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Major questions about journalists in Portugal: Precarity, low wages, gender gap and early retirement Miguel Crespo assistant researcher @ ISCTE-IUL

miguelicrespo@gmail.com

@European Federation of Journalists meeting, Lisbon, 06/06/2018


A major survey on journalists and journalism

Main goals: ď‚š analyze the working conditions of Portuguese journalists ď‚š know the diversity of journalists profiles ď‚š identify the main constraints and challenges

Survey consisting of 78 questions Answered by almost 1500 journalists (validated) Between May 1 and June 13, 2016


A major survey on journalists and journalism

What we are going to characterize:  Who are the surveyed journalists

 What is their professional daily life  Under what conditions they work  What affects their performance

Journalists with a professional license or equivalent in Portugal: 6161 (official data from CCPJ, March 16th, 2018)

Distribution by sex (survey): • 51.8% men • 48.2% women


A major survey on journalists and journalism

We also questioned the Portuguese journalists on the future, using the same questions has the study Journalists' Perceptions of the Future of Journalistic Work, coordinated by Robert G. Picard for the Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism. Doing that, we can compare Portugal and other western countries.

In the RISJ study, 509 Western journalists were surveyed on four main subjects: • how will it be • what competencies will be required • what rewards • and what implications


Professional and contractual status

Of the journalists surveyed in 2016:  87.5% were working

 7.9% were unemployed  2.2% were retired

33.4% didn’t have a formal contract This group includes: • employees (16.4%) • Freelancers (17%)

 2% were in an internship

The employment contracts of the journalists were mainly from 35 to 40 hours per week (64.7%).

2/3 of the journalists had an employment contract: • 56.3% had a permanent contract • 10.5% had a fixed term contract


Professional and contractual status

Almost 65% of employment contracts is up to 40 hours a week, but:  60.7% work more than 40 hours  of which 13.8% have a work week of 51 to 60 hours  and 9% work more than 60 hours Of the full-time journalists, only 29.6% work the number of hours defined in the employment contract.

• only 3.9% are paid for overtime • 10.2% are compensated in rest time • 63.4% do not have any compensation 25.8% of journalists work for more than one media within the same group • from these, more than two-thirds (66.8%) do not receive extra remuneration for this work


Professional and contractual status: the journalists perceptions

Working as a journalist will be increasingly precarious and uncertain Almost 90% believe that there will be a progressive labor degradation in journalism

100% 90% 80% 70% 60%

50% 40%

49,0% 40,4%

30% 20% 8,0%

10%

1,9%

0,7%

Discordo

Discordo totalmente

0% Concordo totalmente

internationally 71% agree

Concordo

Nem concordo nem discordo

Fonte: “Inquérito aos Jornalistas CIES-IUL/SJ 2016”. Edição: OberCom. n=1238.


Professional and contractual status: the journalists perceptions

Journalists are not satisfied with the evolution of working conditions in the last 5 years  77.9% are dissatisfied, and 48.8% are extremely dissatisfied  Only 11% say they are satisfied, and only 1.9% are extremely satisfied Career progression and salaries are two areas with great dissatisfaction  65.2% were dissatisfied with career progression and only 19.7% expressed satisfaction About the wages: 63.6% are not satisfied, and 33.2% of those are extremely dissatisfied  There are 25.3% of journalists satisfied with their salary


Professional and contractual status: the journalists perceptions

Labor stability shows large divisions in the satisfaction of journalists: ď‚š 20.8% are extremely dissatisfied, but there are 25.2% relatively satisfied. ď‚š Overall, dissatisfaction is smaller (38.9%), compared to satisfaction (48.2%)

The level of satisfaction with irregular working schedules and excessive working hours does not present very definite trends, with convergence for more neutral responses. ď‚š However, 17.7% are extremely dissatisfied working schedules, which can not be ignored.


Unemployment and second jobs

A large percentage of journalists surveyed have already experienced unemployment (39.2%), but the return to journalism was not as complicated as might be expected.  Of the more than 500 respondents who were already unemployed, almost two-thirds (63.4%) found employment in less than a year, of which 32% in less than six months. 16.5% have other payed activities in parallel with journalism. Of these:

 one third (33.7%) develop teaching or training activities  25.9% is linked to trade or services  13.5% in linked to writing, reviewing or translating


Union and professional organizations: the journalists perceptions Should the journalists be linked to a professional association representing the interests of journalism and journalists?

For almost 2/3 this is important or very important

100%

90% 80% 70% 60%

50%

43,3%

40% 30% 20%

24,3%

20,1%

10,8%

10%

internacionally 49% disagree

1,6%

0% Concordo totalmente

Concordo

Nem concordo nem discordo

Discordo

Fonte: “Inquérito aos Jornalistas CIES-IUL/SJ 2016”. Edição: OberCom. n=1216.

Discordo totalmente


The majority earns less than 1000 euros per month More than two-thirds (69%) of journalists received in 2016 between € 501 and € 1,500 net per month.

The distribution is quite large:  23.3% receive between 1001 and 1500 euros  21.8% earn less than 700 euros

 23.9% is in the range 701-1000 euros If we set the 1000 euros as the dividing point, we find that 57.3% earn less, despite the average net monthly income being 1113 euros.


The majority earns less than 1000 euros per month 40%

Only 19.4% of journalists receive more than 1500 euros monthly.

35% 30% 25%

At the opposite extreme we have 11.6% of journalists who receive less than 500 a month. • Of these, 7% do not even earn 300 euros.

21,8%

23,9%

23,3%

20% 15% 10,8%

10% 5%

7,0% 4,6%

3,6%

0%

Gráfico 4: Remuneração média mensal em 2016 (por escalões, em euros) Fonte: Inquérito aos Jornalistas CIES-IUL/SJ 2016 (n=1344). Fonte: Inquérito aos Jornalistas CIES-IUL/SJ 2016 (n=1344).

5,0%


The majority earns less than 1000 euros per month

Remuneration and benefits will decrease for most journalists more than 80% agree that wages and other benefits will decrease

100% 90% 80% 70%

60%

53,2%

50% 40% 30%

30,3%

20%

12,4%

10%

3,2%

0%

internacionally 60% agree

Concordo totalmente

Concordo

Nem concordo nem discordo

Discordo

Fonte: “Inquérito aos Jornalistas CIES-IUL/SJ 2016”. Edição: OberCom. n=1238.

0,8% Discordo totalmente


The majority earns less than 1000 euros per month

The conclusions of JosĂŠ LuĂ­s Garcia and Paquete de Oliveira in 1994 apply in full in 2017: In conclusion, except for a well-paid elite, journalism is an activity whose financial compensation falls short of the expectations of most of its professionals. (...) At the other extreme lies a group of journalists consisting basically of trainees, false freelancers and external colaborators, usually at the beginning of their careers, who have the lowest salaries and often unstable situations in the companies in which they work. (Garcia & Oliveira, 1994).


Men vs. Women: gender inequality

Men

Women

4 or 5 years graduation

34%

4 or 5 years graduation

54%

Communication sciences graduation

32%

Communication sciences graduation

49%

Employed Unemployed

85% 9%

Employed Unemployed

90% 6%

Contract without term

54% Contract without term

59%

Weekly working hours (41h to 50h)

33%

Weekly working hours (41h to 50h)

43%

Extremely dissatisfied with salary

30%

Extremely dissatisfied with salary

37%

I would choose the profession again

64%

I would choose the profession again

57%


Men vs. Women: gender inequality (monthly wages)

Men

Women

Less than â‚Ź 300

9,6

Less than â‚Ź 300

4,3

301 to 500

4,9

301 to 500

4,3

501 to 700

19,7

501 to 700

24,1

701 to 1000

21,0

701 to 1000

26,9

1001 to 1500

22,0

1001 to 1500

24,7

1501 to 2000

11,3

1501 to 2000

10,4

2001 to 2500

5,1

2001 to 2500

2,0

> 2500

6,5

> 2500

3,2


Autonomy and constraints

Journalists consider the free exercise of the profession very restricted, in particular by:  the agenda (47.2%)  the working conditions (43.6%)  salary (43.5%)  dealing with personal and family life (40.2%)

 fear of losing the job (36.6%) Also, the journalists considered themselves little or nothing autonomous from the decisions of editorial managers (31.5%) or the board of directors (41%)


64,2% have thought about quitting journalism

The most expressed motivations are:

 low income (21%)  degradation of the profession (20.4%)  contractual precariousness (14.3%)

These nearly two-thirds who have already thought about quitting the profession are a strong indication that the perception of journalists about the profession is more negative than positive.


39.2% have already been unemployed

Respondents are very divided about the possibility to lose their jobs:  35.1% consider that being unemployed is unlikely  40.9% consider it probable

 15.7% say that unemployment is extremely likely in the short term

The probability of finding work on journalism again is very pessimistic:  only 9.5% consider it likely to find a job in journalism again in less than 12 months  39.5% consider it extremely unlikely that this will happen  out of a total of 80% who believe to be unlikely to return to the profession


39.2% have already been unemployed

Journalism will be a part-time for people supported by other activities

Almost half agree

100%

90% 80% 70%

60% 50% 40%

34,9%

32,4%

30% 20%

15,6%

13,6%

10%

3,5%

0% Concordo totalmente

Concordo

Nem concordo nem discordo

Discordo

Fonte: “Inquérito aos Jornalistas CIES-IUL/SJ 2016”. Edição: OberCom. n=1239.

Discordo totalmente


So we can conclude…

 87.5% were working

 33.4% didn’t have a formal contract  60.7% work more than 40 hours  only 3.9% are paid for overtime  90% thinks working as a journalist will be increasingly precarious and uncertain


So we can conclude…

 63.6% are not satisfied with the wages  16.5% have other payed activities

 69% of journalists receive between € 501 and € 1,500 net per month  57.3% earn less than € 1,000  11.6% of journalists receive less than € 500  80% think that wages and other benefits will decrease

 So journalism is an activity whose financial compensation falls short of the expectations of most of its professionals


So we can conclude…

 Women are more educated  Women work more hours  Women are less than half in higher positions  Women are less than half in wages over €2,000

 Women are less satisfied


So we can conclude…

 Many consider themselves little or nothing autonomous  Many consider the free exercise of the profession very restricted

 64,2% have thought about quitting journalism  39.2% have already been unemployed  If unemployed, 80% believe to be unlikely to return to the profession

For almost 2/3, professional association is important!


Major questions about journalists in Portugal Thank you

Miguel Crespo assistant researcher @ ISCTE-IUL

miguelicrespo@gmail.com

Profile for EFJ

Major questions about journalists in Portugal: Precarity, low wages, gender gap and early retirement  

A survey in Portugal, performed by University Institute of Lisbon (ISCTE-IUL), aimed at analyzing the working conditions of Portuguese journ...

Major questions about journalists in Portugal: Precarity, low wages, gender gap and early retirement  

A survey in Portugal, performed by University Institute of Lisbon (ISCTE-IUL), aimed at analyzing the working conditions of Portuguese journ...

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