RM Congress - Presentation - 12 Abfalter

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Rete Montagna Interna,onal Congress Eurac Conven,on Center -­‐ Bolzano/Bozen -­‐ IT November, 6th -­‐ 8th 2014

Cultural Resources and Lifestyles: An Innova7on Perspec7ve? Ass.-­‐Prof. Dr. Dagmar Abfalter

University of Music and Performing Arts Vienna


2014


Cultural Resources and Lifestyles: An Innova7on Perspec7ve? Ass.-­‐Prof. Dr. Dagmar Abfalter University of Music and Performing Arts Vienna

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Work

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Life

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Cultural Resources and Lifestyles: An Innova7on Perspec7ve? InnovaFon maGers Roadmap Bridging tradiFon and innovaFon

Cultural resources fueling innovaFon Cultural Capital and CreaFve Class

NaFonal culture and innovaFon

A conclusion ?

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Innovation matters. A perspective. “InnovaFon is the ability of individuals, companies and enFre naFons to conFnuously create their desired future.” John Kao, “InnovaFon NaFon” (2007)

InnovaFon provides real benefits for us as ciFzens, consumers, and workers. It speeds up and improves the way we conceive, develop, produce and access new products, industrial processes and services. It is the key not only to creaFng more jobs, building a greener society and improving our quality of life, but also to maintaining our compe77veness in the global market.

„InnovaFon Union is the European Union strategy to create an innova7on-­‐friendly environment that makes it easier for great ideas to be turned into products and services that will bring our economy growth and jobs.“ InnovaFon Union (Europe 2020)

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to catch up with the EU by improving their economic performance faster than the EU has, year-on-year, over the last five years.

The main economic driver of economic growth in the EU is innovation. This is why the EU needs to improve its performance in innovation, as shown in the graph below:

The main economic driver of economic growth in the EU is innovaFon. EU-27 PERFORMANCE IN INNOVATION COMPARED TO MAIN COMPETITORS - Innovation Union Scoreboard 2011

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Austria (EC 2014) Austria has expanded its research and innovaFon system over the last decade with investments in R&I growing more quickly than the EU average. These efforts have been translated into a high and growing level of excellence in science and technology and clear strengths in key technologies for energy, environment and transport. The Austrian economy is characterised by specialised niche players, which require constant innovaFon, in parFcular technological innovaFon, in order to remain leaders in their market segment. Hence, the level of innovaFon in Austrian firms is relaFvely high. 07.11.2014

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Austria – R&D intensity projections: 2000–2020

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(EC 2014)

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Cultural Resources fueling innovation

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Cultural resources – built or built-in? A staFc view. As in cultural resource management. A neoclassical approach. Cultural resources are defined as the collec7ve evidence of the past acFviFes and accomplishments of people. Buildings, objects, features, locaFons, and structures with scienFfic, historic, and cultural value Finite and non-­‐renewable resources that once destroyed cannot be returned to their original state. 07.11.2014

A dynamic view. Culture is constructed. An evoluFonist approach. Cultural resources are not only evidence of the past but also present and future prac7ces in which people engage in order to live their lives People use cultural resources to structure and understand their social world, to communicate As such, culture is constantly evolving and can be enhanced.

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Cultural resources HERITAGE. SPACE. IDENTITY. PRACTICE. FUTURE.

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HERITAGE= Knowledge

Heritage = the meanings aGached in the present to the past and (...) a knowledge defined within social, poliFcal and cultural contexts (Graham 2002) Heritage = both economic (external) and cultural (internal) capital

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SPACE Landscape and environment as unique cultural resources shaping the space in which life and lifestyles take place Physical restricFons create a counter-­‐space to urban areas High quality of life (sof locaFon factors) addressing concerns for health, sports and cultural acFviFes

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IDENTITY

Cultural resources (e.g. built heritage, famous arFsts, events etc.) shape local idenFty and aGachment to values, people and places Core values such as quality, sustainability, family, reliability, stubbornness etc. They also create a marketable image to outsiders / guests that is able to aGract addiFonal resources

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PRACTICE

Specific capabiliFes in the arts and handcrafs = creaFve pracFce Concern about tradiFon and heritage, religion and (other) values Constantly negoFaFng the past and future

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FUTURE

Economic, social and cultural innovaFon through

Interdisciplinary work Networking between sectors ReconciliaFon of paradoxal exigencies Arts-­‐based pracFces

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Bridging tradition and innovation

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Collins & Porras (2002)– Built to last: Successful Habits of Visionary Companies

VISION

„Preserve the core“

„S-mulate Progress“

Truly great companies understand the difference between wideology hat should never change and w hat sFhould be Core Envisioned uture open for change, between what is genuinely sacred and what is not. Core purpose

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3-­‐5 Core Values

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Visionary goal

Vivid descrip7ons of the future

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Bridging Tradition and Innovation

A frequent paGern. „Between HüGengaudi and Modernity“ „Laptop and Lederhosen“

Culture inspires TradiFon. Heritage. Culture inspires InnovaFon. CreaFvity. One link: cultural values Another link: cultural and arts pracFce Another link: research and educaFon. Another link: alpine lifestyle 07.11.2014

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The case of Tyrol (Die Presse, October 30th, 2014) Eine Erfolgsstory mit IdenFtätsfindung Ein Spannungsfeld zwischen Klischee, Kitsch und Kommerz, zwischen TradiFon und dem modernen Lebensgefühl Nicht nur im Tourismus sondern auch in Wissenschaf und Industry Menschen mit IdenFtät und AuthenFzität, eine Kongruenz von Landschaf und Bewohner_innen Spagat zwischen HüGengaudi und Moderne Tirol war und ist erfolgreich, weil Tirol eigensinnig ist und kanFg, unternehmerisch und selbständig agierend“

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A success story with idenFty formaFon A field of tension between cliché, kitsch and commerce, between tradiFon and modern aptude of life Not only in tourism but also in science and industry People characterized by idenFty and authenFcity, a congruence of landscape and inhabitants a balancing act between „hut jamboree“ and modernity „the Tyrol was and is successful, because the Tyrol is stubborn and edged, entrepreneurial and autonomous“

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Regions compete for resources

Ingredients for growth.

Raw materials

Financial capital

Technology

InformaFon

War for talent 07.11.2014

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National culture and innovation

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National culture and innovation Culture as “shared ways in which groups of people understand and Power distance interpret the world.” (Trompenaars 1994) Long-­‐ and short-­‐ „a collecFve memory of the Individualism term orienta7on soluFons a group or society developed to face everyday problems, based on their own understanding of the Uncertainty world“ (Schein, 1984), Masculinity avoidance Hofstede‘s Cultural Dimensions („sofware of the mind“) – basic values 07.11.2014

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National culture and innovation

Shane 1992, Rossberger & Krause Power distance è decreases innovaFon (strong hierarchy, control and social injusFce) Collec7vism è decreases innovaFon (tendency towards conformity and group thinking Uncertainty avoidance è decreases innovaFon (lower propensity to risk and openness)

Human orienta7on -­‐ is the degree to which individuals in organizaFons or socieFes encourage and reward individuals for being fair, altruisFc, friendly, caring and kind to others 07.11.2014

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GLOBE dimensions - Cultural Clusters (Rossberger & Krause 2013:17)

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Cultural capital and creative class

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Bourdieu‘s (1987 [1979]) concept of cultural capital

Cultural Capital – a sociological perspective

Aptudes

Preferences

Behavior

Shaped by economic resources (e.g. income, class) and cultural resources (e.g. educaFon, parental cultural capital). Cultural capital is a signal that is used to maintain class dominaFon and to shape individuals’ life chances. Cultural preferences are iniFators and sustainers of idenFFes and group boundaries, of social disFncFon and they reflect and create symbols and symbolic meanings Cultural capital can create a compeFFve advantage for populaFons

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The creative class “people who add economic value through their creaFvity” ʺAt a Fme when the U.S. unemployment rate topped 10 percent, the rate of unemployment for the CreaFve Class did not hit even 5 percent. “ "In a Fme of high unemployment, when tradiFonal skills can be outsourced or automated, creaFve skills remain highly sought afer and highly valuable. We all want to be part of the CreaFve Class of programmers, designers, and informaFon workers. The term used to mean arFsts and writers. Today, it means job stability." Richard Florida (The Rise of the CreaFve Class Revisited, 2012)

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Regional innovation processes Quintuple Helix (Caryannis & Cambell 2012) Natural environment, natural environment of society Media-­‐based and culture-­‐based public and civil society State, government, poliFcal system Industry, firms, economic system

Academia, universiFes, higher educaFon system

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A conclusion?

VISION TRADITION „Preserve the core“

INNOVATION „S-mulate Progress“

A strong TRADITION marvellous natural environment, historically evolved culture characterized by strong idenFty and authenFcity

With a vivid image of the FUTURE

Foster educaFon, arts & creaFvity and further enhance quality of life

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Quintuple helix

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References Collins Porras European Commission (2014): Research and InnovaFon performance in the EU: InnovaFon Union progress at country level, Luxembourg Graham, B. (2002): Heritage as Knowledge: Capital or Culture? Urban Studies, Vol. 39, Nos 5–6, 1003–1017

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Innsbruck -­‐ a networked city ( hGp://www.amazon.com/Atlas-­‐CiFes-­‐Paul-­‐Knox/dp/ 0691157812/ref=sr_1_2? s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1415207778&sr=1-­‐2

Smart vs. Networked city?

QuesFon: who‘s your city (why city??? – escape the city Florida in Foreword to Knox – ciFes are humanity‘s greatest invenFon… basic motor of economic progress) 07.11.2014

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Smart and green.

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Rossberger / Krause 2013 (Buch download) S. 346 InnovaFonsrelevante Dimension – GruppenkollekFvismus, Unsicherheitsvermeidung und HumanorienFerung AbschniG 17.4.

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demographics Heterogeneous developments in the alpine regions (Maurer et al. 2013; Ruffini et al. 2007)

EmigraFon and over-­‐aging vs. increases in populaFon

In-­‐ vs. out-­‐migraFon

Infrastructure costs vs. environmental and housing issues Etc.

DifferenFates between Urban areas Dynamic ciFy and rural areas Ageing rural areas Rural areas with out-­‐migraFon Rural growing areas Other (e.g. Vienna, Munich, Milan, etc.)

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Alpenländer und Alpenanrainerstaaten sind Österreich, Italien, Frankreich, Schweiz, Deutschland, Slowenien, Liechtenstein und Monaco (geordnet nach ihrem Anteil an der Gesam€läche der Alpen). Die größte in den Alpen gelegene Stadt ist das französische Grenoble, gefolgt von Innsbruck in Österreich sowie Trient und Bozen in Italien. In der Schweiz liegen Chur, Thun und Lugano innerhalb der Alpen. Weitere Alpenstädte in Österreich sind Klagenfurt, Villachund Dornbirn. Ferner zu nennen ist Vaduz, die Hauptstadt Lichtensteins. Die höchste Stadt der Alpen (und Europas) ist das schweizerische Davos. Die weitaus größte Stadt in direkter Alpenrandlage ist Wien, gefolgt von Genf (Schweiz) und Nizza (Frankreich). Weitere wichFge Städte sind – von Ost nach West – Maribor (Slowenien), Graz (Österreich), Ljubljana (Slowenien), Udine (Italien), Salzburg (Österreich),Vicenza (Italien), Verona (Italien), Brescia (Italien), Bergamo (Italien), St. Gallen (Schweiz), Lecco (Italien), Como (Italien), Varese (Italien), Luzern (Schweiz), Savona (Italien), Biella (Italien), San Remo (Italien), Cuneo (Italien), Bern (Schweiz) und Monaco.

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2014