Part B. Criteria Design
student journal studio Air semester 1, 2014 university of melbourne eunji shin (587465)
B1. Research Field
Eureka Pavilion, Chelsea Flower
Biomimicry is a word from Greek roots combination of bio, that means life, and mimikos, that means imitation1. Nature has been giving great inspiration to solve problems for century through biological forms, mechanisms, systems and analogies of what the nature use. For examples, Velcro was invented by Swiss Engineer, George de Mestral when he saw burrs that stuck into his dog’s fur2 and the other example is honeycomb structure which gives not only high space efficiency as the layer of honeycombs nest to each other but also, aesthetic and stable patterns. Additionally, termite mounds uses great technology that control temperature to be stable for most of time regardless to outside weather and it inspires many architecture Nina Louise Volstad and Casper Boks, On the use of Biomimicry as a Useful Tool for the Industrial Designer, Wiley Online Library 1
(2011): 2. 2 “The Biomimicry Manual: What can the Whale Teach Us About Fans and Filters?”, Tamsin Woolley-Barker, PhD., last modified 09 April 2013, http://forwardintothefuture.com/tag/biomimicry/.
buildings such as Eastgate Centre in Harare, Zimbabwe. My group choose Biomimicry for material technology that control temperature to be stable for most of time regardless to outside weather and it inspires many architecture buildings such as Eastgate Centre in Harare, Zimbabwe1. My group choose Biomimicry for material system because we think it is good both for aesthetic and solve manmade problems that associates with environments that achieve greater efficiency and improvements2 and suggest solutions for sustainability that is important for present environmental issues.
1 “The Biomimicry Manual: What can the Whale Teach Us About Fans and Filters?”, Tamsin Woolley-Barker, PhD., last modified 09 April 2013, http://forwardintothefuture.com/tag/biomimicry/. 2 Ritu Vasu Primlani, Biomimicry: On the Frontiers of Design, Vilakshan, XIMB Journal Vol.10 (2) (2013): 1.
Eureka Pavilion at the Chelsea Flower Show by Barnett Landscape architects is one of the renowned precedents of the design that uses Biomimicry as it is inspired by the structure of a leaf. The shape of the Eureka Pavilion is a cube for the basic shape. But for the patterns is created from veins and cells of leaves1. Design of Eureka Pavilion is adopted by Biomimicry. Voronoi, the pattern which is one of the Biomimicry, is a form of aggregation of polygons that is started from random dots that are connected by lines which creates Delaunay triangulations then Voronoi diagram emerges when perpendicular bisectors from Delaunay triangles are connected2. The design of Eureka Pavilion starts with random points for Voronoi diagram on a planar surface. This Voronoi polygons are divided to refer vein of leaves then create secondary structure into inside of each polygons are filled/divided with another Voronoi pattern, which is called cassettes, to represent cells of leaves. Finally, this planar surface covers a cube which is basic form of this pavilion. The design itself is quite straightforward of mimicking the epidermal cellular structure of leaves. The vein of leave represented through wood spruce panels 1 “Times Eureka Pavilion / Nex Architecture”. ArchiDaily, last modified 12 June 2011, http://www.archdaily.com/142509/times-eurekapavilion-nex-architecture/ 2 “Voronoi Diagram”, Weisstein, Eric W. From MathWorld, last modified 12 December 2001, http://mathworld.wolfram.com/VoronoiDiagram.html.
and smaller wooded cells and circularly rolled plastic panels inside of wood panels refers cells. Plastic cells reflect light so that it maximizes sunlight into the inside of the pavilion. Overall, it is a design that leaves covering a rectangular box. Two entrances seem like of couple of cells so that it doesn’t disturb the whole design. The concept of leaves is very connected to the Chelsea Flower Show and the aggregation of simple geometry of rectangular box and complex pattern of nature, leaves, associated with the concept of Biomimicry and suit to appropriate place. Through this mimicking design of the nature, leaves, it would impact on people’s mind that we cannot survive without nature, which relates to the theme of Biomimicry, which generated for environmental sustainability.
B.2 Case Study 1.0
The Morning Line
by Aranda Lasch
The Morning Line is an experimental project by Aranda Lasch that makes harmony of music and architecture that is visually expressed like a new kind of instrument. This pavilion has 10m height, 20m length, 20 tons of weight aluminum, 47 channels and 53 tiny speakers1. Spatial sound system of the Morning Line appeals people that music is not formal but something that you can enjoy. The design of the Morning Line is an integration of tetrahedrons that forms multiple of irregular arches with Biomimicry pattern. Tetrahedrons from this pavilion has trimmed vertexes and covered with curves that represent music but, tetrahedrons are disappeared so that the curves are spreading based on tetrahedron shape. Aggregation of the basic forms of trimmed tetrahedron and black curves which that looks like repeating drawing circles make the pavilion to have Biomimicry which is shallow Biomimicry that cannot guarantee to resolve environmentally sustainable solution. The expression of pattern looks like generation of music through curves that is keeping duplicates, transforms and synthesize as they grow. The overall design is geometry with asymmetric and crystallographic structure.
1 â€œThe Morning Line, Vienna 2012â€?, Thyssen-Bornemisza Art Contemporary, last modified in 1 July 2012, http://www.tba21.org/pavilions/103?category=pavilions
Iterations, Table 1
Iterations are good way to test the limit using parametric design process. Parametric design is new term word as people starts to create new architectural patterns and design through computerization. It refers a unique technique put all the inputs in computer programs based on mathematical theories such as, Rhinoceros and AutoCad that automatically records all the steps so that designers in nowadays can just simply copy and paste or slightly change some parts of it that gives another outputs1. Repetition of this ways of producing design gives a change to create and explore similar design to test limitation and pick the best one for a result in short time and convenient method. My group made iterations of The Morning Line, which is our case study, through changing radius, clusters, sides and functions that gives different design outcomes. Even the middle part of the process are changed, the outcomes are automatically changes that gives different final designs. As the basic form of The Morning Line Pavilion is tetrahedron, there is a limit that associates the number of sides.
1 Robert Woodbury, â€œHow Designers Use Parametersâ€?, Elements of Parametric Design, (2010): 154-157
Iterations, Table 2
four Sucessful iterations
B.3 Case Study 2.0
ZA11 Pavilion 10 Sides + Cluster 0.6 This iteration has very geometric appearance and lots of sides make the design to look like a circle with pattern that is symmetrical. It reminds me a design of Stained Glass of Gothic Church which is very architectural beauty.
4 Sides + Cluster 0.4 This iteration is similar to original design of The Morning Line but with four sides, it looks more stable and completely symmetrical. The overall form is rigid and seems like a pyramid.
5 Sides + Cluster 0.6 It is hard to recognise and definetely unable to exist in real world but that could show the property of digital architecture.
7 sides cluster 0.5- Eval 0.8 & Jitter 2 Change in Eval and Jitter creates this new irregular shape it is unusual in comparison to other iterations for this pavilion. The aggregation of shape lines with different length makes a shape that looks like sunlight.
ZA11 Pavilion is a project by students in Cluj, Romania in 2011, to provide a shelter that attracts people to come and acknowledge about social events in the city1. Aesthetic feature of the design using hexagons which is stable structure when it combines all together like a honeycomb but in dynamic arrangement based on funny curvy ring basic form. The hexagonal connectors are joining individual panels, which visually match to the pavilion. Irregular two triangles in diagonal way are making a hole that represents pattern for the pavilion panels. The material of the ZA11 Pavilion is timber that has a sense of eco-friendly material and suits to this cosy and calm city in Romania. It not only uses Biomimicry system for the pattern and outlook but also, solve a social problem and allure people to come out and city looks more vibrant that alternatively good for urban planning system and market economy.
1 â€œZA11 Pavilion / Dimitrie Stefanescu, Patrick Bedarf, Bogdan Hambasanâ€?, by ArchiDaily, last modified 05 Jul 2011, http://www.archdaily. com/147948/za11-pavilion-dimitrie-stefanescu-patrick-bedarf-bogdanhambasan/
The reason our group chose Za11 Pavilion for our precedent is not only because hexagons, which is Biomimicry1, but also, it is a combination terns and try all different compounds.of Geometry (the overall form of donut ring) and Pattern (hexagon). This integration has a possibility to create vast amount of variations through changing geometry and patterns and try all different compounds.
Nina Louise Volstad and Casper Boks, On the use of Biomimicry as a Useful Tool for the Industrial Designer, Wiley Online
Library (2011): 8.
STEP3. Loft Corresponding Lines of Outer and Inner Surfaces
STEP1. Basic Form Generation
The vertex points of inner and outer curvy surfaces are selected and lofted to generate donut shape of pavilion. The basic shape of ZA11 Pavilion starts from three irregular shape of rings. This random curves are lofted to create a curvy surface/ring. Curves are made in Rhinoceros and one dot in the middle of the curves are set as a central point that is used later steps. After this, only grasshopper is used to create ZA11 Pavilion. Each three curve is selected in three curve components and then lofted through connecting curves into Loft component in Grasshopper.
STEP4. Pattern Making
The Pattern is starts from square surface that is made by Rhinoceros and set by Grasshopper as one surface. Then the surface are dividing diagonally consequently to make two right-angled triangles. Two points are generated symmetrically by the diagonal and then by the points, the scaled down right-angled triangles are generated just like the way inner and outer shell of basic surfaces are formed. Then, trim two smaller triangles to make a hole.
STEP2. Apply Hexagon Cells on Surfaces The inner design of ZA11 contains irregular hexagons that is one of the biomimicry pattern, and covers the surface of the pavilion that is made on step 1. Hexagonal patterns are set up using Hexagonal cells component. This surface is copied, moved and scaled down by the central point that generate inner surface.
STEP5. Apply the Patterns The lofted surfaces from Step 3 is exploded into the lines and points then collected by the index number by List Item components. Then join the lines and points to connect curves that is diagonal lines of the patterns. Using Area component, symmetrical points from the diagonal lines are created then using Scale components, the inner triangles are made. Finally, Surface Divide component delete the inner tiangles from the surface.
STEP 4 STEP 2
B.4 Technique Development
LAGI 2014 project
in RefshaleĂ¸en, copenhagen, Denmakrk
The project aims to create a place providing aesthetic establishment and views that engaging people to landscape design and let them be aware of environmental issues1. The one of the main criteria is to build a construction that is carbon neutral using technology that generates energy from nature that could be converted into electricity such as solar, wind, geothermal and so on. The site is in Copenhagen, Denmark where is Northern Europe that usually has long daylight in summer, average of 13 hours, and short daylight average of 4 hours, in winter2. As the map shows, the site is surrounded by both industrial buildings and oceans. Oceanic climate brings sudden gusts of wind that will influence of sudden change of temperature. Therefore, the weather condition is unstable that would bring a lot of wind into the site. Most of the wind is from South West and West during a year. The landscape is low and flat so there is an issue about rising sea level that could affect to the landscape as time goes by. The location of the site is in the middle of industrial area that mean itâ€™s a good opportunity to use it to make a vibrant area. 1 2014 LAGI Design Competition Design Guidelines, Land Art Generator Initiative, last modified 15 January 2014, http://landartgenerator.org/designcomp/downloads/LAGI-2014DesignGuidelines.pdf 2 Average Daiily Sunshine Hour -Copenhagen, Holiday Weather, http://www.holiday-weather.com/copenhagen/averages/ html.
The construction would be a landmark in Copenhagen so that visitors are happy not only by the good looking of environment and construction but also, acknowledge about how energy is generated and used for the site that could give an interest to them. As a result, the system that will be used for our design is wind turbines. Wind energy is most suitable because it is near ocean that causes unstable and windy climate so it would be great if we can use that into our design. The advantages of Wind Energy is not only eco-friendly that uses free resources that is steady reliable supply but also, uses less space than the average power station. However, wind turbines are not that cheap and create noise pollution. Additionally, other energy system such as solar is not good because the average sunlight exposure of Copenhagen of summer and winter has 9 hours difference.1
1 Average Daiily Sunshine Hour -Copenhagen, Holiday Weather, http://www.holiday-weather.com/copenhagen/averages/ html.
wind energy GENERATOR
HAWT (Horizontal axis wind turbine) off shore:
rotating axis of blades is parallel to the wind. floating model is available, Advantages of HAWT is higher efficiency, high power density, low cut-in wind speeds and low cost per unit power output1. tall, rotation to follow the wind direction2. Half of the site is surrounded by the ocean so, floating HAWT could be the option that provide energy to the project construction.
Wei Tong, Wind Power Generation and Wind Turbine Design, (Southampton:WIT Press, 2010)
2 A Field Guid to Renewable Technologies, Robert Ferry and Elizabeth Monoian, Land Art Generator Initiative
VAWT (Vertical axis wind turbine):
turbine rotates with respect to their vertical aces so it accept wind from any direction thus, no yaw control. Maximum height is limited as VAWT must use external wind to initiation1. Benefits are from positioned closer than HAWT and lower cut-in can be easily attatched around the area2 The diagram above shows the annual average wind blow in Copenhagen. Most of the Wind is coming from South-West (easpecially in winter) and West (mainly in summer) direction1. As Copenhagen is surroounded by ocean, there is adequate amount of wind for the whole city and Wind Energy is generally used for Denmark. The direction of wind influence the design because some of the wind turbines requires to be placed within the direction of wind to maximise the outcome.
Wei Tong, Wind Power Generation and Wind Turbine Design, (Southampton:WIT Press, 2010)
2 A Field Guid to Renewable Technologies, Robert Ferry and Elizabeth Monoian, Land Art Generator Initiative
High altitude wind power (HAWP) and airborne wind turbines (AWT):
use of high altitude wind (which is stronger and consistent than the wind nearer to the ground), series of kites arranged like a ladder, conversion of energy is done at the ground level and cheap1. 1 Technical Report 99-13, John Cappelen and Bent JĂ¸rgensen, Danish Meteorological Institute from Minister of Transport, vol 296. 25-25.
1 A Field Guid to Renewable Technologies, Robert Ferry and Elizabeth Monoian, Land Art Generator Initiative
four Sucessful iterations
Matrix 1 shows changes in basic form that looks like organisms like beehive, caterpilar and so on. This simple changes are integrated with different patterns has a shape of diamon, skewed quad, triangle and so on. It shows all the possibilities of combine it so that it creates a table with 36 iterations.
Matrix 2 is advanced development with more com-
Aggregation of cylinderic columns with variety of sizes that looks like a town with skyscrapers in a circle path. It is interesting that aggregation of cylinders can be look artistic
Based on Triangula shape with bars that somewhat looks like drawing starts with pen randomly. Repeating of lines based on donut shape which is the original design of ZA11 Pavillion.
plex pattern that we created through Grasshopper. Therefore, there is a little difference between Matrix 1 and 2
Matrix 3, we try to develop to create crazy shape. So we explore unrealistic patterns on it. Therefore, some of the panels are even connected, just floating. But it is worth to explore many variables that only we can see on Grasshopper. Then we picked our four best outcomes.
Symmetrical shell with triangular pattern, seems like an arch so it attracts people to walk underneath.
Dynamic shape that is evolved from donut like shape but higher and sharp surfaces with rectangular patterns. This irregular shape of pavilion allure people to lean or climb on it or go into it like a cave.
B.5 Technique Prototype
The integration of fourth pattern with triangular cells from Matrix 2 and wood material. The overall form and pattern for each surface is a developed design of ZA11 Pavilion. The circular connector is designed as well to combine and joint each panel. Due to the consideration of adopting wind turbines, the holes are exaggerated from previous design of the precedent. Holes can manipulate wind direction, consequently, maximise the use of wind. The overall shape is curvy that suits to the expression of wind and water that represents the site analysis but, the inner shape that is composition of triangles are rigid. Just like ZA11 Pavilion, our group is considering attaching small speakers on the panels, matching the colour of the speakers and panels so speakers cannot disturb the design. We think it would be great if we can attract people not only visually but also, by sound. Wood is selected for the material as wood is environmental friendly material which could help to the concept of environmental sustainability. But, for the oceanic climate, humidity could be one of the issue
Hexagonal cells and panels with rectangular hole like a window. Due to the same reason that wind can be directed that connected on the way to wind turbines and goes through the pavilion, there is a big rectangular hole on each panels. Even each panels are just planars, the randomly positioned along hexagonal cells creates beauty and somewhat wavy basic form, even theare is only straight lines. The material is perspex which is a eco-friendly material and transparent property that provide a view. Connectors are made with wire
This is an aggregation of random cylinders. The material of model is Balsa Wood but, this is the lighting tubes with wind turbines at the top of each lighting tubes. Wind turbines on top generates electricity and as the turbines are placed higher, the efficiency of generating electricity increases. As wind is coming for whole day, electricity can be made and stored in the battery and at night, lighting tubes are illuminating. High lighting tube highlight the existence of construction especially at night as light attracts for all organisms.
B.6 Technique Proposal Through renderiing using Rhinoceroes, it is enable to test the materiality. Then, photo montage with site photos using Photoshop, we can see how our outcome will be on the site.
B.7 Learning Objectives and Outcomes
Part B is a starting point of consideration of the actual project which is LAGI 2014 in Copenhagen, Denmark based oon the theories that I learnt from Part A and computerizations using mainly Grasshopper and Rhinoceros. We first chose the material system which are generated from computerization and series of parametric design that we can find easily from current architecture research. It mostly looks like a 3D model with patterns on it. Through background research of the material system, for me, Biomimicry, it is able to understand why, we need to apply the technology and forms and structure into the design and how can we solve man-made issues that are the reason of environmental polutions. Biomimicry in an interesting concept even it is hard to professionally apply into the design. The forms and structure can be easily adopted in comparison to the applying technology from the nature that aims for environmental sustainaility. As the theme of the Studio Air is to be familiar with digital architecture, our group focused on the design concept of the precedents. For B.2, our precedent is The Morning Line, which is famous and anormal arrangement of not only curves that inspired by music but also mixing with speakers that appeals anyone and gives an idea that music is not boring or just listening and it could be approached through visually. Regardless of this concept, tasks that we have to do is making iteration to show that we test the limits using Grasshopper and change some definitions to create completely different outcomes. It
is interesting because as we can change some numbers, sometimes the outcome is unrealistic to proceed in real world. It is stilll hard to make design through Grasshopper and it takes more time than designing with Rhinoceros for me. But, if I can create a design exactly what I think thorugh Grasshopper, it would be definetely easy to make thousands of iterations to test and pick the best one. Then we pick the best designs to make prototype and with different materials like wood and perspex which are eco-friendly materials. Sometimes, it is different when we compare the thing in our mind and the result that we make. We did lazer cutting to make prototypes and make models and the result was good and looks aesthetic. But there were some problems when we connect each panels through connectors and steel wire because it they are not rigid so it was hard to strongly form what we aimed. Additionally, our group tested digitally through photo montages to test whether the design suits to the site or not. It is convenient way to have a look through rendering with couple of materials to see how it goes. Overall, I can feel the difference between week 3 and now because now I know how to generate ideas of Parametric designs and test the ideas using computerization.