public again played a central role to this position. Everafter this decision, the grounds for a new school of thought emerged. Reuse, de dependence, adaptive reuse, permanent temporality, small scale interventions, crowdfunded projects and other concepts populized the public and proffessional vocabulary and started to form a new equally important framework within which proffessionals, and citizens could viaduct to its next step.

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work together within a cross influence collaboration. This framework set the Hofbogen


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STUDIO THEME & RESEARCH APPROACH

I Make Rotterdam / Alliantie Luchtsingel p/a ZUS [Zones Urbaines Sensibles] BV Schiekade 189 3013 BR Rotterdam + 31 (0) 10 2339409 info@imakerotterdam.nl


The importance of small, light, pragmatic and in the end necesasry interventions as part of my Matrix toolbox began to parametrize my understanding of both the importance of space and time. How do you intervene in a 100 year old structure? What kind of program is needed? How can I as a designer take a positive step by realizing an idea that can add up value to the society whether in a close or a near by proximity? Those are just a small fraction of questions that I begun to ask in search of a beter understanding of the historical, the societal the urban context. Many answers to the afore mentioned questions came about from the Crimson Architectural historians, a reserach office based in Rotterdam which are exactly what their title claims to be. The creation of a tention field to act as a generator of pros, cons and in the end conscious ideas and arguments had them as one central part in that process. Crimson Architectural historians among other scholar's and practicing Architectural Offices, have acted as the founding fathers of the necessity to shift the role of the Architect to its next step, almos as alike as the Hofbogen viaduct on a symbolical perhaps level, "silently" awaited for its next step to be taken into account and responsibility towards the past and the future. By shifting the public’s and proffessional's interest into new debate themes that now also exist and develop in other cities around the world with a common ground of adaptive re-use, they offerred one significant opportunity for positive action and participation. The opportunity to aquire an historical setting point and spatial needs, of human needs in the end.

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directly link it to the current conditions act to enhance deeper understanding of


STUDIO THEME & RESEARCH APPROACH

Internationale Architectuur Biënnale Rotterdam (IABR) Westersingel 52 3014 GV Rotterdam www.iabr.nl © IABR, september 2009


The International Architecture Biennale Rotterdam (IABR), has also be utilized as a theoretical and in many cases practical tension line from the begining to evolve and enrich a more specific framework for this project. Iabr has in the past been always concerned with the need to address critical research questions to shifting notions such as "Mobility", "The Flood", "Power" "Open City", "Making City" and "Urban by Nature" (2014) for this years research theme. These notions motivate a broad totality of participating and attending groups from the the proffessional filed of work to the societal citizen ones. The roles of the proffessionals along with their responsibility to involve the wider audience is critical and bears within its objectives the potential and capacity to make the city, together, as we would for our own home. Kees Christiaanse as a past curator of the IABR (2009, Open City: Designing Coexistence) and his architectural practice KCAP architects have provided vital theoretical dynamics to my studio dissertation project. Because of the research nature of the office and Kees Christiaanse’s co authorship of the publication “pen City: Designing Coexistence” in particular, and also because of the high profile of the office being involved with mega projects around the utmost far edged test field.

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world, the tension field framework that I aquired was an


STUDIO THEME & RESEARCH APPROACH

LOCAL

UNILEVER BAZAR Global

Weena

MIXONE PUBLIEKE STRUCTUUR GRADIENT PUBLIEK-PRIVA V AT A 3D PLACE MAKING PROTOTYPE

I Make Rotterdam / Alliantie Luchtsingel p/a ZUS [Zones Urbaines Sensibles] BV Schiekade 189 3013 BR Rotterdam + 31 (0) 10 2339409 info@imakerotterdam.nl DE MEEST PUBLIEKE RUIMTE V VAN ROTTERDAM

zus.cc


Vacancy is a central problem in the center of Rotterdam. Out of 780.000m2 available to use, a large total of 100.000m2, an 12,8% makes for an empty area just around the new Central Station of Rotterdam. No city in the Netherlands has so much unused space on such a good place in the center of the city as Rotterdam does. As the domino effect, in the same way Vacancy influences negatively the whole circle of activities to which it is linked. It leads to lack of vibrancy, fewer stores, fewer people, less atmosphere, less local economy, fewer meetings, less bustling city center. Here is were ZUS Architects (Zones Urbaines Sensibles) blend into the story. With the Luchtsingel Bridge coming as a continuation of the Schieblock building, its adaptive re-utilization aims at becoming an ingenious and creative community, in other words a porous bussiness hub. Linked by the Luchtsingel bridge, which is a crowdfunded project it is currently undergoing development. In time it will form a new pedestrian link of the city of Rotterdam. The bridge should magnetize incipient developments, and act as the calalysator for economic strengthening. Also it wants to act as a symbol of convivial connections, a manifestation of possible ways of urban orchestrating and a platform for further developments. The bridge aspires to shape an intrinsic urban development for the Central District, Pompenburg and Hofbogen to conclusively connect the two sides now disunited by the rail track infrastructure. Luchtsingel is conceived as a pedestrian link of 360 meters in length. In the same way that the the Erasmus Bridge is a symbol for the development of Southbank, so wants Luchtsingel to become for its own context and communities a public symbol of potentiality

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within the economic crisis having heavily affected all coconstruction activities..


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E ST

RUC

TUR

E

EM

55

UTIL

IE VE


of

by moving in and around it. All

movement in urban space: «In

haptic experiences of urban

the context of urban architec-

space, therefore, relate to move-

ture the term ‘haptic’ denotes

ments in urban space, and these

those spatial qualities which are

may be reduced to four types,

experienced not only by looking

depending on how they relate to

at the settlement structure, but

an object or a system of refer-

“Four

elementary

forms

HAPTIC EXPERIENCE OF SPACE [-S] B. Around

A. Towards, into, through, across


movements

which the observer –or rather

towards (or into, through and

the flaneur- proceeds, presents

across), and movements beside a

in its totality an experience

spatial entity. The sequence of

which evokes a sense of the

spatial constellations, the rela-

“spirit of the place” and which

tionships between solids and

decides our aesthetic judgment

voids along the direction in

in architectural terms.”

ence:

there

are

J. Pieper, 1980

ELEMENTARY FORMS OF MOVEMENT IN URBAN SPACE

D. Beside, juxtaposition

57

C. Away from, or out of


PROGRAM [-S] COMMUNAL FLEXIBLE WORKSHOPS

FLEXIBLE PUBLIC SPACE

SUSTAINABILITY INSTRUMENTS

FREE UP GROUND LEVEL

EDUCATION SPACES

WATER SQUARE

MEETING AND LINKING SPACES

CONNECTION WITH WORKSHOP

MEETING SPACES

RECREATION & MEETING PLACE

CITYSCAPE VIEWS

NEW GYM FOR CHILDREN

EXHIBITION SPACES

SKATERS SPOT

CONNECTIONS WITH AREA

NATURAL PLANTS PROTECTION

FLEXIBLE PROGRAMS

COOLING HEAT DOWN [summer]

SUN & RAIN PROTECTION

SOFT BUFFER ZONE

SOFT BUFFER ZONES


EECONOM EC CO ONO OM O MY MY

AD A D DAPTABI DA APTTTA ABIILI AB ILITY LITY I Y

PPERM PE ERM MEAB ME EEA ABIL AB BIL BI BIL ILI LITY LITY I Y

FFLEX FLE EXIB EX XIBIL XIB BILITY BIL LITTY

LAYERING LA AYYERRING G

DIALOGUE DI IALLO OG O GU UE

LUCHTSINGEL CONNECTION

SUSTAINABILITY LEARNING

URBAN FARMING SPACES

SCHOOL CONNECTION

SOCIAL CONTROL & CONNECTIVITY

PIC NIC

PROMENADE

COMMERCIAL USES [OFFICE-BAR-EXPO]

EXPO CORRIDOR

URBAN FARMING LEARNING

ACCESSIBILITY

OTHER USES

CIRCULATION

59

N

OPENN OP O PEN NN NNE NN NES NE EESS ES SSS

SIMP SI MPPL M MPL PPLI LLIIC LIC C TYY CITY CIT S

PUBLIC & SEMI PUBLIC PLAYGROUND


CONCLUSION[-S] SINCE ALL OF US A HUMANS HAVE AN ORIGIN, A DERIVING FROM “SOMEWHERE” ANTHROPOLOGY PLAYS A CENTRAL ROLE IN GIVING US THE TOOLS TO ENHANCE THE SELF AND THUS THE COLLECTIVE CONSCIENCE OF THIS JOURNEY LIKE TO THE PRESENT AND EVENTUALLY TO THE FUTURE. FROM AN ARCHITECTURAL POINT OF VIEW THIS WHOLE JOURNEY IS BY ITSELF A “STRUCTURE” WHICH CONSISTS OF TANGIBLE AND INTANGIBLE QUALITIES AND QUANTITIES. IT BEARS WITHIN IT THE DEVELOPMENT OF FUNCTIONS, AESTHETICS, ARTICULATIONS, MATERIALITY WITH ITS ANTONYM IMATERIALITY AND IS OUR PROFFESSIONAL “EYES” OF READING AND MAKING THE WORLD. WHEN THOSE TWO CONCEPTS MERGE WHAT HAPPENS IS HYBRIDITY. A NEW PERSPECTIVE OPENS OPEN MAKING ITSELF AVAILABLE TO EACH ONE WITHIN THE FIELD OF THE ARCHITECTURAL PRACTICE ONLY TO CONTRIBUTE WITH UTMOST IMPORTANT NEW VIEW ANGLES WHICH HAVE AND ALWAYS WILL BE THERE. THIS ELEMENT OF CONSTANT PRESENCE MAKES ARCHITECTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY A SIGNIFICANT TOOL NOT JUST TO CONTRIBUTE TO BETTER AND MORE SUSTAINABLE SOLUTIONS TO ARCHITECTURAL PROBLEMS BUT AT THE SAME TIME ACTIVATES A SYSTEM OF (OLD BUT NEUTRALIZED) NEW VALUES WITH WHICH TO RECONCILE US WITHIN SELF AND ALSO A COLLECTIVE AND BALANCED OBJECTIVE FOR PRACTICAL COMFORT. FOR PRACTICAL, HUMAN EXISTENCE.


EECONOMY EC CO ONO OM MYY

ADAPTABILITY A AD DA APT PTA ABIILIITYY

PPERMEABILITY PE RM MEEA ABILIITYY

FFLEXIBILITY FLE EX XIBBILLITTY

LAYERING LA AYYERING G

DIALOGUE DI D IALO OG GU UEE

OPEN OP PENN NNESS NN N NEESSS

SIMPLIC SI M LIC MPL LIC LI ICIT CITY CIT TYY

61

AS FAR AS THE QUESTIONS: HOW IS YOUR PROJECT CONTRIBUTING TO SOCIAL AND ARCHITECTURAL SUSTAINABILITY? I CAN RESPOND BY SAYING THAT MUCH RESERACH HAS BEEN MADE WITH BROAD CONSIDERATION OF FACTS, FIGURES, PROGRAMS, FUNCTIONS, AMBITIONS BUT NOT JUST THAT. I HAVE RESERACHED TO A GREAT DEPTH MANY HISTORICAL AND ANHTROPOLOGICAL THEMES RELATING TO THE DIFFERENT SCALES PRESENT IN EVERY TERRITORRY UNTIL I REACHED THE HUMAN SCALE WHICH IS THE OBJECTIVE OF MY ARCHITECTURAL OUTPUT BUT ALSO THE OBJECTIVE OF MY ANTHROPOLOGICAL INPUT TO THAT. BY FREEING UP AS MUCH SPACE AS IT WAS POSSIBLE (PRACTICALLY THE WHOLE TOP DECK) WHILE AT THE SAME OFFERING EQUAL AMOUNT OF COVERED SPACE WHICH IS PLANNED FOR SOCIAL INCLUSION, PARTICIPATION, EDUCATION, RECREATION, I BELIEVE I UTILIZED A GOOD PERCENTAGE OF THE HOFBOGEN VIADUCT BUILDING FOOTPRINT. MY INTENTION HAS ALSO BEEN TO KEEP THE STRUCTURAL PENETRATION TO THE EXISTING WEEK STRUCTURE AS LESS AS IT COULD BE WHILE AVOIDING TO BUILD AWAY FROM IT IN AN EFFORT OF REHABILITATING THE BUILDING ALONG WITH ITS NEW PROPOSED ADDITION AS A NEW ENTITY FOR THE COMMUNITY TO DISCOVER, SHARE AND MAINTAIN. ISSUES OF SUSTAINABILITY ARE PRESENT THROUGHOUT THE PROJECT FROM ITS MATERIALITY TO THE NEIGHBOURING SPACES. A WATER SQUARE, TWO KINDS OF PLAYGROUNDS ON BOTH SIDES OF THE AREA AROUND THE VIADUCT, A LIGHTWEIGHT STEEL STRUCTURE WHICH ENFORCES THE EXISTING STRUCTURE AND CAN ACCEPT DIFFERENT SPATIAL CONFIGURATION THUS EXPERIENCE MAKE FOR A SUSTAINABLE SOLUTION THAT BEARS THE CAPACITY TO RE INVENT THE IDENTITY OF THE AREA AND CONTRIBUTE TO THE SOCIAL WELLBEING.


63


Books Syllabus of Marc Dujardin, professor at LUCA, Ghent. Dujardin, M. (1994), Bhutan’s Human Settlements: the Dynamics of Tradition and Modernity. In Aris M. & Hutt Nijhuis, S., & Lammeren, R. (2011). Exploring the Visual Landscape Advances in Physiognomic Landscape Research in the Netherlands.. Amsterdam: IOS Press. Gerritzen, M., Grievink, H., Lovink, G., Niederer, S., & Rossiter, N. (2007). The Creativity . Amsterdam: Amsterdam: Instituut voor Netwerkcultuur. Ruby, I. (2014). The economy of sustainable construction. Berlin: Ruby Press.

Journals Melhuish, C. (1996). Architecture & anthropology. London: Acad. Ed..

Papers Pieper, J. (1980), Ritual Space in India: Studies in Architectural Anthropology. Research paper (Munich: Aarp) City of Rotterdam Regional Steering Committee (2009), “The City of Rotterdam, The Netherlands: Self-Evaluation Report”, OECD Reviews of Higher Education in Regional and City Development, IMHE, http://www.oecd.org/edu/imhe/regionaldevelopment


Web gahetna.nl newswatch.nationalgeographic.com grids-blog.com jongearchitecten.nl europeandailynews.org bbc.com bonitabolivia.blogspot.be vimeo.com/75328510 luchtsingel.org rotterdam.nl/Servicedienst/Klanten%20CDR/Stadsintiatief/Bijlagen/Stadsinitiatief%20Luchtsingel.pdf iabr.nl/en/editie/4e-iabr-catalogus issuu.com/vitorpessoacolombo/docs/elaborato_print portofrotterdam.com/en/Port/port-in-general/Documents/20100726_EN/index.html brandgrens.nl althistory.wikia.com/wiki/Pax_Columbia engelfriet.net/Alie/Hans/rotterdamin1652kaart2.jpg originals.dotkadata.com europa.eu/about-eu/countries/member-countries/netherlands/index_en.htm upload.wikimedia.org europa.eu/about-eu/countries/member-countries/netherlands/index_en.htm rotterdam.nl/onderzoek


ev_stavrakakis@yahoo.gr evangelos.stavrakakis@student.kuleuven.be

2014 


OLD GREEK PEOPLE’S SAYING

67

.......... ...................... ...... ...........


ARCHITECTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY

ΗOF B OG E N R E V I S I T E D DESIGNING FOR R HYBRIDITY FROM R A PERSPECTIVE C OF ADAPTIVE URBANISM M

E VA N G E LO S

S TAV R A K A K I S

UNIT: ARCHITECTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY PROF.: MARC DUJARDIN

69

DATE: JUNE 2014


ARCHITECTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY

E VA N G E L O S S TAV R A K A K I S

ΗOF B OG E N R E V I S I T E D

UNIT: ARCHITECTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY PROF.: MARC DUJARDIN

DESIGNING FOR HYBRIDITY FROM A PERSPECTIVE OF ADAPTIVE URBANISM

DATE: JUNE 2014

E VA N G E LO S

S TAV R A K A K I S

2014

ARCHITECTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY - Evangelos Stavrakakis  

KU Leuven - S Lucas Architecture

ARCHITECTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY - Evangelos Stavrakakis  

KU Leuven - S Lucas Architecture

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