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GM Hybrid Technologies

September 5, 2007


GM s Interest in Advanced Propulsion

•  Business Opportunity •  Regulatory Need •  Social Responsibility

September 5, 2007


GM Vision To be the world leader in transportation products and related services. We will earn our customer s enthusiasm through continuous improvements driven by the integrity, teamwork, and innovation of GM people.

September 5, 2007


Automotive Industry Challenge Energy Demand (x1018 J ) Hydrogen Gas

300

Electricity 250 Synthetic Fuels and Biofuels

200 150

Although a 100 year Gaseous forecast is highly speculative , Shell s Fuels assessment concurs approximately with our assessment regarding the transition from petroleum-based fuels for transportation Liquid Fuels

100 50

Heavy Oil

Diesel / Gasoline

LIQUID FUELS – ELECTRICITY – HYDROGEN (co-existing for a significant period of time)

0 2000 2020 2040 2060 2080 2100 *Shell

September 5, 2007


Energy Diversity – Blending Strategy Liquid Fuels/Electricity/Hydrogen as the In-Vehicle Energy Carriers

Oil (Conventional)

Conversion Energy Carrier Propulsion System Petroleum Fuels 1st & 2nd Gen. Biofuels

Oil (Non-Conventional)

Synthetic fuels (XTL) Syngas CO, H2

Liquid Fuels Regional Niche

Conventional ICE: Gasoline/Diesel

Regional Niche ICE

Gaseous Fuels (e.g. CNG)

Biomass

ICE Hybrid

Natural Gas

Plug-In Hybrid ICE

Coal

Electricity

Renewables

Battery Electric

(Solar, Wind, Hydro)

Nuclear

Confidential

Range-Extended EV: IC Engine/Fuel-Cell

Battery Electrification

Energy Resource

Hydrogen

Fuel-Cell Electric

September 5, 2007


Advanced Propulsion Technology Strategy

Improved Vehicle Fuel Economy & Emissions

Displace Petroleum

Hydrogen Fuel Cell Battery Electric Vehicles (E-Flex) Hybrid Electric Vehicles (including Plug-In HEV)

IC Engine and Transmission Improvements

Energy/Fuel Diversity

Time

Petroleum (Conventional & Alternative Sources) Bio Fuels (Ethanol E85, Bio-diesel) Electricity (Conventional & Alternative Sources) Hydrogen

Confidential

September 5, 2007


What Makes a Great Hybrid Vehicle ? •  Significant improvement in fuel economy (>20%) •  Uncompromised performance (passing maneuvers,..) •  Reduction of harmful emissions •  Reliable and safe operation (no roll-back, electrical,..)

Enthusiastic Customer

•  Uncompromised high mileage durability •  Reasonable cost •  Minimal impact to overall vehicle packaging •  Hybrid architecture that has broad application potential •  Flexibility for localization (component sourcing, manufacturing,..)

Business Benefit

•  Minimize the complexity of vehicle integration

September 5, 2007


Hybrid Powertrain System Architectures Plug-in

ICE Power

Electric Power

ECONOMY

FUEL

Functionality

Smart Starter

Start-Stop

Mild Hybrid

•  Engine start- stop at idle

•  Engine off on deceleration •  Mild regenerative braking •  Electric power assist

•  +2-4%

•  +10-20%

Confidential

Full Hybrid •  Full regenerative braking •  Engine cycle optimization •  Electric launch •  Limited pure electric drive •  Engine downsize •  +30-50% Cars •  +20-40% Trucks

Plug-in Hybrid

Plug-in Range Extender EV

•  Plug-in rechargeable •  More electric drive during chargedepletion •  Reduced refueling

•  Full-function electric drive •  Initial pure electric range •  Significantly reduced refueling

•  +100% in charge depletion •  same as full hybrid afterward

•  Electricity only in EV range •  same as full hybrid afterward

Electric Vehicle •  Plug-in recharge only •  100% pure electric range •  No refueling

•  Electricity only

September 5, 2007


Hybrid Product Plan FE Improvement

2-Mode Hybrid

Hybrid

E-Flex

2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

25-55%

GM/Allison Hybrid Bus Saturn VUE Green Line

10-20%

Saturn Aura/Chevy Malibu

Gen2

China Buick Tahoe/Yukon (RWD) Escalade (RWD)

25-50%

Gen2 Silverado/Sierra (RWD)

NG Saturn VUE (FWD) Plug-in Hybrid: 100% Improvement on short trips

Confidential

Chevy Volt 40 miles EV range

September 5, 2007


GM 2-Mode Hybrid Bus ARCHITECTURE

•  Two 100 kW AC induction electric motors •  600V NiMH battery pack FUNCTIONS / BENEFITS •  Quicker, quieter, smoother operation & extended brake life •  Significant reduction in exhaust emissions of up to 90% •  Significant improvement in fuel economy (25%-55% real world FE improvement) APPLICATIONS

•  > 750 Busses Delivered •  63 Cities in North America

The hybrid bus has the greatest fuel savings impact of any hybrid vehicle around the world

September 5, 2007


2008 Saturn VUE Green Line

September 5, 2007


GM Hybrid (36V Belt Alternator Starter) ARCHITECTURE •  Belted alternator •  Modified 4-speed automatic transmission •  36V NiMH battery

2007 Saturn VUE Green Line • 

• 

FUNCTIONS / BENEFITS •  Engine off when vehicle is stopped •  Early fuel cut-off during decel with torque smoothing •  Regenerative braking •  Intelligent hybrid battery charging •  Electric power assist •  Electrically motored creep APPLICATIONS •  2007 Saturn VUE Green Line •  2008 Saturn Aura and Chevrolet Malibu

NiMH Battery Pack

Engine Control Module with Hybrid •  Supervisory Software

•  • 

•  • 

•  •  • •  •  • 

2.4L • •  4-Cylinder ECOTEC Engine

•  • 

• 

Engine Coolant •  – Cooled Power Electronics with Inverter and DC/DC •  Converter

Modified 4T45E Automatic Transaxle with Auxiliary Pump

Electric Motor/ Generator with 3Phase Cable

•  • DualTensioner •  Assembly and •  Aramid •  Cord Belt

20% improvement in FE 10% improvement in performance

September 5, 2007


GM Hybrid System for Saturn VUE Green Line Advanced Nickel Metal Hydride Battery Pack

Power Electronics with Inverter Engine Control Module and DC/DC Converter with Hybrid Supervisory Software

2.4 L 4-cyl Ecotec Engine, 170 HP @ 6600 RPM

Dual Tensioner Assembly and Aramid Cord Belt

Motor/Generator with 3-Phase Cables

Modified 4T45E Automatic Transmission with Auxiliary Pump

September 5, 2007


Driving a Saturn VUE Hybrid

September 5, 2007


2008 Saturn VUE Hybrid Instrument Cluster Tach moves to the auto stop position when the vehicle comes to a stop and the engine shuts off

Illuminates when you beat the EPA s estimated MPG, highlighting the most effective driving methods

Shows whether the system is charging the hybrid battery or providing electric power assist

September 5, 2007


A/C Buttons and Control Strategy

• Economy A/C • Normal A/C

•  Appropriate balance between fuel economy and comfort by providing a system with two driver-selectable modes •  Economy mode favors fuel economy by maximizing auto-stop entry and duration, as determined by environmental inputs to the ECM •  Normal A/C mode favors maximum passenger comfort and defogging performance

September 5, 2007


Hill-Start Valve • 

The VUE hybrid is equipped with a Hill-Start Assist system which enhances driveability on moderate and steep grades

• 

Brake system pressure, as a function of road grade and driver demand, is captured via brake-line solenoids to hold the vehicle during the transition from a hybrid idle stop to starting the engine

C. Engine restarts A. Brakes holding vehicle on hill

B. Hill-Start Valve holding vehicle on hill before engine restarts September 5, 2007


2007 Saturn VUE Green Line Performance Overview Base Vehicle 2.2L, 4AT

Hybrid Vehicle 2.4L, 4AT

Improvement

EPA City

22 mpg

27 mpg

5 mpg (22%)

EPA Highway

27 mpg

32 mpg

5 mpg (18%)

EPA Combined

24 mpg

29 mpg

5 mpg (20%)

Acceleration 0-60 mph

11.2 sec

10.2 sec

1.0 sec

Similar FE results expected for 2008 Saturn VUE Green Line however new EPA testing procedures will result in approximately 10 to 20% reduction in city labels and 5 to 15% reduction in highway labels (all hybrid and conventional vehicles) September 5, 2007


A View of the Competition (MY07) AMCI Tested Fuel Economy vs. BASE MSRP 35

Fuel Economy (MPG)

30

S a tu rn  V u e  G re e n  L in e 2 9 .7 < $ 2 3 ,0 0 0

25

F o rd  E s c a p e  H yb rid 3 1.6 $ 2 7 ,3 15

T o yo ta  H ig h la n d e r  H yb rid 3 0 .5   $ 3 3 ,3 0 3 L e xu s  R X 4 0 0 h 2 8 .9 $ 4 5 ,3 5 5

20 15

Similar results would be expected for 2008 models

10 5 0 $15,000

$20,000

$25,000

$30,000

$35,000

$40,000

$45,000

$50,000

Base MSRP ($)

September 5, 2007


2008 Saturn VUE Green Line Summary

•  Simple, elegant hybrid architecture, flexible enough to implement globally on a broad spectrum of both powertrains and vehicles

•  One of the most affordable hybrid systems and hybrid vehicles with no compromises in vehicle utility or trailer towing

•  Combination of fuel economy, utility and price

make this an outstanding value for consumers

September 5, 2007


2008 Chevy Tahoe 2-Mode Hybrid

September 5, 2007


2-Mode RWD Hybrid POWERTRAIN ARCHITECTURE •  •  •  • 

2 x 60kW active cooled permanent magnet motors 3 Planetary Gear Sets 4 Wet Plate Clutches 288V NiMH battery

SUPPORTING VEHICLE SYSTEMS •  •  •  •  •  • 

Improved aerodynamics and vehicle mass reductions 300V electric A/C compressor LED tail lights Hybrid Displays (IP, NAV) Electric rack steering Fully blended regenerative brakes

FUNCTIONS / BENEFITS •  Over 25% improvement in composite fuel economy •  Fully capable full-size SUV (7-8 passenger seating, 6,000 lb towing capacity) •  Engine off at idle •  Deceleration fuel cutoff •  Engine speed and load control •  Low-speed electric propulsion

September 5, 2007


Driving a 2-Mode Hybrid Tahoe

September 5, 2007


GM s New Full-Size Hybrid SUV •  Took our new Tahoe and Yukon full-size trucks, which already have segment leading fuel economy and world class aerodynamics, to the next level

September 5, 2007


GM s Full-Size Truck Reputation •  Maintain full-size utility characteristics and capability –  Performance •  Segment leading fuel economy •  Provide torque and power on demand – “no excuses hybrid” –  Ride and handling –  Trailering and load carrying ability •  Truck utility – flat load floor –  8 passenger seating and spaciousness –  Quietness, comfort and refinement –  Safety •  Maintains all existing vehicle and personal safety features •  New 300 volt protection

September 5, 2007


GM s New Full-Size Hybrid SUV •  Tahoe and Yukon Two-Mode Hybrid SUVs –  Best capability –  Best technology –  Best fuel efficiency –  Maintain SUV character and performance

•  Full-Size SUV –  Right application of Two-Mode Hybrid technology •  25% improvement over already segment-leading base truck •  Further reducing emissions

September 5, 2007


GM s New Full-Size Hybrid SUV 25% overall fuel economy improvement compared to the base truck with a 5.3L engine –  New technology •  Powertrain Two-Mode Hybrid system •  Vehicle hybrid systems •  Brakes, steering, HVAC, cooling, driveline, electrical, controls

–  Enhance existing technology •  Engine – Active Fuel Management

–  Aero improvement •  Further enhanced exterior components to maximize aerodynamics and performance

–  Mass reduction to offset weight of hybrid componentry •  New design •  Premium materials

–  Driver’s role and interface •  Feedback and interaction

September 5, 2007


Two Mode Hybrid System Power Electronics System 300V, 42V and 12V

300V Battery Electronic Variable Transmission 2 electric motors 4 fixed gears September 5, 2007


Two Mode Hybrid System

Resonator

6.0L LIVC Engine w/ AFM

September 5, 2007


New Hybrid Technology •  6.0L V8 Late Intake Valve Closing (LIVC) –  Fuel economy •  Reduce energy lost to heat •  Increase V4 Active Fuel Management – drive up to 80 mph in V4

–  Performance •  332 hp @ 5100 rpm, 367 lb-ft @ 4100 rpm

–  Less emissions to the environment •  Utilize “engine off” strategy •  Twice as much vapor recovery as conventional engine

September 5, 2007


New Hybrid Technology Fully Blended Regenerative Brake System

Electro-Hydraulic Control

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Brake Pedal Emulator

September 5, 2007


New and Enhanced Technology •  Regenerative Brake System –  Recovers energy during typical brake applies –  Blends electric generator and friction braking – automatic and seamless to driver –  Improves stopping distance and brake feel –  Increases brake pad life

September 5, 2007


New Hybrid Technology 300V A/C Compressor

3.08 Axle Ratio

42 V Electric Power Steering September 5, 2007


New Hybrid Technology •  New electric systems for performance and fuel economy –  300V air conditioning compressor and electric heater pump provides comfort during auto stop –  42V rack mounted power steering assist during auto stop

•  New 3.08 axle ratio –  Hybrid electric assist allows for smaller axle and more efficient transmission/engine operation

September 5, 2007


Aerodynamics Rear Air Spoiler D-Pillar Hood

Grille Rear Fascia Running Boards Wheels Air Dam

Front Fascia September 5, 2007


Aerodynamics •  Enhanced aerodynamics –  Reduced the drag coefficient to 0.34 – world class –  Lowered front end –  Sleek front and rear end –  New running boards –  New wheels

•  Distinctive hybrid appearance

September 5, 2007


Mass Reductions Aluminum Liftgate

Thin Profile Low Mass Seats Aluminum Hood

Aluminum Prop Shaft Wheels

Aluminum Front Bumper Beam

12V Battery September 5, 2007


Mass Reductions •  Approximately 400 lbs of new hybrid content was added –  Power electronics, transmission and new coolant loop –  Electric power steering –  Air conditioning compressor –  Brake system

•  Mass reductions to offset additional hybrid content –  New designs –  Front seats, lighter 12V battery –  Premium material –  Aluminum exterior panels, engine, chassis components –  Parts eliminated –  Starter motor, alternator, torque converter, steering pump

•  Maintains same 6,000 lbs Test Weight Class

September 5, 2007


Driver Interface, Feedback and Fuel Economy Auto Stop Off â&#x20AC;&#x201C; vehicle is not running in electric or gas mode Auto Stop â&#x20AC;&#x201C; vehicle is functioning with the gasoline engine off

Efficiency Gauge Indicates how efficiently the vehicle is being driven

Energy Flow Display

September 5, 2007


Driver Interface, Feedback and Fuel Economy V4 Fuel Economy

V8 Power

Electric Drive

Regen Braking

50 25 0

70

35

Vehicle Speed MPH

0 Engine off - Electric on Auto Stop

September 5, 2007


Safety Power Electronics System 300V, 42V and 12V

300V Battery

300V Crash Sensor

300V Electronic Variable Transmission

September 5, 2007


Safety •  Hybrid safety performance builds on the strong foundation of the base Tahoe and Yukon –  5 star/5 star NCAP ratings driver and passenger –  Dual stage front air bags and seat belt pretensioners, head curtain side air bags –  Vehicle-to-vehicle compatibility –  Stabilitrak with traction control –  OnStar –  Remote start

•  300V Hybrid safety protection for the Customer, Service Technician and First Responder –  Crash detection for high voltage shutdown –  High voltage interlock and shutdown system –  High voltage isolation from chassis –  High voltage visual identification –  First responder protocol followed September 5, 2007


The World s First Full-Size Hybrid SUV •  Best technology, best fuel efficiency and best capability –  Full-size truck performance –  Estimating 40% improvement in city fuel economy; 25% overall fuel economy improvement –  0-60 mph < 8.6 sec –  Full-size truck capability –  8 passenger seating –  6000 lbs (2WD) / 6200 lbs (4WD) – towing capacity –  12,000 pound GCWR –  Full-size truck character –  Driving performance and feel –  Smooth ride and handling –  Level of quietness –  Full-size truck safety –  360 degree protection –  300V protection

September 5, 2007


2009 NG Saturn Vue 2-Mode Hybrid

September 5, 2007


2-Mode FWD Hybrid POWERTRAIN ARCHITECTURE •  •  •  • 

2 x 55kW active cooled permanent magnet motors 2 Planetary Gear Sets 4 Wet Plate Clutches 264V NiMH battery

SUPPORTING VEHICLE SYSTEMS •  •  •  •  •  •  • 

Improved aerodynamics Vehicle mass reductions 300V electric A/C compressor LED tail lights Hybrid Displays (IP, NAV) Electric rack steering Fully blended regenerative brakes

FUNCTIONS / BENEFITS •  Over 25% improvement in composite fuel economy •  Fully capable full-size SUV (5 passenger seating, 3,500 lb towing capacity) •  Engine off at idle •  Deceleration fuel cutoff •  Engine speed and load control •  Low-speed electric propulsion

September 5, 2007


2-Mode FWD Plug-In Hybrid POWERTRAIN ARCHITECTURE •  •  •  •  • 

2 x 55kW active cooled permanent magnet motors 2 Planetary Gear Sets 4 Wet Plate Clutches 300V Li-ion Battery (7 kWhr) 1.0 kW charger using 110 Vac (~5 hour charge)

SUPPORTING VEHICLE SYSTEMS •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  • 

Improved aerodynamics Vehicle mass reductions 300V electric A/C compressor LED tail lights Hybrid Displays (IP, NAV) Electric rack steering Fully blended regenerative brakes Charger port Zero evaporative emissions compliant fuel system

FUNCTIONS / BENEFITS

•  Over 25% improvement in composite fuel economy •  Fully capable full-size SUV (5 passenger seating, 3,500 lb towing capacity) •  Engine off at idle •  Deceleration fuel cutoff •  Engine speed and load control •  Low-speed electric propulsion September 5, 2007


September 5, 2007


Range Extended EV •  Full Capability as an Electric Vehicle •  40 Mile EV Range Variants: •  ICE Range Extender •  Fuel Cell

E-Flex with ICE

E-Flex with Fuel Cell September 5, 2007


Execution Capability

•  GM Hybrid Programs are executed through our mainstream product development processes.

•  Global vehicle architecture development teams are aligned with Powertrain regional application engineering to optimize engineering capabilities.

•  Core engineering responsibility for each Powertrain product architecture is centralized globally.

•  Powertrain engineering work is distributed to locations and providers based on demonstrated capability.

September 5, 2007


Global Functional Strategy PT Engineering Responsibilities & Relationship PT Core Engineering

PT Application Engineering

Globally responsible for core engineering product architectures, including variants, to meet regional specific needs.

Adapt global powertrains for local vehicle requirements. Primary responsibility to the vehicle engineering teams and source localization.

PT Technical Resource Center Globally responsible for common tools, procedures, BOD/BOM/ BOP, and technical support lead.

Confidential

September 5, 2007


GM Worldwide Hybrid Resources

Sweden (33)

Troy (153) MPG (270) Indy (80) Torrance (51)

746

Ramos (10)

Warren (88)

Germany(3)

41

Italy (5)

China PATAC (16)

Ypsilanti (62) Pontiac (22)

24

Middle East (2)

Japan (2)

Baltimore (10)

India-TCI (4)

Over 800 (and growing) People Working on GM Hybrids Worldwide!

Melbourne (2)

Note: Includes GM salaried and contract personnel

September 5, 2007


THANK YOU

September 5, 2007


GM Hybrid Technologies