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Rete Montagna  Interna,onal  Congress   Eurac  Conven,on  Center  -­‐  Bolzano/Bozen  -­‐  IT  November,  6th  -­‐  8th  2014

Cultural Resources  and  Lifestyles:     An  Innova7on  Perspec7ve?     Ass.-­‐Prof.  Dr.  Dagmar  Abfalter  

University of  Music  and  Performing  Arts  Vienna  


2014


Cultural Resources  and  Lifestyles:     An  Innova7on  Perspec7ve?   Ass.-­‐Prof.  Dr.  Dagmar  Abfalter   University  of  Music  and  Performing  Arts   Vienna  

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Work

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Life

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Cultural Resources  and  Lifestyles:     An  Innova7on  Perspec7ve?     InnovaFon   maGers   Roadmap   Bridging  tradiFon   and  innovaFon  

Cultural resources  fueling   innovaFon   Cultural  Capital   and  CreaFve  Class  

NaFonal culture  and   innovaFon    

A conclusion  ?  

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Innovation matters. A perspective. “InnovaFon is  the  ability  of  individuals,  companies  and  enFre  naFons  to  conFnuously  create   their  desired  future.”     John  Kao,  “InnovaFon  NaFon”  (2007)  

InnovaFon provides  real  benefits  for  us  as  ciFzens,  consumers,  and  workers.  It  speeds  up  and   improves  the  way  we  conceive,  develop,  produce  and  access  new  products,  industrial  processes   and  services.  It  is  the  key  not  only  to  creaFng  more  jobs,  building  a  greener  society  and   improving  our  quality  of  life,  but  also  to  maintaining  our  compe77veness  in  the  global  market.    

„InnovaFon Union  is  the  European  Union  strategy  to  create  an  innova7on-­‐friendly  environment   that  makes  it  easier  for  great  ideas  to  be  turned  into  products  and  services  that  will  bring  our   economy  growth  and  jobs.“   InnovaFon  Union  (Europe  2020)    

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to catch up with the EU by improving their economic performance faster than the EU has, year-on-year, over the last five years.

The main economic driver of economic growth in the EU is innovation. This is why the EU needs to improve its performance in innovation, as shown in the graph below:

The main  economic  driver  of  economic  growth  in  the   EU  is  innovaFon.     EU-27 PERFORMANCE IN INNOVATION COMPARED TO MAIN COMPETITORS - Innovation Union Scoreboard 2011

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Austria (EC 2014) Austria has  expanded  its  research  and  innovaFon  system  over   the  last  decade  with  investments  in  R&I  growing  more  quickly   than  the  EU  average.  These  efforts  have  been  translated  into   a  high  and  growing  level  of  excellence  in  science  and   technology  and  clear  strengths  in  key  technologies  for  energy,   environment  and  transport.  The  Austrian  economy  is   characterised  by  specialised  niche  players,  which  require   constant  innovaFon,  in  parFcular  technological  innovaFon,  in   order  to  remain  leaders  in  their  market  segment.  Hence,  the   level  of  innovaFon  in  Austrian  firms  is  relaFvely  high.     07.11.2014

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Austria – R&D intensity projections: 2000–2020

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(EC 2014)

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Cultural Resources fueling innovation

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Cultural resources – built or built-in? A staFc  view.  As  in  cultural   resource  management.  A   neoclassical  approach.   Cultural  resources  are  defined  as   the  collec7ve  evidence  of  the   past  acFviFes  and   accomplishments  of  people.     Buildings,  objects,  features,   locaFons,  and  structures  with   scienFfic,  historic,  and  cultural   value   Finite  and  non-­‐renewable   resources  that  once  destroyed   cannot  be  returned  to  their   original  state.   07.11.2014

A dynamic  view.     Culture  is  constructed.     An  evoluFonist  approach.   Cultural  resources  are  not  only   evidence  of  the  past  but  also   present  and  future  prac7ces  in   which  people  engage  in  order  to   live  their  lives   People  use  cultural  resources  to   structure  and  understand  their   social  world,  to  communicate   As  such,  culture  is  constantly   evolving  and  can  be  enhanced.  

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Cultural resources HERITAGE. SPACE.     IDENTITY.   PRACTICE.     FUTURE.  

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HERITAGE= Knowledge

Heritage =  the  meanings  aGached  in  the  present  to   the  past  and  (...)  a  knowledge  defined  within  social,   poliFcal  and  cultural  contexts  (Graham  2002)   Heritage  =  both  economic  (external)  and  cultural   (internal)  capital  

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SPACE Landscape and  environment     as  unique  cultural  resources  shaping  the  space  in   which  life  and  lifestyles  take  place   Physical  restricFons  create  a  counter-­‐space  to  urban   areas   High  quality  of  life  (sof  locaFon  factors)  addressing   concerns  for  health,  sports  and  cultural  acFviFes  

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IDENTITY

Cultural resources  (e.g.  built  heritage,  famous  arFsts,   events  etc.)  shape  local  idenFty  and  aGachment  to   values,  people  and  places   Core  values  such  as  quality,  sustainability,  family,   reliability,  stubbornness  etc.   They  also  create  a  marketable  image  to  outsiders  /   guests  that  is  able  to  aGract  addiFonal  resources  

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PRACTICE

Specific capabiliFes  in  the  arts  and  handcrafs  =   creaFve  pracFce   Concern  about  tradiFon  and  heritage,  religion  and   (other)  values   Constantly  negoFaFng  the  past  and  future  

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FUTURE

Economic, social  and  cultural  innovaFon  through    

Interdisciplinary work   Networking  between  sectors   ReconciliaFon  of  paradoxal  exigencies   Arts-­‐based  pracFces  

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Bridging tradition and innovation

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Collins &  Porras  (2002)–  Built  to  last:  Successful     Habits  of  Visionary  Companies

VISION

„Preserve the  core“  

„S-mulate Progress“  

Truly great  companies  understand  the  difference   between   wideology   hat  should  never  change  and  w hat  sFhould   be   Core   Envisioned   uture   open  for  change,  between  what  is  genuinely  sacred  and   what  is  not.   Core  purpose  

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3-­‐5 Core  Values  

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Visionary goal  

Vivid descrip7ons     of  the  future  

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Bridging Tradition and Innovation

   

           

A frequent  paGern.   „Between  HüGengaudi  and  Modernity“   „Laptop  and  Lederhosen“  

Culture inspires  TradiFon.  Heritage.     Culture  inspires  InnovaFon.  CreaFvity.       One  link:  cultural  values   Another  link:  cultural  and  arts  pracFce   Another  link:  research  and  educaFon.   Another  link:  alpine  lifestyle   07.11.2014

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The case  of  Tyrol  (Die  Presse,  October  30th,  2014)   Eine  Erfolgsstory  mit  IdenFtätsfindung   Ein  Spannungsfeld  zwischen  Klischee,   Kitsch  und  Kommerz,  zwischen  TradiFon   und  dem  modernen  Lebensgefühl   Nicht  nur  im  Tourismus  sondern  auch  in   Wissenschaf  und  Industry   Menschen  mit  IdenFtät  und  AuthenFzität,   eine  Kongruenz  von  Landschaf  und   Bewohner_innen   Spagat  zwischen  HüGengaudi  und   Moderne   Tirol  war  und  ist  erfolgreich,  weil  Tirol   eigensinnig  ist  und  kanFg,   unternehmerisch  und  selbständig   agierend“  

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A success  story  with  idenFty   formaFon   A  field  of  tension  between  cliché,   kitsch  and  commerce,  between   tradiFon  and  modern  aptude  of  life   Not  only  in  tourism  but  also  in   science  and  industry   People  characterized  by  idenFty  and   authenFcity,  a  congruence  of   landscape  and  inhabitants   a  balancing  act  between  „hut   jamboree“  and  modernity   „the  Tyrol  was  and  is  successful,   because  the  Tyrol  is  stubborn  and   edged,  entrepreneurial  and   autonomous“  

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Regions compete for resources

Ingredients for  growth.    

Raw materials  

Financial capital  

Technology

  InformaFon  

 War for  talent   07.11.2014

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National culture and innovation

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National culture and innovation Culture as  “shared  ways  in  which   groups  of  people  understand  and   Power  distance   interpret  the  world.”  (Trompenaars   1994)   Long-­‐  and  short-­‐ „a  collecFve  memory  of  the   Individualism     term  orienta7on   soluFons  a  group  or  society   developed  to  face  everyday   problems,  based  on  their  own   understanding  of  the   Uncertainty   world“  (Schein,  1984),   Masculinity   avoidance   Hofstede‘s  Cultural  Dimensions   („sofware  of  the  mind“)  –     basic  values   07.11.2014

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National culture and innovation

   

Shane 1992,  Rossberger  &  Krause   Power  distance  è  decreases  innovaFon  (strong  hierarchy,  control  and   social  injusFce)   Collec7vism  è  decreases  innovaFon  (tendency  towards  conformity   and  group  thinking   Uncertainty  avoidance  è  decreases  innovaFon  (lower  propensity  to   risk  and  openness)  

Human orienta7on  -­‐  is  the  degree  to  which  individuals  in  organizaFons   or  socieFes  encourage  and  reward  individuals  for  being  fair,  altruisFc,   friendly,  caring  and  kind  to  others   07.11.2014

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GLOBE dimensions - Cultural Clusters (Rossberger & Krause 2013:17)

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Cultural capital and creative class

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Bourdieu‘s (1987  [1979])  concept  of  cultural  capital  

Cultural Capital – a sociological perspective

Aptudes

Preferences

Behavior

Shaped by  economic  resources  (e.g.  income,  class)  and  cultural  resources   (e.g.  educaFon,  parental  cultural  capital).     Cultural  capital  is  a  signal  that  is  used  to  maintain  class  dominaFon  and  to   shape  individuals’  life  chances.     Cultural  preferences  are  iniFators  and  sustainers  of  idenFFes  and  group   boundaries,  of  social  disFncFon  and  they  reflect  and  create  symbols  and   symbolic  meanings   Cultural  capital  can  create  a  compeFFve  advantage  for  populaFons  

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The creative class “people who  add  economic  value  through  their  creaFvity”   ʺAt  a  Fme  when  the  U.S.  unemployment  rate  topped  10   percent,  the  rate  of  unemployment  for  the  CreaFve  Class  did   not  hit  even  5  percent.  “   "In  a  Fme  of  high  unemployment,  when  tradiFonal  skills  can   be  outsourced  or  automated,  creaFve  skills  remain  highly   sought  afer  and  highly  valuable.     We  all  want  to  be  part  of  the  CreaFve  Class  of  programmers,   designers,  and  informaFon  workers.  The  term  used  to   mean  arFsts  and  writers.  Today,  it  means  job  stability."     Richard  Florida  (The  Rise  of  the  CreaFve  Class  Revisited,  2012)    

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Regional innovation processes Quintuple Helix (Caryannis & Cambell 2012) Natural environment,  natural   environment  of  society   Media-­‐based  and  culture-­‐based   public  and  civil  society   State,  government,  poliFcal  system   Industry,  firms,  economic   system  

Academia, universiFes,   higher  educaFon  system  

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A conclusion?

VISION TRADITION   „Preserve  the  core“  

INNOVATION „S-mulate  Progress“  

A strong  TRADITION   marvellous  natural  environment,  historically  evolved   culture  characterized  by  strong  idenFty  and  authenFcity  

With a  vivid  image  of  the  FUTURE    

Foster educaFon,  arts  &  creaFvity  and  further  enhance   quality  of  life  

Become (a)  VISIONary  region(s)   07.11.2014

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Quintuple helix

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References Collins Porras     European  Commission  (2014):  Research  and   InnovaFon  performance  in  the  EU:  InnovaFon  Union   progress  at  country  level,  Luxembourg   Graham,  B.  (2002):  Heritage  as  Knowledge:  Capital  or   Culture?  Urban  Studies,  Vol.  39,  Nos  5–6,  1003–1017    

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Innsbruck  -­‐  a  networked  city  ( hGp://www.amazon.com/Atlas-­‐CiFes-­‐Paul-­‐Knox/dp/ 0691157812/ref=sr_1_2? s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1415207778&sr=1-­‐2    

Smart vs.  Networked  city?  

QuesFon: who‘s  your  city  (why  city???  –  escape  the  city   Florida  in  Foreword  to  Knox  –  ciFes  are  humanity‘s   greatest  invenFon…  basic  motor  of  economic  progress)   07.11.2014

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Smart and  green.  

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Rossberger /  Krause  2013  (Buch  download)   S.  346   InnovaFonsrelevante  Dimension  –   GruppenkollekFvismus,  Unsicherheitsvermeidung   und  HumanorienFerung   AbschniG  17.4.  

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demographics Heterogeneous developments  in  the  alpine  regions  (Maurer   et  al.  2013;  Ruffini  et  al.  2007)    

EmigraFon and  over-­‐aging  vs.  increases  in  populaFon  

In-­‐ vs.  out-­‐migraFon  

Infrastructure costs  vs.  environmental  and  housing  issues     Etc.  

         

DifferenFates between     Urban  areas   Dynamic  ciFy  and  rural  areas   Ageing  rural  areas   Rural  areas  with  out-­‐migraFon   Rural  growing  areas   Other  (e.g.  Vienna,  Munich,  Milan,  etc.)  

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Alpenländer und  Alpenanrainerstaaten   sind  Österreich,  Italien,  Frankreich,  Schweiz,  Deutschland,  Slowenien,  Liechtenstein  und  Monaco  (geordnet  nach  ihrem   Anteil  an  der  Gesam€läche  der  Alpen).   Die  größte  in  den  Alpen  gelegene  Stadt  ist  das  französische  Grenoble,  gefolgt  von  Innsbruck  in  Österreich   sowie  Trient  und  Bozen  in  Italien.  In  der  Schweiz  liegen  Chur,  Thun  und  Lugano  innerhalb  der  Alpen.  Weitere  Alpenstädte  in   Österreich  sind  Klagenfurt,  Villachund  Dornbirn.  Ferner  zu  nennen  ist  Vaduz,  die  Hauptstadt  Lichtensteins.  Die  höchste  Stadt   der  Alpen  (und  Europas)  ist  das  schweizerische  Davos.   Die  weitaus  größte  Stadt  in  direkter  Alpenrandlage  ist  Wien,  gefolgt  von  Genf  (Schweiz)  und  Nizza  (Frankreich).  Weitere   wichFge  Städte  sind  –  von  Ost  nach  West  –   Maribor  (Slowenien),  Graz  (Österreich),  Ljubljana  (Slowenien),  Udine  (Italien),  Salzburg  (Österreich),Vicenza  (Italien),  Verona   (Italien),  Brescia  (Italien),  Bergamo  (Italien),   St.  Gallen  (Schweiz),  Lecco  (Italien),  Como  (Italien),  Varese  (Italien),  Luzern  (Schweiz),  Savona  (Italien),  Biella  (Italien),   San  Remo  (Italien),  Cuneo  (Italien),  Bern  (Schweiz)  und  Monaco.  

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2014

Profile for Eurac Research - Institute for Regional Development

RM Congress - Presentation - 12 Abfalter  

The Alps in Movement - 2014 - Rete Montagna Congress

RM Congress - Presentation - 12 Abfalter  

The Alps in Movement - 2014 - Rete Montagna Congress

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