JOURNAL EUNICE LU 567895 ABPL 30048: STUDIO AIR SEMESTER 1, 2014 TUTORS: PHILIP BELESKY & BRADLEY ELIAS (GROUP 12)
CONTENTS ABOUT ME 4 PART A. 7 A.1 DESIGN FUTURING 8 Land Art Generator Initiative 8 ENERGY RESEARCH A.2 DESIGN COMPUTATION 12 A.3 COMPOSITION / GENERATION 18 A.4 CONCLUSION 26 A.5 LEARNING OUTCOMES 26 REFERENCE 27
ABOUT ME Hello there! My name is Eunice, hailing from Hong Kong. Growing up in a crowded city filled with skyscrapers and tall, overgrown apartment buildings, I have developed a taste for simple and/or clean designs, a strange mix of classical, Japanese architecture, and minimalism (amongst a smatter of other styles), perhaps as a getaway from the busyness that is Hong Kong (not to say I donâ€™t appreciate the skyscrapers!) I have always been a bit of an artist, scribbling illegible creatures ever since I could pick up a pencil. I also like any kind of craft work, and a growing interest in photography and animation. I have continued these interests of mine up to the present day, and I still love it, though I have branched out from drawing
with traditional media to include digital paintings; which during this period I became familiarized with Photoshop. During secondary school, I began taking Design and Technology classes as an elective, and I found it incredibly fascinating. I could draw anything, and turn that drawing into an object, well of course the drawing had to be viable. I loved being able to have the opportunity to work with wood, plastics and textiles. Since then Iâ€™ve included designing (from graphics to objects) into my growing list of hobbies, and have also recently dabbled with InDesign and Illustrator. I didnâ€™t really have to turn my designs into reality, I just needed to get the ideas out of my head. This constant urge to draw, experiment and create is what I thrive on.
PART A. CONCEPTUALIZATION
A.1 DESIGN FUTURING Land Art Generator Initiative
BLOSSOMINGS Artists Team: Inki Hong, Solim Choi, Walter Studio (Architecture i.S) Artist Location: Union City, USA Blossomings is an origami inspired interactive land art. The design resembles a flower, with movable ‘petals’ that opens during the day and closes during the night, not unlike a flower bud. It is designed to have minimal environmental impact, it can harvest both solar and wind energy via the folding panels. The generated electricity will go to the power grid, whilst users can also tap into it using personal devices, such as computers, tablets and phones via charging points. The panels also provide shading underneath. During the night, the LED lights installed in the ‘stem’ will emit a faint glow to indicate the walkway; the lights will react to nearby people by emitting a
brighter light to provide ample illumination in the dark. This design stood out to me in that it is a single unit being repeated over the entire site, unlike most of the other entries which are one whole massive structure. The idea is simple but effective, it takes the form of a flower, and literally translates the opening and closing of the flower bud into the design, which I found interesting. I would visit the site just to see these designs in action. It is also an overall aesthetically pleasing design, I like the origami approach, as well as how the installations resemble a field of flowers.
Hong, I, Choi, S, Sueldo, W, 2012, Blossomings, digital renderings, Land Art Generator Initiative 2012, viewed 9 March 2014, < http:// landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/SR9H9523/>.
Blossomings concept art
ENERGY RESEARCH CONCENTRATED WIND COMPACT WIND ACCELERATION TURBINE (CWAT)
The compact wind acceleration turbine, also known as a diffuser augmented wind turbine (DAWT) or ducted turbine, is a horizontal axis, wind based renewable energy source. It has a conversion efficiency of 56% 90% depending on wind speed. Ducted wind turbines can be approximately two times more efficient than non-ducted turbines, this makes them desirable as a source of clean and renewable energy, as they are more efficient than other types of traditional turbines. The design utilizes cones to compress the wind onto the turbine blades at a high velocity, spinning the 10
rotor. In theory, the idea is very appealing, however the cost of extra materials to build the cones has to be factored. Until recently, the idea lacked funding, the design required more fine tuning to make it economically viable. Hence the CWAT did not garner much attention in the market of green energy. Several companies have now started research on furthering the design, focusing on strong yet cheap alternative materials, to overcome structural implications.
Ferry, R, 2014, Compact Wind Accelerator Turbine, Land Art Generator Initiative, viewed 9 March 2014, <http://landartgenerator. org>. 2 FloDesign Wind Turbine, 2009, 3D render, FloDesign Wind Turbine Corp., viewed 9 March 2014, < http://www.oginenergy.com>. 3 Windlens, 2011, 3D render, Kyushu University, Japan, viewed 9 March 2014, < http://www.energydigital.com/renewable_energy/ japanese-breakthrough-in-wind-turbine-design>. 1
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CWAT statistics Bottom left page: 3D render of CWAT on site Top: 3D render of Windlens
A.2 DESIGN COMPUTATION
Design computation affects the design process from schematics to development, it excels in being able to generate many forms and solutions quickly with existing parameters. The impact of computational design on the range of conceivable and achievable geometries is that it greatly expanded the possibilities, and being able to generate forms that would previously be impossible to achieve by traditional methods. It is able to generate many results, then letting designers sift through the outcomes and choose the most pleasing result. Intricate intertwining designs, and computer calculated
panels that slot together in perfect harmony are just some of the examples. The changes this process made in the design and construction industries are that the process is now more transparent to all parties involved, changes can be made quickly, and overall uniting the two industries closer. In terms of evidence and performance oriented designing, the digital method can generate different solutions to performance problems quickly, and testing of these forms can be done quickly using programs, such as BIM (building information modelling).
Computer programs also aid in visualizing on site conditions, being able to generate a site perfectly so that the design can adjust accordingly without much mechanical input. The opportunities that computation design present are numerous, it speeds up the entire process of design and testing, allowing more precious time devoted to perfecting design, and innovation wise, offers a completely new range of geometries to be experimented with. In relation to preceding architectural theory, previous methods of architectural design are more directly related to precedents, history and environment. But this new
method allows for a more abstract interpretation of ideas and data. In a way, it is a refreshing break from traditional methods, but we shouldnâ€™t forget that computers are only ever a tool for design, an extension of our hands and minds.
1 Archiable 2011, ICD & ITKE, Stuttgart, viewed 19 March 2014, < http://www.archiable.com/2012/20120519_ICD_ITKE_Research_ Pavilion_2011.html> 2 Oxman, R and Oxman, R, (ed) 2014, Theories of the Digital in Architecture, Routledge, London and New York, pp. 1â€“10 3 Kudless, A 2012, Seed P_Ball, photograph, viewed 19 March 2014, < http://matsysdesign.com/2012/04/13/seed-p_ball/>
3D printed concrete MATSYS seed ball
Hang Zhou Olympic Sports Centre Hang Zhou, China NBBJ, CCDI collaboration The Hang Zhou Olympic Sports Centre is situated at Hang Zhou’s new Central Business District, occupying a 400,000 square metre site. It is designed by NBBJ in collaboration with China Construction Design International (CCDI), famous for the competition winning design of the Beijing National Aquatics Centre, also known as the Water Cube. The sports centre is currently in construction, and is set to finish in 2014-2015.
considerably less steel and material compared to the Bird’s Nest. Computational design tools were utilized to reduce materials, cost, whilst also attempting to maximise the user’s experience. The computational design approach was quite successful, in that it reduced steel usage by 67%. This particular case is quite unique, in the sense that computational design was used to save cost and materials, instead of using it for form development.
At first glance, the Hang Zhou stadium reminded me of the Beijing ‘Bird’s Nest’ National Stadium. However instead of metal sticks sticking together haphazardly, this design is obviously more controlled and less chaotic. Consisting of 56 overlapping steel framed flower petals forming the sport centre’s shell, it uses
The Hang Zhou stadium provides some inspiration for the LAGI project brief, by providing another factor to consider, focusing on saving materials instead of form. Experimentation will go into simplifying form whilst maintaining structural integrity.
Hang Zhou Olympic Sports Centre, 2010, 3D render, NBBJ, China, viewed 19 March 2014, < http://www.nbbj.com/work/hangzhoustadium/> 2 NBBJ 2010, NBBJ, Hang Zhou, viewed 19 March 2014, < http://www.nbbj.com/work/hangzhou-stadium/> 1
3D render of the Hang Zhou Olympic Sports Centre Statistics according to NBBJ
ICD | ITKE Research Pavilion Stuttgart, Germany ICD, ITKE collaboration The research pavilion is a temporary wooden structure situated in Stuttgart, Germany. It is a joint project between the Institte for Computational Design (ICD), the Institute of Building Structures and Structural Design (ITKE), and students from the University of Stuttgart. The form of the structure was inspired by the exoskeleton of marine animals such as sea urchins and sand dollars. The sand dollar was chosen by the architects as its external plating shows high load bearing capacity due to the geometric arrangement of the polygonal plates. The plywood structure was an experiment to investigate organic, modular designs, and how best to fabricate the joints between each module so that its structural integrity remains.
I found this research pavilion interesting, as it is completely comprised of modular units made of wood, resulting in a light weight structure. In terms of the LAGI brief, a similar approach could be taken, the hollow units could have components inside that can harvest wind energy, the wind can be focused to the wind wind turbine via the side openings, not unlike ducted turbines.
12 3 4 5 Research Pavilion, 2011, photograph and computer renders, ICD & ITKE, University of Stuttgart, viewed 19 March 2014, < http://www.archiable.com/2012/20120519_ICD_ITKE_Research_Pavilion_2011.html>
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Left page: Interior of the Research pavilion Top left: Research pavilion during the day Bottom left: 3D model of pavilion showing areas in tension Top right: Pavilion modules Bottom right: Module detail
A.3 COMPOSITION / GENERATION Computation design is revolutionizing the design process, fabrication and construction. It has become part of the design, instead of just being part of the design process. The shift from using digital programs from composition to generation is hard to miss. In most architectural firms, computation designers are separated from the design teams, and the two will communicate as needed. However there are more and more firms with a more integrated design flow of both, and what is emerging are designers with an expertise in both as a software engineer and an architect. Resulting in a holistic design process. “When architects have a sufficient understanding of algorithmic concepts, when we no longer need to discuss the digital as something different, then computation can become a true method of design for architecture.”
is an opportunity for designers to experiment with more and more, becoming increasingly comfortable with computational design. This has resulted with computation design already moving on from composition, to developing more methods of generation. The focus now on generation, there is a boom in scripting culture. Designers familiar with their programs are writing their own scripts and streamlining their digital design process. This has led to the development of tools written by architects for architects.
Generation despite being able in areas such as creating many ideas and saving time, it has its drawbacks. In the architectural design process, yes it does create many ideas and is able to incorporate data into designs in a way traditional methods cannot, but what it creates can be quite Computation design has become essential to the repetitive, and the results it generates must be design process, partly because of the increasingly sifted through carefully. The speed with which complex forms that are being experimented with, these programs create also can be degenerative and also the limited time available from planning in the long term, creating architectural discourse. to construction. Parametric design has certainly This accelerated speed that new things are shortened the amount of time needed to achieve created are quickly phasing out ‘old’ methods, the final product. By entering an algorithm into movements, style and language. Leading to loss the computer, designers can adjust detail on a of identity and history. complex design with few simple steps, instead of redoing every detail by hand. As sharing of In general, architectural literature has become these tools became a common practice. Online more and more accepting of computational platforms have sprung up hosting a multitude design as it has become such an integral part of different customized scripts. This sharing of of the process. Yet we are still discovering the codes, software, tools etc. in computer design possibilities it offers, as designers and software is a collectively known as building of algorithmic engineers continue creating and adding to their thought. Algorithmic thinking offers designers algorithmic thought. But we must remember easy access to the newest innovation of a that over reliance on computation design or any program or script. And not just designers, anyone method for that matter, can become crippling for can download these scripts and design tools and the process, as each method has its advantages become familiar with them if given enough time and disadvantages. and dedication, allowing the involvement of the general public. The shared algorithmic thought
Peters, B 2013, â€˜Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thoughtâ€™, Architectural Design, vol. 83, no. 2, pp. 08-15. Foster + Partners, Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC, 2007
Computation in Architectural Practice Roof generated using computational design method
Foster + Partners, Khan Shatyr Entertainment Centre, Astana, Kazakhstan, 2010 1 Khan Shatyr Entertainment Centre lit on the inside during the night 1
Khan Shatyr Entertainment Centre Astana, Kazakhstan Fosters + Partners The Khan Shatyr Entertainment Centre was generated using parametric modelling to develop the enclosure form. Brady Peters wrote the program that simulated the forces the cable structure would undergo and used that to further develop the form. The program allowed Peters to make changes quickly and efficiently, it can generate many different forms whilst taking into account the structural load each form would exert. This ensured the forms were feasible, and that the cable network would be
lightweight and cost saving. In this instance, Brady Peters used the generative approach as means to create possibilities and for rapid prototyping using 3D printing. In normal circumstances, prototypes of models this complex would take a lot of time, whilst Peters can send the 2 to 3 models to print overnight and use them in presentations the next day.
Foster + Partners, Khan Shatyr Entertainment Centre, Astana, Kazakhstan, 2010 Khan Shatyr Entertainment Centre, Brady Peters, 2006
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Left: Khan Section detail drawing Top Right: Generated forms Top Left: Site axes Bottom: Plan detail drawing of level 2 Brady Peters - Khan Shatyr process
Subdivided Columns - A New Order Michael Hansmeyer These columns were achieved by using different algorithms and computational methods as generative tools. The doric columns were generated using topographical and topological data, which characterized how the columnâ€™s shaft, capital, base and fluting details were emulated. The using of data in the generative process here has
achieved interesting results. The columns are different to what we would normally see, and traditional methods would be hard-pressed to achieve such intricately detailed forms such as these. Though the figure below shows some resemblance to Cambodian and Indian temple detailing.
Hansmeyer, M 2010, Subdivided Columns, 3D renders, viewed 24 March 2014, < http://www.michael-hansmeyer.com/#6>.
Architectural column forms generated using computational and generative methods 25
A.4 CONCLUSION Part A is an exploration of the techniques and methods of computational design. A considerably new method of designing, it has yet to become fully integrated into the process. It is not a new method but it is gaining attention as a useful tool to generate form that can be easily altered. The programs are incredibly useful a
project and work from there. I feel it is a more significant approach as there is an abstract integration of the form with its surroundings. As the LAGI challenge places emphasis on the landscape, so a generative approach coupled with parametric design methods would drive the process.
The intended design approach to the brief would be to generate forms according to a set of data that would be meaningful to the
A.5 LEARNING OUTCOMES In the process of reading and researching about computational design, I have learnt a lot. I discovered that the possibilities that could be created by computation design are much more than I could have imagined, and that there can be an infinite number of factors incorporated into the result. With this new knowledge I hope to experiment with these new possibilities and find out more about how to integrate them into the design.
In regards to past designs, I realized that if I had known what I learnt these past weeks, I would have saved a lot of time in adjusting for the many minute details that I happened to not fancy. Allowing for more time with experimenting with form.
REFERENCE Hong, I, Choi, S, Sueldo, W, 2012, Blossomings, digital renderings, Land Art Generator Initiative 2012, viewed 9 March 2014, < http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/SR9H9523/>. Ferry, R, 2014, Compact Wind Accelerator Turbine, Land Art Generator Initiative, viewed 9 March 2014, <http://landartgenerator. org>. FloDesign Wind Turbine, 2009, 3D render, FloDesign Wind Turbine Corp., viewed 9 March 2014, < http://www.oginenergy.com>. Windlens, 2011, 3D render, Kyushu University, Japan, viewed 9 March 2014, < http://www.energydigital.com/renewable_energy/ japanese-breakthrough-in-wind-turbine-design>. Archiable 2011, ICD & ITKE, Stuttgart, viewed 19 March 2014, < http://www.archiable.com/2012/20120519_ICD_ITKE_Research_ Pavilion_2011.html> Oxman, R and Oxman, R, (ed) 2014, Theories of the Digital in Architecture, Routledge, London and New York, pp. 1–10 Kudless, A 2012, Seed P_Ball, photograph, viewed 19 March 2014, < http://matsysdesign.com/2012/04/13/seed-p_ball/> Hang Zhou Olympic Sports Centre, 2010, 3D render, NBBJ, China, viewed 19 March 2014, < http://www.nbbj.com/work/ hangzhou-stadium/> NBBJ 2010, NBBJ, Hang Zhou, viewed 19 March 2014, < http://www.nbbj.com/work/hangzhou-stadium/> Research Pavilion, 2011, photograph and computer renders, ICD & ITKE, University of Stuttgart, viewed 19 March 2014, < http:// www.archiable.com/2012/20120519_ICD_ITKE_Research_Pavilion_2011.html> Foster + Partners, Khan Shatyr Entertainment Centre, Astana, Kazakhstan, 2010 Khan Shatyr Entertainment Centre, Brady Peters, 2006 Foster + Partners, Khan Shatyr Entertainment Centre, Astana, Kazakhstan, 2010 Peters, B 2013, ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, Architectural Design, vol. 83, no. 2, pp. 08-15. Foster + Partners, Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC, 2007