SZLAK UNESCO W POLSCE TRASA UNESCO Gdańsk Elbląg 22
7 Polska na liście UNESCO
P O L S K A
NA LIŚCIE UNESCO
Polska na liście UNESCO
Polska na liście UNESCO
Polska na liście UNESCO
8 Białystok 19
BIAŁOWIEŻA BIAŁOWIESKI PARK NARODOWY
Włocławek Polska na liście UNESCO
Polska na liście UNESCO
Polska na liście UNESCO
ŁĘKNICA PARK MUŻAKOWSKI
Polska na liście UNESCO
Polska na liście UNESCO
35 Polska na liście UNESCO
Polska na liście UNESCO
Polska na liście UNESCO
TABLICE INFORMACYJNE O SZLAKU TURYSTYCZNYM UNESCO
Cieszyn TABLICE INFORMACYJNE O OBIEKCIE/MIEJSCU UNESCO
Polska na liście UNESCO
TABLICE INFORMACYJNE O SZLAKU TURYSTYCZNYM UNESCO
Polska na liście UNESCO
BLIZNE LIPNICA MUROWANA Nowy Sącz
Polska na liście UNESCO
The history of the castle
The Teutonic Order
History of the order
The Order of the Teutonic Knights of St. Mary's Hospital in Jerusalem, commonly known as the Teutonic Order, was established during the Third Crusade to the Holy Land in 1190. At first, it operated as a brotherhood as hospitallers in Acre, then, after receiving its rule in 1198, the brotherhood transformed in a knightly order.
In the first half of the 13th century, the current Grand Master – Hermann von Salza – predicting defeat in the Holy Land, decided to move the Order north. After a failed attempt of moving his Teutonic knights to Hungary, the Order received domains in Kulmerland in return for protecting the borders of Polish Masovia against the Prussians.
the Teutonic era
Knightly orders participating in the Crusades were gatherings composed of monk-knights. The Teutonic Order was one of three such gatherings, with the Templars and the Order of St. John being the other two. On September 14th 1309, Grand Master Siegfried von Feuchtwangen moved his office to Malbork. The castle was promoted to the status of being the capital of one of the most powerful states on the southern coast of the Baltic. It soon became apparent that it could not fulfil its new functions in its current form. The nearly forty-year-long expansion transformed a convent house into a strongly fortified High Castle. Surrounded by deep moats and several rings of defensive walls, it housed several representative rooms. Among these are: the church of the Blessed Virgin Mary, enlarged by a new chancel, and St. Ann’s chapel beneath it – the burial site for the Grand Masters. The old settlement outside the outer walls was also expanded, becoming a spacious and functional Middle Castle available to knights – guests from Western Europe. Apart from living quarters, the Grand Refectory, Infirmary and Palace of the Grand Masters. Today, the Order exists in Austria, Germany, Italy, Slovenia, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Belgium and Holland. The headquarters of the Grand Master, currently dr. Bruno von Platter, is located in Vienna. The order undertakes pastoral, medical and charitable activities, as well as historical research. It also manages the Vienna archive and the treasury-museum.
History of the Museum Starting with the 1st of January 1961, the newly created Castle Museum, a central institution answering only to the Ministry of Culture and National Heritage in Warsaw, became the host of the monument. It is a multidepartmental museum of a historical-artistic nature, the organisation of which was subordinated chiefly to the matters of reconstruction, conservation and correct management of the castle. Parallel to these activities, the Museum also conducts archaeological activities in Lower Powiśle, as well as researching the history, art and culture of Royal Prussia, mainly based on collections in its possession. The accumulation, conservation, scientific description and making available of both modern and old art, are the other tasks of the Malbork institution.
or the extensive coin collection, relating to the historic mints in Malbork. The result of including the Museum in the mainstream of European cultural life, were the International Biennale of Contemporary Bookplates, organised since the 1960s, which bring the castle into the orbit of world class high ranking artistic work. Continued till this day, it has become the largest cyclic artistic event in Poland and the most serious manifestation of this graphic art form in the world. What gives the Museum wide-reaching publicity, are the numerous exhibitions of amber masterpieces in other countries. In the last few years, they were exhibited in the leading museums in Germany, Great Britain, Finland, Sweden, the USA and Japan.
During the first post-war years, the ruined stronghold was left under the supervision of the Museum of the Polish Army in Warsaw. There were plans to open a branch of the Warsaw institution there. To this end, the first strengthening and cleaning work was begun, the castle grounds were demined and the gates were fixed.
After the Second World War Polish civil administration arrived in the city as soon as April 1945, whereas the final organised party of departing Germans left in 1957. The end of the 1940s is a time where the remains of the Old Town were systematically demolished.
At the threshold of its activity, the Museum had at its disposal merely the relics which had survived the war and the looting after 1945. Apart from the architectural details, there were sparse examples of medieval sculpture and pseudo-gothic furniture from the late 19th century. Currently, the 40 thousand museum items include such valuable collections as one of Europe’s largest collection of medieval architectural elements, a collection of artistic amber wares – unique worldwide, an effective set of old weapons and military equipment,
A very important enterprise at the time was the repairing of the large areas of damaged roofs, which protected the monument against the damaging effects of the weather until the planned rebuilding. During the next decade, the Polish Tourist Society looked after the castle. The ever-increasing number of tourists caused the undertaking of further cleaning and renovation work. It was only makeshift, however, and was carried out without detailed documentation. By the end of the 1950s, the initiator of actions aimed at protecting and cleaning the monument, was the Public Committee for the Rebuilding of Malbork Castle – set up by local cultural activists. The work gained considerable momentum, and the Committee also strove to turn the castle into a separate museum.
(including Copernicus’ Birthplace) and also sample Toruo’s famous gingerbread. You can even still visit the Teutonic Castle (albeit the ruins).
Only in Toruń - the symbols of the town The most important characteristics of Toruo are: Nicholaus Copernicus - a native of Toruo, the originator of an astronomical revolution based on the heliocentric theory.
Toruo is one of the most beautiful cities of Poland. Picturesquely located on the both banks of the Vistula River, at a site of intersection of ancient trade routes, it has been propagating its traditional economy and openness to the world for nearly 800 years. The gothic buildings of Toruo's Old Town, which won the designation of World Heritage Site from UNESCO in 1997, present proof of Toruo's centuries-old economic, cultural and intellectual ties with the leading cities of Europe associated in the Hanseatic League.
History Toruo started mainly thanks to the Teutonic Order (you know... those white knights with the black crosses on their fronts!). They built a castle here in the mid-13th century as a base for the conquest of Prussia. Soon the town became commercially important as part of the Hanseatic League. Today, you can still see beautifully preserved public and private buildings from the 14th and 15th centuries
We can see The Statue of Nicholas Copernicus and Copernicus House
The Toruń gingerbread - the most famous product of Toruo that has been made for centuries and one of the most popular Polish food products. The Legend about the Catherine: Torun is widely known of it's best ginger bread.But even the oldest men in Torun doesn't remember who first started to mix rye flour and honey with spices What we know for sure, is that in town lived lots of masters of baking ginger bread. But there was one, t hat did it especial good. He was the one that baked best ginger bread with various shapes and additionally was very modest and good man. He had one, beautiful daughter - Catherine which he loved very much. She was helping him with work in bakery. One day Catherine's father felt ill. From that time, nobody was baking and poverty started to bother them. Then, the father asked his daughter to try to bake ginger bread on her own. Catherine agreed and started to prepare everything what is needed for baking. She only couldn't find a pan, made by her father. Because sh e wasn't able to make new ones, she take a tin cup and started to make circles from paste and put them into an oven. When they were ready, she put them out. But they weren't the same as baked by her father, they sticked together. Catherine was sad, thinking that nobody would buy such strange ginger bread. Unnecessary. They tasted even better than once beaked by her father, and people liked their shape, so the next day she sold them all. After this, people were wondering what was the secret of such good ginger bread. Old huckstress said that except all what is needed to bake ginger bread, Catherine added her hart and love for her ill father. People liked that and from now on, started to name six circles sticked together Catherines. And so is nowadays, walking around Old City you can taste ginger bread named Catherines.
The Vistula panorama of Toruń - the charm and harmony when viewing Toruo from the Vistula river make this panorama one of Toruo symbols and distinctive features. Since 2007, the Vistula panorama of Torun is on the list of 7 Wonders of Polish.
similar to the original one, i.e. medieval. The most important Gothic monuments in Toruo (the Town Hall and the churches) represent masterpieces of the human creative genius. Town Hall - belongs to the most spectacular achievements of medieval urban architecture in Europe.
Churches on the Old Town , for example:
Nicolaus Copernicus University - the largest and most prestigious school of higher education in Northern Poland. Its present activity is a continuation of Copernican scientific traditions.
The Gothic of Toruń - Toruo is the second Polish city, after Cracow, with the greatest number of retained, authentic historic monuments in the Gothic style and the best retained complex of Gothic residential architecture in Northern Europe. The spatial layout of the Old City section, including its network of streets, is in a state that is very
The Leaning Tower - It is a medieval city tower, which owes its name to its substantial vertical deviation (1.40 m).
Saint Johns' Cathedral - Toruo cathedral of saint John the Baptiser and saint John the Evangelist is the oldest gothic church in the Land of Chełmno, the beginnings of which are connected with the moment of granting Toruo the City Rights in 1233.
Planetarium and Orbitarium in Toruo - one of the biggest tourist attractions in Toruo is Planetarium, named after Wł. Dziewulski. It is the most technically advanced planetarium in Poland. Due to its characteristic architectural design - the semicircular dome and rotunda shape, the building is easily recognisable among other structures of Toruo Old Town.
Białowieża National Park It is part of the primeval forest called Puszcza Białowieska, one of the biggest forest complexes in Central Europe and the only lowland natural forest in Europe. Although the Białowieża National Park is one of the most previous ones in the worldwide scale, it is the smallest one in Poland until the present day. It is part of the primeval forest called Puszcza Białowieska, one of the biggest forest complexes in Central Europe and the only lowland natural forest in Europe. Those forests have been a mainstay of the wild nature for many years. That was where the biggest mammals in Europe found their place – namely the aurochs (bisons). The nature has been preserved here in such an unpolluted form mainly because the areas
used to be private hunting areas of kings of Poland. The first national park in Poland was established precisely there in 1921 – today it is included in the World Humanity Heritage as the Biosphere Reservation of the United Nations. The heart of the forest is located in the fragment adjacent to the border with Belarus and it is over 500 years old. There was founded the Strict Reservation of the Białowieża National Park. The forest is one of the most precious natural places in the world. There have never been carried out an exploitation forest management or any cutouts there. Almost the whole area of the park is covered by a strict protection. In order to protect the area of the reservation in the best way, the tourist traffic there is carried out only along separated paths and only in groups with a guide.
Various organizations have been proposing the necessity to widen the area of the park for many years, and it is predicted that its area will widen to cover the whole forest in a few years. The area of the park (reservation) is actually flat and when we pass the gate separating it from the Palace Park, we will be surrounded with a dense and intense greenery. There is a wall of old pines, oaks, ashes, hornbeams, lime-trees, and elms, and a dense base underneath along both sides of the path. The Białowieża National Park is inhabited by 50 species of mammals (including wild aurochs), ca. 200 species of birds, and 1000 species of insects. There were counted almost a thousand types of plants and the same number of fungi.
The entire area of eastern Europe was originally covered by virgin forests similar to that of the Puszcza Białowieska. Travel by people was limited to river routes until about the 14th century; roads and bridges appeared much later. Limited hunting rights were granted throughout the forest in the 14th century. In the 15th century the forest became a property of King Władysław II Jagiełło who used the forest as a food reserve for his army marching towards the Battle of Grunwald . A wooden manor in Białowieża became his refuge during a plague pandemic in 1426. The first recorded piece of legislation on the protection of the forest dates to 1538, when a document issued by King Sigismund I the Old instituted the death penalty for poaching a wisent (European bison). King Sigismund also built a new wooden hunting manor in Białowieża, which became the namesake for the whole forest.
The forest was declared a hunting reserve in 1541 for the protection of wisent. In 1557, the forest charter was issued, under which a special board was established which examined forest usage. In 1639 King Władysław IV Waza issued the "Białowieża royal forest decree. The document freed all peasants living in the forest in exchange for their service as osocznicy , or royal foresters. They were also freed of taxes in exchange for taking care of the forest. The forest was divided onto 12 triangular areas with a centre in Białowieża. Until the reign of Jan Kazimierz the forest was mostly unpopulated. However, in the late 17th century several small villages were established for development of local iron ore deposits and tar production. The villages were populated with settlers from Masovia and Podlaskie and many of them still exist.
In 1923 it was discovered that only 54 wisent survived the war in various zoos all around the world – none of them in Poland. In 1929 a small herd of four wisent was bought by the Polish state from various zoos and from the Western Caucasus (where the wisent was to become extinct just several years afterwards – these animals were of the slightly different Caucasian subspecies). Most of the forest was declared a national park in 1932. The Reserve was inscribed on the World Heritage List in 1992 and internationally recognised as a Biosphere Reserve under UNESCO's Man and the Biosphere Programme in 1993 (the Polish part had been so designated in 1976).
Warsaw Rising Museum
Warsaw Zoological Garden
Opened in 2004, on the 60th anniversary of the outbreak of the Warsaw Uprising, the museum pays tribute to all those who fought and died for their country’s independence. Housed in a former tramway power station, the modern museum guides visitors through interactive displays, video footage and photographs.
The museum contains a rich collection of exhibits from antiquity to modern times. The building originates from the inter-war period. During the World War II it secretly stored some of the Royal Castle treasures. It organizes numerous temporary exhibitions presenting art from all over the world. The Vistula-side building wing is the Museum of the Polish Army presenting the history of Polish military featuring an interesting outdoor exhibition.
Established in 1928, the garden is now inhabited by several thousand animals, yet the real personalities of the Warsaw Zoo are the brown bears whose area is located outside the garden, near Solidarności Avenue, and can be viewed by passers-by.
University of Warsaw Library
Walking the streets of the Old Town and New Town allows you to rest from the bustle of central city life. Atmospheric alleys, squares, and cosy cafés create a unique sense of history, and in the summer, the Old and New Town Squares become stages for musical and theatrical performances and open-air galleries.
Right-bank Warsaw has recently gained the status of an artistic district where the post industrial buildings and townhouses have been turned into art studios, theatres or fashionable clubs. Ząbkowska Street or 11 Listopada are a perfect illustration of the revival going on in the only district of Warsaw that remained fairly intact after the war.
The facade of the building, which resembles a line of open books, is one of the most interesting examples of contemporary architecture in Warsaw. The roof garden is open to the public.
History of the City
In Warsaw today, archaeological traces of several early Middle Age castles are found on the Vistula River, the oldest of which - originating in the 10th and 11th centuries – were situated on what is known today as the area of Bródno. Slightly less aged is Jazdów, known as the home of the Prince's Castle. The city‘s history itself, however, is believed to have begun with the creation and development of Old Warsaw (Stara Warszawa), which was set on what is today known as the Old Town (Stare Miasto). Mazovian Prince Bolesław II brought prosperous traders to the Old Town, and his headquarters were based there, as well.
Places related to Fryderyk Chopin
Fryderyk Chopin is undoubtedly the best known resident of Warsaw. He spent the first 20 years of his life in the city. Here he studied music, learned the manners of society and gave his first concerts. Walking the streets of Warsaw you will pass buildings where he stayed or which he visited. There are many places which are a homage paid to his talent and Warsaw boasts the world’s largest Chopin memorabilia collection.
Palace of Culture and Science
Completed in 1955 as a ‘gift from the Soviet people’, the building is the embodiment of Socialist Realist architecture. It is still the tallest building in Poland and fulfils the role of a cultural centre accommodating theatres, museums, a cinema and a concert hall. The highest viewing platform in Warsaw, on the 30th foor, offers an excellent panoramic view of the city.
Łazienki Królewskie Park-Palace Complex
Wilanów Park-Palace Complex
The summer residence of King Jan III Sobieski and then Augustus II as well as subsequent aristocratic families. It is an excellent representation of European Baroque at its height and a homage to the former greatness of the Republic. The palace is surrounded by a grandiose, two level Baroque Italian garden and a romantic park in English style. Wilanów is the venue of important cultural events and concerts. The former stables house the Poster Museum.
The park and palace complex at Łazienki are one of the most beautiful of this type in Europe. Established in the 17th century, the landscape gardens feature many interesting architectural monuments, the most important of which include the Palace on the Island built for King Stanislaw August Poniatowski – Poland’s last monarch. It served as his summer residence and was famous for the Thursday dinners.
- a Renaissance ideal town, proof of the genius of Bernardo Morando and the Great Crown Hetman Jan Zamoyski - is a magic place where the beauty of architecture and contemporary cultural life create a unique atmosphere. Summer pavement cafes, autumn colours of fallen leaves, spring greenery and winter severity effectively emphasise the Renaissance perfection of Old Town houses and inner yards where residents and visitors can listen to jazz or classical music concerts, see art exhibitions or participate in theatrical happenings. The Great Market Square with its monumental town hall and beautiful Armenian houses as well as Wodny and Solny Markets together with the preserved remains of the old, invincible Zamość Fortress constitute a unique urban complex inscribed on the UNESCO World Cultural Heritage List. Artistic events which have been organised in Zamość enhance the uniqueness of these places.
It was built at the turn of the 16th and 17th centuries according to Bernardo Morando's design. In 1639 - 1651 the town hall was thoroughly remodelled by Jan Jaroszewicz and Jan Wolff. The edifice was enlarged and made higher by adding three storeys with a high attic. The facades have Mannerist proportions, regular divisions and rich architectural décor. In the 18thcentury a guardroom and a fan-shaped double stairway supported by arcades were built in front of the town hall. In 1770 the town hall tower was topped with a slender dome with a lantern.
houses three historic bells. The biggest and the oldest one is known as "Jan" and was named after its benefactor Jan Zamoyski Sobiepan. The second one called "Tomasz" was founded by Tomasz Józef Zamoyski in 1721 and the third bell called "Wawrzyniec" was founded by Wawrzyniec Sikorski in 1715.
THE GREAT MARKET SQUARE The Great Market Square belongs to the most beautiful 16th century squares in Europe. In every frontage of the square there is a complex of arcaded houses that used to belong to Zamość merchants. The square measures exactly 100 meters in both width and length. It is here that the two main axes of the old town cross.
Showplace: THE TOWN HALL
THE CATHEDRAL BELL TOWER It was built in the Baroque style in the second half of the 18th century according to Jerzy de Kawe's design. In the passageway there are plaques commemorating the martyrdom of the inhabitants of Zamość Region (children, partisans and Siberian deportees) during World War II. The bell tower
It is one of the most beautiful Jewish temples built in Poland in the Renaissance. It was erected about 1610 in the Renaissance style and its main part is a large prayer hall (11.5 m x 12.2 m). A lofty dome with moulded ribs constitutes the vault. In the 17th century two buildings for women were added. The synagogue sustained severe damage during World War II: the northern part of the building for women was damaged and the southern building destroyed completely. All the liturgical accessories were removed from the synagogue. After the end of the war the building underwent a thorough renovation and the southern building for women was rebuilt. In the 1970s the attics were reconstructed, stucco work was restored and polychrome decorations were uncovered.
WALERIAN ŁUKASIŃSKI'S PRISON CELL When the New Lvov Gate was built in 1821 the Old Lvov Gate was turned into casemates. Above the portal traces of an inscription „PRISON" are still visible; the inscription dates back to the times of the Congress Kingdom of Poland. Next to the exit there is a plaque with a low-relief of Walerian Łukasiński's (1786 -1868) bust. Łukasiński was a patriotic activist and the founder of National Masonry and Patriotic Society); he was a prisoner in Zamość fortress from 1824 - 1825. The plaque features Łukasiński as a prisoner chained to a heavy gun with an inscription „There is no force that could defeat a true love for the country"
BASTION NO. 7 A military structure located at the bend of the town's fortifications. Its aim was to reinforce the already existing defensive structures. It has a shape of a pentagon surrounded with a wall embankment. The front parts of the bastions are 71 and 77 m long. In the first half of the 19thcentury casemates were built. Inside there are shooting galleries. The bastion was destroyed in 1866 when the fortress was being
closed down. In 1977-1984 it was reconstructed in its original shape. The tip of the bastion used to be decorated with Tomasz Zamoyski's cartouche, which is now placed on town hall stairs.
THE ARSENAL Originally a one-storey building, erected by Bernardo Morando in the 1580s and situated north of the Zamoyski Palace it was one of the first public buildings in the town. External stairway placed over the portal leads to a low ground floor of this 63meter long building. At present it houses a military museum. On the ground floor there is a permanent exhibition of 17th century arms: cold steel, firearms and protective weaponry of cannons and an exhibition presenting the history of Zamość fortress including a model of the town.
THE ZAMOYSKI PALACE The former residence of the Zamoyski family erected by Jan Zamoyski in 1579-1586 according to Bernardo Morando's design is situated at the western end of the main axis of the town and used to be separated from the town with its own fortifications. It was a 60-meter long one-storey "front' building which had monumental fan-shaped stairs leading to the first floor. The palace also had a four-sided tower ‘the belvedere' with an observation terrace. In the 18th century the palace was rebuilt in the Baroque style. The tower was made lower, its attic was demolished and it was topped with a triangular gable with sculptures on the corners. The palace building was covered with mansard roofs and was joined to the back outbuildings with one-storey galleries. In 1809 the palace ceased to be the seat of Zamość entailers and in 1821 both the palace and the town were sold to the State Treasury. The former rich décor was destroyed while the building was being turned into an army hospital after 1831. In 1918, when Poland became independent, the palace was taken over by the town court.
Wenceslas, introduced the Czech rule. In the 10th century Kraków was incorporated to the Polish state, although it is difficult to verify whether it took place during the reign of Mieszko I in 990 or Boleslav the Brave in 999.
The coat of arms stamp of the Royal Capital City of Kraków is round, and the stamp field features the coat of arms, while the rim has the following inscription: STOŁECZNE KRÓLEWSKIE MIASTO KRAKÓW (ROYAL CAPITAL CITY OF KRAKÓW).
Colours and symbols
History of Kraków Archaeological excavations prove that Wawel Hill was inhabited as early as the Old Stone Age. The Mounds of Krakus and Wanda, the legendary rulers of the settlement inhabited at their time by the Slavic tribes of Vistulans, probably come from the 7th century. The first documented reference to Kraków can be found in records from 965 of the Cordova merchant Abraham ben Jacob. He mentions a rich burg city situated at the crossing of trade routes and surrounded by woods. In the pre-Piast period two dates related to the history of the City appear. Between 876 and 879 the Great Moravian Prince Svatopluk captured the future Lesser Poland, and after 955 Prince Boleslav the Cruel, brother of St.
The coat of arms of the Royal Capital City of Kraków depicts a red brick wall on a blue field with three towers crowned with crenellation with three battlements each, black embrasures and windows, the middle of which is higher and broader. The wall features a gate with open golden doors with lily-shaped fittings and raised golden harrow. The gate's arch bearss a crowned White Eagle with a gold beak and claws. The coat of arms shield has the Renaissance shape traditional for Kraków topped with a crown with lily-shaped fleurons closed with an arch with a ball and a cross at the top.
We invest in culture Kraków's attractiveness stems not only from its places but also the people who build the City's culture, trying to take into account the needs of a diverse group of inhabitants and guests. It is also home to many festivals, many of which have rich traditions and regular audiences. Every year new projects emerge, including ones initiated by Mayor Jacek Majchrowski: Misteria Paschalia, Sacrum-Profanum, Museum Night, The Festival of Polish Music presenting the works of Polish music in world's greatest performances, and the Nations' Drama Festival.
Wawel Royal Castle : Wawel is a limestone hill in the centre of Kraków upon the Vistula River with a complex of impressive historical monuments of unique historical and artistic values. This extraordinary sanctuary determines the Poles’ identity, is their national and cultural symbol. Wawel used to be the seat of Polish rulers, their necropolis and place where the Polish history took shape.
St. Mary's Tower also known as the Straży (Guard), Budzielna (Waking), Alarmowa (Alarm) and Hejnalica (Heynal) Tower – is the only tower in the world from which a trumpeter has played the Heynal (bugle call) to the four quarters of the globe every hour throughout the whole day for over six hundred years. In order to see and hear these marvels one has to climb 239 steps to the height of 54 metres. St. Mary’s trumpeter needs two and a half minutes. We do not have to hurry that much. What is most important is that up there we are expected by the always cordial heynal guards, the last magicians of Kraków.
Jewish Kazimierz : Kraków’s Kazimierz is a special place, because it has been shaped by the close neighbourhood of Christianity and Judaism lasting for several centuries. The Jews came to Kazimierz in the 2nd half of the 14th century, and till the first years of the 19th century they had lived
there in the separate “Jewish town” whose limits largely followed today’s Miodowa, Św. Wawrzyńca, Wąska, Józefa and Bożego Ciała Streets. It was an autonomous enclave governed by rabbis and elected elders that recognised only the king’s supremacy held on his behalf by the Kraków voivode.
Streets of the Old Town : In the 14th century Kraków had 42 named streets. The earliest references in documents are about Grodzka, Wiślna, Floriańska, Bracka and Sławkowska. By the beginning of the 19th century the names of the streets had been spontaneously devised by the city inhabitants usually on the basis of topography and tradition.
Work on building the Calvary was begun in this was largely destroyed in the 19th century. 1600 by Mikolaj Zebrzydowski, the Voyevode of Cracow, who built the Chapel of the Crucifixion on the slopes of Żar Mountain. Together with a small hermitage, this was used by him for personal meditation The layout was the work of the distinguished mathematician, astronomer, and surveyor Feliks Żebrowski. He based it on the landscape of Jerusalem at the time of Christ, using a system of measurement that he developed to enable the urban landscape of Jerusalem to be reproduced symbolically on the natural landscape. This makes use of the natural topography, the Lackarańska Mountain representing the Mount of Olives and the Żar Mountain Golgotha, for example
At the end of World War II the plot on which the palace had stood, together with some surviving outbuildings, passed into the ownership of the state, which used it for the construction of a theological college.
Kalwaria Zebrzydowska is an exceptional cultural monument in which the natural landscape was used as the setting for a symbolic representation in the form of chapels and avenues of the events of the Passion of Christ. The result is a cultural landscape of great beauty and spiritual quality in which natural and manmade elements combine in a harmonious manner. The Counter Reformation in the late 16th Historical archives show that Kalwaria century led to a flowering in the creation of Zebrzydowska had many distinguished royal and Calvaries in Europe. Kalwaria Zebrzydowska is noble visitors as well as countless pious pilgrims. an outstanding example of this type of largescale landscape design, which incorporates natural beauty with spiritual objectives At the beginning of the 18th century the and the principles of Baroque park design. Czartoryski family, the owners of the park, built a palatial residence near the pilgrim church, but
Kalwaria Zebrzydowska is beautiful place where you can admire amazing nature and Many were attracted by religious performances and ritual that were staged there. As early as 1613 Kalwaria Zebrzydowska is located in the Lesser architecture in Poland. Mikolaj Zebrzydowski had received permission to Poland Voivodship (Malopolska), 40 km to the This place is really worth to see. found a religious fraternity to organize religious south-west of Krakow. ceremonies of this kind. Local people joined the Bernardine monks at Easter to take part in It developed alongside the River Cedron, dramatic enactments of Christ's Passion. These between two majestic mountains â€“ religious performances were discouraged during Lanckoronska (555 m above sea level) and Zar the Austrian occupation of this region, but they (527 m). were revived after 1947. In addition to the This small town has a population of around Passion procession at Easter, there is a similar 4,000 people. event at the Feast of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary in August.
Memorial and Museum
The concealment of the crime and removal of evidence by the perpetrators
One of the babies that was among the liberated prisoners of KL Auschwitz. (Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum Archives)
Despite the fact that the tens of thousands of prisoners who survived Auschwitz were witnesses to the crimes committed there; despite the fact that they left behind thousands of depositions, accounts, and memoirs; despite the fact that considerable quantities of documents, photographs, and material objects remain from the campâ€”despite all of this, there are people and organizations who deny that hundreds of thousands of people were murdered in this camp, that gas chambers operated there, or that the crematoria could burn several thousand corpses per day. In other words, they deny that Auschwitz was the scene of genocide.
The unloading ramp and the main gate called the "Gate of Death. (Archiwum PaĹ„stwowego Muzeum Auschwitz-Birkenau)
All over the world, Auschwitz has become a symbol of terror, genocide, and the Holocaust. It was established by Germans in 1940, in the suburbs of Oswiecim, a Polish city that was annexed to the Third Reich by the Nazis. Its name was changed to Auschwitz, which also became the name of Konzentrationslager Auschwitz. The direct reason for the establishment of the camp was the fact that mass arrests of Poles were increasing beyond the capacity of existing "local" prisons. Initially, Auschwitz was to be one more concentration camp of the type that the Nazis had been setting up since the early 1930s. It functioned in this role throughout its existence, even when, beginning in 1942, it also became the largest of the death camps.
A 10 year old girl from Hungary liberated in Birkenau by the Red Army on January 27, 1945. (Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum Archives)
Bodies found by the Soviet soldiers while liberating the camp in January 1945. (Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum Archives)
Medical experiments in Auschwitz The participation of numerous German physicians in criminal medical experiments on concentration camp prisoners was a particularly drastic instance of the trampling of medical ethics. The initiators and facilitators of these experiments were Reichsführer SS Heinrich Himmler, together with SS-Obergruppenführer Ernst Grawitz, the chief physician of the SS and police, and SSStandartenführer Wolfram Sievers, the secretary general of the Ahnenerbe (Ancestral Heritage) Association and director of the Waffen SS Military-Scientific Research Institute.
The number of victims
A hand of a prisoner with signs of an experiment made by Dr Emil Kaschub. He used various toxic substances to inject and see what it causes. The aim of his "research" was to find methods of faking injuries among German soldiers. (Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum Archives)
Experiments were planned at the highest levels to meet the needs of the army (some were intended to improve the state of soldiers’ health) or postwar plans (including population policy), or to reinforce the bases of racial ideology (including advancing views as to the superiority of the “Nordic race”). Aside from experiments planned at the highest levels, many Nazi doctors experimented on prisoners on behalf of German pharmaceutical companies or medical institutes. Others did so in pursuit of their personal interests, or to advance their academic careers.
A photo taken by the members of Soviet medical team documenting criminal experiments performed on prisoners in the camp. (Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum Archives)
During the Second World War, Nazi doctors pandered to the expectations of the Third Reich leadership by supporting the regime’s demographic policies. They initiated wide-ranging research on methods of mass sterilization that would be applied to peoples regarded as belonging to a lower category. Children, victims of Dr Josef Mengele's experiments. Picture taken in camp photo studio. (Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum Archives)
Auschwitz Concentration Camp was set up for Poles, and Poles were the first political prisoners there. The number of prisoners grew steadily as a result of the constant arrival of new transports. In 1940, nearly 8 thousand people were registered in the camp. In 1941, over 26 thousand people were registered in Auschwitz (about 15 thousand Poles, 10 thousand Soviet POWs, and more than 1 thousand Jews). As a result of the inclusion of Auschwitz in the process of the mass extermination of the Jews, the number of deportees began to soar. About 197 thousand Jews were deported there in 1942, about 270 thousand the following year, and over 600 thousand in 1944, for a total of almost 1.1 million. Among them, about 200 thousand people were selected as capable of labor and registered as prisoners in the camp.
Liberation While they were leading the Auschwitz prisoners onto the evacuation marches and afterwards in January 1945, the SS set about their final steps to remove the evidence of the crimes they had committed in the camp. They made bonfires of documents on the camp streets. They blew up crematoria II and III, which had already been partially dismantled, on January 20, and crematorium V, still in operational condition, on January 26. On January 23, they set fire to “Kanada II,” the complex of storage barracks holding property plundered from the victims of extermination.
Centennial Hall is a unique venue on the map of Poland, where history harmoniously interacts with modernity. It was designed by Max Berg, an outstanding city architect, and recognized as one of the top masterpieces of the 20th century architecture. The designer assumed that the Hall was to serve citizens of Wrocław and visitors to Lower Silesia's capital city, and it continues to perform this function successfully. Multi-purpose space, unusual structure, unique and spacious location represent just a few of its strengths. Centennial Hall complex currently is one of the most desired venues among domestic and foreign organizers of major exhibitions, conferences, cultural, sport and congress events.
The Hall's inscription on UNESCO World Heritage List in 2006 emphasized the rank of this facility. Undoubtedly it is one of the most characteristic flagships of Wrocław in the international scale, and exceptionally magic site in the city where the charts of history record its multi-generational experience. Local, domestic and international sporting events are held in the Centennial Hall. The main deck's space may be arranged to serve as a court for team games (volleyball, basketball and handball), as well as a tennis court or dance floor for dance competitions.
Pergola – a 640 meter-long structure built in 1913 in the shape of a semi-ellipse as an integral part of the Centennial Hall's Exhibition Grounds. It consists of 750 columns covered with open lattice trusses and overgrown with luxuriant vines. Pergola surrounds Wrocław Multimedia Fountain. Similarly to Szczytnicki Park, it is a favorite walking site for Wrocław residents and often provides setting to photo sessions, such as wedding ones.
The largest fountain in Poland and one of the largest in Europe. Its grand opening was held on 4 June 2009 and accompanied the twentieth anniversary of the first free election in the post-war Poland. It is situated in the picturesque landscape of Szczytnicki Park, next to the Centennial Hall complex and Wrocław Congress Center, and attracts interest of domestic and foreign tourists. It covers the surface of nearly 1 hectare, and 800 lights and 300 water jets have been arranged in its bed. Water show is synchronized with music, which creates amazing artistic impression. During winter, the fountain's basin is used as an icerink covering approximately 230m2.
Centennial Hall's specifically adapted interiors compose an educational, discovery and recreational path, which consists of four main facilities (apart from Visitor's Center/Tourist Information), Oval Room, Historical and Discovery Room, and Gallery. All the path's elements create a consistent complex which comprehensively presents architectonic and historical features of the Centennial Hall, Wrocław, region and other sites inscribed on UNESCO List. The space is furnished with a wide range of multimedia equipment and it inspires and encourages visitors to obtain better understanding of this facility's phenomenon.
One of the oldest municipal parks in Europe. It holds a historical complex of Centennial Hall, historical Pergola, Wrocław Multimedia Fountain, Regional Center for Business Tourism as well as Japanese Garden, St. John Nepomucen's Church, Four-Dome Pavilion and Planetarium. 100 hectare space holds about 320 tree and shrub species, which secure the Park's 4th rank in Europe as regards its natural values. It is a favorite recreational site of Wrocław residents.
The attention is drawn to richly decorated emporas – boxes for Protestant gentry. The church in Świdnica can hold 7.5 thousand people, and in Jawor – 6 thousand. The church in Glogów burned in 1758, the other two in Jawor and Swidnica were restored by Polish-German cooperation.
Churches of Peace in Jawor and Świdnica (the 17th century) in Silesia are the largest timber-framed religious buildings in Europe. The Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648) was concluded with the failure of Protestants in Silesia, who were deprived of all churches. Under the Peace of Westphalia they were allowed to build three churches, of which the two in Jawor and Świdnica survived until today. The buildings made of wood and clay, without towers, surprise with their splendid interiors.
The architect responsible for all three was Albrecht von Sabisch. The churches had to be big enough to be a true place of refuge for the Protestant population. He designed wooden buildings that had never been seen before in complexity and size.
CHURCH IN JAWOR :
CHURCH IN SWIDNICA :
Churches of Peace belongs to UNESCO World Heritage.
As I wrote, Churches are placed in Jawor and Swidnica in Silesia
In conclusion Iâ€™d like to add that these churches are really worth to see. They are beautiful, full of splendor and kind of magical atmosphere.
The Muskau Park The Muskau Park is the largest and one of the most famous English gardens of Germany and Poland. Situated in the historic Upper Lusatia region, it covers 3.5 square kilometers of land in Poland and 2.1 km2 in Germany. A fortress on the Neisse river at Muskau was first mentioned as early as in the 13th under the rule of Margrave Henry III of Meissen.
The founder of the adjacent park was Prince Hermann von P端cklerMuskau (1785-1871), the author of the influential Hints on Landscape Gardening and owner of the state country of Muskau since 1811. After prolonged studies in England, in 1815 during the time when the northeastern part of Upper Lusatia fell to Prussia, he laid out the Park. As time went by, he established an international school of landscape management in Bad Muskau and outlined the construction of an extensive landscape park which would
envelop the town "in a way not done before on such a grand scale". The works involved remodelling the Baroque "Old Castle" actually a former castle gate - and the construction of a Gothic chapel, an English cottage, several bridges, and an orangery designed by Friedrich Ludwig Persius. P端ckler reconstructed the medieval fortress as the "New Castle", the compositional centre of the park, with a network of paths radiating from it and a
pleasure ground influenced by the ideas of Humphry Repton, whose son John Adey worked at Muskau from 1822 on. The extensions went on until 1845, when P端ckler due to his enormous debts was constrained to sell the patrimony. The next year it was acquired by Prince Frederick of the Netherlands, who employed Eduard Petzold, P端ckler's disciple and a well-known landscape gardener, to complete his
design. Upon his death in 1881, he was followed by his daughter Princess Marie, who sold the estates to the Arnim noble family. During the Battle of Berlin, both castles were levelled and all four bridges across the Neisse were razed. The Arnims were dispossessed by the Soviet Military Administration in Germany and since the implementation
of the Oder-Neisse line in 1945, the park has been divided by the state border between Poland and Germany, with two thirds of it on the Polish side. Not before the 1960s the Communist authorities slowly accepted the legacy of the "Junker" Prince P端ckler. The Old Castle was rebuilt by the East German administration in 1965-72, while the New Castle and the bridges are still being restored.
YOU CANNOT MISS THESE PLACES COME AND SEE THEM YOU WILL NOT REGRET IT !