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Fact sheet Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene fiber from DSM Dyneema UHMWPE fiber combines excellent mechanical properties with low density, resulting in high performance-on-weight basis. The UHMWPE fiber from DSM Dyneema is a gel-spun, multi-filament fiber produced from ultra high molecular weight polyethylene, with main characteristics: high strength, low weight, low elongation at break, and resistance to most chemicals. To stimulate developments, this sheet provides an overview of properties measured on UHMWPE fibers from DSM Dyneema. The disclosed data is not valid for any other source of UHMWPE fibers. Fiber range. UHMWPE fibers from DSM Dyneema are produced in three strength ranges and several linear densities with a characteristic very low filament diameter. The tensile properties are correlated with the fiber linear density. Detailed information per fiber type is available on request, as Product Data Sheets, Product Specification Sheets, Material Safety Data Sheets and Fact Sheets. UHMWPE

Tensile strength

Fiber type

Tensile modulus

N/tex

g/den

GPa

N/tex

g/den

GPa

SK78 SK75

3.4 – 4.0

38 – 45

3.3 – 3.9

112 – 137

1267 – 1552

109 – 132

SK65 SK62 SK60

2.5 – 3.4

28 – 38

2.4 – 3.3

67 – 102

759 – 1158

65 – 100

SK25

2.2

25

2.2

54

608

52

Fine (threads, cords, lines)

Medium (weaving, knitting)

Elongation to break %

3-4

Coarse (rope making, netting)

SK78 SK75 SK65 SK62 SK60 SK25 55 50

110 100

165 150

220 200

440 400

660 600

750 675

Fiber linear density

880 800

1320 1200

1760 1600

2640 2400

dtex den

Issued: 15-11-2010 Page: 1/4 Ref.: CIS YA100


Mechanical properties. UHMWPE fibers have a high strength and a high modulus (resistance against deformation) in the fiber direction. In combination with the low density this results in an extremely high strength on weight basis, making it one of the strongest man-made fibers. The elongation at break is relatively low, but owing to the high strength, the energy to break is high. In contrast to other synthetic fibers, the mechanical properties are not influenced by the presence of water. Due to the anisotropic nature of high modulus polyethylene fibers, the modulus and strength in transverse direction are lower than in fiber direction. Subjecting UHMWPE fiber to long-term static loads leads to a permanent elongation called creep. The UHMWPE fiber types from DSM Dyneema have a higher creep resistance than other UHMWPE fibers enabling their use in various static loading conditions. MECHANICAL Free breaking length

378

km

Axial tensile strength

3.6*

GPa

Axial tensile modulus

116*

GPa

Axial compressive strength

0.1

GPa

Axial compressive modulus

116

GPa

Transverse tensile strength

0.03

GPa

3

GPa

0.1

GPa

Transverse modulus Transverse compressive strength Elongation at break

3–4%

Work to break

45 – 70 MJ/m3

Creep at 30°C, 300 MPa (Dyneema® SK75)

0.02*

%/day

Creep at 30°C, 300 MPa (Dyneema® SK78) 0.006* %/day Thermal properties. Like other synthetic fibers, the mechanical properties of UHMWPE fibers are influenced by temperature. The strength and modulus increase at sub-ambient temperatures and decrease at higher temperatures. For long duration exposure UHMWPE fiber from DSM Dyneema can be used from cryogenic conditions up to a temperature of 70°C. Chemical resistance. Relative to 23°C

-60°C

+23°C

+60°C

+100°C

Tensile strength

110%

100%

80%

55%

Tensile modulus

110%

100%

85%

60%

Elongation at break

90%

100%

100%

105%

Issued: 15-11-2010 Page: 2/4 Ref.: CIS YA100

THERMAL Melting range

144 – 152

°C

Decomposition temperature

> 300

°C

Advised lowest temperature

No limit

Advised long duration temperature limit

70

°C

Advised short duration temperature limit (non-constrained fiber)

130

°C

Advised short duration temperature limit (constrained fiber)

145

°C

-12 x 10-6

1/K

1850

J/kg.K

Thermal conductivity (axial)

20

W/m.K

Thermal conductivity (transverse)

0.2

W/m.K

Coefficient of linear thermal expansion Specific heat capacity

Chemical resistance. UHMWPE fiber is very resistant against chemicals. Because it is produced from ultra high molecular weight polyethylene, it does not contain any aromatic rings or any amide, hydroxylic or other chemical groups that are susceptible to attack by aggressive agents. CHEMICAL RESISTANCE Resistance to acids

Excellent*

Resistance to alkali

Excellent*

Resistance to most chemicals

Excellent*

Resistance to water

Excellent*

Aviation Jet A fuel (ISO 1817 test liquid F)

RTCA DO160

Excellent

Hydraulic fluid (ISO 1817 test liquid 103)

RTCA DO160

Excellent

Lubricating oil (ISO 1817 test liquid 101)

RTCA DO160

Excellent

Solvents and cleaning fluid (Isopropyl alcohol)

RTCA DO160

Excellent

De-icing fluid (Ethylene glycol)

RTCA DO160

Excellent

Insecticide (Pyrethroid pesticide)

RTCA DO160

Excellent

Fire extinguishant (Protein, Fluroprotein)

RTCA DO160

Excellent


Physical properties. UHMWPE fibers feel smooth due to their low friction coefficient. Its low density enables it to float on water. The water absorption in the fiber is negligible. PHYSICAL Natural color

Opaque white

Density

970 – 980

Crystallinity

kg/m3

< 85 %

Filament linear density

1–3

dpf

Filament diameter

12 – 21

μm

Filament cross section (other types)

Round

Filament cross section (SK60, SK65)

Bone shape

Equilibrium moisture regain

None

Water pick-up (soaked)

None

Boiling water shrinkage

< 1%

Hysteresis loss factor (23°C, 5 Hz)

0.02

Friction coefficient (yarn-on-yarn)

0.05 – 0.07

Electrical properties. Polyethylene is an insulator and has no groups with dipole character. After scouring, the UHMWPE fiber is characterized by a high electrical resistance, low dielectric constant and a very low dielectric loss factor.

Optical properties. UHMWPE fibers are visually opaque. The fiber is invisible to an UV-light source due to the low UV absorption coefficient in combination with no fluorescence or phosphorescence. It is also invisible for thermal imaging devices because of its low IR absorption coefficient and high thermal conductivity. The low reflectivity of radar waves results in a reduced visibility for radar sources. The refractive index axial to the fiber axis differs from the transverse direction making the fiber perform birefringence. OPTICAL Ultraviolet visibility (UV)

Transparent

Eye visibility (VIS)

Translucent

Near Infrared visibility (NIR)

Highly transparent

Infrared visibility (IR)

Highly transparent

Radar visibility

Highly transparent

Refractive Index (axial)

1.59

Refractive Index (transverse)

1.53

Birefringence

0.06

Flammability. Fabrics and panels produced from UHMWPE fiber from DSM Dyneema have passed various standards on flammability. Like any other synthetic fiber, it will burn slowly if ignited in atmospheric conditions and is qualified as being self-extinguishing upon removal of the flame. FLAMMABILITY

ELECTRICAL Resistance

>10

14

Dielectric strength

900

Dielectric constant (22 °C, 10 GHz)

2.25

Dielectric loss factor

Ohm kV/cm

Limited oxygen index

FMVSS 302

Passed

Fabric, vertical

FAR 25.853b

Passed

DIN 4102

Passed

Ballistic panel, vertical

0.0002

< 20%

Fabric, horizontal

Acoustic properties. UHMWPE fiber has a high sonic velocity. In the fiber direction, the sonic velocity is higher than in the transverse direction. The acoustic impedance, the product of density and transverse sonic velocity, is near that of water. ACOUSTIC Sonic velocity (axial) Sonic velocity (transverse)

10000 - 12000

m/s

2000

m/s Issued: 15-11-2010 Page: 3/4 Ref.: CIS YA100


Fatigue resistance. Applications with UHMWPE fiber from DSM Dyneema have a higher resistance to repeated axial loading than other fiber types. The fibers combine high strength with high fatigue resistance, even if the loading is partly in compression as in repeated bending of rope applications. Despite its high modulus, the fibers are flexible and have a long flexural fatigue life. Because of the low friction coefficient and good abrasion resistance, internal abrasion of ropes is usually negligible. FATIGUE RESISTANCE Abrasion resistance (yarn-on-yarn)

ASTM D6611

Excellent*

Abrasion resistance (covered rope)

Excellent*

Cutting resistance (covered rope)

Excellent

Flexural fatigue (fiber)

Excellent

Bending fatigue (rope)

Excellent

Tension fatigue (rope)

Excellent*

Environmental properties. UHMWPE fiber is used in various outdoor applications under harsh weather conditions. In air the fiber is stable for many years. No special precautions are necessary during processing or storage. Only strong oxidizing media are able to attack the mechanical properties. Compared to other high tenacity fibers, long term exposure to UV shows the lowest decrease in strength and elongation at break.

ENVIRONMENTAL PROPERTIES Visible light exposure

Excellent*

UV-exposure

ISO 4892 Very good*

Weathering

ISO 12224

Oxidation (28 days, 80°C, 50 bar) ISO 13438

Excellent Passed

Fungal resistance. UHMWPE fiber from DSM Dyneema has excellent biological resistance. The fiber neither stimulates undesired growth nor is sensitive to any attack by micro-organisms. FUNGAL RESISTANCE Aspergillus niger

RTCA DO160

Excellent

Aspergillus flavus

RTCA DO160

Excellent

Aspergillus versicolor

RTCA DO160

Excellent

Penicillium funiculosum

RTCA DO160

Excellent

Chaetomium globosum

RTCA DO160

Excellent

Toxicity. Polyethylene is regarded as biologically inert. The UHMWPE fibers from DSM Dyneema are IARC classified 3 (not classifiable carcinogenic to human) based upon its length weighted geometric mean diameter. This diameter is too large to produce respirable fibers, meaning they will never reach the deeper part of the respiratory tract and fibrogenic or carcinogenic effects on the lung will not occur.

* Detailed information per fiber type, as Product Data Sheet, Product Specification Sheet, Material Safety Data Sheet and Fact Sheet, is available on request.

www.dyneema.com

“Dyneema® and Dyneema®, the world’s strongest fiber™ are trademarks of Royal DSM. Use of these trademarks is prohibited unless strictly authorized”. All information supplied by or on behalf of DSM Dyneema LLC and/or DSM Dyneema BV (“DSM”) in relation to its products, whether in the nature of data, recommendations or otherwise, is supported by research and/or experience and believed reliable, but DSM gives no warranties of any kind, expressed or implied, including, but not limited to, those of correctness, completeness, merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose and DSM assumes no liability whatsoever in respect of application, processing, use of, or reliance on, the aforementioned information or products, or any consequence thereof, including but not limited to any infringement of the rights owned or controlled by a third party regarding intellectual, industrial or other property. Any information provided by DSM does not release the user from the obligation to verify such information and to perform its own testing and analysis to determine the suitability of the products for the intended process, use or specific application. The user accepts all liability in respect of or resulting from the application, processing, use of, or reliance on, the aforementioned information or products or any consequences thereof.

Issued: 15-11-2010 Page: 4/4 Ref.: CIS YA100


Fact sheet Processing UHMWPE Fiber from DSM Dyneema Ultra High Molecular Weight PolyEthylene (UHMWPE) is a multi filament fiber that has outstanding properties, like high strength, high modulus and low elongation at break. To benefit from these properties in applications the processing must be performed in a correct way. This information sheet contains general guidelines for processing the fiber. For guidelines that are more specific, you can always contact your local technical representative. Please find below recommendations to take into account when processing Dyneema® fiber. General: • Carefully unpack the bobbins from the box without damaging them and carefully load them onto the creel. • Before starting to process the fiber make sure all contact points are not damaged and are clean, free of deposit, rust, dust and dirt. • Use a clean and stable creel • Use clean twisting machines • The opening in the yarn guides needs to be large enough to enable free movement of the yarn. • Running different kind of yarns (like Glass fiber, Aramids, Carbon fiber, etc) can abrade contact surfaces that will influence the processing of UHMWPE from DSM Dyneema • Yarn guides should be clean and have a proper surface. – A polished surface is undesirable due to the high surface area contacting the filaments resulting in fluffing. – A too rough surface will damage the filaments, resulting in fluffing. – Surface should be rough but with a smoothened surface area resulting in a low friction surface. Specific: In particularly yarn guides can be of great influence on the processing of our fiber. Research has been done to determine the best kind of ceramic yarn guides for Dyneema® fiber. As can be seen in below pictures, an unsuitable guide can be the cause of many fluffing & fibrillation issues.

Polished ceramic guide

Low friction surface ceramic guide

Issued: 01-06-2010 | Page: 1/2 | Ref.: CIS YA302


Fluffing & fibrillation can be caused by abrasion of the fiber filaments under tension when passing over a non-suitable surface. Choosing the right yarn guide depends on the kind of ceramic material of which the body is made and the final surface finish applied to this body.

foto’s kloppen niet! Additional recommendations:

Yarn path: • Avoid sharp angles in the yarn path and high tensions during processing • Use a direct path to prevent filament disorder, otherwise strength can decrease • Rolling bobbin unwinding is preferred over unwinding over the top of the bobbin • Minimize the number of contact points

Tension: • Use same and equal tensions for all yarns to prevent length differences, otherwise strength can decrease • Check the tension of all carriers separately • Use low & constant yarn tension during winding or twisting. As a guideline when using ceramic guides a tension of <1.0 cN/dtex is advised. • Monitor the tension regularly.

For some applications like knitting and weaving, it is advisable to use UHMWPE fiber from DSM Dyneema with a protective twist. Why twisting: • Protection for the fiber when running over yarn guides • Prevention of intermingling of filaments • Provides higher yarn bundle cohesion during processing

We trust this document has provided you with useful guidelines. In case you experience any issues or challenges with processing our fiber, contact your local technical representative who will be able to provide you with further assistance and advice on choosing the right process conditions.

www.dyneemamatters.com

Dyneema® and Dyneema®, the world’s strongest fiber™ are trademarks of Royal DSM. Use of these trademarks is prohibited, unless strictly expressly authorized.

All information supplied by or on behalf of DSM Dyneema LLC and/or DSM Dyneema BV (“DSM”) in relation to its products, whether in the nature of data, recommendations or otherwise, is supported by research and/or experience and believed reliable, but DSM gives no warranties of any kind, expressed or implied, including, but not limited to, those of correctness, completeness, merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose and DSM assumes no liability whatsoever in respect of application, processing, use of, or reliance on, the aforementioned information or products, or any consequence thereof, including but not limited to any infringement of the rights owned or controlled by a third party regarding intellectual, industrial or other property. Any information provided by DSM does not release the user from the obligation to verify such information and to perform its own testing and analysis to determine the suitability of the products for the intended process, use or specific application. The user accepts all liability in respect of or resulting from the application, processing, use of, or reliance on, the aforementioned information or products or any consequences thereof.

Issued: 01-06-2010 | Page: 2/2 | Ref.: CIS YA302


Fact sheet Chemical resistance of UHMWPE fiber from DSM Dyneema UHMWPE fibers are very resistant against chemicals. UHMWPE fibers from DSM Dyneema are produced from ultrahigh-molecular weight polyethylene. It is highly crystalline and does not contain any chemical groups as aromatic rings, amide, hydroxyl or other that are susceptible to attack by aggressive agents. The result is that UHMWPE fibers are very resistant against chemicals. Tensile strength loss levels

Loss in tensile strength

++

+

+/-

-

--

None

Slight

Moderate

Appreciable

Degraded

0-10%

11-20%

21%-40%

41-80%

81-100%

Tensile Strength & chemical exposure Conditions Concentration (%)

Temperature (°C)

Exposure time (hr)

Effect on Tensile Strenght

Hydrochloric acid

10

20

5000

++

Nitric acid

10

20

5000

++

0.24

60

168

++

100

20

5000

++

Chemical

Inorganic acids

Sulfuric acid Organic acids Glacial acetic acid Alkalis

28

20

5000

++

Calcium hydroxide

0.25

60

168

++

Sodium hydroxide

10

20

5000

++

23

720

+

Ammonium hydroxide

Strong oxidizing agent Kalium permanganate

0.6

In Sulfuric acid

25

Organic compounds Acetone

100

20

5000

++

Ethanol

100

20

5000

++

Oil

100

20

4320

++

100

40

4320

++

100

80

4320

++

100

20

4320

++

100

40

4320

++

100

80

4320

++

Toluene

100

20

5000

++

Trichloromethane

100

20

5000

++

100

20

5000

++

100

20

5000

++

30

20

5000

++

Petrol

Miscellaneous Distilled water

www.dyneema.com Sea water Detergent in aqueous solution

www.dyneema.com “Dyneema® and Dyneema®, the world’s strongest fiber™ are trademarks of Royal DSM. Use of these trademarks is prohibited unless strictly authorized”. All information supplied by or on behalf of DSM Dyneema LLC and/or DSM Dyneema BV (“DSM”) in relation to its products, whether in the nature of data, recommendations or otherwise, is supported by research and/or experience and believed reliable, but DSM gives no warranties of any kind, expressed or implied, including, but not limited to, those of correctness, completeness, merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose and DSM assumes no liability whatsoever in respect of application, processing, use of, or reliance on, the aforementioned information or products, or any consequence thereof, including but not limited to any infringement of the rights owned or controlled by a third party regarding intellectual, industrial or other property. Any information provided by DSM does not release the user from the obligation to verify such information and to perform its own testing and analysis to determine the suitability of the products for the intended process, use or specific application. The user accepts all liability in respect of or resulting from the application, processing, use of, or reliance on, the aforementioned information or products or any consequences thereof.

Issued: 15-11-2010 Page: 1/1 Ref.: CIS YA101


Fact sheet Creep resistance of UHMWPE fiber from DSM Dyneema UHMWPE fibers from DSM Dyneema proved to have the lowest creep rate, compared to all commercially available UHMWPE fiber types. In general, Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibers are sensitive to long-term static loads; ropes made with UHMWPE fiber will elongate proportionally with time. This phenomenon is generally known as creep, and is a process in which the long molecular chains slide along each other. Most UHMWPE rope applications are not subjected to constant loads. For those the creep property is not relevant. The creep of UHMWPE fibers is influenced by the ambient temperature and the applied load: very high loads or a high temperature will accelerate the irreversible creep. Over the majority of time, the creep rate is constant and ultimately the fiber will fail. The time at which an UHMWPE rope should be discarded is dependent upon load, temperature and rope weight. Based on extensive testing, DSM Dyneema has developed a tool

to predict creep rate and creep elongations, as well as to estimate creep lifetime of all its commercial UHMWPE fiber types. Amongst the UHMWPE fiber types there is a difference in the creep performance - each UHMWPE fiber type has its own creep characteristics. Compared to all commercially available UHMWPE fiber types, UHMWPE fibers from DSM Dyneema proof to have the lowest creep rate, with SK78 as the best performer on creep rate and lifetime. UHMWPE fibers from DSM Dyneema offer a low creep rate at a low rope weight. Other UHMWPE fiber types can only obtain the combination of high rope strength and good creep performance with a higher rope weight.

Comparing UHMWPE from DSM Dyneema and other UHMWPE fibers types in a 100 metric tonnes break strength rope Fiber type

Rope weight (100 tonnes BS)

Creep load

Temperature

SK78

Creep rate

Creep lifetime

0.5 % / yr

15 years

2.3 % / yr

7 years

5.5 % / yr

unknown

650 g/m 200 kN

SK75 Other UHMWPE fibers

1360 g/m

16°C

www.dyneema.com “Dyneema® and Dyneema®, the world’s strongest fiber™ are trademarks of Royal DSM. Use of these trademarks is prohibited unless strictly authorized”. All information supplied by or on behalf of DSM Dyneema LLC and/or DSM Dyneema BV (“DSM”) in relation to its products, whether in the nature of data, recommendations or otherwise, is supported by research and/or experience and believed reliable, but DSM gives no warranties of any kind, expressed or implied, including, but not limited to, those of correctness, completeness, merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose and DSM assumes no liability whatsoever in respect of application, processing, use of, or reliance on, the aforementioned information or products, or any consequence thereof, including but not limited to any infringement of the rights owned or controlled by a third party in intellectual, industrial or other property. Any information provided by DSM does not release the user from the obligation to verify such information and to perform its own testing and analysis to determine the suitability of the products for the intended process, use or specific application. The user accepts all liability in respect of or resulting from the application, processing, use of, or reliance on, the aforementioned information or products or any consequences thereof.

Issued: 15-11-2010 Page: 1/1 Ref.: CIS YA104


Fact sheet Internal abrasion resistance of UHMWPE fiber from DSM Dyneema UHMWPE fibers have a very low coefficient of friction, resulting in good fiber-to-fiber abrasion resistance. Because UHMWPE fiber is intrinsically very abrasion-resistant, it enables ropes to be used over a longer period of time with a minimum loss of strength compared to other materials.

on each other can cause fibrillation of the fiber or develop cracks across fibers, resulting in a loss of strength. In addition to other factors, the coefficient of friction of the fiber is important.

In ropes, there are two types of abrasion: external and internal abrasion. Long-term, constant use can cause internal damage to a rope due to fiber-to-fiber abrasion, resulting in a loss of strength. Internal abrasion can be highly influenced by the presence of water (cooling).

Compared to other synthetic fibers, UHMWPE fibers have a very low coefficient of friction. This results in good fiber-to-fiber abrasion resistance without the use of lubricants or marine finishes, as is used on polyester fibers. A yarn-on-yarn abrasion test according to CI1503, which is comparable to ASTM D6611, showed that inter-wrapped UHMWPE fiber from DSM Dyneema outperforms other high modulus fibers.

Regarding internal abrasion resistance, the rubbing of rope strands 1,E+05 Yarn-on-Yarn Abrasion (CI-1503) Wet Condition

2200dtex PET 1760dtex SK75 1670dtex LCP 1670dtex Aramid

Endurance (cycles to break)

1,E+04

1,E+03

1,E+02

1,E+01 0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Load (% break strength)

www.dyneema.com “Dyneema® and Dyneema®, the world’s strongest fiber™ are trademarks of Royal DSM. Use of these trademarks is prohibited unless strictly authorized”. All information supplied by or on behalf of DSM Dyneema LLC and/or DSM Dyneema BV (“DSM”) in relation to its products, whether in the nature of data, recommendations or otherwise, is supported by research and/or experience and believed reliable, but DSM gives no warranties of any kind, expressed or implied, including, but not limited to, those of correctness, completeness, merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose and DSM assumes no liability whatsoever in respect of application, processing, use of, or reliance on, the aforementioned information or products, or any consequence thereof, including but not limited to any infringement of the rights owned or controlled by a third party in intellectual, industrial or other property. Any information provided by DSM does not release the user from the obligation to verify such information and to perform its own testing and analysis to determine the suitability of the products for the intended process, use or specific application. The user accepts all liability in respect of or resulting from the application, processing, use of, or reliance on, the aforementioned information or products or any consequences thereof.

Issued: 15-11-2010 Page: 1/1 Ref.: CIS YA105


Fact sheet Strength of ropes made with UHMWPE fiber from DSM Dyneema Ropes produced with UHMWPE fibers show the highest strength-to-weight ratio. Synthetic ropes combine strength with low weight. Ropes produced with SK75 fibers show the highest strength-to-weight ratio. Ropes made from general-purpose synthetic polymers (PA, PET) almost double in size to obtain a comparable strength as ropes made with SK75. Ropes made with other high-modulus, high-tenacity fibers (aramid, LCP) have 50-80% more weight. Compared to general-purpose steel wire ropes, the strength and diameter of ropes made with UHMWPE fiber are roughly the same, yet their weight is a factor of 8 less. 12 strand braided synthetic rope with… Commodity fiber types

Diameter (mm)

UHMWPE

High tenacity fiber types

Steel wire rope

SK62

SK75

PET

PA

Aramid

LCP

12

127

142

37

33

148

142

84

113

24

417

493

124

134

485

465

350

452

180 kp/mm2 200 kp/mm2

96

4745

5819

1877

1767

5800

6206

5892

7167

12

8

8

11

9

12

13

53

65

24

30

31

47

37

45

47

227

257

96

477

461

694

583

704

793

3896

3988

Break Strength (kN) Linear density (kg/100m)

Strenght and weight for various diameter ropes 12 strand braided synthetic rope with… Commodity fiber types

Break strenght (kN)

UHMWPE

High tenacity fiber types

Steel wire rope

SK62

SK75

PET

PA

Aramid

LCP

150

13

12

26

26

12

13

16

14

500

26

24

48

49

24

24

28

25

6000

110

98

180

181

98

95

97

88

150

10

9

52

43

12

14

96

86

500

38

32

181

153

46

51

324

283

6000

615

474

2410

2063

733

765

3968

3345

180 kp/mm2 200 kp/mm2 Diameter (mm) Linear density (kg/100m)

Diameter and weight for various rope strengths In the tables, strength values of same constructions have been determined by examining published data of various rope manufacturers. For achieving highest rope tenacity, ropes made with UHMWPE fiber from DSM Dyneema can be tensioned by a heat set process by which the load distribution between rope components is improved. www.dyneema.com “Dyneema® and Dyneema®, the world’s strongest fiber™ are trademarks of Royal DSM. Use of these trademarks is prohibited unless strictly authorized”. All information supplied by or on behalf of DSM Dyneema LLC and/or DSM Dyneema BV (“DSM”) in relation to its products, whether in the nature of data, recommendations or otherwise, is supported by research and/or experience and believed reliable, but DSM gives no warranties of any kind, expressed or implied, including, but not limited to, those of correctness, completeness, merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose and DSM assumes no liability whatsoever in respect of application, processing, use of, or reliance on, the aforementioned information or products, or any consequence thereof, including but not limited to any infringement of the rights owned or controlled by a third party in intellectual, industrial or other property. Any information provided by DSM does not release the user from the obligation to verify such information and to perform its own testing and analysis to determine the suitability of the products for the intended process, use or specific application. The user accepts all liability in respect of or resulting from the application, processing, use of, or reliance on, the aforementioned information or products or any consequences thereof.

Issued: 15-11-2010 Page: 1/1 Ref.: CIS YA106


Fact sheet Protective rope covers made with UHMWPE fiber from DSM Dyneema Rope covers made with UHMWPE fiber demonstrate superior abrasion resistance. UHMWPE fiber is intrinsically very abrasion resistant. In ropes, there are two types of abrasion: external and internal. The high internal abrasion resistance of ropes made with the fiber enable these ropes to be used over long times with a minimum loss of strength compared to other fiber-based ropes. Still, the most common causes of rope failure are external damage through surface abrasion and rope cutting. Tests show that covers made with UHMWPE fiber provide excellent resistance against these sources of deterioration. External abrasion resistance For a rope cover, the ability to resist external abrasion depends on the fiber (type and applied finish or coating), the cover construction (twist levels, braiding angles), the rope (construction and tension), the surface (abrasive nature) and the condition (wet or dry, sliding speed).

Abrasion tests on a rotating spoke wheel showed that for a covered rope, the highest dry and wet abrasion resistance can be achieved with cover materials made with UHMWPE fiber or LCP fiber. Cutting resistance Ropes are vulnerable to being cut by steel wire when lines cross. There is no industry-wide standard test for cutting of ropes. However, a sawing test on a covered rope made with UHMWPE fiber showed the highest cutting resistance being achieved with a cover of UHMWPE fiber from DSM Dyneema.

There is no industry-wide standard test to determine external abrasion on ropes. For synthetic ropes in general, it is known that Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene outperforms other fibers. Still, care should be taken at conditions creating heat (e.g. combination of high pressure and high relative movements). Abrasion and cutting protection performance of rope covers with different fibers UHMWPE

LCP

PBO

Aramid

PET

External abrasion resistance

Dry

++

++

++

+

0

Wet

++

++

+

0

0

Cutting resistance

Dry

++

+

0

0

0

Abrasion and cutting protection performance levels Rope protection performance of covers www.dyneema.com Increase in cycles to failure

0

+

++

Reference

Good

Exelent

1x

5x

>10 x

www.dyneema.com “Dyneema® and Dyneema®, the world’s strongest fiber™ are trademarks of Royal DSM. Use of these trademarks is prohibited unless strictly authorized”. All information supplied by or on behalf of DSM Dyneema LLC and/or DSM Dyneema BV (“DSM”) in relation to its products, whether in the nature of data, recommendations or otherwise, is supported by research and/or experience and believed reliable, but DSM gives no warranties of any kind, expressed or implied, including, but not limited to, those of correctness, completeness, merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose and DSM assumes no liability whatsoever in respect of application, processing, use of, or reliance on, the aforementioned information or products, or any consequence thereof, including but not limited to any infringement of the rights owned or controlled by a third party in intellectual, industrial or other property. Any information provided by DSM does not release the user from the obligation to verify such information and to perform its own testing and analysis to determine the suitability of the products for the intended process, use or specific application. The user accepts all liability in respect of or resulting from the application, processing, use of, or reliance on, the aforementioned information or products or any consequences thereof.

Issued: 15-11-2010 Page: 1/1 Ref.: CIS YA109


Fact sheet Outdoor use of ropes made with UHMWPE fiber from DSM Dyneema Good retention strength of ropes made with UHMWPE fibers. The degradation of polymers is mainly induced by oxidative reactions. Ultraviolet radiation from sunlight accelerates this process. Besides sunlight intensity, other factors such as temperature, humidity and the polymer type also can influence the degradation rate. The retention strength of ropes with UHMWPE fiber, subjected to UV-exposure, is dependent upon rope size, rope construction and use of protective measures such as coatings or non-load bearing jackets. Ultraviolet radiation only penetrates to shallow depths, causing small diameter ropes to be affected much more than large diameter ropes. In addition, open constructions such as eight-strand plait are affected more than 12-strand braided rope constructions. Testing at our research lab in the Netherlands, a 10-year outdoor exposure of small diameter rope samples made with UHMWPE fiber from DSM Dyneema showed a logarithmic decay of the retention strength. Experience however shows that oil tanker mooring lines made with UHMWPE fiber from DSM Dyneema, used over 20000 mooring hours in nine years time, had a 75% strength retention despite the influences of weather, abrasion or tensile loading. 100

Retention strength of 8 mm diameter rope

Strength retention (%)

80

60

40

diameter is 8 mm

20

0 0

12

24

36

48

60

Time (month)

72

84

96

108

120

Although, theoretically, large diameter ropes are less sensitive to ultraviolet radiation, the rope’s construction is what ultimately determines its sensitivity. In most laid and braided rope constructions, each rope strand comes to the outer surface every lay length or braiding period. These are potential areas where the detrimental effects of UV-radiation can occur. For rope applications with UHMWPE fiber, in which the rope could be exposed to sunlight, it is advisable to use protective measures such as coatings or non-load bearing jackets.

www.dyneema.com “Dyneema® and Dyneema®, the world’s strongest fiber™ are trademarks of Royal DSM. Use of these trademarks is prohibited unless strictly authorized”. All information supplied by or on behalf of DSM Dyneema LLC and/or DSM Dyneema BV (“DSM”) in relation to its products, whether in the nature of data, recommendations or otherwise, is supported by research and/or experience and believed reliable, but DSM gives no warranties of any kind, expressed or implied, including, but not limited to, those of correctness, completeness, merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose and DSM assumes no liability whatsoever in respect of application, processing, use of, or reliance on, the aforementioned information or products, or any consequence thereof, including but not limited to any infringement of the rights owned or controlled by a third party in intellectual, industrial or other property. Any information provided by DSM does not release the user from the obligation to verify such information and to perform its own testing and analysis to determine the suitability of the products for the intended process, use or specific application. The user accepts all liability in respect of or resulting from the application, processing, use of, or reliance on, the aforementioned information or products or any consequences thereof.

Issued: 15-11-2010 Page: 1/1 Ref.: CIS YA103


Fact sheet Tensile fatigue of ropes made with UHMWPE fiber from DSM Dyneema - I Longer tensile fatigue life of ropes made with UHMWPE fibers. An overview based on extensive testing [1]-[4] shows a longer tensile fatigue life of braided ropes made from UHMWPE fiber than LCP, polyester, aramid and steel in wire-rope constructions. The synthetic ropes were tested in a wet condition at NEL (National Engineering Laboratory). Tensile fatigue is defined as the repeated loading and unloading of a rope, resulting in inter-fiber abrasion and filament breakage leading to a loss of strength. The deterioration rate is dependent on the applied mean load level and the range of loading.

100

Tensile fatigue life compared BRC with UHMWPE (40% mean)

Load Range (% break strength)

80

LCP WRC (40% mean) PET WRC (40% mean) Aramid WRC (40% mean)

60

Steel WRC (30% mean) 40

20

0 1,E+04

1,E+05

1,E+06

1,E+07

The rope performance for tensile fatigue is related to the fiber properties. Aramid fibers suffer severe abrasion damage compared to UHMWPE, LCP and polyester fibers due to its high friction coefficient, especially when tested wet. Also the rope construction can influence the fatigue life. Although the wire-rope construction (WRC) is generally accepted for best results in tension fatigue, the non-rotating braided rope construction (BRC) of the tested rope made with UHMWPE fiber from DSM Dyneema outperforms other fiber-type ropes, and is preferred in most applications.

1,E+08

Endurance (cycles to break)

References [1] Evaluation of the break strength and fatigue performance of small-diameter ropes, Report No. 2003/226, Casey,N., NEL, November 2003 [2] Durability of Polyester Deepwater Mooring Rope, Banfield,S., Casey,N., Nataraja,R., OTC 17510, Offshore Technology Conference, 2-5 May 2005 [3] Review of Tension-Tension Fatigue Performance of wire ropes, Offshore Technology Report - OTO 97080, Health and Safety Executive, January 1998 [4] The 5 tonne fibre rope test procedures and results, Fibre Tethers 2000 Joint Industry Project, Report 142/94, Casey,N., NEL, 16-11-1994

www.dyneema.com “Dyneema® and Dyneema®, the world’s strongest fiber™ are trademarks of Royal DSM. Use of these trademarks is prohibited unless strictly authorized”. All information supplied by or on behalf of DSM Dyneema LLC and/or DSM Dyneema BV (“DSM”) in relation to its products, whether in the nature of data, recommendations or otherwise, is supported by research and/or experience and believed reliable, but DSM gives no warranties of any kind, expressed or implied, including, but not limited to, those of correctness, completeness, merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose and DSM assumes no liability whatsoever in respect of application, processing, use of, or reliance on, the aforementioned information or products, or any consequence thereof, including but not limited to any infringement of the rights owned or controlled by a third party in intellectual, industrial or other property. Any information provided by DSM does not release the user from the obligation to verify such information and to perform its own testing and analysis to determine the suitability of the products for the intended process, use or specific application. The user accepts all liability in respect of or resulting from the application, processing, use of, or reliance on, the aforementioned information or products or any consequences thereof.

Issued: 15-11-2010 Page: 1/1 Ref.: CIS YA107


Fact sheet Tensile fatigue of ropes made with UHMWPE fiber from DSM Dyneema - II Low minimum load limit for rope applications made with UHMWPE fibers.

The rope construction also influences fatigue life performance. In general, the fatigue life of braided ropes is lower compared to laid ropes, as in braided ropes the strands cross over each other, resulting in a scissoring, more abrasive action while being repeatedly loaded. In addition, the rope performance for tensile fatigue is related to the fiber properties. With its low friction coefficient, UHMWPE fiber does not need additional fiber finishes to achieve long tensile fatigue lifetimes. The worst condition in fatigue loading is complete or nearly complete unloading (0% to 5% of breaking strength) of a rope in each tension cycle. Although the rope as a whole is under tension, the components can go into compression, e.g. due to rope twisting, non-uniform load sharing or relative movement between rope and jacket. Compared to other fiber types, such as aramids, UHMWPE is not sensitive to this. A tensile fatigue test program proved that the fatigue lifetime of ropes made with UHMWPE was not influenced by reducing the minimum tension. According to Bureau Veritas Guidance note NI432 “Certification of fibre ropes for deepwater offshore services (2007)”, a minimum quasi-static tension of 2% break strength may be considered for

UHMWPE ropes. This is identical to polyester ropes, while for aramid ropes, which are sensitive to compression failure, a minimum dynamic tension of 10% break strength is to be maintained.

Tensile fatigue of ropes with UHMWPE fiber from DSM Dyneema This information holds for the material as it leaves its production facilities and does not include any additive, pigment or any other additions or any modifications added by the converter or any other third party. 100 min.loadlevel 10%

Load Range (% break strength)

Tensile fatigue is defined as the repeated loading and unloading of a rope, resulting in inter-fiber abrasion and filament breakage leading to a loss of strength. The deterioration rate is dependent on the applied mean load level and the range of loading.

min.loadlevel 5%

80

min.loadlevel 3% min.loadlevel 1%

60

40

20

0 1,E+04

1,E+05

1,E+06

1,E+07

1,E+08

Endurance (cycles to break)

www.dyneema.com “Dyneema® and Dyneema®, the world’s strongest fiber™ are trademarks of Royal DSM. Use of these trademarks is prohibited unless strictly authorized”. All information supplied by or on behalf of DSM Dyneema LLC and/or DSM Dyneema BV (“DSM”) in relation to its products, whether in the nature of data, recommendations or otherwise, is supported by research and/or experience and believed reliable, but DSM gives no warranties of any kind, expressed or implied, including, but not limited to, those of correctness, completeness, merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose and DSM assumes no liability whatsoever in respect of application, processing, use of, or reliance on, the aforementioned information or products, or any consequence thereof, including but not limited to any infringement of the rights owned or controlled by a third party in intellectual, industrial or other property. Any information provided by DSM does not release the user from the obligation to verify such information and to perform its own testing and analysis to determine the suitability of the products for the intended process, use or specific application. The user accepts all liability in respect of or resulting from the application, processing, use of, or reliance on, the aforementioned information or products or any consequences thereof.

Issued: 15-11-2010 Page: 1/1 Ref.: CIS YA108


Fact sheet Ultra-violet exposure of UHMWPE fiber from DSM Dyneema After sustained UV-exposure, UHMWPE fibers show high residual strength. All polymers show a degradation of properties due to UV-radiation. The rate is dependent upon the environment (e.g. sunlight intensity, temperature and humidity) and on the type of polymer. After UV-exposure, UHMWPE fibers show a slight increase in modulus and a decrease in tenacity and elongation at break. The degradation is thought to be a diffusion-controlled process implicating that the direct irradiated fiber surface will degrade more than the non-irradiated core of the fiber. The sensitivity of UHMWPE fiber to a combination of UV and high temperature, generated by Xenon-arc lamps, was tested according to ISO4892. It showed that half-strength values for UHMWPE fiber types from DSM Dyneema are typically in the range of 1000-1900 hours. However, not all tenacity loss can be described to the influence of UV because of the nature of this test. The UV-degradation mechanisms can differ between polymer types, making a direct comparison between different fibers under laboratory conditions difficult. Outdoor experiments are more valuable for this purpose. After nine months of outdoor exposure, the UHMWPE fiber from DSM Dyneema showed the highest residual strength of the untreated fibers of comparable size.

Comparing UHMWPE fiber Polyamide UV stabilized

SK75

Polyester

Aramid

LCP

50% Fiber retention strength at UV Xenon-arc test (at 45°C)

2880 hrs.

1630 hrs.

481 hrs.

340 hrs.

77 hrs.

Fiber tenacity after 9 months outside exposure

54%

47%

46%

29%

6%

www.dyneema.com “Dyneema® and Dyneema®, the world’s strongest fiber™ are trademarks of Royal DSM. Use of these trademarks is prohibited unless strictly authorized”. All information supplied by or on behalf of DSM Dyneema LLC and/or DSM Dyneema BV (“DSM”) in relation to its products, whether in the nature of data, recommendations or otherwise, is supported by research and/or experience and believed reliable, but DSM gives no warranties of any kind, expressed or implied, including, but not limited to, those of correctness, completeness, merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose and DSM assumes no liability whatsoever in respect of application, processing, use of, or reliance on, the aforementioned information or products, or any consequence thereof, including but not limited to any infringement of the rights owned or controlled by a third party regarding intellectual, industrial or other property. Any information provided by DSM does not release the user from the obligation to verify such information and to perform its own testing and analysis to determine the suitability of the products for the intended process, use or specific application. The user accepts all liability in respect of or resulting from the application, processing, use of, or reliance on, the aforementioned information or products or any consequences thereof.

Issued: 15-11-2010 Page: 1/1 Ref.: CIS YA102


Fact Sheet Recommended Cutting Equipment and Suppliers When using the right tools, UHMWPE yarn from DSM Dyneema and tape, braid, netting, non-woven, narrow weave, woven and knitted fabric, woven tape, coated fabric and rigid panel made with these yarns can be cut. In the tables below you will find a list of recommended cutting tools for each product and a list of suppliers. Product

Cutting Tool Scissor Hot knife Battery scissor Rotary knife Belt knife Belt saw Jig saw Laser Water-jet Ultrasonic Precision

Yarn

Braid

Ø<5mm

x x

Netting

Nonwoven

Woven

x x

x x

x x x x

Narrow weave

Knitted

Tape

Woven tape (ST)

x

x x

x x

Coated fabric (CF)

Rigid panel (RP)

Ø>5mm

x x

x x x x

x x x x x x

x x

x

x x x

x x x x x

Table 1: Recommended cutting tools for UHMWPE yarn from DSM Dyneema and derived products. Cutting Tool Cutting Tool Scissor Hot knife Rotary knife Battery scissor Belt knife Belt saw Jigsaw Laser Water-jet

Ultrasonic

Precision

Supplier

Type

Telephone / Fax

Internet

Robuso Solingen, Germany

Proton 615/E/5",322/E/5" 1026/C/8"

Tel: +49 21281 5016 Fax: +49 21281 0926

www.robuso.de

Tel: +49 6123 9978-0 Fax: +49 6123 9978-40 Tel: +81 725224801 Fax: +81 725233486 Tel: +49 228670046 Fax: +49 228678230 Tel: +31 10 2080208 Fax: +31 10 4373780

www.HSGM.com

HSGM Gmbh Walluf, Germany Suprena Osaka, Japan Hoogland Bonn, Germany Sandvik Benelux Matebo, Black and Decker, Bosch etc. Lectra Systèmes W.P.HydroschneideTechnik Sigmarszell, Germany Maximator JET GmbH Schweinfurt, Germany GFM GmbH Austria. Gerber Technology Belgium EM-Systeme GmbH Oberhausen, Germany Zünd Systemtechnik AG

HSG 3V cutting blade type: R HC-1017A, knife type M702 EC-235 MN-3,size: 10x0.45 no teeth. material: 3851, size 10 x 0.9 mm, tooth shape R, 10 teeth/” blade: thickness 1.4 mm 10 teeth per inch Focus 10C,Thickness:0.3–2 mm,> 2mm Toll-convertor with suitable equipment Type HS2515 US20, US30 DSC2500 (CF) GT7250 (RP) TS343/344 (continuous) TS30/40 (manual), OsCut-P150 LR-1600

www.elize.co.jp

www.sandvik.com

Tel: +33 1 53 64 42 00 Fax: +33 1 53 64 43 00 Tel: +49 8389 92397-0 Fax: +49 8389 92397-20

www.lectra.com

Tel: +49 8389 92397-0 Fax: +49 8389 92397-20 Tel: +43 9721946994-0 Fax: +43 9721946994-14 Tel: +32 (0) 27160311 Fax: +32 (0) 27160322 Tel: +49 208 4090800 Fax: +49 208 4090808 Tel.+41 71 757 81 00 Fax.+41 71 757 81 11

info@maximator-jet.de

www.wpfi.de

www.gfm.at www.gerbertechnology.com www.em-systeme.de www.zund.com

Table 2: List of cutting tools suppliers. www.dyneema.com Dyneema™ and Dyneema™, the world's strongest fiber™ are trademark(s) (applications) owned by Royal DSM N.V.

All information supplied by or on behalf of DSM Dyneema LLC and/or DSM Dyneema BV (“DSM”) in relation to its products, whether in the nature of data, recommendations or otherwise, is supported by research and/or experience and believed reliable, but DSM gives no warranties of any kind, expressed or implied, including, but not limited to, those of correctness, completeness, merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose and DSM assumes no liability whatsoever in respect of application, processing, use of, or reliance on, the aforementioned information or products, or any consequence thereof, including but not limited to any infringement of the rights owned or controlled by a third party regarding intellectual, industrial or other property. Any information provided by DSM does not release the user from the obligation to verify such information and to perform its own testing and analysis to determine the suitability of the products for the intended process, use or specific application. The user accepts all liability in respect of or resulting from the application, processing, use of, or reliance on, the aforementioned information or products or any consequences thereof.

Issued: 11-2-2011 Page: 1/1 Ref.: CIS YA303


Storage recommendations for UHMWPE yarn UHMWPE yarn from DSM Dyneema will keep its original properties for approximately 10 years, provided the material is properly stored in accordance with the following conditions: Store the material in its original box. Keep the box closed and avoid direct sunlight. Maintain ambient temperatures between 10 and 30ºC. Maintain normal level of humidity 40-60% RH. Store in a fire proof location and avoid sparks and flame. Keep away from incompatible materials like strong oxidizing materials. Maximum stacking height of the pallets : 2 layers.

In all cases it is recommended to test the material prior to use to verify the properties for the intended process, use or application.

www.dyneema.com "Dyneema® and Dyneema®, The World's Strongest Fiber™ are trademarks of Royal DSM. Use of these trademarks is prohibited, unless expressly authorized". All information supplied by or on behalf of DSM Dyneema LLC and/or DSM Dyneema BV (“DSM”) in relation to its products, whether in the nature of data, recommendations or otherwise, is supported by research and/or experience and believed reliable, but DSM gives no warranties of any kind, expressed or implied, including, but not limited to, those of correctness, completeness, merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose and DSM assumes no liability whatsoever in respect of application, processing, use of, or reliance on, the aforementioned information or products, or any consequence thereof, including but not limited to any infringement of the rights owned or controlled by a third party regarding intellectual, industrial or other property. Any information provided by DSM does not release the user from the obligation to verify such information and to perform its own testing and analysis to determine the suitability of the products for the intended process, use or specific application. The user accepts all liability in respect of or resulting from the application, processing, use of, or reliance on, the aforementioned information or products or any consequences thereof.

Issued: 01-12-2010 Page: 1/1 Ref.: CIS YA015

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Dyneema® Fact Sheets  

Fine (threads, cords, lines) Medium (weaving, knitting) 110 100 165 150 220 200 440 400 660 600 750 675 880 800 1320 1200 1760 1600 2640 240...

Dyneema® Fact Sheets  

Fine (threads, cords, lines) Medium (weaving, knitting) 110 100 165 150 220 200 440 400 660 600 750 675 880 800 1320 1200 1760 1600 2640 240...

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