issue # 3 // WINTER 2007–2008
PUBLISHED BY THE EUROPEAN MUSIC COUNCIL // a regional group of the International Music Council
access to music
m A European Agenda for Culture m Approaches to Intellectual Property Rights m Fair Music m Cultural Diversity and Cultural Participation 1
A Regional Group of the
The European Music Council (EMC) is a platform for representatives of National Music Councils and organisations involved in various fields of music from many European countries. As a European umbrella organisation, it gathers the European members of the International Music Council (IMC). The European Music Council contributes to a better mutual understanding among peoples and their different cultures and to the right for all musical cultures to coexist. Therefore it provides exceptional value to its membership by building knowledge, creating networking opportunities as well as supporting and enhancing the visibility of initiatives that help sustain people’s participation in music and cultural life.
IMPRINT Editor: European Music Council Haus der Kultur Weberstr. 59a 53113 Bonn Germany www.emc-imc.org email@example.com Tel.: +49 228 96699664 Fax: +49 228 96699665 CHAIRman: Wouter Turkenburg Vice-CHAIR: Hans-Herwig Geyer Treasurer: Sonja Greiner Board Members: Petra Mohorcic, Regina Senften, Harald Huber, Timo Klemettinen, Einar Solbu
Editing: Simone Dudt (sd), Ruth Jakobi (rj), Isabelle Metrope (im) Assistant: Julian Ueding Proof reading: Juliette Powell, Katja Strube Layout: kominform, Hamburg (www.kominform.net) Printing: Druckpartner Moser, Rheinbach Drawing on front page by Timm Lotz, Hamburg (firstname.lastname@example.org) on the basis of a picture by Stiftung “Jedem Kind ein Instrument” Photographers as credited The European Music Council is supported by:
Secretary General: Ruth Jakobi Deputy Secretary General: Simone Dudt Project assistant: Isabelle Metrope
© 2007 European Music Council. All rights reserved. The views expressed in this publication are those of the authors and not necessarily of the publisher or editor. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any format without permission of the European Music Council.
CONTENT EMC News 6 8
Access to Music: New Perspectives in Distribution, Education and Politics, EMC 2008 Annual Conference ExTra! Exchange Traditions – Reporting Continued
Focus: Access to Music 12
Cultural Diversity and Cultural Participation by Max Fuchs The New Freedom of Music by Wouter Turkenburg When a Thousand Children Stand up by Isabelle Mili Musical Rights – Access to Music by Richard Letts The Values of Singing by Jean Smeets Approaches to Intellectual Property Rights by Peter Rantasa Bouncing towards the Future with Kangaroo Panze by Daphne Wassink
Cultural Policy 26 27
A European Agenda for Culture Music and Intercultural Dialogue Fair Music by Peter Rantasa
For Inspiration 30
An Educational Journey through Choral Singing Ad Libitum Festival Active Music Making 50+ Polifonia – the Erasmus Thematic Network for Music An Instrument for Every Child Jamila and the Others
EMC/IMC Review 40
Cultural Diversity and Access to Culture – EMC 2007 Second World Forum on Music by Silja Fischer
WINTER 2007–2008 // SOUNDS IN EUROPE
EDITORIAL // Zugang zu musik
2007: Mein kleiner Sohn, zweieinhalb Jahre alt, gerade mal 30 Monate auf der Welt, liegt im Urlaubshotelzimmer auf dem Bett und hört Musikstücke über Ohrstöpsel, die per Kabel mit einem kleinen flachen digitalen Speicher verbunden sind. Die Mutter hat ihm einige seiner Lieblingsalben aufgeladen, damit er auch im Urlaub einer seiner Lieblingsbeschäftigungen nachgehen kann: Musik hören. Es gibt Haushalte, in denen sich Musik-Instrumente befinden und von Kindern problemlos gebraucht werden dürfen. Freie Improvisation ist in diesem Zusammenhang ein wichtiger, grundlegender Zugang zur Musik: Improvisation ist die Basis des klanglichen Ausdrucks menschlicher Energie bzw. sinnlichen Bewusstseins. In der westlichen Musikpädagogik hat man heute den Wert der Improvisation für Kinder und auch für Erwachsene langsam wiederentdeckt. Musik machen bedeutet in den meisten Kulturen des Globus zunächst einmal zu improvisieren und erst dann, in weiterer Folge, ein System und bestimmte Konventionen zu erlernen. Auch ist das Spiel mit Klängen zumeist eingebettet in die Gesamtheit aller Ausdrucksmittel des Körpers bzw. der Sinne. Um den „Schutz und die Förderung der Vielfalt der kulturellen Ausdrucksformen“ geht es demnach nicht nur im Großen sondern auch im Kleinen, nicht nur auf staatlicher und zwischenstaatlicher Ebene sondern bereits im
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Bereich der heranwachsenden Kinder und Jugendlichen. Improvisation eröffnet Zugänge nicht nur zu allen Arten von Musik, sondern auch zu allen darstellenden und bildenden Künsten! Damit sind bereits zentrale neue Perspektiven der EMC-Konferenz „Access to Music“ vom 17. bis 20. April 2008 in Brünn/Tschechien angesprochen: Wie ist es möglich, unter den Bedingungen einer sich rasch wandelnden Medienwelt, die technologisch einen relativ unkomplizierten Zugang zum Weltrepertoire der Musik für jeden Menschen eröffnet, das Recht auf eine ganzheitliche Entwicklung des menschlichen Ausdrucksvermögens ausnahmslos für jedes Kind sicherzustellen? Wie kann kulturelle Bildung im Bereich der Musik für die Bevölkerung weiter ausgebaut statt zurückgefahren werden? Welchen Beitrag kann und muss das Schulsystem in diesem Zusammenhang leisten? Und welche Konsequenzen lassen sich daraus für (kultur-) politische Handlungsfelder ziehen? Mein kleiner zweieinhalbjähriger Bub denkt noch nicht über solche Fragen nach. Er probiert einfach meine CD-Sammlung durch und geht zum Klavier oder zum Schlagzeug wenn er Lust dazu hat. Dies sollte für alle Kinder möglich sein! // Harald Huber Vorstandsmitglied des Europäischen Musikrat Präsident Österreichischer Musikrat
ACCESS TO MUSIC // EDITORIAL
2007: My little two and a half year old son, born a mere 30 months ago, is lying on the bed in the hotel where we are spending our vacation and is listening to pieces of music using earphones which are connected via a cable to a small, flat digital storage device. His mother added a few of his favourite albums to it so that even on vacation he could pursue his favorite pastime: listening to music. There are households where musical instruments are available and can be used by children without any restrictions. In this context, free improvisation provides an important, fundamental access to music: Improvisation is the basis of the expression of human energy or sensual conscience in sound. Today, the value of improvisation for children and also for adults has gradually been rediscovered in western musical education. In most cultures around the globe, making music means, first of all, to improvise and only secondly, in a subsequent step, to learn a system and specific conventions. Also, the game of sounds is mostly embedded in the sum of the body’s or the senses’ means of expression. The “protection and promotion of the diversity of cultural expressions” is thus addressed not only on a large scale but also on a small scale, not only at governmental and intergovernmental level but also in the area of children and young people. Improvisation opens up access
not only to all kinds of music but also to all performing and visual arts! With this, some of the central new perspectives of the EMC Conference „Access to Music“, which will be taking place in Brno/ Czech Republic from 17 to 20 April 2008, have already been identified: How can it be possible – under the conditions of a fast changing media world which, from a technological perspective, provides a relatively uncomplicated access to the world’s repertoire of music to everyone – to guarantee the right to a holistic development of the human expression for all children? How can cultural education for the population in the area of music be further enhanced instead of being diminished? What contribution can and must the school system make in this regard? And what consequences can be drawn from it for new and existing fields of action in (culture) policy development? My little two and a half year old boy does not think about such questions yet. He simply browses through my CD collection and goes to the piano or the drums whenever he feels like it. All children should have this possibility! //
Harald Huber Board member of the European Music Council President Austrian Music Council Translation: Kathrin Matzen
WINTER 2007–2008 // SOUNDS IN EUROPE
EMC News // Prˇ ístup k hudbE
ˇ Prístup k hudbE Nové perspektivy ve vzdEˇ lávání, Sˇ írˇ ení a politice ...
… jsou hlavní témata každoroční konference Evropské hudební rady, která se bude konat od 17. do 20. dubna 2008 v Brně. Konferenci společně pořádají Česká hudební rada a Janáčkova akademie múzických umění.
Rada ministrů kultury Evropské unie přijala Agendu EU pro kulturu a definovala přístup ke kultuře jako jednu z priorit nadcházejících let. Evropská hudební rada velmi vítá tento vývoj a má v úmyslu aktivně přispívat ke strukturovanému dialogu podporovaného EU, což znamená konzultativní výměny mezi nevládními kulturními organizacemi, jako je například ta naše, a politickými představiteli na místní, regionální, národní a evropské úrovni. Souhlasíme s vyjádřením pana Figela, evropského komisaře pro vzdělávání, výchovu, kulturu a školství, že „toto je začátek nové éry, kdy spolu budou spolupracovat členské státy, Evropská komise a všichni, kteří se podílejí na kultuře. Společnými silami budeme lépe vybaveni k tomu, abychom reagovali na některé důležité výzvy, se kterými se musí vyrovnat kulturní sektor.” V tomto roce, který je věnován mezikulturnímu dialogu, se bude konference Evropské hudební rady zabývat specifickými potřebami pro přístup k hudbě, přičemž je nutné vzít v úvahu různá kulturní prostředí lidí, kteří dnes žijí společně v Evropě. Konference Evropské hudební rady nabídne možnost diskutovat o nových perspektivách v hudebním vzdělávání, v oblasti šíření hudby a v jeho potřebách ve vztahu k politickému prostředí. Jak můžeme dětem i dospělým zaručit jejich lidské právo na holistický vývoj různého uměleckého pro-
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jevu? Jak můžeme zaručit spravedlivý výdělek pro všechny umělce, když rychle se měnící svět médií umožňuje každému volný přístup ke světovému hudebnímu repertoáru? Která omezení nebo naopak uvolnění na politické úrovni jsou potřeba, aby se hudební sektor mohl vyrovnat se změnami v technice i společnosti? Požádali jsem Evropskou komisi, aby se zúčastnila těchto diskusí a zkontaktovala se s předními experty a zástupci hudebních organizací. Vyzvali jsme Evropskou radu, aby zde prezentovala svou „Zprávu o mezikulturním dialogu” a aby se v něm zaměřila na roli hudby. Koncerty v pátek a sobotu večer, které pořádá Česká hudební rada a Janáčkova akademie, jistě zanechají dojem o hudební rozmanitosti České republiky. Evropská hudební rada vybízí své členy i všechny účastníky konference k aktivní účasti na dialogu o hudbě. Všichni členové Evropské hudební rady jsou vyzváni k prezentaci projektů dobré praxe, které jsou vizionářské a inspirující a které se týkají přístupu k hudbě. // rj 3
Registrace probíhá do 20.3.2008 na internetové stránce www.emc-imc.org, nebo kontaktujte pr ˇímo EMC na tel: +49 228 96699664 nebo na e-mailu email@example.com.
ACCESS TO MUSIC // EMC NEWS
Access to Music New perspectives in education, distribution and politics ...
… are in the focus of the Annual Conference 2008 of the European Music Council, taking place from 17 to 20 April 2008 in Brno. The conference is organised in cooperation with the Czech Music Council and the Janáček Academy for Music and Performing Arts.
The EU Council of Cultural Ministers has adopted an EU Agenda for Culture and defined access to culture as one of the priorities for the coming years. The EMC highly welcomes this development and intends to actively contribute to the ‘structured dialogue’ lately promoted by the EU, meaning consultative exchange between non governmental cultural organisations like us and the political authorities on the local, regional, national and European level. We commend the statement of Mr. Figel’, European Commissioner for Education, Training, Culture and Youth, that “this is the beginning of a new era in the way the Member States, the European Commission and cultural stakeholders work together. Joining our forces, we will be better equipped to respond to some of the major challenges that the cultural sector is facing.” During the Year of Intercultural Dialogue, the EMC Conference will investigate specific needs for access to music, taking into consideration different cultural backgrounds of people living together in Europe today. The EMC conference will offer the opportunity to discuss new perspectives in music education, in the distribution of music and in the needs towards political settings. How can we guarantee the human right to a holistic development of diverse artistic expressions for every child and adult? How can we guarantee fair
remuneration for all artists when the rapidly changing world of media provides free access to the world music repertoire to everybody? Which regulations or liberalisations on political level does the music sector need in order to face changes in technology and society? We asked the EU Commission to participate in the discussions and to get in touch directly with high level experts and representatives from music organisations. The Council of Europe is invited to present its “White Paper on Intercultural Dialogue” and to explore the role of music in it. Concerts on Friday and Saturday evening, organised by the Czech Music Council and the Janáček Academy, will give an impression of musical diversity in the Czech Republic. The EMC encourages all conference participants to actively contribute to the dialogue about music. All EMC members are invited to present projects of best practice that are visionary and inspiring and that concern access to music. // rj 3
Registration is possible until 20 March 2008 at www.emc-imc.org or contact directly the EMC at: phone: +49 228 96699664 or email: firstname.lastname@example.org
WINTER 2007–2008 // SOUNDS IN EUROPE
EMC NEWS // EXTRA!
ng i t r o p e r continued
Cité de la musique, final Summer Academy of the © Cité de la musique
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concert: classical Andalus
EXTRA! // EMC NEWS
Artists in Residence in Gannat, Fran ce 200 7. Artists in Residence in Gannat, France 2007
Since July 2006 the European Music Council is coordinating a multi-annual cooperation project funded by the culture programme of the EU until 2009. In earlier issues we have already presented the outline of the project – today we would like to give you an update and more indepth information on the planned research publication.
concerts focussing on one type of instrument (first concert: drums; second concert: string instruments) a guiding frame connected the musical traditions of immigrant groups with the traditional and classical practices of Italy. For some of the immigrant musicians it was the first time ever they have performed in a major public theatre in the city centre of Rome.
Half-way through the official project period a lot of activities fostering intercultural dialogue and the exchange of musical traditions in the framework of the ExTra! project have already taken place:
Raise of awareness and increase of visibility The Summer Academy organised by the Cité de la musique targeted mainly students of classical music at European conservatoires. One of the key objectives of the academy was to increase the awareness of other musical practices in applying these during the Summer Academy. Oral transmission as well as different methods of approaching music was for some students a completely new experience. In learning and playing together musical traditions of migrant cultures present in the European society, a re-assertion of the value of these musics took place and an opening toward other musical traditions could be noted. The Summer Academy had multiplying effects as the students returned to their universities with an enlarged musical approach to pass on their experiences to their fellow students. Because of the big success of the ExTra! Summer Academy 2007, the Cité de la musique is in the stage of planning a follow-up Summer Academy. The first ExTra! activities have encouraged the organisers to broaden their activities in the field of ExTra!, e.g. ANCT plans to continue working with the Sinti and Roma population of Gannat as well as to constantly include into and invite them to its activities.
Increase of intercultural dialogue During the Discovery and Exchange sessions organised by the ANCT, cross-fertilisation of musical traditions has been a focal point, new musical traditions have been discovered and own musical practices have been enriched, e.g. by using new instruments or by applying different music to already known dances. The Artistin-Residence programme invited Roma musicians from Hungary also including the local Sinti and Roma population of the Auvergne in musical and community activities. Through special educational activities, e.g. working with schools and music schools, the understanding of other cultural practices have been increased and an acceptance process has started. The concert series Contro Canto organised by Fondazione Adkins Chiti: Donne in Musica exemplarily showed how musical traditions of immigrant populations may be connected and how an exchange of musical practices can be promoted. In organising
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EMC NEWS // EXTRA!
Identification of musical traditions in a multicultural Europe The ExTra! project will be completed by a publication collecting articles that focus on migrant and minority music cultures in the European countries. The articles will concentrate on different subjects such as education, media, gender, urban area, policy and ethnic groups – always having music as the focal point of discussion. Influences from other parts of the world are part of the study. To guarantee a broad array of the discussed subject, an interdisciplinary approach was regarded most appropriate. The ExTra! project is consulted by a Scientific Committee which decides on the articles and the structure of the publication. An editorial board, namely Bernd Clausen (Germany), Eva Saether (Sweden) and Ursula Hemetek (Austria) will supervise the coherence of the publication. The ExTra! project is extremely happy to have gained renowned experts in ethnomusicology or sociology from Sweden, Germany, England, Austria, France, or Italy, among others. “Music in Motion – Diversity and Dialogue in Europe” is the title of the publication. A theoretical background as well as a terminology article will introduce the study. First articles have already been confirmed, e.g. diverse communities in Europe will be focussed, such as Turkish, Roma and Jewish music in Europe. The concept of interlocality of the Assyrian community will be introduced in an article on identity and media; an elaborate insight in urban ethnomusicology will be provided. Presentations of concrete projects will illustrate how interaction with an involvement of migrant communities in the European societies can contribute to an active intercultural dialogue, e.g. a Nigerian music project in an Austrian kindergarten, a project integrating refugee children in school as well as a school book published in Italian, Arabic and English introducing different musical traditions of women through the centuries.
The ExTra! activities pay respect to the fact that Europe is a culturally diverse area, that European societies include diverse cultural traditions and that this cultural diversity also derives from migrant and minority cultures present in Europe today. In this way the ExTra! project promotes European cultural identity characterised by diversity. The ExTra! project actively contributes to the intercultural dialogue in Europe, it will be interesting to follow the other activities of the project in the coming one and a half year. The project ExTra! aims to enhance the understanding of the culture of each other’s neighbours. ExTra! will stimulate exchange between different music traditions present in today’s multicultural Europe. The project focuses on musical traditions of migrants in Europe and their interaction with cultures already existing in the European countries. In order to achieve these aims, the EMC has gathered cooperation partners* from different European countries focusing on different aspects in the field of music such as education, production, musicology, socio-culture and new media. With this multifaceted consortium of partners, a broad approach from different perspectives can be guaranteed. // sd
* Fondazione Adkins Chiti – Donne in Musica, Italy
Cité de la musique Paris, France Association Nationale Culture Tradition (ANCT), France International Yehudi Menuhin Foundation (IYMF), Belgium Music Information Centre Austria (MICA) En Chordais, Greece European Music Council
Activities to come … 3
21 to 24 March 2008 Exchange sessions next to the “Traditional Music Regional Competition” in the Massif Central, France, on “cross-fertilisation music”
17 April 2008 “Contro Canto” – concert and introduction lecture “Women in traditional music” in Rome, Italy
10 to 13 July 2008 Workshop on “Green Music” in Kaustinen, Finland
17 to 28 July 2008 Round Tables on “Traditional Music accompanies the cycles of life and worship”
October/November 2008 Workshop on “Traditional music as a tool for integration”, Slovakia
November 2008 “Artists-in-Residence” programme on the theme “Passing on the heritage through music” in Gannat, France
9 to 13 April 2009 Exchange sessions next to the “Traditional Music Regional Competition” in the Massif Central, France, on “cross-fertilisation music”
April 2009 Final Event “Traditional Music as an integrating factor for immigrant populations in Europe”, Thessaloniki, Greece
Summer Academy of the Cité de la musique, final concert: Ottoman music. © Cité de la musique
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FOCUS // ACCESS TO MUSIC
© Polish Music Council
FOCUS // cultural diversity
Cu ltu ral d i v e r s it y an d
l policy ra u lt u c l a n io t a n r e Int cation u d e l ra u lt u c o t s gives impetu
Cultural education is on the upswing. In Germany, public and private foundations as well as local, state and, not least, the federal authorities are outdoing each other in demonstrating their interest in the topic. Examples for this (new) interest can also be found at the international level. In March 2006, the first World Conference on Arts Education was organised in Lisbon under the auspices of UNESCO. 1500 experts from more than 100 countries came to participate in this event. Further to that, the “Magna Carta of International Cultural Policy”, that is the UNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions, has come into effect in March 2007. Next to its guiding principle of diversity, the aim of “participation” is given strong emphasis. When implementing such participation – always being thought of as participation of everyone – cultural education plays a key role. So, can all those who have to do with theatre, music, literature, dance and fine arts in educational contexts now lean back and relax? Has the venerable goal of the Czech 17th century educationalist Johan Comenius of
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bringing “education to everyone” been accomplished – at least as far as cultural education is concerned? When looking at other international developments, this question could optimistically be answered “yes”. The fact is that the World Conference in Lisbon did not only discuss a “Roadmap for Cultural Education” which puts forward many reasonable proposals for action, but the European cultural policy has also gained considerable momentum. And this does not only refer to the Council of Europe which has traditionally played the role of a forward-thinking body in cultural and educational matters. More recently, it has been the European Union that has intervened in cultural politics with unusual vigour. In May 2007, for instance, the Commission presented a first “Communication on Culture”, which was adopted by the Council of Ministers in November 2007 and is meant to serve as a binding guideline for a European cultural policy. Again, diversity is the watchword here. In the context of the EU, this is not new but mandatory. However, reference is also made to creative industries and to participation. Here, too, a powerful political actor has at last confirmed its commitment to cultural education in a yet unknown way.
cultural diversity // Focus
l a r u t l u c n o i t a p i c i t r pa
Unfortunately, next to all these achievements there have also been some considerable setbacks. The experts in Lisbon agreed, for instance, in their observation that artistic education is being marginalised worldwide. This is not least due to the fact that PISA, whose participants primarily include the 30 OECD member countries, has become one of the most important reference systems in the educational field worldwide. One consequence appears to be that in many countries, special attention is paid to the PISA subjects (mathematics, science, national language) while the other subjects are being neglected. Moreover, the pursuit of the notorious Lisbon objectives by the heads of government of the EU, i.e. to make Europe the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy, is showing effects in the form of an increasingly economic approach to education, which is not a very helpful development especially when it comes to cultural education programmes within and outside school. This tendency can also be observed in the EU and is reflected in its agenda for culture. The situation is thus ambivalent: the process has gained impetus; yet, in practice there are still significant obstacles. In such situations, political intervention is therefore needed as much as intervention in the design of the current processes. Here, the
following aspects must be emphasised: Education – and particularly cultural education – needs more time and less constraints. A strong instrumentalisation for economic ends is of little use. Practice has shown that “employability” can develop even better if it is not the immediate goal. What is needed in politics and economics are strong individuals, people who make intelligent use of their time, and who do not let the emotional and expressive side of their personality become neglected. In fact, this applies to all people, because participation – and thus cultural education – is a human right. Obstacles that impede participation must therefore be removed. Policy-makers are thus encouraged, on the one hand, to create the necessary framework to ensure that the objective of providing a “cultural education” is not put at risk because people do not have the money or access to such offers. On the other hand, cultural institutions and organisations are also required to contri bute to this objective. The fact is that cultural institutions sometimes tend to lose sight of their educational mandate when designing their programmes. Cultural education is a human right. However, this implies that there is a responsibility to make this right a reality. // Max Fuchs (Germany) Chairman of the German Federation of Associations for Cultural Youth Education and of the German Institute for Education and Culture. President of the German Culture Council. Member of the German Commission for UNESCO.
Translation: Kathrin Matzen
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FOCUS // THE NEW FREEDOM OF MUSIC
m o d e e r f w e n c e i s Th u m of
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THE NEW FREEDOM OF MUSIC // FOCUS
new esthetics is missing. The Walter Benjamin of our age still has to stand up. The dreams of the hippies from the sixties of the last century has come true totally. Music surrounds us all the time in public places and if it doesn’t, we have earphones. Earphones have become part of our wear, our clothing. Small or big earphones: size and The pianola was a ‘reproduction piano’ that could record and color have to match our attire. Music is free of charge, free of rights, play back music. As a consequence music performance and listening free of bonds. Music sounds all the time but is almost completely was removed from the actual moment of live creation. Philosophers invisible. The general attitude is that one has to pay for the carrier, such as Walter Benjamin, Theodor Adorno and others have built be it the most fancy and flashy latest iPod or just an invisible but all kinds of theories around the fact that there was no original strong memory card in your cell phone, but not for the music. performance anymore but that there were only copies. This was the The consequences of the new attitude towards music are just case with film but also with music. In the 20th century a whole beginning to be realised by anyone involved in the music business range of ‘reproduction media’ was developed. On the whole in muand music education. Business people seem to be the least amused. sic it developed from 78-rpm-records to 33-rpm-records, to LPs and Of course they are right to ask for strong measures against those then to CDs. In all these stages of development there were products who make use of the freedom in a wrong way by going for comthat were palpable, physically present, at times beautifully mercial gain. But in the same act school kids and the general designed like the LP covers, full of information like audience at large are criminalised. However, it is music some of the CD inlays. The lack of the actual industry itself that is to blame for the current situaand unique performance was replaced by the tion because during the last century it has worked The taste of beautifully designed and packaged sound carhard to present music for free anywhere and the general listeners rier. The consumer had no idea when, where, anytime. All of our public spaces are filled with has widened enormously and how the music had been made but there music, day and night. However, one of the after the digital revolution was still a piece of shellac, vinyl, or plastic main reasons for which people do not want to wrapped into some sort of informative and pay for music is that they do not know how in music. There is hardly beautiful sleeve that you could hold in your long they want to have access to it or possess it: anyone now listening to hands, collect and that took up some space in they may listen to it once, or their entire life. one musical genre only. the living room as being your music collecThe consequences of the new freedom of tion. Friends and visitors would check out your music are enormous for music education. Music sound system and look at your music collection teachers, generally older than their students, in most and would compare them to theirs. “Do you really cases are not prepared to deal with the new freedom of like this kind of music, do you have that recording as well, music. One of the consequences of music being there all the can I borrow this item from you, you should also listen to that …” time without being visible is that students have completely lost the The recorded sound collection of a person was the basis of much sense of historical depth. In general young people live in the present discussion and part of everyday friendly and social communication. and not in the past. It helps if music is really old. It is kind of hip With the digital revolution becoming fully-fledged at the beif music has been around for ages but whether the Romanic period ginning of the 21st century the old ways of behavior are changed to followed the Classical period, or the other way around, young peothe core. Not only has the notion of the ‘original performance’ disple would not care. Another example: music scores constantly flow appeared, but also the notion of ‘copy’ has. The existence of music out of photocopy machines. And yet another one: music theory is has changed completely and dramatically. Music is now a commodof interest to young music students only if it explains the music ity, like water, earth, wind and fire. In the household of a 20-yearthey are dealing with. Otherwise music theory classes are to be old, the record collection is disappearing rapidly. The space is no skipped as often as possible. longer occupied and dust stops accumulating on cupboards filled Is there any light at the end of the tunnel, any bottom to this with CDs let alone LPs. The sound system is as small as possible endless digital well, any future for this invisible and impalpable and preferably invisible. Music is sounding all the time but it comes stuff called music? The positive side of the new freedom of music from computers, MP-3 sticks, iPods, mobile telephones, memory is that the market has become immeasurably vast and endless. The sticks and all other digital sound carriers. There is no palpable present hunger for music cannot be soothed. No, we do not need artifact anymore. Music just sounds, it’s just there to be listened to, a symphony orchestra in every city but we do need many, many to be enjoyed, to be part of our lives. ‘Where is that album? Did my versions of all symphonic music. Another advantage is that the taste friend return that borrowed CD? On which side of the cassette can of the general listeners has widened enormously after the digital I find that track? How bad is the damage on my favorite record?’ revolution in music. There is hardly anyone now listening to one These and related problems do not exist in the digital music age. musical genre only. The musical genres themselves, classical, jazz, Any music is there to be enjoyed at any place and any time. Music pop, world music, seem to dissolve in each other. Opera stars flirt is finally completely … free! with rock singers, try to make jazz albums … At this moment in time, at the beginning of the 21st cenWhat is needed now is new viewpoints, new business models, a tury the theories and visions of Adorno, Benjamin and others are new awareness, a new esthetic in relation to music. completely outdated. Now that the original version is gone, all // Wouter Turkenburg (The Netherlands) copies are gone and all the music comes to us by pressing the key Chairman of the European Music Council and Executive Director of of something that is half the size of a matchbox, containing tens the International Association of Schools of Jazz (ISAJ). Head of the jazz of thousands of titles, a new theory on music appreciation in the department at the Royal Conservatoire in The Hague. digital age is needed. There is enough lamentation, complaints and romanticism on the good old days but a good and sound theory on It all started around 1900. On a large scale the ‘pianola’ entered the public space. It was very fashionable to have a pianola at home, as it is fashionable now to have a flat screen, a 5.1 surround sound system hooked on TV, a CD, DVD, and an MP-3 player.
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FOCUS // When a thousand children stand up
Thousand Children Stand Up
Cultivating the concert-goers OF TOMORROW Article originally published in “Passages”, The Cultural Magazine of Pro Helvetia, No. 40, Winter 2005/6
How can we turn young people on to classical music and opera? What are orchestras and other musical institutions doing to counter the problem of ageing audiences? Musician and musical educator Isabelle Mili surveyed the scene. Jean-Marc Grob is adamant: “Young people are far more interested in the visual appearance of the percussion section than that of the strings! They are very sensitive to the presence and performance of the instrumentalists, and do not need drowning in a flood of explanations.” As a result of his long experience, the musical director of the Lausanne Sinfonietta has a firm opinion on certain issues. Especially as regular appraisals have been made ever since this musical ensemble began playing to school audiences twenty years ago, putting on twelve concerts a year. There is, for example, the menu principle: “We offer them a series of starters, then a main course,” explains Jean-Marc Grob. “In other words, after highlighting what to listen to with a number of examples, we play a good ten minutes of music without further comment.” At the crossroads of politics and culture: Empirically developed, the formula shows the Sinfonietta’s desire to play an active part in making classical musical accessible to young people. This ambition, now shared by the great majority of orchestras, ensembles and opera companies, has given rise to the setting up of regular educational programmes over the last two decades.
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At the crossroads of politics and culture, these programmes arose from the institutional need to renew an ageing audience and the determination shown as early as 1968 by Francis Jeanson and the signatories of the Villeurbanne Manifesto* to welcome those referred to as “non-audiences”: social groups who do not attend concerts or opera performances as a matter of course. Originally initiated by professionals in the world of theatre, this trend has since spread to operatic and musical institutions. “The Roman Swiss Orchestra (Orchestre de la Suisse Romande, OSR) devotes a page of its website (www.osr.ch) to young people”, points out conductor Philippe Béran. “The important thing, in my opinion, is the interactive element of concerts for young people. I organise things so that the children can sing or beat time. The great moment is when a thousand children stand up and make music with the orchestra.” The aim: to do a thorough job. Philippe Béran has built a fine career, thanks to his educational work and the performances he organises for young people and families. Though working mainly in Switzerland, with the OSR and the Lausanne Chamber Orchestra (OCL), he has also cooperated with the Opéra de Bordeaux. And his reputation has now spread to non-French-speaking parts of Europe. In his view, the role of the conductor is vital: “Scriptwriter, performer and presenter, he must reassure the musicians that the music will remain central to events organised for young people.” A key factor in the success of the enterprise is the frequency of
encounters with school audiences, which depends mainly on the budgets allocated to the orchestras’ educational services. Opera companies actively involved: Also keen to appeal to younger audiences and play their part in the democratisation of culture, European opera companies, too, are adopting a more proactive approach. Head of the educational service of the Opéra de La Monnaie in Brussels, Sabine de Ville says the biggest change since the service was set up ten years ago has been “the extension of the range that we offer, which now includes performances adapted to families and school audiences as well as events specifically intended for young people, in addition to the official opera season. A good example is the fifth edition of our ‘take a note’ weekend, which combines opera performances, workshops and meetings with performers”. In Geneva, the head of the educational service at the Grand Théâtre, Kathereen Abhervé, is delighted at the new policy adopted since the 2005-2006 season, with the emphasis more on the vocal side. Atonality is not odd: Another example in Geneva is the instrumental ensemble Contrechamps, which for the last thirty years has been playing twentieth-century music, sets its objectives in terms of the artistic impact of its work. “Contemporary music, with its dynamic contrasts, timbre experimentation and distinctive atmospheres, is a good tool for training people to listen”, says Philippe Albèra. “Children aged from five to eight do not classify classical music the way adults do. Atonality is not perceived as something odd. It is therefore no more difficult to present Stravinsky or Boulez than it is to present music by Bach.” An interesting line of thought, which refocuses attention on the relationship with the repertoire. The aim, using an approach combining the didactic and the artistic, is to help lay the foundations for real “expertise in listening”. // Isabelle Mili (Switzerland) President of the Swiss Music Council. Editor of the Magazine “La Grange” of the Geneva Opera. Isabelle Mili is teacher for music didactics at Geneva University.
The concept of “non-audience” appeared for the first time in the Villeurbanne Manifesto, a document signed by forty-odd theatre administrators and managers responsible for disseminating culture (directors of cultural facilities, drama centres and repertory companies). The manifesto was drafted and published on 25 May 1968 by Francis Jeanson, a philosopher and friend of Jean-Paul Sartre, and a contributor to the periodical “Les Temps Modernes”. On this subject it is worth reading “L’émergence du ‘non-public comme problème public” by Sabine Lacerenza, in: Les non-publics. Les arts en réception vol. 1, published by Pascale Ancel and Alain Pessin, L’Harmattan, Paris, 2004.
© Stiftung „Jedem Kind ein Instrument“
© Camerata Zürich, Foto: Stephan Rissi
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RUBRIKTITEL Focus // Musical // Artikel rights
MusicAL rights – ACCESS TO MUSIC
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Musical Rights – Access to Music // FOCUS
The International Music Council grounds its activities on an assertion of ‘music rights’. An official statement goes like this: 3 It is a basic right for all people to express themselves and communicate through music. It is IMC’s objective to contribute to securing the following basic rights: 3 The right for all children and adults to express themselves musically in all freedom. 3 The right for all children and adults to learn musical languages and skills. 3 The right for all children and adults to have access to musical involvement through participation, listening, creation, and information. 3 The right for musical artists to develop their artistry and communicate through all media, with proper facilities. 3 The right for musical artists to obtain just recognition and remuneration for their work. When there is such an assertion of rights, generally it is directed towards governments, for it is they that can systematically defend, or offend against, human rights. The wonderful Freemuse organisation continually catalogues breaches of musical rights, in particular the first of the IMC’s rights, that for freedom of expression through music. The most severe breaches are life-threatening or even result in the loss of life. More often the breaches are in the form of censorship of lyrics that cross self-interest or belief-systems in politics or religion. While there may not be absolute and total freedom of expression in many countries, much more frequently the problem with exercise of rights is not that governments have any interest in obstructing them, so much as that they do not provide the material support that would enable, for instance, all children and adults to learn musical languages and skills. If musical learning occurs through oral transmission in traditional village life, then it does not depend on government and access to the learning is limited only by traditional inhibitions and exclusions. (Of course, in some cases, outsiders might not regard these as equitable, but that is another and complicated story.) However, in many countries both developed and developing, the main or only opportunity for broad access to music learning comes through the schools and as we know too well, school music education is for the most part inadequate or even absent. Concerning the first of the rights, it may be that no-one obstructs the right to free musical expression, but this freedom is not very significant if it is exercised only in the morning shower. More elaborate expression or wider communication can depend on resources that may or may not be provided by the market. Nevertheless, concerning communication, these days the internet gives more or less affordable access to a very wide audience; communication is not so much limited by access to resources and obstruction by gatekeepers as in the past.
Of course, if your natural mode of expression is through grand opera, you have a few financial problems to solve and there is then a question about what might reasonably be expected of government aid. Or if you want your song played on the radio, but the play list is dominated by productions from foreign record companies, you might want your government to impose a judicious local music content requirement on the radio stations. The right of access to musical involvement (music-making, listening, information) is again not something that would arouse the hostility of most governments. So far as listening is concerned, a right to silence would be almost as prized. Information comes in torrents. If you have a voice or hands, it is always possible to make music of some sort. But in wealthier societies, music-making has been largely handed over to the professionals and to some extent the task is as much to persuade people to exercise their right as to provide access to opportunities to do so. The fourth and fifth rights concern the music professionals and once again, in most situations, they depend not upon overcoming government obstruction so much as engendering positive actions by musicians, music organisations and governments. The use of the language of ‘rights’ as the basis for the IMC/EMC programme thus takes us to fundamental issues but is at the same time a little misleading. The task is not mainly about defending against breaches of these rights, even though in some countries this certainly must be a priority. It is about creating the circumstances in which the rights can be positively exercised. The first is primarily a legal issue. The second is most often about constructive policies backed up with financial resources. It is essential to recognise that the advocacy tasks in these two cases are significantly different. // Richard Letts (Australia) President of the Internaional Music Council, Executive Director of the Music Council of Australia.
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Focus // the values of singing
© British Federation of Young Choirs
The Values of Singing THE VALUES AND IMPORTANCE OF SINGING WITH CHILDREN AND YOUNGSTERS IN THE 21st CENTURY We are living in a confusing and paradoxical society, struggling with quickly changing social standards and questioning the ruling values. In this overstressed society, flood by a growing mainstream of irrelevant non-information and nonsense, young parents try to do their very best to educate their children to become responsible and steadfast young people, preparing them to be responsible citizens and the keepers of a sustainable future. School plays an enormous
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role to equip youngsters for their later tasks, but the benefit of singing in a choir is huge. Some parents know the advantages and values of singing in the education of their children, but a fairly high percentage of them don’t. The general knowledge and notion of the benefit of singing are poor. Despite the fact that singing is ubiquitous, its values have been insufficiently promoted in the past. As a consequence, most people know singing only by its physical aspects, but ignore its advantages.
The values of singing // Focus
Values and importance of singing with children: searching for freedom The “values” of singing with children can only be described in the light of the aims and goals defined by our 21st century society. Its “importance” – on the contrary – includes both objectively measurable facts and intuitively determinable aspects. To the former belong medical issues, such as increasing immunoglobulin A, endorphin and cortisol levels and well-being, relaxation and distressing, etc. For the latter, however, it’s necessary to understand that the importance of singing is only reflected in the degree of corresponding between the values on the one hand, and the expectations of the human society on the other hand. In several publications concerning the 21st century goals one can read that the highest expectations in the social field are the improvement of peace, security, development, global movement of children, human rights and education. A hot item is also to reduce poverty, discrimination and terrorism. How can singing with children and youngsters contribute to the realisation of those goals? By singing in a choir, children and youngsters – led by an inspiring conductor – learn to coordinate and collaborate, to analyze problems and solve them together in order to achieve a goal. They are neither afraid of efforts, nor of taking up responsibility for their actions. They know that their individual functioning enforces or damages directly the group. Children and youngsters feel like shareholders of the group, they form the choir and are the choir at the same time. Children learn to accept that they are individually responsible for the group. The chance to take up responsibility should be offered to every child, on their own level. And children are mostly eager to accept responsibility and take that chance with both hands. Commitment of the children and youngsters is not only vital for the well-being of a choir, but also for the society they take part in. Of course, there are some © Cantemus Hungary surrounding conditions one of which I’d like to emphasize: creating a friendly environment where children and youngsters are looking forward to. The socializing dimension of choral singing is very important and is an asset to create a friendly atmosphere between children. The feeling of gathering, growing in a project and achieving the outlined goals mark deeply the soul of a child. Moreover, the mutual confidence, care and respect between children, youngsters and their conductor is enhanced in this childfriendly environment. Singing in a choir provides an immediate and tangible manifestation of the power and the joy of co-operation. At the end of the process, by giving a good concert or participating in a festival, children and youngsters will experience
the sense of pride, self-esteem and self-confidence, and the warm feelings of the result of their own commitment. The inability of many youngsters to confront adversity is an increasing problem in our society. The stimulating force of group empowerment and the kick of being appreciated are strong tools in the hands of children and youngsters to face the challenges and threats of violence, racism and discrimination. These are better skills to banish grumpiness, obstinacy and boredom out of their lives. Another important value of choral singing emerges in this pleasant singing community: creativity. In political statements, it can be often heard that our society urgently needs not only smart, but also creative and entrepreneurial young people, who dare to face the oncoming challenges of the 21st century. Unfortunately, creativity is not a first-rate priority in schools. However, in a choir children may experience what creativity, creation and initiative mean. This is a crucial role for every children’s and youth choir. Singing is one of the first experiences that children may have as creative and self-expressive beings. It also undoubtedly contributes to the critical mass that triggers ignition for responsibility and decision-making. Singing channels the synergy of interactive co-operation into a positive application of freedom, which really means “making choices”. Creation and creativity arise from freedom. The role of parents Especially for young children, parents play a decisive role in bridging the gap between the obvious values of singing and the estimation of its importance for their own children. A child’s commitment is useless if parents are not able or willing to give “room for freedom” for their child. This means respecting their child’s choice of singing in a choir and support them practically. Conclusion By singing together in a choir, children and youngsters receive a huge number of positive stimuli and values, which significantly match with the above mentioned 21st century social goals. But a lot of work still remains to be done. The choral world must continue to work according to a plan in order to publicize more widely the reputation of singing as a highly concentrated mixture of values; the sweetness of which every child should have a chance to taste. Therefore: let your children sing in a choir! Give them this precious gift and let them freely build on a world, which is and will be their home. // Jean Smeets Board Member Europa Cantat
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focus // intellectual property rights
Approaches to Intellectual Property Rights
A snapshot on session #2 of THE SECOND World Forum on Music
Globalisation and digitisation are two key words that name the underlying current of structural change that shapes most of the actual challenges that music life and the IMC have to face today.
Martin Kretschmer, professor of Information Jurisprudence and director of the Centre for Intellectual Property Policy & Management of Bournemouth University in the UK, gave an insight into the earnings of artists and the role of copyright in this context. The evidence In this context the struggles about the future format of intelshows that the median earnings of authors and artists are well below lectual property rights (IPRs) – for the music sector mainly the national average wages, only a small number of authors and authors’ rights and/or copyright – and its institutions and artists earn very well. These winner-take-all characteristic governance have turned out to be the focus point. is even more pronounced in the music sector where the It is here that the conflicts of interest between top 10 % of composers and songwriters account for the diverse stakeholders, lobbying groups and “Author’s almost 90 % of the total earnings of the profession. policy makers – the priorities of professional rights – moral and For musicians, earnings from IP royalties account arts, culture in a wider sense and commereconomic – are in some for about 1 % of creative income. The more cial interests, collide. In many countries copyright related the income stream, the more the relevant legislation is under permanent respects so much weaker extreme is the distribution of income. review and constantly changing. A continuthan the performer’s ous process to harmonise the legal situation rights.” D is at work on international level. Besides the Pia Raug efforts to enhance existing IPR-regimes to cope The Danish artist Pia Raug added to this in her with the new challenges, new models like “global speech that she can only survive as a composer because licensing”, “cultural flat rate” or “creative commons” she is performing as well. Author’s rights – moral and ecohave been introduced by various parties. nomic – she stated are in some respects so much weaker than the The goal of this session was twofold: It aimed to give an performer’s rights. “(US-) Copyright has turned into an industrial introduction to the complex topic of intellectual property rights right that gives the ‘owner’ unlimited control. No wonder that these (IPRs) in music and to the often exclusive and technical “lawyers/ same corporate business interests wish to have the same unlimited lobbyist jargon” that comes with them, so that the entire IMC control in the European market – and therefore spend billions of membership with its diverse professional and cultural background dollars lobbying the European authorities”, Raug said. can participate in the debate. Embarking from there, it aimed to give a comprehensive outline of the key issues for IPRs in the music D sector and the diverse, sometimes controversial approaches at global policy level to address them. The speakers represented perspectives Danny O’Brien, International Outreach Coordinator of the of authors, musicians, collecting societies, research, online-business Electronic Frontier Foundation, talked about the liberties that are and music industry and the relevant UN organisation WIPO. Their embodied in the UMC’s five rights, and how these may be best backgrounds are as lawyers, musical practitioners, entrepreneurs expressed in the modern intellectual property and distributive and academic scholars.
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intellectual property rights // Focus
Peter Rantasa, Scott Cohen and Wend Wendland at the World Forum on Music. © mica
networks. We live in a period of rapid change, and often radical solutions are needed: solutions that may be hindered by current law, or enhanced by new interpretations. How do we get to a world where we can all share our global musical heritage, while ensuring that artists receive not just recognition, but fair remuneration? D Wend Wendland, head of Traditional Creativity, Cultural Expressions and Cultural Heritage Section of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) said in his speech, that the conventional intellectual property system had been identified by some as not only inadequate to comprehensively and appropriately protect traditional cultural expressions but also as positively harmful. First, because IP rules exclude many traditional cultural expressions from protection, consigning them to an unprotected “public domain” and second, follow-on innovations and creations derived from them receive protection as “new” intellectual property and leaving the traditional cultures without any benefit. D Scot Morris, Director of International Relations APRA|AMCOS said that digitisation of copyright materials has changed the way cultural works are created, licensed, produced and distributed. It challenges existing notions of authorship, control, access and how creators and those investing in creation can be rewarded. There are new major players in the value chain of creation and dissemination – ISPs, search engines and social networking sites. The global debate on these issues includes development issues, territorial issues, competition, consumer and privacy laws and the protection of cultural diversity and of indigenous cultures.
In order to save the music business digital revenue not only needs to be a replacement for the dramatic decline in physical sales, it also needs to provide revenue growth, said Scott Cohen, founder of The Orchard. In the mid 90’s it was predicted that digital music would grow the industry into a $100 billion dollar a year business. Unfortunately digital sales are not replacing the loss of physical sales and never will as long as we continue to implement old business models in a new environment. It is necessary to review the existing digital business models including à-la-carte sales, advertising and subscription services to analyze the impact of their revenue on the industry. More importantly it is crucial to understand how users act and interact in a connected environment in order to develop revenue models that work. D Globalisation and digitisation are two key words that name the underlying current of structural change that shapes most of the actual challenges that music life and the IMC have to face today, Peter Rantasa said. In this context the struggles about the future format of intellectual property rights and its institutions and governance have turned out to be the focus point. At the IPR session at the World Forum on Music in Beijing speakers introduced the efforts to enhance existing IPR-regimes to cope with the new challenges, as well as new models like global licensing, a cultural flat rate or the alternative licensing scheme Creative Commons. // Peter Rantasa (Austria) Director of the music information center austria (mica) and Vice President of the International Music Council.
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focus // bouncing towards the future
Bouncing towards the future with kangaroo Panze Human Media Interaction in Music Education
© Dineke van Aalst
Girl playing and singing together with kangaroo Panze.
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bouncing towards the future // Focus
The computer as the music teacher of the future? Yes and no … In this article we would like to introduce some opportunities we see for the use of novel technologies in music education, now and in the future, in schools and at home. The need and importance of music education for our children is of great concern to musical life nowadays. Often the available resources in time and money are not enough to guarantee the quality and quantity needed. For several years now, researchers at the Human Media Interaction group of the University of Twente have been working on technologies that can support music education. Not in substituting the human artistic work, but rather in tools supporting the training of musicians in order to make the education more efficient and in cases where media can add some ‘rare’ skills to certain essential musical processes. Media could e.g. mentor pupils in their practice
© Stenden Hogeschool/Henk Postma
Ensemble playing together with a virtual conductor. sessions (for example the virtual conductor, see sidebar), or even helping them to learn new skills. Early music development could be stimulated by letting children sing songs together with a computer, or play musical games (for example ‘Panze’, see sidebar). The projects have been tested on a small scale, and the results are promising. In the case of Panze, children quickly mastered the interaction with the system and often eagerly sang songs and danced together with the lovable kangaroo. There is no substitute for a real-life human teacher, but these experiments show that technology can really help children with their music development. It will take a while – even these projects are still in a research phase – but eventually these technologies could become important tools that will let us give our children the music education they deserve, and grow up to live a rich musical life. // D. Wassink – Member Working Group Youth – EMC, currently graduating in Science and Innovation Management, and D. Reidsma, E.M.A.G. van Dijk, A.E. Jansen, A. Nijholt – all Human Media Interaction, University of Twente, the Netherlands. Web: http://hmi.ewi.utwente.nl References 3 Jansen, A.E., E.M.A.G. van Dijk and J. Retra (2006): Musical Multimodal Child Computer Interaction, in: Conference on Interaction Design and Children (IDC’06), K.-J. Räihä and J. Höysniemi (eds), ACM Press, New York, pp. 163-164 3
Bos, P., D. Reidsma, Zs.M Ruttkay and A. Nijholt (2006): Interacting with a Virtual Conductor, in: Proc. of 5th International Conference on Entertainment Computing, R. Harper, M. Rauterberg and M. Combetto (eds), LNCS 4161, Springer Verlag, Berlin, ISBN 3-540-45259-1, ISSN 0302-9743, pp. 25-30
The Virtual Conductor
We have designed and implemented an artificial conductor that is capable of leading, and reacting to, human musicians in real time. The conductor is a virtual human projected on a large screen in front of the orchestra (see picture). It can read digitised sheet music and conduct the piece. It can listen to the performance of the human musicians and use advanced audio processing algorithms to evaluate their performance. Most importantly, it can adapt his conducting movements to give corrective feedback through its gestures. Currently the artificial conductor can give feedback on the tempo with which the musicians play and on their dynamics. Once further developed, such a virtual conductor could be used in several ways. It can act as a rehearsal conductor, for example to help musicians rehearse the more technical aspects of a piece of music with an ensemble. It could also be used by small groups of children in a school of music to explore aspects of ensemble play: the conductor provides some structure and support, but still lets the children work in a self-reliant and autonomous way. The conductor could also be used to help student conductors, by working as a reflective tool, showing examples of good conducting and typical conducting mistakes and allowing the student to experiment with ways of conducting while playing along on an instrument to feel how musicians would interpret the gestures. Combining the conductor with an artificial orchestra such as the one displayed in the Vienna House of Music, a system could be envisioned that detects the student’s mistakes and graphically shows them to the student in combination with the correct way of conducting. Finally, an artificial conductor could be made available through the internet to provide the casually interested layman with easy and engaging access to the art of conducting.
Panze: Stimulating Children’s Musical Expression
Panze is the name of the animated kangaroo who is featured in an interactive system for preschool music education. Nowadays, not all parents and kindergarten teachers are able to make music with the kids. Often they do not have the time, or they simply have little experience in making music themselves. We experimented with a system that will interact with the child in much the same way that an adult would try to sing or dance with their child. The interaction was modelled after the Dutch ‘Music on the Lap’ method, and focused on developing a sense of beat and timing, a sense of dynamics, and listening skills. The system consists of an animated kangaroo – Panze – on a television screen, and a kangarooshaped doll that the child can use to communicate with Panze. The animated Panze acts as a role model for the child, singing songs and dancing. The child responds by singing and moving along with Panze and by clapping. Panze responds to the sounds and movements of the child, although in the current stage an adult observer is still required to help Panze sense the child’s actions. The child can choose songs and the musical instruments that accompany the songs by putting instrument-shaped toys and plastic CDs into the pouch of the kangaroo doll. The chosen instruments and songs are visible on the television screen. The system is designed for use at home by the child alone, without help from others. Hence children would be able to play with the system even if their parents cannot help them in their development.
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Cultural policy // a european agenda for culture
A European Agenda for Culture in a globalizing world – more than rhetoric?
In November 2007 the European ministers of Culture (Culture Council) agreed on a “European Agenda for culture” based on the Communication on a “European Agenda for Culture in a Globalizing World” which was published by the European Commission in May 2007. The European Music Council (EMC) actively took part in the consultation process prior to the Communication. This process already underlined the important role of civil society, enforced by the Culture Council by inviting different stakeholders to establish a structured dialogue between themselves. The EMC warmly welcomes the new “Agenda for Culture” and looks forward to participating in the structured dialogue. Background – the Communication With the Treaty of Amsterdam, culture was recognised as one of the areas of activity of the European Union. Article 151 states that “The Community shall take cultural aspects into account in its action […] in particular in order to respect and to promote the diversity of its cultures.” The adoption of the “European Agenda for Culture” by the Culture Council and the intention to strengthen culture in all political fields of the EU and the EU member states in the sense of a “culture mainstreaming” is highly welcomed by the European Music Council. The Culture Council endorsed the three major objectives proposed in the communication aiming to form a common cultural strategy for the European Institutions, the Member States, and the cultural and creative sector: 3 The promotion of cultural diversity and intercultural dialogue 3 The promotion of culture as a catalyst for creativity in the framework of the Lisbon Strategy for growth, employment, innovation and competitiveness 3 The promotion of culture as a vital element in the Union’s international relations. Working Methods: Structured Dialogue and Open Method of Coordination The intention of establishing new partnerships and new forms of communication is to be particularly welcomed. Among the partners, the so-called ‘stakeholders’, are the Commission, the Member States, the European Parliament and the civil society. The focus of these new partnerships will be to further develop the dialogue with the culture sector in a “structured dialogue” at all levels (local, regional, national and European). A first step to open the “structured dialogue” is the setting up of a biennial “Cultural Forum” by the EU which already led to a first meeting in Lisbon in September 2007. The “Open Method of Coordination” (OMC) in the field of culture is suggested with regards to the cooperation between member states. Even though the OMC was created as a tool to guarantee the principle of subsidiarity, member states have considered it as
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the EU Commission’s first step towards interfering with national politics and as over-bureaucratic. No wonder then that the OMC has been a contentious point for the Culture Council in adopting the “European Agenda for Culture”. As a consequence, the OMC will be applied with the constraint of being “specifically adapted”, i.e. a flexible and non-binding framework where the participation of Member States in the actions and procedures concerned will be voluntary. Future priorities 2008–2010 The Council decided that the European Agenda for Culture will be implemented through triennial work plans covering a limited number of priority areas. For the period of 2008 to 2010 those priority areas are: 3 Improving conditions for the mobility of artists and other professionals in the cultural field 3 Promoting access to culture, especially by promoting cultural heritage, cultural tourism, multilingualism, digitisation, synergies with education (in particular arts education) and greater mobility of collections 3 Developing data, statistics and methodologies in the cultural sector and improve their comparability 3 Maximising the potential of cultural and creative industries, in particular that of Small and Medium Enterprises (SME) 3 Promoting and implementing the UNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions. Setting priorities for a given time-frame surely is a pragmatic approach, but isn’t the mobility issue always important when it comes to the exchange of culture? It is highly welcomed that art education is one of the first priorities which of course should not end after 2010. Using the momentum to expedite the promotion and implementation of the UNESCO Convention is highly appreciated and the European Music Council is actively working on the implementation process with one of its Working Groups. The adoption of the European Agenda on Culture by the Culture Council is a very positive sign for all cultural actors and enthusiasts. What is important now is to start seriously the dialogue between all actors involved – a dialogue that will truly be at eye level and with reciprocal interest. Respecting cultural sovereignty of the member states and involving all levels in the debate is a prerequisite for a successful promotion of culture in Europe. The preparedness of the Culture Council to get involved with the field of culture shall be taken at its word; flexibility and voluntariness shall not proof to be excuses for hollow promises. The first steps in implementing the “European Agenda for Culture” are very promising, the enthusiasm should not stop so that further concrete actions will follow – this way, the European Agenda for Culture will avoid the danger of being mere rhetoric. // sd
music and INTERcultural dialogue // Cultural policy
Music and intercultural dialogue
The European Year of Intercultural Dialogue is officially launched in Ljubljana, Slovenia on 8 January 2008, thus providing the European Commission with a chance to remind the founding values of the European Union, namely cultural exchanges, peace and protection of human dignity, and providing the European Music Council (EMC) with a chance to relate the latter to its triennial project ‘ExTra! Exchange Traditions’. The ExTra! project builds upon the acknowledgement that exchanges between several cultures produce more value than the sum of these cultures considered separately. The generated added value enhances the compatibility between the construction of a common European identity and the preservation of the European cultural identities already existing in Europe. To achieve this goal, since its inception in 2006 the ExTra! project has organised panel discussions, workshops and concerts in order to relate together traditional, extra-European cultures and traditional cultures from various European backgrounds. Because of immigration processes, these extra-European cultures have been present on the continent for many years; yet instead of a constructive exchange only a mere cohabitation has taken place. The underlying objective of ExTra! is to make these exchange platforms perennial. Through their local or regional action, they meet the desire expressed by the European Union to take actions closer to European citizens, and no longer on the international level only. Another characteristic highlighted by the Commission during the opening conference of the European Year of Intercultural Dialogue is the importance of associating different fields: education, technology, or culture are thus elements likely to be combined. The issue concerning the legal framework regulating the broadcasting of creative content online has also been raised at the Ljubljana Conference. There is no legislation on the European level
to this day; only the UNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions mentions that the European Union has taken a stand on the subject. In order to spur the exchange of ideas about this and review the opinion of the various stakeholders, the Commission published a “Communication on Creative Content Online in the Single Market” in 2007. All organisations and individuals are invited to express their opinions on the issues raised in the appendix of this document (available online on http://emc-imc.org/archiv/col_en.pdf ). In addition to practical activities, ExTra! wishes to fuel the theoretical debate on Intercultural Dialogue through a scientific publication. This interdisciplinary work, to be published in spring 2009, will gather essays on the subject written by experts, notably in ethnology, sociology or ethnomusicology. Besides, the publication will be devoted to the presentation of projects, projects having an influence on the local level, with Intercultural Dialogue as a background and likely to give momentum to other initiatives. With the project ExTra! Exchange Traditions, supported by the European Commission, the European Music Council hopes to act as a carrier of information and a creator of impulses through cultural events involving European citizens at the local level (Festival des cultures du monde de Gannat, France) as well as international level (European Summer Academy, Cité de la musique, Paris). In return, the EMC, regional group of the International Music Council, intends to place ExTra! on the agenda of the European Year of Intercultural Dialogue. // im
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cultural policy // fair music
Fair Music Award 2007 (from left to right): Andrea Mayr (female:pressure), Harald Quendler (Extraplatte), Peter Kuthan (tonga.online), Mark Chung (freibank music publishing).
Article first published in: Goodbye Privacy. Ars Electronica 2007. Ed. von Gerfried Stocker & Christine Schöpf. Stuttgart 2007, pages 169–171
We have never had it so well before! As music fans, we all remember the days when the longing for new records had us rummaging through dusty boxes and enthusiastically schlepping heavy loads of plastic back with us from farflung cities so that we could finally hear the music that had been touted by our magazines of choice. Cell phones, notebooks, Web platforms – today, every new electronic communication channel is chock-full of music. On the streets you hardly see an ear that is not literally wired for sound. But do we really know where the music we are enjoying in such abundance comes from? Besides the artists that are so close to our hearts, there are also many other people and companies involved in making sure we can finally hear what we want to hear. But we don’t even know about them!
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As a music fan, I have a right to hear exactly the music I want to hear. As a creative artist, I have a right to expect recognition and payment for my performances and my ideas. As a listener, I assume that the money I pay for my music goes to the artists of my choice. But can I really be sure that the artists receive their fair share of what I spend and that – as a fundamental principle – they can produce their music freely and under fair conditions? When I purchase music on storage media via the traditional music distribution channel, I pay about 17 Euros. Of this amount, the artists receive one to two Euros, depending on the quality of their contract. The rest goes to the retail outlet, distributor, record companies, etc. In the digital world – despite a variety of models and significantly lower distribution costs – the artist’s share has barely increased. But that’s not all I should be concerned about as an aware listener.
fair music // cultural policy
Just as the working conditions in the production of textile or agricultural goods I purchase are a matter of concern to me, as a music fan I should also want to know whether my band is suffering from an oppressive contract that leaves them little artistic freedom and hardly rewards them financially for their work. Digitisation led to structural change in the music sector, giving rise to competition between an entertainment industry undergoing a process of extreme market consolidation and the access providers, such as Internet Service Providers and telecommunication enterprises. Lobbyists on both sides have been successful – in the name of the music fans or the artists, but actually primarily out of self-interest – in inducing legislators all over the world to obey their whispered suggestions. Technical protection mechanisms and the suspension of music purchasers’ right to a private sphere were thus incorporated into many national laws. Hardly anyone stopped to ask whether the earnings gleaned from modern advances – triggered by the aforementioned structural change – were being distributed justly. There is therefore still no contract law regarding copyrights anywhere in the world that would safeguard artists from being compelled to sign disadvantageous contracts. Also still to be addressed is the issue of unjust distribution between North and South in the field of world music. Therefore, many artists still pursue their careers with great enthusiasm, but hardly see a penny of the money pocketed in their names by the above named industries. It’s time we finally addressed this issue. Digital music by now plays a significant role in the industry. The process of globalisation necessarily leads to the reconsideration of traditional strategies. Since its last round of talks, the WTO has now added the liberalisation of cultural goods and services to its agenda, and UNESCO has recognised in its “Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions” the special necessity to safeguard cultural products due to their dual character as commercial goods and non-material expression of cultural values, enshrining this protection in international law. Worldwide, there is a “Justice in Trade Movement” for many industries, and the idea of fair trade that has been evolving for decades in the agricultural field is today just as universally accepted as the moral and ethical responsibility involved in managing business enterprises, articulated as Corporate Social Responsibility. It is time to call into question the distortion of the market caused by outsized marketing investments for just a few entertainment industry products, to the detriment of cultural diversity. It is time to question why the rich cultural traditions of southern countries can only be conveyed to the ears of deep-pocketed listeners in the North by way of Western-dominated music companies. It is time to ask why copyright systems are designed to make it even harder for countries in the South to access cultural goods and services than it already is under prevailing economic conditions. It is time to analyse where the considerable sums circulating on the worldwide music media market are actually ending up, and how many creative talents really profit from this windfall, and in which countries. And it is time to finally give politically aware consumers the opportunity to obtain information on these issues – issues that are negotiated outside the visible field of traditional music media. The “fair music Initiative” was launched in Austria by “mica – music austria”, a non-profit organisation founded by the Republic of Austria to promote better exposure of, and better access to, music from Austria. In the last few years, the music sector has been able to recruit a whole series of international NGOs and umbrella
organisations in civil society to join in a campaign for cultural diversity and more fairness in the music business. Transnational culture agencies as well, such as UNESCO or the European Union as financing partner during Mozart Year 2006, contribute to this nascent alliance, which has the aim of strengthening the position of the artists and music fans in order to foster cultural diversity in the present-day modernisation processes. What might sound abstract is actually very closely tied to the music itself. The theme of fairness and justice forms a thread running through the musical history of the 20th century. The emancipation of black musicians through jazz and blues, the positioning of many rock bands in the alternatives “indy versus major”, punk, hippie, techno – a key characteristic of all these pop-culture manifestations is a close connection between production conditions and musical expression. As a fan, I would even go so far as to say that I have rarely heard good music that does not deliberately tackle this issue. Fairness and justice go both ways here: as a listener I have the right to fair treatment of the artists that I value, and also the duty to behave fairly myself. With the steady series of legitimate offerings becoming available on the Internet, the excuses for free downloads against the will of the artists are becoming increasingly tenuous. What will be the next steps taken by the “fair music Initiative”? In order to bring the questions being addressed by a small circle of experts out into the broader public, an online platform was launched to put up for discussion ideas of what is fair and unfair, case studies, ideas and impulses for action. Anyone can take part in it, from fans to music artists to high-ranking politicians. “fair music awards” are bestowed on businesses and initiatives that behave in an exemplary fashion as partners of artists and listeners. Despite many negative examples, many of those in the music business are true music lovers who give their life’s blood for their music and their artists and without whom there would be no chance of musical variety. In “stakeholder consultations”, standards are developed for awarding both music products and sales channels with the fair music seal of approval. What’s different here from previous undertakings is that the actual “stakeholders” are able to have their say instead of lobbyists paid large amounts to represent them. Concrete projects that address primarily the inequality in access to markets and cultural goods between the countries in the South and North are the next step. The debate on the access to music already echoes many of the changes that are making inroads in other cultural arenas. The “fair music Initiative” introduced by mica and its partners can be regarded as a pioneer and pilot of a much more wide-ranging “fair culture Initiative.” UNESCO’s “Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions” with its focus on the culture industry demands that these views be put into practice. The “fair culture Initiative” sees itself as just such a concrete implementation emerging from the spirit of civil society. We are appealing today to the transnational communities to support and breathe life into this large-scale project. The many people active today in literature and the performing arts, all of us, will need a new “social contract” between artists and the rest of society to pave the way for the knowledge society of the future. // Peter Rantasa (Austria) Director of the music information center austria (mica) and Vice President of the International Music Council
WINTER 2007–2008 // SOUNDS IN EUROPE
ÂŠ namurimage.be - Marianne Grimont
an educational journey // For Inspiration
An educational journey through choral singing Maybe you, as a reader, will find it strange that this article should be written by two persons who were born in two extremely different places of the world. What can a Swedish and a Colombian girl possibly have in common? Well, actually we have more in common and more to share than anyone can imagine, and all of this was possible to the unique magic of choral singing. 10 years ago things probably may have looked different, but today almost anything is possible. We live in a world getting smaller everyday, where distance is no longer a problem for communicating, a world that provides us with all the tools to be able to meet each other. Nevertheless, even though the physical boundaries tend to disappear, barriers still exist all over the world, which is shown by the many conflicts between countries caused by the lack of understanding, the understanding of that others might have more in common with you than what you ever imagined. “A choir is never stronger than its weakest link” Singing in a choir is not just about singing, it requires an open mind, a will to cooperate and to make compromises; to achieve a good musical result you need to care about the group of singers just as much as the music. Through choral music we have realised that the concept of “learning” nowadays is much broader than what we get to learn inside a classroom. Your social values and abilities are now just as highly
appreciated as your technical knowledge. This is not, as some people might think, something that you are born with or not, it is all about learning. We learned this and much more in an excellent school, not an expensive or traditional one, but a life-changing project; a project building bridges of youth by means of high-quality music, creating lifelong links between human beings, giving you the right to be different because being different is the first step towards speaking the same language, giving the audience and the singers the chance to have the world on stage. It is called the World Youth Choir. For someone who has not experienced the World Youth Choir, it might be difficult to understand the magnificence of its nature but perhaps the words of its manager, Vladimir Opacic, can put it better: “The World Youth Choir was, is and will be the unique project on this planet which brings people from different cultures and nations together for an unforgettable moment of their lives. It gives people the chance to develop themselves in every possible aspect of their beings and to be able to learn the real essence of life ...” For three weeks twice a year, 80 young singers from all over the world have the chance to interact while making high quality music. People should not be surprised that after the session one is able to say “good morning” in more than seven languages, one can understand the reality of what the news show every night about a specific region of the world, and has even made professional contacts. The audience can feel the special connection that is tak-
ing place on the stage; a World Youth Choir concert is unforgettable both for the singers and the audience who have attended it. It gives people the hope of a different world; for sure it makes better people, better citizens, better human beings. Sometimes the members cannot talk to each other but on stage they are all the same; they can hold hands or dance or smile, but always together because there is only one world – the one that belongs to all. So this is how this Swedish and this Colombian met. Someday in the middle of a session we realised how similar we were, how we could recognise that we had the same dreams and thoughts. We could see how it can be possible, despite our different environments, to share so many things! Among those, we both had the firm conviction that it was worth working for the choir life in the world, starting with the World Youth Choir network for which we had to make things happen, that singers (and especially both of us) needed to give back a little from what we had received by living this experience. The singers are all ambassadors of tolerance and peace, the reason why UNESCO has given the choir the title: Artist for Peace. //
Maria Catalina Prieto Victoria Liedbergius Members of the World Youth Choir World Youth Choir c/o International Center for Choral Music, Avenue Jean Ier, 2; 5000 Namur, Belgium Tel. : +32 81 711 600, Fax : +32 81 711 609 Email: email@example.com Web: www.worldyouthchoir.org
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for inspiration // Ad libitum festival
Ad Libitum 2007 (5–10 November) is a festival comprising of a set of workshops, lectures and concerts of improvised music, organised by the Foundation of the Polish Music Council in conjunction with a number of Polish academies, schools, galleries, as well as foreign cultural institutes and embassies. The success of the first Ad Libitum, held in November 2006, has encouraged us to continue the project. This year’s festival has focused on free improvisation, an area of new music which has already had a great success in Poland, while simultaneously remaining in a kind of ‘vacuum’ between composed and jazz-inflected music. The Foundation has invited a group of prominent lecturers and performers both from Europe and the USA, like ‘Butch’ Morris, Han Bennink, Misha Mengelberg, Wolfgang Fuchs, Michel Doneda, Thomas Lehn, as well as the most creative Polish musicians like DJ Lenar, Michał Górczyński, Marcin Dymiter and Zdzisław Piernik. The musicians have given a series of concerts in various line-ups, with a special emphasis on idiosyncratic
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configurations of artistic personalities. They have also performed in an ‘orchestra’ of improvised music under the direction of the world’s top names as far as ensemble improvisation is concerned. Ad Libitum is more than a festival. Its primary aim is to promote music education at all levels. The programme has therefore included a series of workshops, conducted by experienced educators like Olga Szwajgier, Zdzisław Piernik, Wolfgang Fuchs and ‘Butch’ Morris. The workshops were profiled especially for children and young people, to stimulate their interest in music, foster the ideas of openmindedness and tolerance and develop their creativity in group projects. The other educational aspect of the event was Conduction®, a type of structured improvisation or rather a vocabulary of ideographic signs and gestures, activated to modify or construct a real-time musical arrangement (of any notation) or composition. For four days, Lawrence D. ‘Butch’ Morris taught students from the ‘Odyssey’ Chamber Or-
chestra of the Music Academy in Kraków a series of hand and baton gestures, and on the last day of the festival they have performed the 168th Conduction®. A series of seminars have taken place during the festival. The goal of the events was to sweep away the stereotype that free improvisation is a chaotic music activity and to ensure that improvisation is given its due position in the overall landscape of the Polish musical life. Music critics, musicologists and journalists gave the participants a good insight into the history of improvisation, its links with other musical genres, and have explained the fundamental categories connected with the perception of improvised music. The Foundation of the Polish Music Council hopes that Ad Libitum will rouse an interest in improvisation among all fans of modern music. We are already preparing Ad Libitum 2008. 3
Polish Music Council Narodowy Instytut Fryderyka Chopina, Pl. Pilsudskiego 9, 00-078 Warshaw, Poland
Active Music Making 50+ // for inspiration
The Wiesbaden Declaration
“Active Music Making 50+” – Being active with music at a higher age 12 demands on politics and society
The potentials of demographic change as well as its problems, such as the increasing isolation of elderly people, are socio-political challenges which strongly require new and respectively more powerful methods of resolution. Here, music can open up opportunities to unfold the creative potential of elder people to a notably increasing degree as hitherto and to play a part in society. Along with the picture of a humanely oriented society comes the conviction that the experience of music for its own sake needs to be enabled as an integral part at every age. The possibilities of musical experience and activity for the elder are significantly underdeveloped. Barriers exist on federal, regional as well as community levels but are little noticed. This surprises all the more as gerontological science has proven for several years the prophylactic and therapeutic effects of music and its contribution to
the reinforcement of identity. Moreover, making music is a way out of isolation as it helps to make social contacts and to handle losses. Throughout today‘s Germany, there is an almost complete lack of musical offerings specifically targeting older people. Furthermore, adequate conditions for musical activity are often lacking in institutions for the elderly. Facing the old-age poverty that still persists today, the German Music Council cannot accept that – especially in the later stages of life – broad population strata will be excluded from cultural participation. These findings set out, the nearly complete absence of a socio-political debate as well as the involved awareness of the effects of music on the Generation 50+ is a severe omission. Thus, the German Music Council calls upon the persons responsible on the federal, regional as well as community levels to design a road map “Active Music Making 50+” which should include the following main issues. As regards people with a
Cross-generational congress concert on 2 June 2007 in Wiesbaden, Germany. Conductor: Prof. Siegfried Köhler. © Susann Eichstädt
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FOR INSPIRATION // polifonia
The ERASMUS for Music
background of migration, it has to be added that the implementation of these requirements must account for their cultural roots. 1. The German Music Council calls upon parliaments, governments and political parties to include the necessity of cultural offerings for the elder in their agendas and areas of activity. 2. For musical activities to unfold effectively in later stages of life, a continuous and qualified musical education is required already in the early stages of life. 3. Music must be increasingly applied in geriatric social work, care, rehabilitation and therapy. This calls for qualified education and training in musical geragogic pedagogy (musical pedagogy with the elderly). 4. Institutions for higher education (universities, colleges, etc.) must qualify their students for the specific requirements of the work with older people. Accordingly specialized didactics need intensified research. 5. Amateur music organisations of the religious as well as the secular sector should increasingly provide offers for all age groups – across generations – which would have to be supported financially. 6. Music schools must be enabled structurally and financially to provide suitable offerings for older people. This encompasses the broadening of the educational programmes in order to motivate music making also for those who have been excluded from musical experiences so far. 7. In all areas of living including institutions for the elder as well as hospitals, possibilities of making music both individually and collectively must be added or already be considered in the phase of constructional design. 8. The German Federal Government is called upon to promote musical activity of the elder with pilot projects. This also comprises the cross-generational dialogue, e.g. the conceptual integration of qualified musical opportunities in the project of multi-generational houses. 9. The German Music Council and the Regional Music Councils of Germany are called upon to review their projects in view of a stronger emphasis of cross-generational aspects. Where necessary, projects have to be modified by the introduction of measures which promote musical family activities. 10. Federal and regional academies are called upon to develop offers in music education and training for music making at a higher age as well as cross-generational music making. 11. Cultural Institutions must increasingly adjust their offerings to meet the demands of the elderly. The aspect of increasing old-age poverty should be taken into account. 12. The German Music Council is called upon to consider the installation of a network “music at a higher age” together with musical and social associations and the people politically responsible. The aim of such a network must be to enable the elderly all over the country to exercise their own musical activities and to take part in the musical life. Therefore, a civil society based infrastructure has to be created to reach the elderly in their social environment. 3
German Music Council Oranienburger Straße 67/68, 10117 Berlin, Germany Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.musikrat.de
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The ERASMUS Thematic Network for Music “Polifonia” was the largest European project on higher music education to date. It involved 67 organisations in higher music education and the music profession from 32 European countries in an intensive 3-year work programme from 1 October 2004 to 1 October 2007. The project, which was coordinated jointly by the Malmö Academy of Music – Lund University and the Association Européenne des Conservatoires, Académies de Musique et Musikhoch schulen (AEC), received support from the European Union within the framework of the ERASMUS Programme.
The aims of the project were: 3
To study issues connected to the Bologna Declaration process, such as the establishment of the 3-cycle (Bachelor/Master/ Doctorate) structure in music, the use of credit point systems, curriculum development, mobility of students and teachers, and quality assurance in the field of music in higher education. To collect information on levels in music education other than the 1st and the 2nd study cycles, and in particular on music education at pre-college and 3rd cycle (Doctorate/PhD) levels in the field of music. To explore international trends and changes in the music profession and their implications for professional music training in higher education. Throughout its project period, “Polifonia” set up 5 working groups with 30 experts from 15 European countries. It realised 31 working group meetings, 18 site visits, 7 counselling visits, 4 seminars, 21 conference presentations and 16 organisational meetings in 26 different European countries. In terms of results, “Polifonia” produced 5 handbooks, detailed descriptions of national pre-college music education systems in 26 European countries, 14 examples of good practice, 6 portraits of professional musicians and descriptions of the situation of 3rd cycle programmes in music in 31 countries. Finally, it developed a sectoral qualifications framework for higher music education for the 1st, 2nd and 3rd study cycles in music. As an acknowledgement of its success, “Polifonia” was designated by the European Commission as an “ERASMUS Success Story”. It was included, as one of only two ERASMUS Thematic Networks, into a brochure with a small number of such “success stories” in the ERASMUS programme to give examples of good practice and inspiration to those active in higher education.
polifonia // FOR INSPIRATION
Thematic Network “Polifonia” “Polifonia” results at a glance “Polifonia” working groups with representatives from different European countries were set up, which had specific objectives and fields of study, but were also closely interconnected. The working group produced the following results: Results and activities of the ‘Tuning’ working group: 3
3 3 3 3
entitled “Higher Music Education – characteristics, learning outcomes and competences”, which presents a sectoral qualifications framework for higher music education for the 1st, 2nd and 3rd study cycles in music; “Handbook for the Implementation and Use of Credit Points in Higher Music Education”; “Handbook on Curriculum Design and Development in Higher Music Education”; “Handbook for Internal Quality Assurance in Higher Music Education”; The activation of a pool of “Polifonia” Counsellors, with the aim to assist individual institutions with issues on curriculum development, use of credit points and other “Bologna-related” matters; A Glossary of Terms.
3 3 3
Final Report including a definition of pre-college music education, a European survey on the preparation of students for and admission procedures to the higher music education level, a set of learning outcomes for pre-college music education and a position statement about the importance of pre-college music education; A literature study entitled “Preparing young musicians for professional training: What does scientific research tell us?”, summarising results of scientific research on issues related to young people and musical talent; A survey and report on the current situation of music schools in Europe; Several examples of best practices of successful pre-college music education systems based on site visits; Descriptions of national pre-college music education systems in 26 European countries, as well as a comparative analysis of these descriptions.
“Guide to 3rd cycle Studies in Higher Music Education”; overviews of 3rd cycle music courses in Europe.
Results and activities of the Profession working group: 3
Results and activities of the Pre-College working group: 3
Results and activities of the 3rd Cycle working group:
3 3 3
study on the latest trends in the music profession in Europe (including information on rare and new competences) based on research, site visits and portraits of European professional musicians; An overview of alumni systems and practice in higher music education in Europe; A Handbook “Today’s student: tomorrow’s alumnus” on cultivating good alumni relationships in conservatoires; A “Study on the Free Movement of Professional Musicians in the EU”.
Results and activities of the working group for International Relations Coordinators: 3
“Handbook for ERASMUS Coordinators in European Conservatoires” including: - “10 Steps on how to implement your ERASMUS exchange in music”; - A “Code of Good Practice for European Programme Management”; - The “10 Golden Rules for International Relations Coordinators in Higher Music Education”; - Standard ECTS forms for music student and teacher exchanges in ERASMUS: application form, learning agreement form, bilateral agreement form, transcript of records.
3 European Association of Conservatoires (AEC) PO Box 805, NL-3500AV Utrecht The Netherlands Tel: +31 30 2361242, Fax: +31 30 2361290 Email: email@example.com, Web: www.polifonia-tn.org
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For Inspiration // An instrument for every child
“An Instrument FOR EVEry Child” The name of this exceptional project says it all: By 2010, all first graders in the Ruhr region (Germany) shall be given the opportunity to learn a musical instrument. The project is an addition to existing music education in primary schools. Participation is voluntary. One of the important aims is to allow children from families who might have financial difficulties to access the project by specifically targeting these children, by waiving fees and awarding scholarships. 34 music schools in the area started with “An Instrument for Every Child” with the beginning of the 2007/08 school year. They work together with 223 primary schools. Music school teachers and their colleagues in primary schools now work
together in teaching a total of 7.262 first graders. The Ruhr region initiative is continuously growing with the number of admitted little ones starting school tripling in the incoming school year already. When school starts in August 2008, around 20.000 first graders will enter the project. At the moment, the participating first graders are getting acquainted with rhythms, beats and notes. Apart from learning the basic musical elements, they also get to know 15 different instruments. One after the other, violin, viola, cello, bass, trumpet, trombone, horn, flute, clarinet, guitar, mandolin, accordion, recorder, and at least two instruments from immigrants’ home countries are the focus of the lessons. The children can try the instruments and even build some themselves in order to understand the principles of making sounds. Directly after
the Easter holidays, they will finally decide which instrument they would like to start learning in the following school year. In their second school year, the pupils can borrow their chosen instrument free of charge for taking lessons and practising at home. They learn to play the instruments in small groups and already experience the characteristic sound of an ensemble in these lessons. When they reach the third grade, playing in the “Potpourri” ensemble is added to instrument lessons. Children practise playing together in the school orchestra once a week. An annual event at the end of the school year allows the ensembles to present their new skills to an audience. “An Instrument for Every Child” is a music education programme on offer within the framework of ‘Essen European Capital of Culture for 2010’. The project is under the patronage of Federal President Horst Köhler. As early as 2003, the music school in Bochum, with support from the organisation GLS Treuhand Foundations for the Future, went into the primary schools to present the idea. Their concept and their success were convincing: The German Federal Cultural Foundation, the provincial government of North RhineWestphalia took up the idea and continued developing the concept in cooperation with the GLS Treuhand Foundations for the Future. They initiated the programme “An Instrument for Every Child” for the entire Ruhr region and support its realisation with the help of the local authorities of the Ruhr region, the participating families and private sponsors. 3
© Stiftung „Jedem Kind ein Instrument“
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Jedem Kind ein Instrument Willy-Brandt-Platz 1–3 44787 Bochum, Germany Tel. +49 234 54 17 47-0 Fax. +49 234 54 17 47-99 Email: info@JedemKind.de Web: www.JedemKind.de
jamila and the others // For inspiration
Jamila and the others … Women making Music in the Mediterranean from the Sumerian Civilization until the Middle Ages (Editore Colombo, Roma, 2007) © Illustration by Rada Skoritcheva Vassileva
“Donne in Musica” has been working, since 1978, to empower women teaching composition and encourage performances of their works. However, this greater participation in musical life (leading to an almost total feminisation of the teaching profession in some countries) has not changed school music curricula: women as creators of music are still absent. Italy has one of the largest immigrant populations in Europe representing 250 ethnic groups. Ideally, immigrant children should learn about their own music as well as the European music traditionally taught. To ensure that this happens we have written a book for junior school children (aged ten to thirteen) about our common musical heritage, highlighting the presence of women musicians and creators of music. We invited researchers, throughout the Mediterranean, to prepare scholarly texts (for separate publication later this year) and from these and our own archives, the book was prepared in: Italian – used daily; English – European “lingua franca” and Arabic – which many speak at home. This “pilot project” is sustained by our Regional Department for Public Education and University Studies and a first nine thousand copies of “Jamila” are being distributed to state schools throughout Lazio. Format “Jamila and the others …” is divided into chapters describing the history and musical traditions of geographical areas or historical periods, with individual presentations for nearly fifty women musicians, all beautifully illustrated with original paintings: 3 Mesopotamia, the Sumerians, the Egyptians and the Hebrews 3 The Birth of Western Culture: Ancient Greece 3 Rome: Empire and civilisation 3 Christianity: the music of the early Church 3 Byzantium 3 The Arab civilisation and the first women musicians 3 Al-Andalus or Andalusia 3 Troubadours and “Trobairitz” 3 “Dolce stil novo” and “ars nova”. Extracts “The first professional musicians in the Mediterranean were women who worked as priestesses in the City of Ur, directors of music ensembles in Asia Minor and sacred songstresses in Egypt. They sang and danced to celebrate life and intoned dirges to express sorrow. The sound of their voices accompanied the sowing and harvesting of grain, the arrival of the New Moon and welcomed home the men back from hunting. Women have left prayers inscribed in cuneiform characters on stone tablets and on papyrus rolls, and all of this over three thousand years ago …” Enheduanna, 2285 approx. to 2250 B.C., is the first woman composer and poetess in history. Enheduanna means High Priestess
of the Goddess Inanna. Her official home was the giparu, a series of buildings in the centre of the city of Ur, where there was a large temple dedicated to Inanna. Enheduanna spent her time praying and singing to protect the life of her father, King Sargon, in the hope that the Gods would look favourably on the nation. The hymns Enheduanna dedicated to Inanna represent the first human description of a Deity described as the “most powerful amongst the Gods because She renders their decisions active.” Enheduanna left three very long poetic hymns in honour of Inanna and forty-two sacred hymns for use in temple liturgies. Polygnota was the daughter of Socrates, a Theban harpist, who, in 186 B.C., travelled to Delphi to participate in the opening ceremony of the Pythian Games. The opening was delayed and a competition for the best musician took its place. Polygnota won first prize and played the chelys for a payment of 500 drachmas. She and her descendents were granted Delphic citizenship, the right to consult the famous Oracle, and the privilege of speaking first in a law suit. She was exempted from paying taxes, could own a house and have a seat in the front row for the games. This is the first time in Greek history that a professional woman musician is mentioned by name. Badhl was a slave born in 820 A.D. in Medina and educated in Basra. She studied with Ibrahim al-Mosuli, the most eminent musician of that time and was owned first by Ja’far Ibn al-Hadi and then by Mohammed al-Amin. She had a personal repertoire of over 30.000 songs and compiled a collection of 12.000 pieces of music for Ali, the Sheik of Hishām, for which he paid 10.000 silver coins. Badhl accompanied her singing with the oud, and in a competition with Prince Ibrahīm ibn al-Mahdī, sang 100 original songs. She was killed during a concert when one of the barbaric guests, from the Tabanistan region, hit her on the head with his oud. Antonia Pulci (c.1452–1501) was the daughter of a Florentine banker and married Bernardo Pulci, a well known poet. She wrote “sacred dramas or miracle plays” and “Lauds” produced by Religious Confraternities and Convents. Of the three remaining “sacred representations” for which Antonia wrote both the text and the music, we only have a date for Santa Domitilla, 1483. She also wrote San Francesco, Santa Guglielma and probably also the Rappresentazione del figliuol prodigo, Sant’ Antonio Abate, Festa di Rosanna, and Santa Teodora. When her husband died, Antonia retired to the convent she had built, and lived there, until her death, with a group of Augustinian laywomen. 3
Fondazione Adkins Chiti – Donne in Musica Teatro Comunale Piazza Trento e Trieste 03014 Fiuggi città, Italy Email: firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com Web: www.donneinmusica.org
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EMC/IMC Review // EMC 2007
Cultural Diversity and Access to Culture In the focus of the EMC in 2007 In its Communication on a European Agenda for Culture in a Globalizing World, published on 10 May 2007, the EU Commission proposes different objectives and working methods for cultural policy in the EU, including “structured dialogue” with the civil society sector. The Communication was adopted by the EU Council Culture Ministers of the EU member states in November 2007. The Council defined the implementation of the UNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expression (2005) as one of the priorities, aiming to include culture in all policy areas of the European Union. In March 2007 the UNESCO 2005 Convention entered into force after 30 state ratifications. The Convention reaffirms the sovereign right of the States to draw up cultural policies, it recognises the specific nature of cultural goods and services and it aims to strengthen international cooperation and solidarity so as to favour the cultural expressions of all countries. These intergovernmental agreements have been vitally important for the work of the European Music Council which actively contributed to the implementation and realisation of these agreements through its activities in 2007. Ramon Diaz group in the frame of the EMC Annual Conference in Barcelona 2007.
EMC 2007 Annual Conference Changes: Chances and Challenges. Music and the Future Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain, in cooperation with the Catalan Music Council, Moviment Coral Català and Europa Cantat More than 100 representatives of diverse international music organisations from over 20 European countries, Australia and Brazil came to Barcelona to exchange their vision on the music life of the XXI century. The Museum of the History of Catalonia provided an appealing frame for this event, organised by the European Music Council in collaboration with Europa Cantat – European Federation of Young Choirs, its regional group Moviment Coral Català, and the Catalan Music Council. Being more valid than ever, Bob Dylan’s “The Times, They Are A-Changin’” did serve as a slogan for the conference. In his keynote speech Finnish composer Henrik Otto Donner highlighted the importance of protecting and promoting cultural diversity in Europe (cf. UNESCO 2005 Convention) by also accepting the importance of artistic creation for cultural industries. “This industry lives from the creation of composers and artists, therefore without good pre-conditions for the creation of music there will be no music industry” – Donner stated.
© Manel Canetti
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EMC 2007 // EMC/IMC Review
The changes in music distribution have been in the focus of the discussion – what does the all-time world-wide availability of music on the Internet imply for music education, creation and distribution? Will mass media define musical taste? Or does the Internet provide a richer diversity of musical styles available for download at any time, any place, for anybody? And what about music education? Will music vanish from the curricula or will the importance of arts education rise again? And will life-long learning gain more importance? A capacity building workshop provided insight into “Music on the Internet”: The digital music market is fast growing, in 2007 the online music business had an increase of growth of 40 %; music is distributed through download platforms, live-streaming and web radio among others applying different payment models such as “pay per download” or flatrates. Another capacity building workshop informed about the basics of authors’ rights and copyright. An open space session dealt with the issue in greater detail focussing on the changes in copyright asking if the authors really felt represented by the collecting societies and how to guarantee that the revenues of the artistic work arrive at the artist. Further capacity building workshops informed about how to do lobby work for culture on an EU level and how to successfully promote European activities in the press and media. The impact and implementation of the UNESCO 2005 Convention was discussed. The UNESCO 2005 Convention opens the possibility to focus on the diversity of musical expressions – in this respect access to all musical genres should be enabled in education as well as in media; the issue of radio quota was discussed controversially. The discussion group on music education stressed the importance to start music education at the earliest age possible and should be a life-long process not ending because someone leaves school or stops instrumental lessons. In this regard formal and non-formal music education still need to be much better connected. One should bear in mind that music lessons in the formal education system seem to be constantly diminishing as they have to give way to overhasty adoptions of OECD inputs such as the PISA study, where language skills, mathematics and sciences are very much in the focus. The EMC conference opened up discussions in which direction music education and distribution might develop in the coming years; “Predicting the future is futile, whereas analysing the present may show you some directions where you want to go, or areas that you wish to improve in order to create the kind of future you envisage desirable” (Otto Donner) – in this sense the conference participants clearly stated the importance of music education from early childhood to the higher age and the protection and promotion of musical diversity in Europe as future tasks for the music sector. Round Table on Cultural Policy 9 to 10 May 2007, Bonn, Germany The European Music Council (EMC) invited European stakeholders in music policy in order to foster advocacy activities, to join forces and to increase the efficiency of advocacy work in the music sector. The participants represented the amateur as well as the professional music sector, the profit and not-for-profit sector, NGOs as well as the political field. The aims of the round table were: 3 To strengthen the cultural sector by sharing experiences and develop measures for cooperation; 3 To strengthen the music sector by advocating with one voice as well as by integrating common interests between the creative industries and the not-for-profit sector. The meeting took place in the premises of the broadcasting
station “Deutsche Welle” on 10 May 2007 and was opened on the evening of 9 May in the Schumann Haus Bonn by Andreas Bomheuer, head of the cultural department of the city of Bonn. The EMC is especially grateful for the generous support of the European Cultural Foundation enabling the Round Table. General issues of cultural policy discussed during the Round Table were the “Communication on a European agenda for culture in a globalizing world” published by the EU Commission on 10 May 2007, the EU “Year of Intercultural Dialogue” 2008 and the UNESCO “Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions”. In the discussion it was stated that cultural diversity and intercultural dialogue are often mentioned in the same contexts but that it is important to make a clear distinction between the underlying concepts of both terms. Respect towards various forms of cultural expression is a prerequisite for intercultural dialogue. In terms of the UNESCO Convention, it is essential to keep in mind a broader approach, including aspects of education, migration, equal opportunities and intercultural dialogue, and to avoid the risk to limit cultural diversity to commercial aspects. The participants of the “Round Table” expressed the wish to convince national governments to also implement the UNESCO convention which might demand legal changes. Here the role of the civil society was said to be crucial to encourage the governments to act in line with the Convention and to use the Convention as a “moral lever” for its work in these fields. Synergies with other recommendations such as the UNESCO Road Map for Arts Education were said to be investigated and used where appropriate. Hannele Koivunen (Finnish Ministry of Culture) presented the concept of “fair culture”, meaning the realisation of cultural rights and the inclusion of everyone in cultural signification, irrespective of their age, gender, disability, or ethnic, religious and cultural background. A more practical approach to “fair culture” was presented by Peter Rantasa (music information center austria) who introduced the “fair music” initiative. “Fair music” is the first global initiative for fairness and justice in the music business, it strives to strengthen the position of both the artist and the listener worldwide. The aim is to maintain cultural diversity during the current processes of modernisation (cf. page 28 of this magazine). As a result of the discussions two working groups were established to develop ideas for concrete actions for the implementation of the UNESCO Convention and for a network for cultural policy bringing together representatives of ministries and the culture sector. Influencing the course of arts and cultural policy – at any level – is laborious and time consuming. Cultural policy at the European level requires extensive co-operation between artists, cultural organisations, ministries, and the politicians and officials responsible for cultural affairs in the EU. To influence cultural policy in Europe, we need regional, national and European forums for discussion, in which the persons and organisations active in the cultural sector can have their say. We need good contacts to top politicians and public officials that are based on mutual trust. We need panEuropean co-operation between arts organisations, which will allow us to implement musical and cultural activities systematically and at a high level of quality. The European Music Council will continue working for these aims in the coming years. // sd
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EMC/IMC Review // SEcond World Forum on Music
SECOND World Forum of the International
went to the heart of
Speakers and attendees alike shared the same positive statement: The 2nd World Forum on Music, held in Beijing, 11 to 14 October 2007, was a great success in all its aspects. The Forum dealt with many issues crucial to the music world today – aspects of the new music economy that comes with digitisation, the survival and revitalisation of traditional music, the changing face of music education, the cultural and economic development of music sectors, and music’s potential contribution to broader development and the economy. Speakers, coming from all parts of the world, were experts of international stature. Representatives of 36 nations attended the event which was organised by the International Music Council in collaboration with the Chinese Musicians’ Association. Beijing, the largest city in a country that finds itself at the highest speed of economical and cultural change, turned out to be a perfect setting for five days of discussion, information and exchange about the world of music at present, in the past and in the future. Diversity of issues in Forum sessions A session dedicated to the development in music and music in development inaugurated the Forum and immediately set the stage for three days of high-level presentations and discussions. Experts from intergovernmental organisations such as UNCTAD and World Bank, government agencies and major record companies
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provided a deep insight into how music, as a sector of creative industries, can be developed economically to support itself and its musicians and music workers and eventually become an important financial contributor to national economy. The debate on intellectual property rights met in full the expectations of both the organisers and the audience as it achieved its goal to give a comprehensive outline of the key issues for IPR in the music sector and the diverse, sometimes controversial approaches at global policy level to address them. The speakers offered perspectives of authors, musicians, collecting societies, research, online-business and music industry as well as the relevant UN organisation WIPO. Their backgrounds as lawyers, musical practitioners, entrepreneurs and academic scholars provided the ground for an exciting exchange. Key civil society players and a representative of the UNESCO Beijing office were invited to discuss the UNESCO Convention for the protection and promotion of the diversity of cultural expressions and in particular its potential role as a useful tool to promote musical diversity nationally and globally. Panellists looked into the threats and opportunities of the convention and how civil society players could position themselves in the debate. Under the title “Sustainable futures for musical traditions”, another session aimed to bring together a number of key strands in the discussion on intangible cultural heritage, and to explore practical ways to
safeguard local musics, among others by developing an integrated approach to assist musical traditions in danger of disappearing. The session featured a panel with a rich and diverse background of various aspects of music: ethnomusicology, music education, composition, music business and arts policy. “Our Musical Future – Challenges and Changes” provided the framework for a stimulating and thought-provoking debate on possibilities in the performance, production and consumption of music over the next 10 years. Having identified dominant social, cultural, political and technological trends, panellists examined their likely impact on musical artists, audiences and participants with special emphasis on IMC’s musical rights. Those attending the session were given a number of predictions, possibilities and challenges for their work. The last Forum session explored the latest trends in music education today, viewed from a global perspective. It saw presentations by an interesting array of stakeholders, varying from experts in professional music training to music education activities for children. Through the presentation of case studies, the session also addressed the rich diversity of styles, paradigms and approaches to music education in different educational and cultural contexts. The 2nd World Forum on Music also seized the opportunity of being held in China to offer a platform for expert presentations on diverse aspects of Chinese
SECOND World Forum on Music // EMC/IMC Review
on Music Music Council music’s key issues
music, from an anthropological approach to the transmission of oral traditions, from the role of school arts education in the dissemination of ethnic minority musics to the teaching of Chinese traditional music instruments and music types. Highly acclaimed performances demonstrated the rich musical diversity of the host country The Chinese Musicians Association, co-host of the event, presented a most astonishing array of music from across China, from the ancient to the newly composed. The official opening concluded with a performance of The Golden Bugle Jazz Band, a section of the Military Band of the People’s Liberation Army of China. The concert hall of the Central Conservatory of Music provided an optimal setting for the opening concert on the first day of the Forum, which saw musicians from the China Youth Symphony Orchestra play together with musicians from the German National Youth Orchestra in a programme featuring Beethoven and Brahms as well as Chinese composers Liu Tieshan and Mao Yuan. On the second day at the China Conservatory of Music, a well-known institution for the transmission and teaching of Chinese art music, the Forum participants were offered a broad array of music performances. Teachers, graduate and outstanding undergraduate students from this conservatory form the Huaxia Chinese Orchestra, combining ingredients of tradi-
tional Chinese music, folk music and Chinese opera. The orchestra presented unique expressions of China’s ancient culture to a most appreciative Forum audience on the third evening. Last but not least, the international guests attending the gala concert of Chinese indigenous music from the Yunnan Province were simply overwhelmed by the exceptional performances offered by over
hundred musicians coming from eleven different ethnic groups of this province. // Silja Fischer (France) Executive Officer of the International Music Council 3 The 3rd World Forum on Music will take place in 2009 in Tunisia.
Next to the World Forum on Music the General Assembly of the International Music Council took place and elected the Executive Board for 2007–2009: President:
3 Richard Letts (Australia), Executive Director of the Music Council of Australia
3 Beata Schanda (Hungary), Executive Vice-
3 Valentina Frenot-Diaz (Paraguay), President of the Paraguayan Music Council
3 Sonja Greiner (Germany), Secretary General, Europa Cantat; Treasurer, European Music Council
President; Artistic Secretary, Hungarian Dance
3 Liane Hentschke (Brazil), President,
3 Timo Klemettinen (Finland), Managing
Academy; Past Chairperson of the European
3 Felipe de Leon Jr. (Philippines), Professor of Art Studies at the University of the Philippines; Commissioner, Head of the Subcommission
for the Arts of the National Commission for Culture and the Arts
3 Peter Rantasa (Austria), Executive Director of the Music Information Center Austria
3 Lars Grunth (Denmark), Musician and Conductor
International Society for Music Education Director, Association of Finnish Music Schools; Secretary General, Finnish Music Council; Board member European Music Council
3 Mary Luehrsen (USA), Director of Public Affairs and Government Relations of the Interna-
tional Music Products Association (NAMM)
3 Lupwishi Mbuyamba (Democratic Republic
of Congo), Executive Director, Observatory of Cultural Policies in Africa; President of the International Federation for Choral Music
3 Victor Sahab (Lebanon), Musicologist
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A selection of European and international music events in the upcoming year This list does not claim to be exhaustive.
Workshops/Trainings/Academies m March Workshop “Brazilian Music” with Berklee professor Ben Sher 10 March, Freiburg, Germany Contact: Jazz & Rock Schule Freiburg; Haslacher Straße 43; 79115 Freiburg; Germany; T: +49 761 36 88 89-0; F: +49 761 36 88 89-26; firstname.lastname@example.org; www.jrs.org The 12th Arthur Rubinstein International Piano Master Competition 8 to 27 March, Tel Aviv, Israel Contact: Arthur Rubinstein International Piano Master Competition; 12 Huberman St.; Tel Aviv 64075; Israel; T: +972 36856684; F: +972 36854924; email@example.com; www.arims.org.il ExTra! Traditional Music and Dance Competition – Exchange Session 21 to 23 March, Gannat, France Contact: Association Nationale Cultures et Traditions; BP58; 03800 Gannat; France; T: +33 470901267; F: +33 470906636; firstname.lastname@example.org m May Bucharest International Flute & Clarinet Competition 7 to 13 May, Bucharest, Romania Contact: Bucharest International Flute & Clarinet Competition; P.O.Box 13–63 ; Bucharest 13; Romania; T: +40 722 383 542; F: +40 21 323 66 00; email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org m June European Radio Youth Concert 16 June, Munich, Germany The EuroRadio Youth Concert presents a selection of the top young musicians in Europe. It is a cooperation with the European Broadcasting Union (EBU) Contact: EMCY – European Union of Music Competition for Youth; Trimburgstraße 2; 81249 München, Germany
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Youth Choirs in Movement, International Children’s and Youth Choirs Festival 18 to 22 June, Bonn, Germany For equal voice children and youth choirs, interested in experiencing interdisciplinary work, mixing choral music with other fields of arts and in learning how to move on stage Contact: Europa Cantat; Weberstr. 59a; 53113 Bonn; Germany; T: +49 228 91 256 63; F: +49 228 91 256 58; email@example.com; www.europacantat.org m July ExTra! Workshop on Green Music 10 to 12 July, Kaustinen, Finland Contact: International Yehudi Menuhin Foundation; Chaussée de la Hulpe 61; 1180 Brussels; Belgium; T:+32 2 673 35 04; F: +32 2 672 52 99; firstname.lastname@example.org; www.menuhin-foundation.com Europa Cantat Junior 2008 12 to 20 July, Nevers, France European Festival for Youth Choirs, musical workshops and choir singing concerts for children (10-18 years) and children’s choirs Contact: Europa Cantat; Haus der Kultur, Weberstr. 59a ; 53113 Bonn; Germany; T: +49228 912 56 63; F: +49 228 912 56 58; email@example.com; www.europacantat.org World Youth Choir Summer Session 14 July to 14 August, Hong Kong – Macau, China World Youth Choir summer session performing vocal jazz with Steve Zegree and an Asian programme with Hak Wan Yoon Contact: International Center for Choral Music; Avenue Jean 1er, 2; 5000, Namur; Belgium; T: +32 81 711600; F: +32 81 711 609; firstname.lastname@example.org; www.worldyouthchoir.org International Seminar and Workshop on Intercultural Dialogue 27 to 31 July, Debrecen, Hungary The Role and the Opportunities of Choral Music in Intercultural Dialogue and Reconciliation connected to the Year of Intercultural Dialogue of the European Union in 2008 Contact: Gábor Móczár, jr.; Europa Cantat Central Eastern European Centre; Pomazi Zenekastélny Khz; Templon tér 3; 2013 Pomáz; Hungary, T: +36 30 9415598; T: +36 30 9415598; email@example.com; www.europacantat.org/eecceec
m September ARD International Music Competition 2008 2 to 19 September, Munich, Germany Contact: International Music Competition; Bayerischer Rundfunk; 80300 München; Germany; T:+49 89 5900 2471; F: +49 89 5900-3573; firstname.lastname@example.org m October International Composition Prize Luxembourg 2008 Final Concert: 18 October Composers from all over the world may submit a piece for the ensemble Luxembourg Sinfonietta and Sheng (Chinese mouth organ) Contact: Luxembourg Sinfonietta; 3, route d’Arlon; 8009 Strassen; Luxembourg; T: +352 22 58 21; F: +352 22 58 23; email@example.com; www.luxembourg-sinfonietta.lu Polyfollia 2008 29 October to 2 November, Louvigny, France 3rd World Showcase and Market place for choral singing Contact: Polyfollia; 16 avenue des canadiens; 14111 Louvigny; France; T: +33 2 31 73 69 19; F: +33 2 31 08 15 90; firstname.lastname@example.org; www.polyfollia.org m November Traditional Music as Tool for Integration 1st week of November, Slovakia Contact: International Yehudi Menuhin Foundation; Chaussée de la Hulpe 61; 1180 Brussels; Belgium; T:+32 2 673 35 04; F: +32 2 672 52 99; email@example.com; www.menuhin-foundation.com
INVITE – International Network for Vocal and Instrumental Teacher Education – Conference – Changing roles and contexts 28 to 29 March, Helsinki, Finland The International Network for Vocal and Instrumental Teacher Education (INVITE) is organizing, in cooperation with ‘Polifonia’ and the AEC, a conference on the rapid changes in the work contexts and professional roles of instrumental teachers Contact: AEC – STADIA; PO Box 805; 3500 AV Utrecht; The Netherlands; T: +31 30 2361242; F: +31 30 2361290; firstname.lastname@example.org; www.aecinfo.org m April Access to Music: New Perspectives in Distribution, Education and Politics 17 to 20 April, Brno, Czech Republic Annual Conference of the European Music Council Contact: European Music Council; Weberstr. 59a; 53113 Bonn; Germany; T: +49 228 96699664; F: +49 228 96699665; email@example.com; www.emc-imc.org EFA (European Festival Association) General Assembly and Conference 2008 24 to 26 April, Antalya, Turkey Contact: European Festivals Association (EFA); Kleine Gentstraat 46, 9051 Gent, Belgium; T: +32 9 241 8080; F: +32 9 241 8089; firstname.lastname@example.org; www.efa-aef.eu EMU (European Music School Union) General Assembly 24 to 27 April, Brussels, Belgium Contact: European Music School Union; P.O. 365; 3500 AJ Utrecht; The Netherlands; T: +31302303740; F: +31302303739; email@example.com; www.musicschoolunion.eu 36th International ESTA Congress (European String Teachers Association) 30 April to 5 May, Bern, Switzerland Contact: Silvia Meier; Murbacherstr. 22; 4056 Basel; Switzerland; T: +41 61 321 20 18; firstname.lastname@example.org; www.esta-schweiz.ch
EU XXL 26 February to 2 March, Krems, Austria Forum and festival of European film Contact: EU XXL; Bergsteiggasse 48/4; 1170 Wien; Austria; T: +43 1 408 11 40; F +43 1 408 11 40 20; email@example.com; www.eu-xxl.at
52nd General Assembly of the (WFIMC) World Federation of International Music Competitions 1st Week of May, Geneva, Switzerland Contact: WFIMC; rue de Carouge 104; 1205 Geneva; Switzerland; T: +41 22 321 3620; F: +41 22 781 1418; firstname.lastname@example.org; www.wfimc.org
Musikmesse (music fair) Frankfurt 12 to 15 March, Frankfurt, Germany Contact: Messe Frankfurt GmbH; Ludwig-Erhard-Anlage 1; 60327 Frankfurt am Main; Germany; T: +49 69 75 75 0; F: +49 69 75 75 64 33; email@example.com; www.musik.messefrankfurt.com
IETM Spring Plenary Meeting 2008 15 to 18 May, Ljubljana, Slovenia Contact: IETM (International Network for Contemporary Performing Arts); 19 Square Sainctelette; 1000 Brussels; Belgium; T: +32 2 201 09 15; F: +32 2 203 02 26; firstname.lastname@example.org; www.ietm.org
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West meets East 5 to 7 June, Vienna, Austria Music in Intercultural Dialogue; Contact: Austrian Music Council; Rennweg 8; 1030 Wien; Austria; T: +43 699 12696542; F: +43 1 71155-2599; email@example.com; www.oemr.at
Annual Congress AEC 6 to 8 November, Aarhus, Denmark Contact: AEC; PO Box 805; 3500 AV Utrecht; The Netherlands; T: +31 30 2361242; F: +31 30 2361290; firstname.lastname@example.org; www.aecinfo.org
IASJ Jazz Meeting 2008 22 to 27 June, Riga, Latvia Contact: Riga Teacher Training and Educational Management Academy; Imantas 7. līnija 1; 1038 Riga; Latvia; T: +37 17808010; F: +37 17808034; email@example.com; www.rpiva.lv/iasj m July 8th World Symposium on Choral Music 19 to 26 July, Copenhagen, Denmark Contact: Steen Lindholm; Rønnebærvej 28; 2840 Holte; Denmark; T: +45 4542 1750; F: +45 4542 5455; firstname.lastname@example.org; www.choraldenmark.org 28th ISME (International Society for Music Education) World Conference 20 to 25 July, Bologna, Italy MUSIC AT ALL AGES: The Conference encourages an interdisciplinary approach in order to foster connections across all aspects of education and with other disciplines, including, but not limited to, arts, pedagogy, practice of teaching, psychology, musicology, ethnomusicology, sociology, music theory, philosophy, medicine, and school administration Contact: International Society for Music Education; P.O. Box 909; Nedlands, WA 6909; Australia; T: +61 8 9386 2654; F: +61 8 9386 2658; email@example.com; www.isme.org/2008 m September International Association of Music Information Centres (IAMIC) conference 9 to 13 September, Cardiff, UK Contact: Welsh Music Information Centre, Ty Cerdd; Wales Millennium Centre, Bute Place; Cardiff, CF10 5AL; Wales, UK; T: +44 2920635640; F: +44 2920635641; firstname.lastname@example.org; www.wmic.org Popkomm Berlin 17 to 19 September, Berlin, Germany Contact: Popkomm GmbH; Messedamm 22; 14055 Berlin; Germany; T: +49 30 3038 3009; F: +49 30 3038 2149; email@example.com; www.popkomm.de m October WOMEX (World Music Exposition) 23 to 26 October, Sevilla, Spain Music Fair with a focus on “world” music Contact: WOMEX; Bergmannstr. 102; 10961 Berlin; Germany; T: +49 30 318 614 30; F: +49 30 318 614 10; www.womex.com
WINTER 2007–2008 // SOUNDS IN EUROPE
Festivals/Concerts m February XXIV International Festival Sarajevo – Sarajevo Winter 2008 7 February to 21 March, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina Contact: International Festival Sarajevo Winter; Titova 9a; 71000 Sarajevo; Bosnia and Herzegovina; T: +387 33 207 945; F: +387 33 207 948; firstname.lastname@example.org; www.sarajevskazima.ba m March MaerzMusik – Festival für aktuelle Musik 7 to 16 March, Berlin, Germany Berliner Festspiele; Schaperstraße 24; 10719 Berlin; Germany; T: +49 30 254 89-218; F: +49 30 254 89-114; email@example.com; www.maerzmusik.de m May 56th European Music Festival for Young People 1 to 5 May, Neerpelt, Belgium Contact: PO Box 56; 3910 Neerpelt; Belgium; T: +32 11 66 23 39; firstname.lastname@example.org; www.emj.be m June 63rd International Music Festival Prague Spring 12 May to 4 June, Prague, Czech Republic Contact: Pražské jaro, o.p.s.; Hellichova 18; 118 00 Prague 1; Czech Republic; T: +420 257312547; F: +420 257313725; email@example.com; www.festival.cz/en 33rd International Music Festival Janacek 19 May to 9 June, Ostrava, Czech Republic Contact: IMF Janacek May, o.p.s.; 28. ríjna 124; 702 00 Ostrava 1; Czech Republic; T: +420 597489421; F: +420 597489422; firstname.lastname@example.org; www.janackuvmaj.cz International Chamber Music Tour 23 to 29 June, Germany, Czech Republic and Austria Contact: EMCY – European Union of Music Competition for Youth; Trimburgstraße 2; 81249 München; Germany; email@example.com; www.emcy.org
Florence Youth Festival 25 June to 27 July, Fiesole, Italy International Festival Of European Youth Orchestras: Special Anniversary Edition 2008; Contact: Accademia San Felice; Via Gramsci 10; 50014 Fiesole; Italy; T: +39 055 597026; F: +39 055 5979139; firstname.lastname@example.org; www.florenceyouthfestival.com Music Film Festival Vienna 28 June to 31 August, Vienna, Austria Contact: IMZ; Stiftgasse 29; 1070 Wien; Austria; T: +43 1 889 03 15; F: +43 1 889 03 15 77; email@example.com; www.imz.at m July Roskilde Festival 3 to 6 July, Roskilde, Denmark Contact: Roskilde Festival; Havsteensvej 11; 4000 Roskilde; Denmark; T: +45 46 36 66 13; F: +45 46 32 14 99; firstname.lastname@example.org; www.roskilde-festival.dk 35th Gannat “Cultures of the World” festival 17 to 28 July, Gannat, France In the frame of the ExTra! project: Round table discussion on how music accompanies the cycles of life and worship Contact: Association Nationale Cultures et Traditions; BP58; 03800 Gannat; France; Tel: +33 470901267; Fax: +33 470906636; email@example.com; www.gannat.com International Folklore Festival Veliko Tarnovo 19 July to 2 August, Veliko Tarnovo, Bulgaria Contact: International Folklore Festival Veliko Tarnovo; 3 Nezavisimost Str., Office 10 Europe Trade and Amusement Complex; 5000 Veliko Tarnovo; Bulgaria; T: +359 62 630223; F: +359 62 630223; firstname.lastname@example.org; www.folklorefest.com
m September International Gaudeamus Music Week 2008 1 to 7 September, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Contact: Music Center the Netherlands; Piet Heinkade 5; 1019 BR Amsterdam; The Netherlands; T: +31 20 519 18 00; F: +31 20 519 18 01; email@example.com; www.gaudeamus.nl MOL Jazz Festival Budapest 17 to 22 September, Budapest, Hungary 5 days jazz festival on 10 venues, with world class musicians from Hungary and abroad Contact: Budapest Music Center; Lónyay u. 41; 1093 Budapest; Hungary; T: +361 216 7894; F: +361 216 7897; firstname.lastname@example.org; www.bmc.hu m October Ultima Oslo Contemporary Music Festival 1 October to 18 October, Oslo, Norway The Ultima Oslo Contemporary Music Festival is an annual international festival whose aim is to present modern music and related art forms in Oslo Contact: Kongensgate 4; 0153 Oslo; Norway; T: +47 22 40 18 90; F: +47 22 42 42 18; email@example.com; www.ultima.no ISCM World Music Days 2008 24 October to 7 November, Vilnius, Lithuania Contact: c/o Lithuanian Composers’ Union; A. Mickevičiaus 29; 08117 Vilnius; Lithuania; T: +370 5 272 1727; F: +370 5 212 0939; firstname.lastname@example.org; www.wmd2008.org
m August Festival Ensemble Stuttgart 2008 12 August to 1 September, Stuttgart, Germany Contact: Bachakademie Stuttgart; Johann-Sebastian-Bach-Platz; 70178 Stuttgart; Germany; T: +49 711 61921 28; F: +49 7116192123; email@example.com; www.festivalensemble.com Lucerne Festival 13 August to 21 September, Lucerne, Switzerland Contact: Lucerne Festival; Hirschmattstrasse 13; 6002 Luzern; Switzerland; T: +41 41 226 44 00; F: +41 41 226 44 60; firstname.lastname@example.org; www.lucernefestival.ch Beethovenfest Bonn 29 August to 28 September, Bonn, Germany Contact: Internationale Beethovenfeste Bonn gGmbH; Kurt-Schumacher-Straße 3; 53113 Bonn; Germany; T: +49 228 20103 0; F: +49 228 20103 33; email@example.com; www.beethovenfest.de
WINTER 2007–2008 // SOUNDS IN EUROPE
COMING NEXT ... Music on Troubled Soils, Jerusalem, Israel 23 to 26 October 2008 organised by IMC Israel On 23 to 26 October 2008, IMC Israel together with the European Music Council will hold a conference in Jerusalem, entitled “Music on Troubled Soils”. The conference’s main goal is to examine the possible roles of musical activity, acting as a bridge between people and peoples in troubled social and political circumstances. Various Arab and Israeli music styles coexisting in this region and their influence on the dialogue between these peoples will be in the focus. In the vital centre of Jerusalem, cultural dialogue between different communities such as Palestine and Israeli will be promoted through music. The conference will take place in the Jerusalem Music Centre (see: www.jmc.co.il), a well-known music institute, located in the heart of Jerusalem, facing its ancient walls and monuments. The Centre is considered one of Israel’s leading homes for musical creativity, and since its open-
ing in 1973 has hosted the world’s greatest artists for concerts and master classes. The programme of the conference includes activities consisting of lectures and discussions, project presentations, workshops, concerts and short excursions following the great diversity of musical traditions and practices coexisting for many years in Jerusalem. It is our great hope to make this conference a unique encounter for all of us who wish to contribute to the well being of people around the world, using music as tools and means to ease pain, bridge gaps and reinforce self dignity, intercultural understanding and peace. All participants are invited to actively contribute to the conference with project presentations. Contact: European Music Council; Haus der Kultur; Weberstr. 59a; 53113 Bonn; Germany; T: +49 228 96699664; F: +49 228 96699665; Email: firstname.lastname@example.org; www.emc-imc.org
In the frame of ExTra! Exchange Session on Cross-fertilisation music 21 to 24 March 2008, Gannat, France organised by the Association Nationale Cultures et Traditions In the framework of the Traditional music regional competition. French and foreign traditional music groups and young people will convene to discover and become actors of living music traditions. Contact: Association Nationale Cultures et Traditions; BP58; 03800 Gannat; France; T: +33 470901267; F: +33 470906636; Email: email@example.com Contro Canto Concert 17 April 2008 organised by Fondazione Adkins Chiti – Donne in Musica Contact: Fondazione Adkins Chiti – Donne in Musica; Via Riboti 23; 00195 Rome; Italy; Email: firstname.lastname@example.org; Web: www.donneinmusica.org Workshop on Green music 10 to 13 July 2008, Kaustinen, Finland organised by the International Yehudi Menuhin Foundation The idea of this workshop is to make green musicians (the traditional musicians who use plants, minerals, animal parts to make music), meet various forms of today’s music: traditional music of immigrants, multimedia (techno etc.), contemporary, or improvised music. The aim of this workshop is to connect modern practices to their very ancient roots, and to create new languages. Contact: International Yehudi Menuhin Foundation; Chaussée de la Hulpe 61; 1180 Brussels; Belgium; T: +32 2 673 35 04; F: +32 2 672 52 99; Email: email@example.com; Web: www.menuhin-foundation.com
WINTER 2007–2008 // SOUNDS IN EUROPE
Round Table on “Traditional Music accompanies the cycles of life and worship” 17 July 2008 organised by Association Nationale Cultures et Traditions Experts from the field will get together to discuss the role of traditional music along the cycles of life. This event will take place in the frame of the Gannat “Cultures of the World” festival. Contact: Association Nationale Cultures et Traditions; BP58; 03800 Gannat; France; T: +33 470901267; F: +33 470906636; Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Traditional music as a tool for integration October/November 2008, Slovakia organised by the International Yehudi Menuhin Foundation The programme of the workshop will gather capoeira artists coming from different European cities (Brussels, Berlin), immigrant artists in Europe originating from North Africa (mixed orchestras, fanfare) and Roma musicians based in Slovakia. Contact: International Yehudi Menuhin Foundation; Chaussée de la Hulpe 61; 1180 Brussels; Belgium; T: +32 2 673 35 04; F: +32 2 672 52 99; Email: email@example.com; Web: www.menuhin-foundation.com Artists-in-Residence programme November 2008 organised by the Association Nationale Cultures et Traditions The aim of the Artists-in-Residence programme is to involve local and foreign artists as well as local children in the project of exploring gypsy culture(s) and music(s). During the ten days of the residency, musicians and choreographer will work on a common artistic creation with children. Contact: Association Nationale Cultures et Traditions; BP58; 03800 Gannat; France; T: +33 470901267; F: +33 470906636; Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
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