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# 8 / 03 / 2016

ISSN 1987-8486


საქართველოს ევროპული გზა Georgia’s European Way

saqarTvelos saxelmwifo ministris aparati evropul da evroatlantikur struqturebSi integraciis sakiTxebSi Office of the State Minister of Georgia on European and Euro-Atlantic Integration


სარჩევი mimarTva

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daviT baqraZe nato-saqarTvelos saxalxo diplomatiis forumi 2016

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saqarTvelo da nato

saxalxo diplomatiis forumi

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viziti nato-s Stab-binaSi

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saqarTvelo da evrokavSiri

evropis saaviacio usafrTxoebis saagento saqarTvelos samoqalaqo aviaciis ganviTarebaSi exmareba

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„saqarTvelos evropuli gzebi“

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kvalificirebuli diasporelebis droebiTi dabruneba samSobloSi (TRQN III)

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biznesi da ekonomika borjomis turistuli potenciali

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evrokavSirma qarTuli matyli bazarze dauSva

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geziT evropisken, sazRvrebis gareSe

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bioRvino

saqarTvelos Sesaxeb

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fotokolaJi

konferencia

baTumis konferencia _ anonsi

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ganaTleba da kultura `farSavangis kudi~ modernizmi; qarTuli speqtakli 1912-1936

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Georgia’s European Way | April 2016


Content

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Address David Bakradze NATO-Georgia Public Diplomacy Forum 2016

Georgia and NATO Public Diplomacy Forum Visit to NATO Headquarters

Georgia and EU

European Aviation Safety Agency Helps Georgia Develop Civil Aviation

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Georgia’s European Ways

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Temporary Return of Qualified National (TRQN III)

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Business and Economy Borjomi Tourism Potential

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Georgian Wool to Be Exported to EU Countries

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Towards Europe, Without Borders

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Organic Wine

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About of Georgia Photocollage

Conference 13th International Conference „Georgia’s European Way“ 14-15 July, 2016 Batumi

Education and Culture

The Peacock’s Tail Modernism, Georgian Performance 66 1912-1936 aprili 2016 | saqarTvelos evropuli gza

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saredaqcio sabWo mariam raqviaSvili evropul da evroatlantikur struqturebSi integraciis sakiTxebSi saqarTvelos saxelmwifo ministris moadgile zurab qarumiZe politikis analizis, strategiuli dagegmvisa da koordinaciis departamentis, sagareo urTierTobaTa samsaxuris pirveli mrCeveli, saqarTvelos mTavrobis administracia laSa tuRuSi gazeT `rezonansis~ mTavari redaqtori ivane CxikvaZe evrointegraciis mimarTulebis menejeri fondi Ria sazogadoeba saqarTvelo Tornike nozaZe evropul da evroatlantikur struqturebSi integraciis sakiTxebSi saqarTvelos saxelmwifo ministris aparatis strategiuli komunikaciis departamentis ufrosi ana CixraZe evropul da evroatlantikur struqturebSi integraciis sakiTxebSi saqarTvelos saxelmwifo ministris aparatis strategiuli komunikaciis departamentis mTavari specialisti

gansakuTrebuli madloba: Tamar miqaZe saqarTveloSi evrokavSiris warmomadgenlobis politikisa da presis ganyofilebis TanamSromeli

daibeWda Sps `gazeTi saqarTvelos macneSi~ ISSN 1987-8486

Editorial Board Mariam Rakviashvili Deputy State Minister of Georgia on European and Euro-Atlantic Integration Zurab Karumidze First Advisor, Foreign Relations Unit, Department of Political Analysis, Strategic Planning and Coordination the Administration of the Government of Georgia Lasha Tugushi Editor-in-Chief of Resonance Newspaper Ivane Chkhikvadze EU Integration Field Manager Open Society Georgia Foundation Tornike Nozadze Head of Strategic Communication Department of the Office of the State Minister of Georgia on European and Euro-Atlantic Integration Ana Chikhradze Chief Specialist of Strategic Communication Department of the Office of the State Minister of Georgia on European and Euro-Atlantic Integration Special thanks to: Tamar Mikadze Press and Information Officer at the Political and Press Section of the Delegation of the European Union to Georgia

Printed by LTD “Newspaper Sakartvelos Matsne” ISSN 1987-8486

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Georgia’s European Way | April 2016

mas Semdeg, rac 2008 wels buqarestis natos samitze aliansma miiRo gadawyvetileba, rom saqarTvelo gaxdeba natos wevri, Cvenma qveyanam gawevrianebis gzaze mis xelT arsebuli instrumentebis, rogoric aris nato-saqarTvelos komisia, wliuri erovnuli programa da nato-saqarTvelos RonisZiebebis arsebiTi paketi, efeqtiani gamoyenebis Sedegad miaRwia mniSvnelovan progress. bolo wlebis ganmavlobaSi saqarTvelom demokratiuli da Tavdacvis reformebis kuTxiT aRsaniSnav progress miaRwia da saukeTeso praqtikasa da Sesabamis gamocdilebas aqtiurad uziarebs regionSi da mis farglebs gareT arsebul qveynebs. 2015 wlis natos sagareo saqmeTa ministerialis gancxadebiT saqarTvelo flobs yvela praqtikul instruments, gaxdes natos wevri qveyana. aRniSnuli Sefaseba mniSvnelovania imis gaTvaliswinebiT, Tu ramdenad didi progresi ganicada saqarTvelom evroatlantikuri integraciis gzaze. Cven vemzadebiT mimdinare wlis ivlisSi dagegmili varSavis samitisTvis da gvjera, rom aRniSnuli iqneba kargi SesaZlebloba, gadaidgas qveynisTvis kidev erTi mniSvnelovani nabiji aliansSi gawevrianebis gzaze. Cven veliT progress rogorc politikuri, aseve praqtikuli mimarTulebiT. mniSvnelovania ara mxolod is, rom aliansi erTgulad icavs Tavis wevrebs, aramed igi aseve aZlierebs Tavdacvis SesaZleblobebs partniorebisTvis da TamaSobs mniSvnelovan rols regionSi usafrTxoebisa da stabilurobis ganmtkicebaSi. saqarTvelos ganviTarebis gzaze uamravi dabrkoleba arsebobs. maT Soris erT-erTia antidasavluri propaganda, romelzec yuradReba gamaxvildeba natos kvireulis farglebSi, romelic saqarTveloSi 4-10 aprils gaimarTeba. RonisZiebaze saxelwodebiT, „saqarTvelo-natos sazogadoebrivi diplomatiis forumi“ mowveulni arian natos saerTaSoriso samsaxuris da natos wevri da partniori qveynebis warmomadgenlebi, saqarTvelos maRali rangis Tanamdebobis pirebi, aseve arasamTavrobo seq­toris warmomadgenlebi imisaTvis, rom ganixilon efeqtiani sajaro diplomatiasa da strategiul komunikaciasTan dakavSirebuli Temebi, propagandasTan brZolis problemebi da perspeqtivebi, aseve varSavis samitis mTavari sakiTxebi da perspeqtivebi. tradiciulad, nato-s kvireuli moicavs saxalxo diplomatiis sxvadasxva RonisZiebas: mrgvali magida, seminarebi, Sexvedrebi, konkursebi da gamofenebi. natoSi gawevrianeba saqarTvelos mTavari sagareo prioriteti da qarTveli eris grZelvadiani miswrafebaa. miuxedavad imisa, rom am sakiTxze ukve arsebobs erTiani Tanxmoba, mniSvnelovania, rom Cvens moqalaqeebs mivawodoT informacia im sargebelsa da perspeqtivebze, romelic saqarTvelosTvis evroatlantikur integracias moaqvs. minda vusurvo natos kvireuls bevri nayofieri Sexvedra, ideebis gaziareba da im warmatebis miRweva, romelic saqarTvelos moqalaqeebs daexmareba miiRon meti informacia da codna im SesaZleblobebisa da sargeblis Sesaxeb, rac axla da samomavalod moaqvs natos Cveni qveynisTvis.


Address | mimarTva

დავით ბაქრაძე ევროპულ და ევროატლანტიკურ სტრუქტურებში ინტეგრაციის საკითხებში საქართველოს სახელმწიფო მინისტრი David Bakradze State Minister of Georgia on European and Euro-Atlantic Integration Since the Bucharest NATO Summit in 2008 where Allies took upon themselves a commitment that Georgia would become a NATO Member, our country has achieved tremendous progress by effectively utilizing the integration instruments at its disposal, such as NATO-Georgia Commission, Annual National Programme and Substantial NATO-Georgia package to move forward on the membership path. In recent years Georgia has achieved remarkable advancement in its democratic transformation and defence reforms and has been committed to sharing its best practices and relevant experience with the countries of the region and beyond. According to the December 2015 NATO Foreign Ministerial statement Georgia possesses all practical tools to become a NATO member. This appreciation is an important one, when considering just how far Georgia has moved forward on EuroAtlantic track. As we prepare for the Warsaw Summit in July this year, we believe it will provide a good opportunity for our country to make another important step in the direction of the membership in the Alliance. We expect progress in that regard both in political and practical realms. What is important is that Alliance is committed to protection of its members, but also to boosting defence capacities of its partners and playing active role in strengthening of security and stability of our region.

There are many challenges along the way for Georgia. At one of those challenges - the anti-Western propaganda, we takes a closer look at the key opening event of the annual NATO week that takes place on April 4-10 in Georgia. The event titled “Georgia-NATO Public Diplomacy Forum” will gather representatives of NATO International Staff, NATO Member and Partner States, Georgian high-ranking officials as well as non-governmental sector representatives, to discuss the issues related to effective public diplomacy and strategic communication, challenges and prospects for combatting the propaganda warfare, as well as key issues and prospective deliverables of the Warsaw Summit. Traditionally, the NATO week will be comprised of multitude of public diplomacy events: roundtable discussions, seminars, meetings, competitions and exhibitions. Achieving NATO membership is Georgia’s key foreign priority goal and the long-standing aspiration of the Georgian nation. Notwithstanding the overwhelming consensus on the issue, it is important, along the way, to explain to our citizens the benefits and prospects that the Euro-Atlantic path brings to Georgia. I would like to wish the NATO week many fruitful discussions and exchanges of ideas, and wish it success in helping Georgia’s citizens to become more aware and knowledgeable of the opportunities and benefits that the present and future with NATO brings to our country.

aprili 2016 | saqarTvelos evropuli gza

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Address | mimarTva

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Georgia’s European Way | April 2016


Address | mimarTva გიორგი კვირიკაშვილი საქართველოს პრემიერ-მინისტრი

ნატო-საქართველოს სახალხო დიპლომატიის ფორუმი 2016 Giorgi Kvirikashvili Prime Minister of Georgia

NATO-GEORGIA PUBLIC DIPLOMACY FORUM 2016 Zvirfaso megobrebo, CemTvis didi pativia mogesalmoT nato-saqarTvelos saxalxo diplomatiis forumis monawileebs. dRevandeli forumi gansakuTrebul SesaZleblobas gvaZlevs ganvixiloT Tanamedrove usafrTxoebasTan dakavSirebuli rTuli sakiTxebi. usafrTxoebis kuTxiT dRes arsebuli axali gamowvevebi pasuxebs moiTxovs da swored am sakiTxebs daeTmoba es forumi. saqarTvelo, rogorc aspiranti qveyana, did mniSvnelobas aniWebs Crdilo-atlantikur aliansTan kavSirebis gamyarebas. saqarTvelo asrulebs mniSvnelovan valdebulebebs imiT, rom monawileobs natos swrafi reagirebis ZalebSi (NRF) da natos iseT misiebSi, rogoricaa saerTaSoriso usafrTxoebis mxardamWeri Zalebis operacia (ISAF). 2016 wlis bolomde Cven aseve SevinarCunebT „mtkice mxardaWeris“ misiaSi CarTulobis dones. imedi maqvs, rom natos varSavis samitis farglebSi saqarTvelo mkafio gzavnils miiRebs wevrobasTan dakavSirebiT. minda xazi gavusva, rom Tanamedrove cifrul epoqaSi sainformacio omi uprecedento safrTxes uqmnis erovnul usafrTxoebas. swored amitom, dRevandeli gamowvevebis sapasuxod strategiuli komunikacia Cveni politikis ganuyofeli nawili gaxda. es forumi kargi SesaZleblobaa, rom ufro farTod ganvixiloT sakuTari strategiebi da erTmaneTs gavuziaroT gamocdileba, Tu rogor SeiZleba gamoviyenoT strategiuli komunikacia imisaTvis, rom igi gaxdes dezinformaciasTan brZolis instrumenti rogorc Cvens regionSi, ise mis farglebs gareT. imedi maqvs, forumis muSaoba nayofierad warimarTeba. aqve minda madloba gadavuxado forumis organizatorebs _ ssip „sainformacio centrs natosa da evrokavSiris Sesaxeb“, evropul da evroatlantikur struqturebSi integraciis sakiTxebSi saqarTvelos saxelmwifo ministris aparatsa da saqarTveloSi natos samekavSireo ofiss.

Dear friends, It is a pleasure to welcome you to the 2016 NATOGeorgia Public Diplomacy Forum. This Forum provides a key opportunity to discuss topical issues related to the increasingly complex modern security environment. The new challenges that this environment poses require new responses, and that is what this Forum will seek to address. As a NATO-aspirant country, Georgia places great importance on strengthening ties with this crucial international organization. We have readily taken on our responsibilities by participating in the NATO Response Force (NRF) and several NATO missions, such as the participation in ISAF, and we will maintain the current level of engagement in the Resolute Support Mission until the end of 2016. With the Warsaw Summit to be held this summer, Georgia seeks to obtain a clear sign on its prospective membership. In the modern digital era, information warfare poses unprecedented threats to national security. Therefore, strategic communications have become an integral part of our policies to effectively address contemporary security challenges. This Forum is an opportunity to discuss our strategies in depth, and exchange best practices on how to use strategic communications as a response to misinformation in our region and beyond. I look forward to a fruitful discussion and thank the LEPL Information Center on NATO and the EU, which is organizing this Forum in cooperation with the State Minister of Georgia for European and Euro-Atlantic Integration and with the support of the NATO Liaison Office.

aprili 2016 | saqarTvelos evropuli gza

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Georgia and NATO | saqarTvelo da nato

Public სახალხო დიპლომატიის Diplomacy Forum ფორუმი

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elgiis samefoSi, q. briuselSi 22 Tebervals Catarda saxalxo diplomatiis mesame saerTa­ Soriso forumi. forumi organizebuli iyo natos saxalxo diplomatiis ganyofilebis mier, saxal­xo diplomatiis centrTan, samxreT kaliforniis universitetTan da belgiis samefos sagareo saqmeTa saministrosTan TanamSromlobiT. forumma Tavi mouyara Crdiloatlantikuri aliansisa da partniori qveynebis oficialur pirebs, aseve eqspertebs strategiuli komunikaciis sakiTxebSi. forumze ganixiles, Tu ra gavlenas axdens saxalxo diplomatiis rolze usafrTxoebis araprognozirebadi garemo, misi gamowvevebi da aRniSnuli sakiTxis mogvarebis saukeTeso instrumentebi. forumis farglebSi Catarda seminarebi Temebze: saxal­xo diplomatiis gavlena, efeqtiani cifruli dip­ lo­ma­tiis axali meTodebis Seswavla, sapasuxo propaganda da dezinformaciis gavrceleba. amave fo­ru­mis farglebSi, monawileebs miecaT informaciisa da saukeTeso praqtikis gaziarebis saSualeba diplomatebisTvis, saxalxo diplomatiis eqspertebisa da mecnierebisTvis.

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Georgia’s European Way | April 2016

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he third edition of the NATO public diplomacy forum took place on 22nd February 2016 in Brussels, Belgium. The Forum was organized by the NATO Public Diplomacy Division in cooperation with the Centre on Public Diplomacy, University of Southern California and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Kingdom of Belgium. The forum brought together officials from North Atlantic Alliance and partner countries, as well as experts on communication strategies. The forum explored how the unpredictable security environments impact the role of public diplomacy, what challenges it faces and what best practices can be applied. Within the forum several practical workshops on impacting public diplomacy, exploring new avenues for an effective digital diplomacy and countering propaganda and misinformation campaigns were organized. Participants have contributed through this Forum, to the exchange of information and the best practices between diplomats, PD practitioners and academics. The event facilitated networking opportunities between all of them too.


Georgia and NATO | saqarTvelo da nato saxalxo diplomatiis forumma saerTaSoriso usafrTxoebis dRis wesrigSi win wamowia komunikaciasTan da saxalxo diplomatiasTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebi. forumze daisva SekiTxvebi komunikaciisa da saxalxo diplomatiis sferoSi arsebul problemebTan, sapasuxo propagandis ganxorcielebis gzebTan, dezinformaciis kampaniebTan da saxalxo diplomatiis axal tendenciebTan dakavSirebiT. natos wevri qveynebis mTavrobebi da institutebi moqmedeben hibriduli omis pirobebSi, dezinformaciis kampaniebi da mimdinare krizisebi msoflios garSemo _ aris faqtorebi, romlebsac aqvT pirdapiri gavlena maTi moqalaqeebis keTildReobasa da usafrTxoebaze. tradiciulad, evropul da evroatlantikur struqturebSi integraciis sakiTxebSi saqarTvelos saxelmwifo ministris aparatisa da ssip „sainformacio centri natosa da evrokavSiris Sesaxeb“ organizebiT imarTeba natos kvireuli. aRniSnuli kvireulis farglebSi tardeba nato-saqarTvelos saxalxo diplomatiis forumi, romelic aris uprecendento movlena. aRniSulTan dakavSirebiT, Cven Zalian vafasebT natos saxalxo diplomatiis ganyofilebisa da saqarTveloSi natos samekavSireo ofisis monawileobas RonisZiebaSi. forumi maRali rangis Tanamdebobis pirebsa da eqspertebs, maT Soris evroatlantikuri struqturebidan diplomatiisa da komunikaciebis profesionalebs aZlevs saSualebas, ganixilon axali gamowvevebi, strategiebi, gauziaron erTmaneTs saukeTeso gamocdileba da Seajamon komunikaciis strategiis kuTxiT ganxorcielebuli RonisZiebebi. forumi fokusirebulia regionul ganzomilebasa da saqarTvelos rolze usafrTxoebis Tanamedrove garemoSi.

The Public Diplomacy Forum has brought certain issues related to communications and public diplomacy to the forefront of the international security agenda. The Forum has addressed questions concerning the challenges the fields of communications and public diplomacy face in the area of crisis communication, the ways of countering propaganda and disinformation campaigns and the use of new trends in public diplomacy. Governments and institutions of NATO members operate in an era of hybrid warfare, disinformation campaigns and ongoing crises around the globe – factors which have a direct impact on the well-being and security of their respective citizens. The next edition of the NATO public diplomacy forum is held in the framework of NATO Weeks in Georgia. Traditionally, the Office of the State Minister of Georgia on European and Euro-Atlantic Integration together with the LEPL Information Center on NATO and EU organizes NATO Weeks and this year, the event is marked with unprecedented flagship initiative - NATO-Georgia Public Diplomacy Forum. In this regard, we highly appreciate support of the NATO Public Diplomacy Division as well as the NATO Liaison Office in Georgia in co-organizing the event. The Forum is a great opportunity for high level officials and experts, including public diplomacy and communications professionals from Euro-Atlantic community to discuss new challenges, strategies, share best practices and sum up the results of implemented activities. The main focus of the Forum is on regional dimension and a role of Georgia in modern security architecture.

aprili 2016 | saqarTvelos evropuli gza

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Georgia and NATO | saqarTvelo da nato

ვიზიტი ნატო-ს შტაბ-ბინაში visit to nato headquarters

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vropul da evroatlantikur struqturebSi integraciis sakiTxebSi saqarTvelos saxelmwifo ministris aparatis, saqarTveloSi natos samekavSireo ofisisa da natos saxalxo diplomatiis ganyo­filebis organizebiT, 20-23 marts q. briuselSi gaimarTa samuSao viziti saqarTvelos yvela regionis, aseve aWaris avtonomiuri respublikis adgi­ lobrivi TviTmmarTvelobebis warmomadgenlebisaTvis. vizitis farglebSi, natos StabbinaSi, Sexvedrebi gaimarTa natos generaluri mdivnis specialur warmomadgenelTan kavkasiasa da centralur aziaSi b-n jeims apaturaisTan, natos generaluri mdivnis TanaSemwis moadgilesTan b-n ted uaiTsaidTan, natos saxalxo diplomatiis ganyofilebis warmomadgenlebTan q-n despina afentoulisTan da b-n robert pszcelTan, natos samoqmedo da operatiuli „A seqtoris“ xelmZRvanelTan b-n mihai karpisTan, natos generaluri mdivnis TanaSemwis moadgilesTan usafrTxoebis mosalodneli gamowvevebis ganyofilebidan b-n jeimi SeasTan, natos generaluri mdivnis specialur wamomadgenelTan qalebis, mSvidobisa da usafrTxoebis sakiTxebSi q-n mariet SurmanTan da natoSi saqarTvelos misiis xelmZRvanelTan b-n aleqsandre maisuraZesTan. amasTan, mrgvali magidis formatSi Sexvedrebi gaimarTa natoSi germaniis, rumineTis da aSS-is misiebis warmomadgenlebTan. Sexvedrebze mxareebma ganixiles saqarTvelos evroatlantikur struqturebSi integraciis procesSi mimdinare reformebi, arsebuli viTareba da perspeqtivebi, aseve mosaxleobis informirebis kuTxiT strategiuli komunikaciis mxriv mimdinare da dagegmili RonisZiebebi.

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Georgia’s European Way | April 2016

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n March 20-23, representatives of local governance of Georgia from across the country, including the Ajara autonomous, republic left for a working visit to Brussels, Kingdom of Belgium. The visit was organized by Office of the State Minister of Georgia on European and Euro-Atlantic Integration in cooperation with the NATO Liaison Office in Georgia and the NATO Public Diplomacy Division.

The delegates visited the NATO Headquarters and held meetings with the Deputy Assistant Secretary General for Political Affairs and Security Policy and NATO Secretary General’s Special Representative for the Caucasus and Central Asia, James Appathurai, Deputy Assistant Secretary General, Public Diplomacy Division, Ted Whiteside, Representatives of NATO Public Diplomacy Division, Des­ pina Afentouli and Robert Pszczel, Acting Head of Operations and Missions Section A, Operations Division, Mihai Carp, Deputy Assistant Secretary General, Emerging Security Challenges Division, Jamie Shea, Special Representative of the Secretary General, Marriët Schuurman, Head of the Mission of Georgia to NATO, Alexander Maisuradze. During the visit, round table meetings were also held with representatives of France, Romania and USA.

During the meetings, the sides discussed Georgia’s NATO integration-related reforms, current state of play and viable perspectives, as well as, ongoing and planned activities in the direction of strategic communication.


Georgia and NATO | saqarTvelo da nato

aprili 2016 | saqarTvelos evropuli gza

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Georgia and EU | saqarTvelo da evrokavSiri

ევროპის საავიაციო უსაფრთხოების სააგენტო საქართველოს სამოქალაქო ავიაციის განვითარებაში ეხმარება European Aviation Safety Agency helps Georgia develop civil aviation

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vropis saaviacio usafrTxoebis saagento (EASA), saqarTvelos samoqalaqo aviaciis ganviTarebasa da evropul standartebTan miaxloebaSi daexmareba. EASA samoqalaqo aviaciis usafrTxoebis sferoSi evrokavSiris saagentos warmoadgens, romelsac gaaCnia maregulirebeli da aRmasrulebeli funq­ ciebi. axlad SemuSavebuli teqnikuri TanamSromlobis proeqti did sargebels moutans aRmosavleT partniorobisa da centraluri aziis qveynebs. evropis saaviacio usafrTxoebis saagentom evropuli komisiisgan dafinansebis saxiT miiRo €5,000,000, raTa evropuli standartebis Sesabamisad ganaviTaros samoqalaqo aviacia somxeTSi, azerbaijanSi, saqar­ TveloSi, yazaxeTSi, yirgizeTSi, moldovaSi, taji­keTSi, ukrainasa da uzbekeTSi. aRniSnuli proeqti 2016 wlis Tebervlidan daiwyo da 4 wlis ganmavlobaSi ganxorcieldeba.

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he European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) will help Georgia develop its civil aviation in accordance with the European standards.

For this purpose, the Agency has received funding from the European Commission. The new Technical Cooperation Project will benefit the Eastern partnership and Central Asian countries. EASA was awarded a €5,000,000-Contract by the European Commission to support the sustainable development of civil aviation in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, in line with international and European standards. The deal will be implemented during a period of 4 years starting in February 2016. The project will include:

proeqti moicavs: yysaswavlo process, cnobierebis amaRlebis mizniT. yyusafrTxoebis menejmentisa da samoqalaqo aviaciis administraciis menejmentis gaumjobe­sebas.

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Georgia’s European Way | April 2016

yy Training, peer-to-peer and on-the-spot support, as well as awareness raising; yy Dedicated initiatives on safety management and civil aviation administration management;


Georgia and EU | saqarTvelo da evrokavSiri yyefeqtiani gadawyvetilebis miRebas usafrTxoebasTan dakavSirebiT, romlebic samoqalaqo aviaciis saerTaSoriso organizaciisa da evropis saaviacio usafrTxoebis saagentos mier ganxorcielebuli gamokvlevis Sedegad gamoikveTeba. yyarsebuli yovlismomcveli saaviacio SeTanxmebebis ganxorcielebis mxardaWeras, rac erToblivi saaviacio sivrcis Seqmnas uwyobs xels. yyregulaciebisa da samuSao praqtikaSi saerTaSoriso usafrTxoebis standartebis harmonizaciis mxardaWeras.

yy Effectively addressing safety findings raised by the International Civil Aviation Organisation ICAO or EASA audits;

saagentos ZiriTadi movaleobebia: samoqalaqo aviaciis usafrTxoebis sferoSi analizisa da kvlevis warmoeba, evrokavSirisTvis rekomendaciebis gacema kanonmdeblobis SemuSavebisa da implementaciis dros, TviTmfrinavebisTvis kategoriebis mixedviT serTifikatebis miniWeba da aseve saaviacio teqnikis SekeTeba da damzadeba. www.agenda.ge

The responsibilities of EASA include conducting analysis and research of safety, authorising foreign operators, giving advice for the drafting of EU legislation, implementing and monitoring safety rules (including inspections in the member states), giving type-certification of aircraft and components as well as the approval of organisations involved in the design, manufacture and maintenance of aeronautical products.

yy Support for the implementation of existing comprehensive aviation agreements, paving the way towards a Common Aviation Area; yy Support for the harmonisation of regulations and working practices with international safety and security standards. yy EASA is an agency of the European Union (EU) with regula­ tory and executive tasks in the field of civilian aviation safety.

ნინო ალავიძე, სტენსილი თბილისის ძველ იპოდრომზე Nino Alavidze, Stencil at Tbilisi old Hippodrome aprili 2016 | saqarTvelos evropuli gza

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Georgia and EU | saqarTvelo da evrokavSiri

დავით ბაქრაძე ევროპულ და ევროატლანტიკურ სტრუქტურებში ინტეგრაციის საკითხებში საქართველოს სახელმწიფო მინისტრი David Bakradze State Minister of Georgia on European and Euro-Atlantic Integration

„საქართველოს ევროპული გზები“ Georgia’s European Ways

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aqarTvelo istoriulad da kulturulad yovelTvis evropuli saxelmwifo iyo da misi kursi naTelia, dabrundes evropul ojaxSi _ „saqarTvelos evropuli gzebis“ fonze. „saqarTvelos evropuli gzebi“ aris cnobili qarTveli moazrovneebis eseebis erToblioba, romlebmac aRmoaCines saqarTvelos evropuli identobis fesvebi da misi uZvelesi kultura. „saqarTvelos evropuli gzebi“ cdilobs, warmoaCinos evropis idea qarTul politikur, kulturul da esTetikur warmodgenaSi, raTa ganmartos, Tu ratom miiswrafis saqarTvelos „evropuli ocnebisken“ ase mgznebared. wignis prezentacia daigegma aTeulobiT evropul qalaqSi. gamocema miznad isaxavs warmoaCinos faqtebi saqarTvelos evropul warmoSobasa da identobaze. oficialuri prezentacia ganxorcielda evroparlamentSi, briuselSi, 2016 wlis 24 Tebervals. RonisZiebas maspinZlobda evroparlamentis wevri, didi britaneTis social-demokratiuli partiis wevri kler mudi wignis gamocemam miipyro evroinstituciebis, kerZo seqtoris, analitikosebisa da mecnierebis yur-

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eorgia has always been historically and culturally European and is set today on a clear course to return to its place within the European family of nations – against this backdrop the book ‘Georgia’s European Ways’. ‘Georgia’s European Ways’ is a collection of essays by eminent Georgian thinkers from various fields exploring the origins of Georgia’s European identity and its ancient culture. ‘Georgia’s European Ways’ seek to present how the Georgian political, cultural and esthetic imagination defined the idea of Europe in the minds of Georgians and to explain why Georgia pursues its ‘European Dream’ so passionately. The edition aims to present the multiple facets of Georgia’s European origins and identity. It was officially launched in the European Parliament, Brussels, on February 24, 2016 at the event hosted by Member of European Parliament (MEP) Clare Moody from Social-Democratic Party in the United Kingdom. The book launch attracted guests from European institutions, the private sector, think-tanks and academics, who heard first-


Georgia and EU | saqarTvelo da evrokavSiri

adReba, romlebmac pirvelebma mousmines wignis gamomcemels zurab qarumiZes, wignis erT-erT avtors qeTevan kinwuraSvils, saqarTvelos elCs evropaSi natalia sabanaZes da bizantiuri literaturis cnobil mecniers bernard kulies mowodebebs saqarTvelos evropul wiaRSi dabrunebaze. „xangrZlivi istoriidan da geografiuli mdebareobidan gamomdinare, saqarTvelos aris qveyana, sadac mravali kultura da tradicia aris Serwymuli“ ganmarta natalia sabanaZem. saqarTvelosgan gansxvavebiT, evropa Tavad aris kulturaTa da civilizaciaTa SenadnobTa gaerTianeba. „Cven didi xnis ganmavlobaSi vcdilobdiT gangvemarta, Tu ras niSnavs „evropuli“ ena da warmomavloba _ iTargmneba, rogorc evropis ena“, ga-

hand from the book’s editor Zurab Karumidze, one of the book’s authors Ketevan Kintsurashvili, Georgian Ambassador to the EU Natalie Sabanadze and well-known Byzantine literature scholar Bernard Coulie, about Georgia’s ongoing quest to return to its European roots. “Due to its long history and geographic location, Georgia is a country of many influences and a place where cultures and traditions have mixed and merged”, explained Natalie Sabanadze. Not unlike Georgia, Europe itself is a melting pot of cultures and civilizations. “We have tried for a long time to define what ‘European’ language or identity is – the language of Europe is translation”,

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Georgia and EU | saqarTvelo da evrokavSiri nacxada zurab qarumiZem umberto ekos gamoTqmaze dayrdnobiT _ „pirveli evropelebi erTianni arian mravalferovnebaSi“. bernard kuliem agreTve ganmarta, rom identoba aris mxolod SegrZneba _ „jgufisadmi mikuTvnebulobis grZnoba, vinaidan Cven viziarebT saerTo maxasiaTeblebs“. rogorc evroparlamentis wevrma kler mudma ganacxada: „saqarTvelos da evropas aqvT bevri saerTo kanonmdeblobaSi, literaturaSi da farTo kulturul aspeqtebSi. garda amisa, miuxedavad sabWoTa warsulis simZimisa, saqarTveloze didi gavlena iqonia evropulma mxatvrulma moZraobebma: renesansi, modernizmi da barokoc ki. yvela maTgani warmodgenilia qarTul kulturul landSaftSi. qeTevan kinwuraSvilma ganmarta, Tu rogor gaxda Tbilisi „axali parizi“ adreul 1920-ian wlebSi qalaqis „evropul“ ubanSi mxatvruli kafeebis aRmocenebiT. 1991 wels, damoukideblobis miRebis Semdeg, saqarTvelos sagareo politika calsaxad proevropuli gaxda, bolo siaxle aris evrokavSirTan asocirebis xelSekrulebis xelmowera da implementacia da progresi vizaliberalizaciisken. darwmunebuli var, SesaZloa qarTuli sazogadoebisTvis bevri sakiTxi sakamaToa, magram Cvens evropuli identobis sakiTxis garSemo yvela ZiriTadi politikuri partia Tanxmdeba. es aris saqarTvelos momavali.

საქართველო ისტორიულად და კულტურულად ყოველთვის ევროპული სახელმწიფო იყო და მისი კურსი ნათელია, დაბრუნდეს ევროპულ ოჯახში. Georgia has always been historically and culturally European and is set today on a clear course to return to its place within the European family of nations stated Zurab Kuramidze, quoting Umberto Eco: “Europeans are united in diversity”. Bernard Coulie further explained that identity is just a feeling – “a sense of belonging to a group because we feel we share characteristics”. As MEP Clare Moody said, “Georgia and Europe share many commonalities in their law, literature and wider cultural aspects”. Particularly Georgia, despite the weight of its Soviet past, has experienced many of the influences, which have successively captured European artistic movements: renaissance, modernism and even baroque. All have made appearances on the Georgian cultural landscape. Ketevan Kintsurashvili explained how Tbilisi became the ‘new Paris’ in the early 1920s, with the emergence of artistic cafés in the city’s “European” district. Since gaining independence in 1991, Georgia’s foreign policy has unambiguously been pro-European; the latest developments being the signature and implementation of the Association Agreement with the European Union and progress towards visa liberalisation. I am sure Georgian society may argue a lot about many things but as far as our European identity is concerned all major political parties agree. This is where Georgia’s future belongs.

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Georgia and EU | saqarTvelo da evrokavSiri

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Georgia and EU | saqarTvelo da evrokavSiri

ნათია კვიციანი პროგრამების ადგილობრივი კოორდინატორი, მიგრაციის საერთაშორისო ორგანიზაციის (IOM), მისია საქართველოში Natia Kvitsiani National Programme Officer, IOM Mission to Georgia

კვალიფიცირებული დიასპორელების დროებითი დაბრუნება სამშობლოში (TRQN III) ინსიტიტუციონალური და ადამიანური კომპეტენციების გაზრდა დიასპორის ჩართულობით

Temporary Return of Qualified National (TRQN III) Increasing institutional and human competences through Diaspora engagement

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igraciis saerTaSoriso organizacia (IOM) saqarTveloSi programis _ kvalificirebuli diasporelebis droebiTi dabruneba samSobloSi (TRQN III) ganxorcielebiT xels uwyobs qveyanaSi sajaro, kerZo Tu samoqalaqo seqtoris organizaciebsa da struqturebSi ucxoeTSi Sesabamisi kvalifikaciis mqone Tanamemamuleebis mivlinebas. diasporaSi arsebuli gamocdilebisa da eqspertizis identificirebis mizniT IOM muSaobs dainteresebul organizaciebTan da pirebTan saqarTveloSi, niderlandebsa da evropis sxva qveynebSi moqmed diasporul organizaciebsa da migrantTa arsebul

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he International Organization for Migration (IOM) is implementing the TRQN III in Georgia and supports temporary assignments of qualified diaspora individuals in public, private or civil organizations. With an aim to identify experience and expertise available within Diaspora, IOM works with stakeholder organizations and individuals in Georgia and with Diaspora organizations and migrant networks active in the Netherlands and other European countries. IOM ensures dissemination of detailed information about TRQN III in order to identify institutional


Georgia and EU | saqarTvelo da evrokavSiri qselebTan. IOM uzrunvelyofs TRQN III programis Sesaxeb informaciis gavrcelebas da detalurad gacnobas, raTa Cven qveyanaSi arsebuli institucionaluri saWiroebebisa da sakadro moTxovnebis identificireba moaxdinos da ucxoeTSi moRvawe, Sesabamisi kvalifikaciis mqone profesionali Tanamemamuleebi miavlinos. programa, Cveni diasporis SuamdgomlobiT saqarTvelosa da noderlandebs Soris, struqturaTa Soris axali saintereso kontaqtebis damyarebisa da ganviTarebis SesaniSnav SesaZleblobas iZleva. programis Sesaxeb damatebiT informaciis misaRebad ewvieT IOM gverds www.iom.ge. q-ni maia simonia gaxlavT Cveni Tanamemamule holandiidan, romelmac saqarTveloSi TRQN III programis saSualebiT arasamTavrobo seqtorSi ramdenime mivlineba ganaxorciela. igi erT-erTi naTeli magaliTia im kvalificirebul TanamemamuleTa Soris, vinc migraciamde arsebuli da emigraciaSi dagrovili gamocdilebisa da codnis saintereso sinTezi Seqmna da ris gaziarebasac samSoblosTvis Tavis movaleobad miiCnevs. profesiiT mxatvari maia simonia, saxelovnebo moRvaweobis da holandiel megobrebTan maRali donis samzareulo gamocdilebis garda, amsterdamSi

needs and qualification requirements in our country and accordingly assign professional diaspora persons, with relevant qualifications residing in the Netherlands or other EU countries. The programme provides excellent opportunity for Georgian organizations to establish new, interesting contacts in the Netherlands, to support cooperation between different structures of these two countries, with our Diaspora acting as an intermediary. For more information about the programme, visit IOM Georgia webpage: www.iom.ge Ms. Maia Simonia is our compatriot from the Netherlands, who completed several assignments with NGO sector under the TRQN III programme. She is a clear example of those qualified nationals, who manage to combine in an interesting way experience and knowledge gathered before and during emigration; she believes that it is her responsibility to share it with her country.   Ms. Maia Simonia is a painter. She has extensive experience as an artist. In 2009, she founded an organization for cultural exploration and development “ArtJet-FCED” in Amsterdam. Later, she also worked in a family business in France. As a result, after observing economic activities in a French village in Provence, she developed some informational

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Georgia and EU | saqarTvelo da evrokavSiri 2009 wels saxelovnebo-kulturul organizacia ArtJet-FCED aarsebs. mogvianebiT, safrangeTSi saojaxo biznesSic iRebs saTanado gamocdilebas, ris Sedegadac, provansalis franguli soflis ekonomikur funqcionirebaze dakvirvebiT, qmnis saqarTvelos soflis Temis ganviTarebisaTvis saintereso sainformacio da dokumentur masalas. moklemetraJiani dokumenturi filmebi asaxavs patara evropuli soflis ekonomikur viTarebas, romelsac qmnian adgilobrivi mcxovreblebi. miuxedavad imisa, rom q-ni maia ZiriTadad fokusirebulia kulturisa da kulturul-saxelovnebo aqtivobebis ekonomikur mxareze, misi leqciebi aseve farTod mimoixilavs ekonomikuri ganviTarebis yvela aspeqts da gareSe xelSemwyob faqtorebs, rac kulturis sazRvrebs cdeba. reportaJebi ZiriTadad mcire zomis mewarmeebs eTmoba. eseni arian: xelovanebi, Rvinis mwarmoeblebi, fermerebi, mesaqonleebi, meTuneebi, kempingis da restornebis mesakuTreebi da a. S. soflad mcxovrebi biznesmenebi martivi eniT mogviTxroben TavianTi biznesis warmoebis umTavresi detalebis Sesaxeb, strategiaze da ganviTarebisTvis aucilebel pirobebze, arsebuli viTarebis gaTvaliswinebiT frangi mcire mewarmeebis uSualo gamocdileba gansakuTrebiT sainteresoa qarTveli glexis da mewarmeobis msurveli soflis sxva mcxovreblebisaTvis. mniSvnelovania ara marto sainformacio masala, aramed rogorc fiqris da ideebis generirebis pirdapiri da arapirdapi sababi, romelic udavod met mizandasaxulobas Sematebs maT (xSir SemTxvevaSi) gaurkvevel mdgomareobas. soflis mkvidrTa mier farTod gaazreba imisa, Tu ra aris SesaZlebeli dRevandeli qarTuli soflis realobaSi _ arsebuli daukmayofilebeli moTxovnebi produqtebze, momsaxurebaze da a.S., romelic SesaZloa mcire ZalisxmeviTa da resursebiT daiwyo, moiZio dafinansebis saSualebebi saxelmwifo Tu donori organizaciebis sagranto/sasesxo fondebidan

მიგრაციის საერთაშორისო ორგანიზაცია ხელს უწყობს უცხოეთში შესაბამისი კვალიფიკაციის მქონე თანამემამულეების მივლინებას. Citizens with appropriate training are send on business trips with the support of International Migration Organisation. material and documentaries relevant for development of rural communities in Georgia. Her short documentary movies describe economic situation in a small European village developed by local population. Despite the fact that Maia’s work mainly focuses on cultural activities and arts and culture, her lectures widely observe all aspects of economic development and external factors, which encourage such development and go beyond culture. Coverage is mainly dedicated to medium-size entrepreneurs. These usually are artists, wine-makers, farmers, cattlemen, potters, owners of camps and restaurants etc. Village businessmen describe in a simple language main details, strategy of their activities and steps that are necessary for development in line with available opportunities. Information provided directly by small entrepreneurs from France is especially interesting for Georgian farmers and other potential entrepreneurs in the villages not only as information material, but also as a direct and indirect trigger for generating ideas, which helps them to define their purpose (as quite often there is a lack of determination). For people in the villages to have broader understanding of opportunities that are available in Georgian villages today – existing unsatisfied demand on products or services that can be improved by small effort and resources, through

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Georgia and EU | saqarTvelo da evrokavSiri da sxva _ ukve naxevrad miRweul miznad SeiZleba CaiTvalos. q-nma maiam Tavisi leqciebis kursiT saqarTvelos yvela mxare moiara da soflebSi gamarTul Sexvedrebisas qarTuli soflis mcxovreblebs aCvena momavlis soflis Seqmnis realuri SesaZleblobis perspeqtiva. es mkafio gzavnili eyrdnoba konkretul magaliTebs da martiv gadawyvetilebebs, sadac aucilebel faqtors warmoadgens mizandasaxuloba, aqtiuroba, informaciis moZieba, realuri nabijebis gadadgma, romelic sabolood mimarTulia survilisken dafiqrdnen _ rogor an ra saSualebiT SeiZleba miiRos sargebeli ojaxma da Temma.

identification of sources of funding such as grants from state or donor organizations/credit funds etc. – can be considered as partially achieved goal. Maia visited all regions of Georgia, conducted lectures during her meetings with local population in the villages and presented to them real opportunity and perspective for developing village of the future. This clear message is based on specific examples and simple decisions, which mainly consist of determination, activity, information gathering, taking real steps etc. All of these are directed towards their willingness to think about contributing economically or intellectually to their families and community.

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Business and Economy | biznesi da ekonomika

ბორჯომის ტურისტული პოტენციალი BORJOMI TOURISM POTENTIAL 22

Georgia’s European Way | April 2016


Business and Economy | biznesi da ekonomika

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Business and Economy | biznesi da ekonomika

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ourism industry is one of the fastest growing sector in Georgia. In comparison to last year the amount of tourists in February has increased by 24%. Along with the growth of tourists, more and more placement facilities and infrastructural projects are built in Georgia. Borjomi and Bakuriani resorts are especially popular among international and local tourists. During the last 14 months two premium class hotels – Rixos and Crowne Plaza were built in Borjomi. Besides, completely new Kokhta trail was launched in Bakuriani. Main infrastructure projects are financed by Government, but private investments were also made by Georgian Reconstruction and Development Company (GRDC) to build modern alpine zone which includes new hotels, entertainment and shopping centers. Georgian National Tourism Administration is also actively involved in the development of Samtskhe-Javakheti’s tourism potential; they have organized media tours in terms of project “Meet Georgia”, furthermore in Borjomi many sporting events were held including media rafting. In order to improve the quality of service, hotel workers in this region were trained by National Tourism Administration.

გიორგი ჩოგოვაძე საქართველოს ტურიზმის ეროვნული ადმინისტრაციის ხელმძღვანელი Giorgi Chogovadze Head of the Georgian National Tourism Administration

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aqarTveloSi turizmis industria erT-erTi yvelaze mzardi seqtoria. ucxoel mogzaurTa raodenoba wlidan wlamde sul ufro matulobs. TebervalSi saerTaSoriso mogzaurTa raodenoba 24%-iT gaizarda 2015 wlis analogiur periodTan SedarebiT. turistebis raodenobis zrdis paralelurad sul ufro meti ganTavsebis obieqtebis Sendeba saqarTvelos kurortebze, aqtiurad xorcieldeba infrastruqturuli proeqtebi. saqarTvelos kurortebidan borjomi da bakuriani rogorc saerTaSoriso, aseve qveynis Sida mogzaurebs Soris oTxive sezonze gansakuTrebiT popularulia. orive kurortze aqtiurad mimdinareobs infrastruqturuli proeqtebi, Sendeba ganTavsebis obieqtebi, dasasvenebeli centrebi. bolo 14 TveSi borjomSi ori saerTaSoriso brendi _ premium klasis sastumroebi Rixos da Crowne Plaza gaixsna. bakurianSi ki 8-wliani pauzis Semdeg pirvelad koxtas sruliad axali tipis sabagiro amoqmedda. saxelmwifom daafinansa ZiriTadi sabaziso infrastruqtura, moawesriga sabagiro da misasvleli gza, kompania „jiardisis“ mier kerZo investicia ganxorcielda Tanamedrove alpuri standartebiT dagegmili, faqtobrivad, axali dasaxlebis mSeneblobaSi. saubaria sastumroebze, gasarTob da savaWro centrebze. samcxe-javaxeTis turistuli potencialis ganviTarebis mizniT aqtiurad aris CarTuli turizmis

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Borjomi is famous for its mineral water industry (which is the major export of Georgia). Archaeological excavations have revealed the existence of stone baths in the area, proving that these mineral waters have been utilized by people for thousands of years. Because of the supposed restorative and healing powers of the area’s mineral springs, it is a frequent destination for people with health problems. Borjomi is also home to the most extensive ecologically themed amusement park in the Caucasus.

Top Ten Tourist Destinations to Visit in Borjomi Municipality Mineral Water Park The most remarkable virtues of Borjomi are its striking nature and unique mineral waters. One of the best places to experience this is the “Mineral Water Park” of Borjomi. The park itself dates back to the 1850s and is an attractive destination all throughout the year. Here you can taste the natural Borjomi mineral water and relax in a beautiful environment. Try riding the cable car up to the Ferris wheel at the top of the park. Borjomi Museum of Local Lore One of the oldest museums in Georgia; it first opened its doors in 1926. The building itself was constructed in 1890, and is unique both in its architecture and building materials used. Today it houses over 36,000 items, including four permanent exhibits. The Museum offers a full range of information about the town, from the flora and fauna to documents confirming healing properties of Borjomi mineral waters. It also contains many of the 18th–19th century glass, bronze, porcelain and wood artifacts, which belonged to the Russian Royal family.


Business and Economy | biznesi da ekonomika erovnuli administracia. Sidaturizmis waxalisebis mizniT, proeqt „gaicani saqarTvelos“ farglebSi, regionSi ramdenime presturi moewyo. administraciis mxardaWeriT, imarTeba sportuli RonisZiebebi, maT Soris mediajomardi borjomSi. momsaxurebis xarisxis gaumjobesebis mizniT turizmis erovnulma administraciam borjomisa da bakurianis sastumroebis TanamSromlebs treningebi CautardaT. borjomis municipalitetis kurortebis popularobaSi udidesi roli Seasrula vulkanuri warmoSobis mineralurma wyalma borjomma, romelic, bunebrivi monacemebiT, 1500 welze mets iTvlis. borjomi msoflios mraval qveyanaSia popularuli. borjomis wyali dedamiwis zedapirze amodis 8-10 kilometris siRrmidan bunebrivi gazis,naxSirbadis dioqsidis wnevis meSveobiT. bevri sxva mineraluri wylisgan gansxvavebiT, ver aswrebs miwis qveS gaciebas da zedapirze amodis Tbili saxiT (38-41°С), romelic „gzadagza“ mdidrdeba kavkasionis mTebSi arsebuli 60 sxvadasxva mineralis kompoziciiT. borjomis wylis kvlevis Sedegebi aCvenebs, rom mis formirebaSi monawileobs siRrmiseuli mineralizebuli, Tanamedrove mtknari da dabali mineralizaciis wylebi.

borjomis municipalitetSi arsebuli turistuli mimarTulebis topaTeuli. mineraluri wylebis parki borjomis ZiriTadi simdidre Tvalwarmtaci buneba da unikaluri mineraluri wyalia. maradmwvane xeobaSi Cafluli mineraluri wylebis parki weliwadis yovel dros saocrad mimzidvelia da dasvenebisa da garTobisaTvis saukeTeso adgils warmoadgens. aqve SegiZliaT daagemovnoT borjomis samkurnalo wyali specialurad aSenebul „biuvetSi“. parks 30 heqtarze meti farTobi ukavia. mxareTmcodneobis muzeumi muzeumis Senoba ganTavsebulia ruseTis saimperatoro ojaxis _ romanovebis kancelariis SenobaSi (fsevdogoTuri stilis arqiteqturuli nageboba 1890 wels germanelma inJiner-arqiteqtorma v.Sveierma aago). muzeumSi daculia unikaluri brinjaos samkauli da iaraRi (Zv.w II-I aTaswleulebi); mravalferovani numizmatikuri koleqcia (Zv.w V-ax.w. XX ss.); romanovebis piradi nivTebi: evropuli da aziuri warmoebis WurWeli, ferweruli da grafikuli namuSevrebi. petres cixe petres cixe, romelic q. borjomidan 3 km-s daSorebiT mdebareobs, Sedgeboda citadelisa da masTan dakavSirebuli qveda ezosagan. amJamad cixis galavansa da Sidacixes Soris SemorCenilia sxvadasxva nagebobis naSTebi – sacxovrebeli darbazebisa da marnis nangrevebi. galavanSi datanebulia saTofurebi da salodeebi.

ბორჯომის მუნიციპალიტეტის კურორტების პოპულარობაში უდიდესი როლი შეასრულა ვულკანური წარმოშობის მინერალურმა წყალმა ბორჯომმა Borjomi – the mineral water of volcanic origin has largely contributed to the popularity of the resorts of Borjomi Municipality.

Peter’s Castle The medieval castle is located on a high rocky mountain, a few kilometers from Borjomi. In the XVI century, after the Ottoman conquest of Tori (a historic region of Georgia), Peter’s Castle was the administrative center of the Ottomans. Currently, the preserved remains of various buildings lie within the fortress walls, including ruins of a residence hall and a wine cellar. Likanis’ Palace The Romanovs’ Palace dates back to the nineteenth century. In 1892-1895, the palace was built by architect Leontin Benua, under the order of Russian Tsar Nikolas II. The palace houses unique exhibits, including a  table given to the Romanovs by Napoleon, armchairs given by the Shah of Iran, and a historical hand-made table carved by the Russian Emperor Peter I. You will also find a Romanov era billiard table in the billiards room. Location: village of Likani Borjomi-Kharagauli National Park Borjomi-Kharagauli protected area is one of the largest national parks in Europe. Its total territory amounts to 85,083 ha, more than 1% of the territory of Georgia. The national park offers hiking, horseback riding, biking, cultural and educational tours – the routes function throughout the year. Picnic spots and camping sites are also situated along the routes. The National Park visitors’ center will be more than happy to help you with any organizational issues. Timotesubani Monastery – The Cathedral of Holy Virgin Located 17 kilometers from Borjomi, the church was constructed between the 12th – 13th centuries. The interior is decorated with some of the best examples of Georgian mural painting of the 13th century.

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likanis sasaxle

Kvabiskhevi Church of the Assumption

likani ZvelTaganve yuradRebas ipyrobda Tavisi ganumeorebeli bunebrivi silamaziT. swored amitom ruseTis didma mTavarma romanovma sasaxle aaSenebina renesansis stilSi, romelic maSin dasasvenebeli zafxulis rezidencia iyo. dekoratiuli nargavebiTa da skverebiT dafarul teritoriaze rva agarakia, romlis centrs mavritanuli stilis sasaxle warmoadgens. sasaxle likanis ZiriTadi RirsSesaniSnaobaa.

The three-aisled basilica, constructed in the 8th–9th centuries, is one of the most historic buildings in Borjomi valley, located just 21 kilometers from the town of Borjomi. The frescos within the church date back to the 12th and 13th centuries. Eiffel Bridge

borjom-xaragaulis daculi teritoria erT-erTi udidesi erovnuli parkia evropaSi. misi saerTo farTobi Seadgens 85,083 heqtars, rac saqarTvelos teritoriis 1%-ze metia. erovnuli parki vizitorebs sTavazobs salaSqro, sacxenosno, velo da saganmanaTleblo turebs. parkis marSrutebi mTeli wlis ganmavlobaSi funqcionirebs.

A visitor will be impressed with the Eiffel Bridge, which was built in the Borjomi-Bakuriani narrow-gauge line. Construction of this bridge was ordered by Mikhail Romanov in France, to be built by the French engineer and designer of bridges, the architect of the famous “Eiffel Tower” erected in Paris, Gustave Eiffel. Construction of the bridge began in 1897 over the rive Tsemistskali. The on-site installation of the bridge was carried out by the designer Vissarion Keburia. In January 1902, the narrow-gauge railway line Borjomi-Bakuriani carried the first small locomotive. The small locomotive still serves fans of skiing and tourism. The bridge is still called the “Eiffel Bridge” among people.

timoTesubnis RvTismSoblis monasteri

Bakuriani

RvTismSoblis miZinebis saxelobis timoTesubnis gumbaTovani eklesia q. borjomidan 18 km-s daSorebiT mdebareobs. taZari XII-XIII saukuneebiT TariRdeba da qarTuli kulturis erT-erT umniSvnelovanes Zegls warmoadgens.

Located at 1,700 m in the Borjomi region of Georgia, Bakuriani is nestled in the shadows of the breathtaking Caucasus Mountains, only a three-hour drive from Tbilisi. Home to dozens of alpine slopes and cross-country trails, it offers some of the most spectacular skiing and snowboarding in Europe. Originally developed

borjom-xaragaulis erovnuli parki

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qvabisxevis eklesia borjomis xeobaSi erT-erTi uZvelesi da saintereso nageboba wminda mariamis miZinebis qvabisxevis eklesiaa. VIII-IX saukuneebis samnavian bazilikaSi kedlis mxatvroba XII-XIII saukuneebiT TariRdeba. taZarSi warmodgenilia SoTa rusTavelis unikaluri freska. eifelis xidi gasaocar STabeWdilebas tovebs mnaxvelze e.w eifelis xidi,romelic agebulia borjom-bakurianis viwroliandagian rkinigzaze. igi mixeil romanovma safrangeTSi SeukveTa frang inJiner-konstruqtorsa da xidebis mSenebels, parizis cnobili „eifelis koSkis“ avtors aleqsandre gustav eifels. xidis mSenebloba 1897 wels daiwyo mdinare cemiswyalze. adgilze xidis montaJi ganaxorciela konstruqtorma besarion qeburiam. 1902 wlis ianvridan viwroliandagiani rkinigzis xaziT borjomi – bakuriani, pirvelma ,,kukuSka” matarebelma gaiara. ,kukuSka” dRemde emsaxureba saTxilamuro sportis moyvarulebsa da turistebs.

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as an Olympic training facility, unsurprisingly, Bakuriani is Georgia’s most popular winter sports and recreation destination. Enjoy the downhill ski runs, cross-country trails, horseback tours, sledding or simply take long walks through beautiful snowy forests. Main trails in Bakuriani: Kokhta 2 (2,255 m high) also known as Tatra. Twenty-five is an area of easy skiing located on the Circular, near the old 25 meter ski-jump which gives the area its name. Here beginners and children can learn to ski in a safe and pleasant environment, surrounded by the mighty Caucasus Mountains. You can also toboggan and sledge here, or take a horse drawn sleigh-ride through the ancient forests. Didveli has one of the most amazing trails. From here, you can catch a gondola to the slopes of Mt. Sakvelo, and ski a range of blue and red routes. The longest piste is around 4 km long. Advanced skiers can continue further up the mountain by catching a chairlift at the top of the gondola to almost the very top of Mt. Sakvelo itself. Here, you can enjoy stretching your ski-legs on very steep and difficult red and black runs.


Business and Economy | biznesi da ekonomika bakuriani mdebareobs zRvis donidan 1700 metris simaRleze, gansacvifrebeli kavkasionis mTis Ziras. adre kurorti warmoadgenda olimpiuri sportsmenebis saswavlo bazas. ase rom, ar aris gasakviri infrastruqturisa da bilikebis aseTi maRali done. igi gvTavazobs yvelaze sanaxaobriv saTxilamuro da snoubordis trasebs evropaSi. yvelaze popularuli zamTrisa da rekreaciuli daniSnulebis kurortia. ixaliseT Cqari daSvebiT, ganitvirTeT sarben bilikebze, sacxenosno turebiT, cigiT srialiT an ubralod datkbiT ulamazes Tovlian tyeebSi seirnobiT. bakurianis ZiriTadi bilikebi: koxta 2 (2.255m simaRlis) cnobili rogorc TaTra. ocdaxuTi – ioli biliki, 25-metriani tramplinis maxloblad. es damwyebTaTvis da bavSvebisaTvis idealuri adgilia, usafrTxo da sasiamovno garemos fonze iswavlon sriali. Tqven aseve SegiZliaT isrialoT cigiT an mimdebare teritoriaze datkbeT sacxenosno turiT. didvelis trasa gadis erT-erTi yvelaze maRali mTis ferdobze evropaSi, swored aqedan iSleba saocari xedebi. ferdobze moxvedra SegiZliaT gondolas meSveobiT, daSvebas ki lurji an wiTeli marSrutiT SeZlebT. yvelaze grZeli saTxilamuro zoli gadis daaxloebiT 4 kilometrSi. gamocdil moTxilamureebs ki SeuZliaT gacilebiT Sors asvla. iqidan daSveba ki SegiZliaT cicabo da rTuli – Savi an wiTeli marSrutebiT. sxva aqtivobebi: bakurianis jvaredini bilikebi izidavs rogorc eqspertebs, aseve damwyeb moTxilamureebsa da snouborderebs. ori yvelaze rTuli daSveba SegiZliaT ganaxorcieloT koxtasa da didvelis mTidan. xolo Tu sriali da snoubordi TqvenTvis xelsayreli saqmianoba ar aris, bakuriani gTavazobT dauviwyari dro gaataroT zamTris ardadegebze, iseirnoT bakurianis parkSi da ijiriTod cxenebze. mTebi da xeobebi bakurianis garSemo idealuria imisaTvis, rom gadaadgildeT TovlmavliT. aseve SegiZliaT romantiulad gaiseirnoT etliT da datkbeT Tvalwarmtaci soflis xedebiT. gidis momsaxureba, maT Soris erTadgiliani da oradgiliani Tovlmavlebi SegiZliaT adgilze iqiraoT sastumroebsa da sxvadasxva maRaziaSi. tabisyuris tba samcxe-javaxeTis mxareSi, borjomisa da axalqalaqis municipalitetebis sazRvarze,mdebareobs tabisyuris tba. igi zRvis donidan 1991 m. simaRlezea ganTavsebuli. sarkis farTobi 14,2 km²,-ia. wyalSemkrebi auzis farTobi 83,1 km², udidesi siRrme 40,2 m., saSualo siRrme 15, 5 m., wylis moculoba 221 mln. m³. tbis qvabuli warmoqmnilia lavuri nakadebis Segubebis Sedegad. sazrdoobs miwisqveSa, Tovlisa da wvimis wylebiT. tba gamdinarea miwisqveSa gziT. wylis done dabalia TebervalSi, maRalia ivnisSi. gayinulia dekembris bolodan martis bolomde. wyali mtknaria, mdidaria TevziT. tbis garSemo gaSenebulia soflebi tabawyuri da moliTi.

Other activities: Bakuriani’s cross-country trails attract experts as well as beginners. Two of the most challenging runs begin on Mt. Kokhta (2,155 m) and Mt. Didveli. If skating is your winter pastime, Bakuriani offers plenty of opportunities, among them at Bakuriani Park and the rink at the Hotel Edem. The hills and valleys around Bakuriani are ideal for snowmobiling, but if you prefer to get around the old-fashioned way, horse-drawn sleighs are the traditional mode of winter transportation in Bakuriani, so for a romantic treat, take a romantic sleigh-ride around the picturesque village. Guide services, including renting single and double-seat snowmobiles, are available through many hotels and shops. Tabatskuri Lake Tabatskuri Lake is located between Borjomi and Akhalkalaki districts in Samtskhe-Javakheti region on the sea level of 1991m (surface 14.2 km²). It is of vulcanic origin, with a maximum depth of up to 40.2m (average 15.6m) and the water volume of 221 million m³. Therefore, it offers fishing for trout, barbel and carp. The lake basin was formed as a result of congestion of lava flows. It is filled by underground and rain waters. The lake flows through the underground routes. The water level is low in February, high - in June. It is Frozen from December until the end of March. The villages Tabatskuri and Moliti are located near the lake.

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მანანა ვარდიაშვილი www.eugeorgia.info

ევროკავშირმა ქართული მატყლი ბაზარზე დაუშვა Manana Vardiashvili www.eugeorgia.info

Georgian wool to be exported to EU countries

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xoveluri warmoSobis pirveli produqti, romelic saqarTvelodan evrokavSiris bazarze Seva, matylia. e.w. mesame qveynebis im sias, romlebidanac evrokavSirSi daumuSavebeli matylis Setana SeiZleba, saqarTveloc daemata. am etapze evrokavSirma matylis mwarmoebeli 2 kompania aRiara: Sps `jorjian vul~ da Sps `qarTuli matylis kompania~. Sesabamisad, evrokavSiris qveynebSi daumuSavebeli (gaurecxavi) matylis gatana mxolod am or kompanias SeuZlia. saqarTvelodan evrokavSirSi matylis pirveli sacdeli partia 2015 wlis seqtemberSi gaigzavna. `qarTuli matylis kompaniasa~ da Curtis wool direct limited-s Soris gaformebuli kontraqtis Tanaxmad, kompanias 25 tona matyli unda eyida, 1 kg 1,05 aSS dolarad (am fasSi Sedioda transportirebis Rirebulebac). Tumca matylis pirveli partia, romelic britaneTSi unda Sesuliyo, sazRvridan ukan _ saqarTveloSi dabrunda. mizezi is iyo, rom mesame qveynebis im nusxaSi, romlebidanac evrokavSirSi daumuSavebeli matylis Setanaa nebadarTuli, saqarTvelo ar iyo aRricxuli da arc “qarTuli matylis kompanias” hqonda evrokavSiris aRiareba.

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he first animal by-product to enter the EU market is wool. Georgia was added to the list of so-called third countries, from which raw wool can be exported to the EU. At this stage, the EU recognized two wool manufacturing companies: ltd “Georgian Wool” and ltd “Georgian Wool Company”. Accordingly, these two companies are capable to export the raw (unwashed) wool to the EU. The first sample quantity of the wool was sent to the European Union in September, 2015. According to the agreement between “Georgian Wool company” and “Curtis Wool Direct Limited”, the company had to buy 25 tons of wool, 1kg. for 1,05USD (including transportation). However, the first batch of wool to enter the Great Britain was returned. The reason was that Georgia was not among those third countries from which the raw wool export is allowed to the EU. Neither “Georgian Wool Company” had the EU recognition. “We were looking forward for the completion of the recognition process. The agreement with “Curtis Wool Direct Limited” is still in force. We are still planning to send them the trial batch of wool. We need some time to collect it. We have sent the production we


Business and Economy | biznesi da ekonomika `Cven aRiarebis procesis dasrulebas velodiT. Curtis wool direct limited-Tan SeTanxmeba isev ZalaSia. maTTvis sacdeli partiis gagzavnas isev vgegmavT. garkveuli dro gvWirdeba imisTvis, rom matyli movagrovoT. produqcia, rac gvqonda, ukrainasa da indoeTSi gavgzavneT. britaneTSi Cven mier Catanili matylis gadamuSavebis Semdeg gavigebT, Sedgeba Tu ara Cvens Soris grZelvadiani TanamSromloba,~ _ ambobs www.eugeorgia.info-sTan saubarSi `qarTuli matylis kompaniis~ xelmZRvaneli zaur kulievi. qarTuli matylis SeZeniT erT-erTi germanuli kompaniac iyo dainteresebuli. `1 wlis win gvqonda SemoTavazeba. radgan Cveni sawarmos aRiarebis procesi dasrulda, molaparakebas isev ganvaaxlebT,~ _ ambobs Sps `jorjian vulis~ direqtori gia xadilaSvili. sursaTis erovnul saagentoSi acxadeben, rom saxelmwifom yvelaferi gaakeTa imisTvis, rom am kompaniebs evrokavSiris aRiareba mieRoT. `aris mTeli rigi moTxovnebi, romlebic axla uSualod am kompaniebma unda Seasrulon. magaliTad, matyli ise unda iyos SefuTuli, rom SesafuTi masalis dabinZureba absoluturad gamoiricxos. aRniSnuli produqcia miRebis saboloo adgilamde arsad unda gaixsnas. transportirebis drosac garkveuli zomebis miRebaa saWiro: 24 saaTiT adre unda gafrTxildes sabaJo im adgilze, sadac matyli evrokavSiris sazRvars gadakveTs. am wesebis Sesruleba rTuli ar aris. aRiarebis am procesiT evrokavSirma Zalian didi ndoba gamogvicxada Cven _ saxelmwifos, mis makontrolebel sistemas, anu sursaTis erovnul saagentos da am konkretul kompaniebsac. Cven aviReT valdebuleba, rom es kompaniebi weliwadSi orjer SevamowmoT da vnaxoT, ras da rogor akeTeben isini evrokavSiris standartebis da moTxovnebis dasakmayofileblad da asruleben Tu ara Cven mier micemul rekomendaciebs,~ _ acxadebs sursaTis erovnuli saagentos ufrosis moadgile, mixeil soxaZe. evrokavSiris qveynebSi matylis, rogorc cxoveluri warmoSobis produqtis Setanas, evrokavSiris direqtivebiN142/2011 da N97/78 aregulireben. imisTvis, rom qarTuli matyli evrokavSiris bazarze Sevides, mas aucileblad unda hqondes warmoSobis sertifikati _ EUR1. garda amisa, usafrTxo unda iyos adamianis janmrTelobisTvis da Sesabamisi sertifikatic hqondes. kidev ori moTxovnis Sesrulebaa saWiro: 1. matyli unda iyos kargad gamSrali da SefuTuli usafrTxod da 2. gaigzavnos pirdapir im sawarmoSi, sadac misi gadamuSaveba moxdeba. es saWiroa imisTvis, rom ar moxdes raime daavadebis gavrceleba. Tu am ori moTxovnidan romelime ar sruldeba _ magaliTad, matyli ar aris SefuTuli usafrTxod, an ar midis pirdapir im sawarmoSi, romelic mas gadaamuSavebs, matyli CaiTvleba Cveulebrivi cxoveluri warmoSobis produqtad, romelmac SeiZleba mimReb qveyanaSi cxovelTa janmrTelobas ziani miayenos da mas mimRebi qveynis sabaJo ukan daabrunebs. `jorjian vuls~ da Sps `qarTuli matylis kompanias~ amJamad matyli eqsportze indoeTSi, ukrainasa da CineTSi gaaqvT. am qveynebSi 1 kg gaurecxavi matylis fasi 0,7 aSS dolaria. am fasSi Sedis transportirebis Rirebulebac.

სახელმწიფომ ყველაფერი გააკეთა იმისათვის, რომ საქართველოში მატყლის მწარმოებელმა კომპანიებმა დაუმუშავებელი მატყლი ევროკავშირის ქვეყნებში გაიტანონ. The government has done everything to ensure export of raw wool to EU countries by Georgia's wool producer companies.

had to Ukraine and India. After processing our wool in Britain, we will see the availability of our long-term cooperation.” – stated Zaur Kuliev, owner of ltd “Georgian Wool Company”, One German company was interested in purchasing Georgian wool. “We had an offer one year ago. As the recognition process is completed, negotiations will be resumed” – said Gia Khadilashvili, director of ltd “Georgian Wool”. The representatives of National Food Agency say that the state did everything to ensure the EU recognition for these companies. Now, the companies should fulfill number of requirements. E.g. wool should be packed in a way to absolutely exclude packaging material contamination. Package should not be opened anywhere until final destination. Rules of transportation: the Customs, where the wool package will cross the EU border should be warned 24 hours earlier. These rules are not difficult. The EU believes in our state, its regulatory system – the National Food Agency and companies, in particular. We are committed to check these companies twice a year, what they do in line with the EU standards.” – stated Mikheil Sokhadze, Deputy Head of the National Food Agency. Export of the wool to the EU, as an animal by-product is regulated by COMMISSION REGULATION (EU) No 142/2011 of 25 February 2011 and Council Directive 97/78/EC. To enter the EU market, Georgian wool should have a EUR1 Movement  Certificate. Besides this, it must be safe for human health and have appropriate certificate. Additional two requirements are as follows: 1. wool should be well dried and packed safely and; 2. should be sent directly to the factory, where the processing will take place. This is necessary to prevent any spread of the disease. If any of these requirements are not fulfilled, the wool will be considered as an ordinary animal by-product, which can harm animal health in the destination country and Customs will return it back. Currently, ltd “Georgian Wool” and ltd “Georgian Wool Company” export wool to India, Ukraine and China. In these countries, the price for 1kg. unwashed wool is 0.7USD, including transportation.

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გეზით ევროპისკენ, საზღვრების გარეშე United Airports of Georgia

Towards Europe, without borders

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entralur da aRmosavleT evropaSi cnobili erT-erTi yvelaze msxvili da dabalbiujetiani aviakompania WizzAir-i saqarTveloSi, kerZod daviT aRmaSeneblis saxelobis quTaisis saerTaSoriso aeroportSi 2012 wlis seqtemberSi Semovida. Tavdapirvelad mas mgzavrebi quTaisis saerTaSoriso aeroportidan kievSi gadahyavda. mogvianebiT, aviakompaniasa da saqarTvelos aeroportebis gaerTianebas Soris warmatebuli molaparakebis Sedegad, WizzAir-ma quTaisis saerTaSoriso aeroportidan sxva mimarTulebiTac daiwyo aviareisebis Sesruleba da momxmarebels saSualeba misca evropis araerT qalaqSi SeRavaTian fasad efrina. aviakompaniam mgzavrebi komfortuli, momxmarebelze orientirebuli WizzAir klubis servisiTac moxibla, rac imas niSnavs, rom mis erTgul momxmarebels aviabileTebis SeZena nebismier dros fasdaklebiT SeuZlia. klubis wevroba martivia _ erTjeradad gadaxdili, daaxloebiT ocdaaTi evros sanacvlod, mTeli wlis manZilze aviabileTebze fasdaklebas, ufro meti bargis gadatanis saSualebac Tan axlavs.

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ne of the biggest and low-budget airline in Central and Eastern Europe, WizzAir, entered Georgia, namely, King David the Builder Kutaisi International Airport, in September 2012. At first, it offered passengers flights from Kutaisi International Airport to Kiev. Later, after successful bilateral negotiations between the airline company and the United Airports of Georgia, WizzAir started flights from Kutaisi International Airport also to other destinations allowing its customers to fly to numerous European cities in reduced prices. Furthermore, airline attracted its passengers by comfortable and customer-oriented service, WizzAir Club, which entitles loyal customers to purchase tickets at a lower price anytime. Being a Club member is easy – in exchange of one-off payment of about 30 euros, you get all year long sales on tickets, plus the benefits of transporting extra luggage. Currently, WizzAir flies in the directions of Budapest, Vilnius, Katowice and Warsaw and has transported more than 500 000 passengers since 2012.


Business and Economy | biznesi da ekonomika quTaisis saerTaSoriso aeroportidan WizzAir -i amJamad budapeStis, vilniusis, katovicesa da varSavis mimarTulebiT dafrinavs da 2012 wlidan dRemde 500 000-ze meti mgzavri hyavs gadayvanili. saqarTvelos ekonomikisa da mdgradi ganviTarebis saministros Sps saqarTvelos aeroportebis gaerTianebam mimdinare wlis 4 Tebervals gamarTul preskonferenciaze WizzAir-is momxmarebels sasiamovno siaxle gaacno _ 2016 wlis seqtemberSi quTaisis saerTaSoriso aeroportSi WizzAir-is baza gaixsneba. konkretulad _ aeroportSi mudmivad iqneba aviakompaniis TviTmfrinavi da WizzAir-i quTaisis saerTaSoriso aeroportidan kidev Svid axal mimarTulebas daamatebs berlinis, memingen-miunxenis, milanis, dortmundis, salonikis, sofiasa da larnakas mimarTulebiT. aRniSnuli mimarTulebebis aviabileTebis SeZena momxmarebels ukve SeuZlia vebgverdze _ www. wizzair.com; rogor movxvdeT saqarTvelos sxvadasxva qalaqidan quTaisis saerTaSoriso aeroportSi? sad aris aeroportisken mimavali transportis gaCereba? iqneb, taqsiT gvesargebla? saqarTvelos centraluri qalaqebidan quTaisis saerTaSoriso aeroportSi kompania Georgian Bus-is satransporto saSualebebiT imgzavrebT. quTaisis saerTaSoriso aeroportis oficialuri partniori kompaniis Georgian Bus-is mikroavtobusebi da minivenebi reisebs frenebis ganrigis

At the press-conference held on February 4, 2016, LTD United Airports of Georgia of the Ministry of Economy and Sustainable Development of Georgia, introduced pleasant news to the customers of WizzAir – WizzAir Base will open at Kutaisi International Airport in September 2016. Thus, the company will place its permanent airplane at the airport and WizzAir will add seven more directions from Kutaisi International Airport: Berlin, Memmingen-Munich, Milan, Dortmund, Thessaloniki, Sofia and Larnaca. Customers can already purchase tickets on webpage - www.wizzair.com; How to get to Kutaisi International Airport from different cities of Georgia? Where is the last stop of the airport bus? Maybe we should take a Taxi? You can travel from Georgia’s central cities by “Georgian Bus”. Official partner of Kutaisi International Airport, “Georgian Bus” minibuses and minivans have their schedules planned according to flights. Therefore, they will get you to the airport at least one hour before the flight. Besides, if the passenger is in Kutaisi, the minibus will get to the address indicated by the passenger whereas from other cities you need to get to the specific station areas. Customers can purchase tickets on webpage - www.georgianbus.com and also find out the exact location of the minibus stations in your city. From March 17, 2016 using “Georgian Bus” will get easier for tourists and locals. Particularly, when

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Business and Economy | biznesi da ekonomika mixedviT asruleben. Sesabamisad, aeroportSi, sul mcire, erTi saaTiT adre migiyvanen, rom gafrenamde yvela procedura Seuferxeblad gaiaroT. garda amisa, quTaisidan aeroportis mimarTulebiT gamgzavrebisas transporti mgzavrs misTvis sasurvel miTiTebul misamarTze akiTxavs, xolo sxva qalaqebidan reisebi winaswar dadgenili teritoriidan xorcieldeba. samgzavro bileTebis SeZena momxmarebels Semdeg vebgverdze SeuZlia _ www.georgianbus.com. aseve, vebgverdis saSualebiT gaigebT TiToeul qalaqSi transportis sadguris adgils. 17 martidan saqarTveloSi momavali turistebisa da adgilobrivebisaTvisac Georgian Bus-iT gadaadgileba kidev ufro martivi gaxdeba. kerZod, WizzAir-is vebgverdze aviabileTis SeZenis dros, mgzavrebs saSualeba eqnebaT iqve SeiZinon aeroportidan transferis bileTi da quTaisSi Camosulebi sasurveli mimarTulebiT martivad gadaadgildnen. aviakompania WizzAir-is siaxleebi _ quTaisis saerTaSoriso aeroportSi bazis gaxsna da damatebuli aviareisebi qveyanaSi turizmis ganviTarebis saukeTeso winapirobaa. axali mimarTulebebi saSualebas aZlevs saqarTvelos mosaxleobas xelmisawvdom fasad ifrinos evropaSi. mTeli es procesi ki miuTiTebs, rom qveyana kidev ufro viTardeba da rom saqarTvelo evropis didi ojaxis sapatio wevria.

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purchasing airplane tickets on WizzAir webpage, passen­ gers can also buy a transfer ticket for minibus from Kutaisi and travel easier to preferred destinations. Airlines news in Georgia, such as, WizzAir opening base in Kutaisi International Airport and adding new destination flights, is the best opportunity for tourism development in the country. The new destinations give the chance to the population of Georgia to travel to Europe for affordable prices. The whole process indicates the countries continuous development and is an honorable member of the large European family.


Business and Economy | biznesi da ekonomika

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Business and Economy | biznesi da ekonomika

მაიკო გაბულდანი www.eugeorgia.info

ბიოღვინო Maiko Gabuldani www.eugeorgia.info

Organic wine

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aremosa da jandacvasTan dakavSirebuli problemebis gamo bolo wlebSi evropelebi arCevans bioproduqtebze akeTeben. am mxriv, gamonaklisi arc Rvinoa. evropa msoflioSi organuli(bio) Rvinis yvelaze msxvili mwarmoeblia, Tumca es ar niSnavs imas, rom mesame qveynebisTvis bazari daketilia, bioproduqciaze gazrdil moTxovnas adgilobrivi warmoeba ver akmayofilebs. biomeRvineebi saqarTveloSic mcire raodenobiT arian, maTi nawili sakuTar produqcias TiTqmis mTlianad evropis bazarze yidis, Tumca evropaSi jer kidev bevri adgilia, sadac bioRvinoze moTxona maRalia, qarTuli bioproduqtisa da saqarTvelos cnobadoba ki _ dabali. am dros evropeli momxmarebeli arCevans gamocdilebasa da miRebul informaciaze dayrdnobiT akeTebs. irakli nikolaSvili erT-erTi pirveli mewarmea,

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n recent years, Europeans have been choosing organic products, due to environment and health related problems. Wine is not an exception. Europe is the biggest wine producer, but that doesn`t mean that its market is closed for third countries. Local production cannot meet the demand for organic products. There are a few bio-winemakers in Georgia as well. Some of them export their entire product to the EU market. However, there are many places in Europe, where demand on organic-wine is high, but awareness about Georgia is low. At the same time, Europeans make decision based on experience and information. Irakli Nikolaishvili is one of the first entrepreneurs, who exported organic-wine to the EU market. In 2009 he exported it to Lithuania and then, in January of 2016, to Switzerland and Germany. Nikolaishvili decided to obtain a certificate, since he did not have the sufficient financial means needed for


Business and Economy | biznesi da ekonomika romelmac bioRvino evropis bazarze gaitana. pirvelad, 2009 wels litvaSi gayida, bolo partia (1000 boTli) ki Sveicariasa da germaniaSi mimdinare wlis ianvarSi gagzavna. nikolaSvils reklamisTvis saWiro finansebi ar hqonda da gadawyvita, ekologiurad sufTa produqtis damadasturebeli sertifikati aeRo, rac misi produqtis popularobas gazrdida. dRes saferavis sertificirebuli biovenaxi gurjaanSi 6 ha-ze aqvs gaSenebuli, Tumca biowarmoebis Senaxva iafi ar ujdeba. „sertifikatamde rom mixvide 3000 evro ginda, sertifikatis aRebis Semdeg ki Semowmebebi yovelwliurad, esec finansebTanaa dakavSirebuli. mere ar ici, gayidi Tu vera, iseve unda iwvalo, rogorc Cveulebriv Rvinoze. Cven rom daviwyeT biowarmoeba, maSin bevri ar iyo, evropaSic Zalian cotas hqonda da amitom ufro miviqcieT yuradReba, sertifikati rom ar mqonoda, albaT, amdens ver movaxerxebdiT“, _ ambobs nikolaSvili. erT weliwadSi apirebs biosertifikatis aRebas guja goderZiSvilic, romelsac bakurcixeSi 2 heqtarze aqvs venaxi da weliwadSi daaxloebiT 2000-3000 boTls asxams. sertifikatis aRebamde britanel partniorebTan awarmoebs molaparakebebs da wlis bolomde 1200 boTlis gagzavnasac gegmavs. „2 welia, rac bioRvinos vawarmoebT, 3 weli gvWirdeba imisTvis, rom biosertifikati aviRoT. SemoTavazeba iyo britanelebis mxridan da Cvenc gamovexmaureT, male gavaformebT xelSekrulebas. 1-2 kviraSi gveqneba zusti pasuxi da gadaigzavneba pirveli partia“, _ ambobs goderZiSvili. bioRvinis mxolod mcire warmoeba aqvs (5000 boTli) iago bitariSvils mcxeTis raionis sofel CardaxSi, Tumca produqcias TiTqmis mTlianad evropul bazarze yidis da didi popularobiTac sargeblobs. bitariSvili ambobs, rom yvela ganviTarebul qveyanaSi izrdeba moTxovna organul produqciaze. iagos Rvino dRes 11 qveyanaSi iyideba, maT Soris, umetesoba evropis qveynebia (italia, safrangeTi, Sveicaria, germania, dania, SvedeTi, espaneTi, slovenia, avstria). iagos Rvino naturaluri produqtis maRaziebSi daaxloebiT 20 evro, restornebsa da Rvinis maRaziebSi ki 3-jer Zviri Rirs. „ekologiuri, jansaRi kvebis, daavadebebis TvalsazrisiT, gansakuTrebiT aqtualuri gaxda jansaRi produqti (sakvebi, sasmeli) anu bio, organuli da es tendencia aramxolod evropaSi, aramed yvela ganviTarebul qveyanaSi sagrZnobia.interesis mxriv gamoirCeva italia, imis miuxedavad, rom TviTonac Rvi­nis mwarmoebeli qveyanaa, italiaSi gatanis Semdeg sta­bilurad moTxovnadia yovel wels. aseve, inglisi Zalian sain­tereso bazaria nebismieri mwarmoeblisTvis, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom franguli Rvinis popularizaciaSi Tavis droze didi roli iTamaSa inglisma,

advertising. Currently he has 6 hectares of certified Saperavi bio-vineyard. “You need 3000 euros to obtain a certificate and then yearly examinations.. Everything is related to finances. Then you are not sure if your product will sell. . But we attracted customers, because at the time there were very few bio-wine producers in Europe.” – Nikolaishvili stated. Guja Goderdzishvili is planning on acquiring a bio certificate in one year. He has 2-hectares of vineyard in Bakurtsikhe and produces approximately 2000-3000 bottles of wine per year. Before obtaining a certificate, he negotiated with British partners and plans to send 1200 bottles of wine to Great Britain. “It has been almost 2 year since we started to produce wine. We need 3 more years to obtain a bio certificate. We got an offer from the British side andsoon we made an agreement. We will know the answer in 1-2 weeks and the first lot of product will be sent to Great Britain.” – said Goderdzishvili. Iago Bitarishvili produces 5000 bottles of wine in village Chardakhi, Mtskheta region and exports almost the entire production to the EU market where it very popular. Bitarishvili says that the demand on bio-wine is increasing in all developed countries. Iago’s wine is sold in 11 countries, including Italy, France, Switzerland, Germany, Sweden, Spain, Slovenia and Austria. Wine is sold in specialized stores for 21-22 EUR and the price is twice as much in restaurants and bars. “The trend of healthy-bio product – food, drink is very popular not only in Europe but in all developed countries. Italy can be distinguished in its interest in bio-products, despite the fact that it is wine-producing country. After exporting to Italy, the demand on biowine is increasing. Great Britain’s market is also very interesting for all wine producers. It can be said thatEngland played a vital role in promoting French wine. Our wine is sold in very prestigious places. A Few years ago we couldn’t even imagine this happening and today I believe that the UK market is very important for us.” – said Bitarishvili. The Jakeli brothers are among those successful bio-wine makers. In 2001, Malkhaz and Zaza Jakeli planted a bio vineyard in the village Khashi, Sagarejo region. At first, they planted grapes on 5 hectares. Compared to simple ones, biovineyards usually produce 6 times less harvest. They decided to increase production and add Rkatsiteli Qvevri wine to their assortment. They are going to involve neighboring farmers in their project. The Jakeli brothers’ wine is sold in Great Britain, Switzerland and Polad.

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Business and Economy | biznesi da ekonomika sakmaod prestiJul adgilebze iyideba. ramdenime wlis win amas verc warmovidgendiT da amitom didi britaneTi Zalian mniSvnelovani bazaria CvenTvis“, _ ambobs bitariSvili. warmatebul biomeRvineebs Soris arian Zmebi jayelebic. malxaz da zaza jayelebma organuli venaxis Cayra sagarejos raionis sofel xaSmSi 2001 wels daiwyes. yurZeni Tavis droze mxolod 5 haze gaaSenes, organuli venaxi ki CveulebrivTan SedarebiT eqvsjer nakleb mosavals iZleva (2-3 tona/ ha-ze), jayelebma gadawyvites, warmoeba gazardon da asortimentSi rqawiTelis qvevris Rvinoc daamaton, proeqtSi ki mezobeli fermerebis CarTvas apireben. dRes jayelebis Rvino inglisis garda, Sveicariasa da poloneTSi iyideba. `moTxovna maRalia rogorc sazRvargareTidan, aseve adgilobriv bazrebze, magram ver vakmayofilebT _ sul 6-7aTas boTls vawarmoebT weliwadSi. venaxi niSans 5 wlis Semdeg iZleva, magram srul msxmoiarobaSi 8-9 weliwadSi Sedis, garda amisa, erTi ha-s gaSeneba 15-20 aTasi dolari jdeba, CvenTvis sakmaod grZelvadiani da Zviri investiciaa, amitom gadavwyviteT, mezoblebs davexmaroT venaxi organulad gardaqmnan da saWiro raodenobis yurZeni maTgan SevisyidoT“, _ ambobs zaza jayeli. jayelebis momaval partniorebs, sami weli dasWirdebaT imisTvis, rom biologiurad sufTa produqti miiRon _ swored 3 welia gansazRvruli vada mravalwlovani kulturebisTvis. dRes saqarTveloSi saerTaSoriso akreditaciis mqone erTaderTi organoa „kavkasserti“, romelic biosertifikats gascems. kompaniis xarisxis menejeris zurab nadareiSvilis gancxadebiT, bolo 2 welia gaizarda meRvineTa raodenoba, romelTac sakuTari meurneobis organulad gardaqmna undaT. „CvenTan daaxloebiT 20 meRvinea daregistrirebuli, aqedan naxevari sertificirebulia, anu konversiis periodi gaiares _ konversiis periodi niSnavs, rodesac mewarme gaakeTebs ganacxads, rom unda biomeTodiT awarmoos produqcia, mere unda gaiaros gardamavali periodi da 3 wlis Semdeg miRebuli produqti iTvleba bioproduqtad. am 3 wlis ganmavlobaSi sertificirebis organo inspeqtirebebs utarebs... saqarTveloSi meurneobebi yvelaze xSirad daaxloebiT 0-10 ha-mdea. aseT SemTxvevaSi inspeqtirebas sWirdeba 3 saaTi, TiTo saaTi jdeba 120 dolari, savaraudod, erTi inspeqtirebis saSualo fasi kaxeTSi 400-450 dolaria. wlis ganmavlobaSi savaldebuloa 1 gegmiuri inspeqtireba. im SemTxvevaSi, Tu fiqsirdeba darRveva an Tu aris bio da standartuli meurneoba Serwymuli erTi meurneobis farglebSi, riski maRalia da SeiZleba Catardes gaufrTxilebeli inspeqtirebac“, _ ambobs nadareiSvili.

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“Deand is high, both abroad and at local markets. We produce approximately 7000 bottles of wine per year, but it is not enough. The vineyard needs 8-9 years for full harvest. Besides this, the cultivation of 1 hectare costs 15-20 thousand USD dollars. So it’s a long-term and expensive investment. We decided to help our neighbors to transform their vineyard to bio and buy additional number of grapes from them.“ – said Zaza Jakeli. Jakeli brothers’ future partners will need 3 years to achieve organic products. Today, the only accredited company that issues the bio certificate is “Kavkasserti”. The quality manager of this company, Zurab Nadareishvili stated that the number of winemakers, who want to transform their vineyard to bio, increased during the last 2 years. “About 20 winemakers are registered. Half of them are certified – passed the conversion period. The conversion period means that the entrepreneur applies, goes through the transition period and after 3 years the product is considered to be bio. During the 3 years, our company inspects them. Vineyards in Georgia are about 10 hectares. In this case, the inspection needs 3 hours. One hour costs 120USD dollars. The average price for the Kakheti region is 400-450USD dollars. One inspection a year is mandatory. If bio and standard vineyards are combined, company can inspect them without warning” – said Nadareishvili.

What is bio-wine? Bio-winemakers try to avoid using additives and prefer natural processes. They have to maintain a high quality grape potential and uniqueness. “Three points are important: plant protection, soil fertilization and weed control. Synthetic drugs must be replaced with organic ones. It’s the same for plant protection. As for weed control, only labor-saving devices are used here.” – said Nadareishvili. Rules of bio-wine producing laid out by legislation: – Produce only by organic grapes. – Every product, including grapes, concentrated sweet, sugar or alcohol must be organic. – It is restricted to use genetically modified microorganisms and additives while conducting biological processes.


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Business and Economy | biznesi da ekonomika ra aris organuli Rvino? organul meRvineobaSi meRvineebi maqsimalurad eridebian gareSe danamatebis gamoyenebas da upiratesobas aniWeben bunebrivad warmarTul procesebs. biomeRvine minimalurad unda Caerios daRvinebis procesSi da maqsimalurad SeinarCunos yurZnis potenciuri maRali xarisxi da gansakuTrebuloba. „sami sakiTxia mniSvnelovani: mcenareTa dacva, niadagis ganoyiereba da sarevelebTan brZola. sinTezuri preparatebi unda Caanacvlon biowarmoebaSi daSvebuli saSualebebiT. mcenareTa dacvis SemTxvevaSic igivea _ sinTezuri, sistemuri preparatebi unda Canacvldes biowarmoebaSi nebadarTuli kontaqturi saSualebebiT. rac Seexeba sarevelebis kontrols, aq mxolod meqanikuri saSualebebi gamoiyeneba“, _ ambobs „kavkassertis“ xarisxis menejeri zurab nadareiSvili. dRevandeli kanonmdeblobiT organuli Rvino unda akmayofilebdes Semdeg moTxovnebs:

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– While processing bio-wine biological, mechanical and physical methods are preferred. – It is allowed to use all wine permitted additives. But it is desirable to use them only when necessary. Until 2012, the official definition of “organic wine” didm’t exist in Europe. In 2012, the European Union adopted a regulation that defines the rules of production of organic wine.

European market In Europe, the largest producers of organic wine are Spain, France and Italy. In these countries, some of the most prestigious wine estates were transformed into organic farms. Wine holdsmore than 10% of the organic market in France and Croatia, 5% in Norway and Sweden. According to the Dutch Research Institute CBI survey, the greatest potential for export from developing countries are


Business and Economy | biznesi da ekonomika _ damzaddes mxolod organuli yurZnisagan; _ yvela ingredienti, iqneba es yurZnis tkbili, koncentrirebuli tkbili, Saqari (im qveynebSi sadac daSvebulia), spirti unda iyos organuli; _ biologiuri procesebis warmarTvisas dauSvebelia genetikurad modificirebuli mikroorganizmebis gamoyeneba. aseve, dauSvebelia genmodificirebuli organizmebiT miRebuli danamatebisa da damxmare masalebis gamoyeneba; _ organuli Rvinis damuSavebisas upiratesoba eniWeba biologiur, meqanikur da fizikur procesebs da cdiloben naklebad Caerion qimiuri xerxebiT; _ daSvebulia meRvineobaSi nebadarTuli TiTqmis yvela danamatis gamoyenebac, magram sasurvelia maTi gamoyeneba moxdes mxolod aucileblobis SemTxvevaSi; 2012 wlamde, evropaSi „organuli Rvinis“ oficialuri ganmarteba ar arsebobda. 2012 wels evrokavSirma miiRo reglamenti, sadac ganisazRvra organuli Rvinis warmoebis wesebi.

evropis bazari evropaSi, organuli Rvinis yvelaze msxvili mwarmoeblebi espaneTi, safrangeTi da italiaa. am qveynebSi zogierTi prestiJuli Rvinis mamulic ki organul meurneobad gardaiqmna. safrangeTsa da xorvatiaSi organuli bazris 10%-ze meti ukavia Rvinos, norvegiasa da SvedeTSi ki _ bazris 5%. holandiuri kvleviTi institutis CBI Catarebuli kvlevis mixedviT, ganviTarebadi qveynebidan organuli Rvinis eqsportis yvelaze didi potencialia norvegiaSi, SvedeTSi, fineTSi, daniaSi, germaniaSi, did britaneTSi, SveicariaSi, avstriasa da beniluqsis qveynebSi. rac Seexeba safrangeTs, italiasa da espaneTs, naklebad dainteresebuli arian organuli Rvinis importiT, vinaidan sakuTari warmoebac sakmarisi aqvT. germania msoflioSi organuli Rvinis wamyvani importioria, wliurad daaxloebiT, 30 milion boTls yidulobs, ZiriTadad italiidan da espaneTidan. izrdeba rogorc sacalo movaWreebis, aseve restornebis ricxvi, sadac mxolod organulad warmoebuli Rvino iyideba. imis miuxedavad, rom organuli Rvino mainc rCeba niSur bazrad, zogierT qveyanaSi da maT Soris: niderlandebSi, germanisa da skandinaviis qveyneb-

ბიომეღვინე მინიმალურად უნდა ჩაერიოს დაღვინების პროცესში და მაქსიმალურად შეინარჩუნოს ყურძნის პოტენციური მაღალი ხარისხი და განსაკუთრებულობა. Bio-winemakers try to avoid using additives and prefer natural processes.

to Norway, Sweden, Finland, Denmark, Germany, Great Britain, Switzerland, Austria and the Benelux countries. France, Italy and Spain are less interested in importing organic wine, as they have enough local production. Germany is the world’s leading importer of organic wines. Annually, they buy 30 million bottles from Italy and Spain. The number of retailers as well as restaurants, where only organically produces wine is sold, are increasing.

Marketing methods/tools Wine producers are using different marketing methods in order to increase sales and popularize their product. Marketing methods include exhibitions and B2B meetings that utilizes direct contact between wine producers. The latest trend in Europe shows that producers offering the product to the consumer are using onlinesales, though there are some countries (Scandinavian countries) where the direct online-sale is considered to be illegal. According to the Association Agreement Action plan, in order to diversify the export markets, the Ministry of Economy

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Business and Economy | biznesi da ekonomika Si (dania, norvegia, SvedeTi da fineTi) ukve kargad aqvT Camoyalibebuli organuli Rvinis bazrebi.

marketinguli meTodebi Rvinis mwarmoeblebi sakuTari produqciis gasayidad da populariazciisTvis sxvadasxva meTods iyeneben, maT Sorisaa gamofenebi da e.w. B2B Sexvedrebi, rodesac pirdapiri kontaqti dgeba mwarmoeblebs Soris. evropaSi, bolo periodSi SesamCnevia tendencia, rodesac mwarmoebeli pirdapir momxmarebels sTavazobs sakuTar produqts, amisTvis ki yvelaze kargi gza onlain-gayidvebia, Tumca zogierT qveyanaSi pirdapir momxmareblisTvis onlain-miyidva aralegalurad miiCneva (skandinaviis qveynebi). asocirebis SeTanxmebis 2016 wlis samoqmedo geg­ mis mixedviT, saeqsporto bazrebis diversifikaciis mizniT, saqarTvelos ekonomikis saministros aqvs valdebuleba (mewarmeobis ganviTarebis saagentom) ganaviTaros ukve moqmedi savaWro portali http:// tradewithgeorgia.com/, sadac unda ganTavsdes informacia qarTuli kompaniebisa da maTi produqtebis, saqarTvelos savaWro partniorebis, sabaJo gadasaxadebisa da procedurebis Sesaxeb. dRes evropaSi bevrs ara aqvs informacia ganviTarebadi qveynebidan Rvinoebze, Tu ar CavTvliT samxreT afrikasa da Ciles, swored am damakavSireblis funqcias unda asrulebdes portali http://tradewithgeorgia.com/, Tumca, jerjerobiT, ar arsebobs srulyofili informacia qarTuli produqtebis saeqsporto potencialze. „qveynis da Rvinis cnobadoba jer kidev ar aris didi, jer kidev aris adgilebi, sadac ar ician qarTuli Rvino, mudmivi muSaobaa saWiro marketinguli TvalsazrisiT. ufro metad unda gavacnoT _ ratom qarTuli Rvino? ratom saqarTvelo? riTia gamorCeuli es metma unda gaigos. maisSi imarTeba Rvinis festivali, kargi iqneba saxelmwifom xeli Seuwyos ucxoeli Jurnalistebis Camoyvans, rom mere amaze daiweros, gadaiRon. es ar niSnavs imas, rom saxelmwifom mxolod fuli daxarja, rac meti daxarja, miT meti Rvino gaiyideba da fulic meti Seva biujetSi“, _ ambobs iago bitariSvili. holandiuri organizacia CBI, romelic ganviTarebadi qveynebidan eqsportis SesaZleblobebze wers, eqsportiorebs urCevs:

ექსპორტიორები მიიჩნევენ, რომ საჭიროა მარკეტინგული აქტივობების გაძლიერება, ევროპაში ქართული პროდუქტის ცნობადობის გასაზრდელად. Experts consider that there is a need of strengthening marketing activities in order to increase the awareness of the Georgian product in Europe.

(Enterprise Development Agency) has an obligation to develop the already existing portal http://tradewithgeorgia.com/ which contains information about Georgian companies and their products, trade partners, customs duties and procedures. Today in Europe, many people do not have information about the wines from developing countries, except South Africa and Chile. So the portal http://tradewithgeorgia.com/ should have a connecting function, but so far there is no complete information about the export potential of Georgian products. “The awareness of our country and our wine is not enough, still there are places, where people do not know Georgian wine, constant work is necessary in terms of marketing. We need to popularize Georgian wine. What is Georgian wine? What is Georgia? More people should know what the differentiator of Georgian wine is. A Wine festival will be held in May, it will be profitable if our government encourages to attract foreign journalists to

1) potenciur „baiers“ miawodon srulyofili informacia kompaniisa da produqtis Taobaze, aseve, Seqmnan unikaluri da mimzidveli istoria sakuTar kompaniasa da produqtze.

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write and broadcast our festival. It doesn’t mean that the government only spends money, it means that spending more money leads to selling more wine and increasing state budget” – says Iago Bitarishvili


Business and Economy | biznesi da ekonomika 2) gagzavnon mxolod sufTa da warmosadegi nimuSebi, mkafio etiketiT, sadac yvelaferi weria fasiTa da moculobiT dawyebuli, sakontaqto informaciiT damTavrebuli.

He writes about export opportunities, recommends the following exporters: 1) To provide comprehensive information about their companies and their products to potential buyers,

CBI marketingul procesSi saelCoebis rolzec amaxvilebs yuradRebas da aRniSnavs, rom saelCoebi

also to create an unique and attractive history of the company and its products.

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Business and Economy | biznesi da ekonomika gansakuTrebiT kargi SesaZleblobaa potenciur myidvelebze gavlenis mosaxdenad, vinaidan dainteresebuli arian sakuTari qveynidan produqciis popularizaciaSi da SeuZliaT gamoiyenon maTi qveynis kulturis codna potenciuri myidvelebis misazidad da dasarwmuneblad. komerciuli diplomatiis rolis gaZlierebasa da asocirebis SeTanxmebis ganxorcielebis procesSi saqarTvelos saelCoebis maqsimaluri CarTulobis mniSvnelobas axlaxan saqarTvelos sagareo saqmeTa ministrmac gausva xazi. eugeorgiainfo -m evrokavSiris qveynebSi saqarTvelos saelCoebidan gamoiTxova informacia 2014-2015 wlebSi asocirebis SeTanxmebisa da kerZod, misi savaWro komponentis (DCFTA) efeqtiani ganxorcielebisaTvis gatarebuli aqtivobebis, maTi Sedegebisa da dagegmili aqtivobebis Sesaxeb. informacia 23-ma saelCom mogvawoda, gatarebul aqtivobebs Soris Rvinis po­ pularizaciis mizniT ganxorcielebuli aqtivobebi Warbobs, Tumca eqsportiorebi miiCneven, rom saWiroa marketinguli aqtivobebis gaZliereba, rom evropaSi qarTuli produqtis cnobadoba gaizardos.

2) To send only best testers and a clear label where everything is written about prices, product volume and contact information. CBI underlines the role of the embassies in the marketing process and states that embassies are a very good opportunity to have an influence on the potential buyers, since they are interested to promote the products from their countries and can introduce their country’s culture to attract the potential buyers. The foreign Minister has just emphasized the role of strengthening the commercial diplomacy and maximum involvement of embassies in the Association Agreement implementation process. Eugeorgiainfo- has requested information about the completed and planned activities as well as results of the effective implementation of the trade component (DCFTA) from the embassies of Georgia in EU countries. The information was provided from 23 different embassies, the popularization of the wine is the dominant in implementing activities, though experts consider that there is a need of strengthening marketing activities in order to increase the awareness of the Georgian product in Europe.  

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Business and Economy | biznesi da ekonomika

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About Georgia | saqarTvelos Sesaxeb

ბათუმის პანორამა batumi panorama

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About Georgia | saqarTvelos Sesaxeb

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About Georgia | saqarTvelos Sesaxeb

6 maisis parki 6 May park

jvris monasteri _ VI saukune Jvari monastery, built in 6th century

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ananuris cixesimagre. Jinvalis wyalsacavi The Ananuri Fortress on the banks of the Zhinvali river


About Georgia | saqarTvelos Sesaxeb

svaneTi. mwvervali uSba Svaneti, mountain Ushba

Suasaukuneebis rabaTi axalcixeSi rekonstruqciis Semdeg The medieval Rabat fortress in Akhaltsikhe after recent reconstruction

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About Georgia | saqarTvelos Sesaxeb

გუდაურის სათხილამურო კურორტის ხედი View from ski resort Gudauri

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About Georgia | saqarTvelos Sesaxeb

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About Georgia | saqarTvelos Sesaxeb nacionaluri cekvebi saqarTvelos saganZuria Folk dances are the national treasure of Georgia

gogirdis cnobili abanoebi Zvel TbilisSi The famous sulfur bathhouses in Tbilisi’s old town

ZiriTadi qarTuli delikatesi xili da CurCxelaa The main Georgian delicacies are fruits and churchkhela

kavkasiuri nagazis sacxovrebeli mTaa, sadac mglebi da daTvebic binadroben A Caucasian sheepdog is indispensable in the mountains, where there are both wolves and bears

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About Georgia | saqarTvelos Sesaxeb siRnaRi da alaznis veli saukeTeso qarTuli Rvinis samSobloa Sighnaghi and the Alazani Valley are the birthplaces of the best Georgian wines

eklesia martoxela kacxis svetze A church on the lonely Katskhi Pillar

saxifaTo gza TuSeTSi, saqarTvelos erT-erT Zneladmisadgom regionSi This scary serpentine road leads to one of the most inaccessible regions of Georgia, Tusheti

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About Georgia | saqarTvelos Sesaxeb

თბილისის პანორამა TBILISI PANORAMA

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About Georgia | saqarTvelos Sesaxeb

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მე-13 საერთაშორისო კონფერენცია „საქართველოს ევროპული გზა“ 14-15 ივლისი, 2016 ბათუმი 13th International Conference „Georgia’s European Way“ 14-15 July, 2016 Batumi

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Conference | konferencia 14-15 ivliss, q. baTumi umaspinZlebs rigiT me-13 saerTaSoriso konferencias _ „saqarTvelos evropuli gza“, romelic 2007 wlidan, tradiciulad, evropul da evroatlantikur struqturebSi integraciis sakiTxebSi saqarTvelos saxelmwifo ministris aparatis organizebiT tardeba. wels konferencia GLOBSEC-Tan TanamSromlobiT gaimarTeba.

კონფერენცია ევროპულ დღის წესრიგში არსებულ ისეთ ძირითად საკითხებს მიეძღვნება, როგორებიცაა: ურთიერთდამოკიდებული სტაბილურობა, მრავალფეროვნება და განვითარება, ევროპული ინტეგრაცია და თანამშრომლობის ახალი ფორმები ევროკავშირსა და პარტნიორ ქვეყნებს შორის.

„saqarTvelos evropuli gza“ aRmosavleT partniorobis qveynebis evropuli perspeqtivebisa da regionSi stabiluri ganviTarebis gansaxilvel mniSvnelovan platformad iqca. aRniSnul konferenciaSi monawileobas miiReben saqarTvelos, evrokavSiris wevri da „aRmosavleT partniorobis“ qveynebis maRali rangis Tanamdebobis pirebi da parlamentarebi, aseve samoqalaqo, akademiuri, media da biznesseqtoris warmomadgenlebi. konferencia evropul dRis wesrigSi arsebul iseT ZiriTad sakiTxebs mieZRvneba, rogorebicaa: urTierTdamokidebuli stabiluroba, mravalferovneba da ganviTareba, evropuli integracia da TanamSromlobis axali formebi evrokavSirsa da partnior qveynebs Soris, aseve regionis roli evropis energousafrTxoebaSi da Tanamedrove evropuli usafrTxoebis sistemis mTavari gamowvevebi.

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Conference | konferencia On July 14-15 2016, Batumi will host the 13th Annual International Conference “Georgia’s European Way”. The Conference is traditionally organised by the Office of the State Minister of Georgia on European and Euro-Atlantic Integration Since 2007. This year, the conference will be held in cooperation with the GLOBSEC.

The Conference will focus on some of the key topics of the European Agenda, including interconnecting stability, diversity and development, European integration and new forms of cooperation between the EU and its associated partner countries

“Georgia’s European Way” has become an important platform for discussions on European perspectives of the EaP countries and prospects for stability and development in the region. The Conference will welcome government officials, Members of Parliaments and representatives of business, civil society, academia and media from the European Union and Eastern Partnership countries. The Conference will focus on some of the key topics of the European Agenda, including interconnecting stability, diversity and development, European integration and new forms of cooperation between the EU and its associated partner countries, a role of the region for Europe’s energy security as well as challenges of modern European security architecture.

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Education and Culture | ganaTleba da kultura

ქეთევან კინწურაშვილი ხელოვნებათმცოდნე

„ფარშევანგის კუდი“ მოდერნიზმი; ქართული სპექტაკლი 1912-1936 Ketevan Kintsurashvili Art Historian

The Peacock’s Tail Modernism, Georgian Performance 1912-1936

m

odernizms Tavidanve hyavda rogorc fanatikosi erTgulebi, ise dauZinebeli mtrebi. orive SemTxvevaSi, mizezi albaT isev da isev misi iniciatorebis ganaxlebisken swrafvaa, zogSi aRfrTovanebis da miswrafebis grZnobas rom badebs da zogSi SiSisa da safrTxis. aqedan ibadeba is „siZnele“ (difficulty), romelic dRes modernizmis erT-erT maxasiaTeblad aris aRiarebuli, da rac ucxosTan da gansxvavebulTan asocirdeba associated with unfamiliarity and difference. (5, p. 4). nebismier epoqas moaqvs Tavisi moTxovnebi da nebismieri epoqa warmoqmnis axal saSualebebs, romlebsac adamiani iyenebs yofasa da saqmianobaSi. meoce saukunem gansakuTrebiT bevri teqnologiuri siaxle moitana. maTi simravle ganapirobebs axal formaTa mravalferovnebas xelovnebaSi. termini, romelic yvelaze xSirad SegxvdebaT winamdebare statiaSi, kerZod, futurizmi, upirveles yovlisa, faSizmTan asocirdeba. sxva mimdinareobebis warmomadgenlebs Sorisac iyvnen faSizmisa da komunizmis momxreebi. sabolood, modernizmi swored am reJimebis samizned iqca. magram ganurCevlad imisa, Tu ra ideologias iziarebda ama Tu im etapze esa Tu is mxatvari, _ maT mier Seqmnili mxatvruli formebi avtorTa cocxali reaqciis, Tavisufali azrovnebis gamomxatvelia. es iyo talRebi, romlebic gadaecemoda Soreul manZilebze. da radgan modernizmis bevri warmomadgeneli sabolood Seewira am ideas, arsobrivad is mainc azrovnebis TavisuflebasTan asocirdeba.

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“A world without art would be blind to itself. It would be confined within the boundaries imposed by simplistic rules. This is why totalitarian regimes, when they rise to power, set out to censor, prohibit and burn. This is how they destroy ideas, dreams, memory, and the expression of differences, which are the fertile soil from which artists spring.” Dan Frank (6, p. XI) “The stupid minute will come And everyone will be dragged to the graveyard, So let the peacock’s tail, the peacock’s tail Blaze up brighter than tinder!” Sergey Gorodetsky (1, p. 21)

S

ince the moment it emerged, Modernism has had both fanatic supporters and sworn enemies. In both cases, the reason was probably its aspiration for renovation, which gives rise to the sentiments of admiration and yearning in some and those of fear and threat in others. It is here that the “difficulty” that is believed to be one of the features of Modernism originated from, being associated with something alien and different. Each era has its own demands and each era gives rise to new tools that people use in their lives and activities. The 20th century brought particularly numerous novelties, which determine a variety of new forms in arts. The term you will most frequently see in this article - Futurism - is associated first and foremost with Fascism. There were supporters of Fascism and Communism among the represen-


Education and Culture | ganaTleba da kultura *** modernizmi saqarTveloSi Sedga rogorc erTi didi warmatebuli speqtakli. nebismieri mxatvruli produqti Tu movlena, romelic mas ukavSirdeba, iyo sajaro, moqmedi pirebi iyvnen sayovelTaod cnobilni, gaaCndaT sakuTari imiji (Tundac poeti tician tabiZe wiTeli mixakiT) da maTi yoveli qmedeba atarebda scenaze TamaSis elfers. mamakacebi iyvnen avtorebi, qalbatonebi maTi muzebi. es „aqtiorebi“ xSirad Tavadve irqmevdnen Teatraluri personaJebis saxelebs. didi speqtakli artefaqtebisa da legendebis saxiT Semoinaxa. saqarTveloSi dasawyisi gacilebiT uwyinari iyo, vidre romelime sxva qveyanaSi. dasasruli ki sul sxva realobidan aRmocenda, pieroebis da kolombinebis istorias mowyda, da guSindeli fantastikuri speqtaklis monawileni ulmoblad cxadi realobis, _ tragikuli aRsasrulis gmirebad iqcnen. *** modernizmi zogadad ar aris xelsayreli Tema eris identobaze sasaubrod. piriqiTac aris, radgan es mimdinareoba epoqas gamoxatavs, sayovelTao xasiaTi aqvs da erovnul TviTmyofadobas faqtobrivad ugulvebelyofs. magram is dasavleT evropaSi daibada da samarTlianad asocirdeba dasavlur kulturasTan. amasTanave, albaT arasdros da aravis umsjelia qarTul erovnul identobaze imdeni, ramdenic qarTvel modernistebs 1910-20-ian wlebSi. dasawyisi

tatives of other trends. Finally, Modernism became a target of these regimes. However, no matter what ideology specific artists shared on specific stages, the artistic forms reflected the authors’ vivid reactions and free thinking. They were waves that reached far-away shores, and as many representatives of Modernism ultimately fell victim to this idea, it is nevertheless associated with freedom of thinking. Modernism was successful in Georgia like one big successful performance. Any artistic product or event linked to it was public, the cast of characters were well-known with their images (as was poet Titsian Tabidze with his red dianthus, for instance), and each of their moves had the overtones of playing on the stage. Men were authors and women were their muses. These “actors” often chose the names of theatrical characters for themselves. This major performance is preserved in the shape of artefacts and legends. The beginning was much more inoffensive than in any other country, but the end emerged from quite a different reality. It lost contact with the stories of Pierrot and Columbine and the participants in the fantastic performance of yesterday turned into the heroes of a mercilessly clear reality - a tragic end. In general, Modernism is not a convenient topic when discussing the identity of a nation. On the contrary, it is universal in nature and reflects an era, effectively disregarding national originality. However, it was born in Western Europe and is justly associated with Western culture. At the same time, no one has probably spoken as much about Georgian national identity as Georgian Modernists in the 1910s and 1920s.

1912 wlis zafxulis pirze, Zmebi zdaneviCebi _ ilia da kirile, _ tfilisis mkvidrni, dediT qarTvelebi da mamiT polonelebi, franguli warmoSobis rus mxatvarTan mixeil le dantiusTan erTad, ardadegebis gasatareblad peterburgidan tfiliss gamoemgzavrnen. saqarTvelo am dros jer kidev mowyvetili iyo im avangardul mxatvrul mimarTulebebsa da ideebs dasavleTis SemoqmedebiTi samyaro da am sami peterburgeli studentis goneba rom moecva. Semdgom ilia igonebda, Cveni megobari daviT kakabaZec unda wamosuliyo, magram universitetSi gamocdebma Seayovneso (3, g.71). albaT aq iwyeba modernizmis istoria saqarTveloSi, radgan es sami megobari, axali ideebiT anTebulni, TavianT SemoqmedebaSi neoprimitivizmis da kubo-futurizmis mimdevarni, sul ramdenime dReSi, tfilisSi, duqan „variagSi“ aRmoaCenen niko firosmanis tiloebs. modernizmis fenomens dasabamidan Seerwya interesi akademiuri codniT Seuryvneli, TviTmyofadi xelovnebis mimarT. e.w. naivur xelovnebas miesalmebodnen yvelgan, sadac Caisaxa an atacebul iqna modernistuli mimdinareobebi. swavlobdnen kidec misgan. robert herbertis sityvebiT, „am wina-industriulma miTebma SeukeTes cecxli antiiluzionizms, romelic warmoadgens modernistuli xelovnebis centralur dialeqtikas. „…it is these pre-industrial myths that fueled

The Beginning

amitom, saqarTvelos modernizmis erT-erT, Tundac periferiul centrad Tu miviCnevT, albaT, uwinares yovlisa swored imis gamo, rom bedad aq me-19-me-20 saukuneebis mijnaze niko firosmani qmnida Tavis ukv-

Correspondingly, if we regard Georgia as one of the centres of Modernism, albeit a peripheral centre, this is first and foremost due to the fact that, fortunately, Niko Pirosmani created his immortal pictures here at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries.

the anti-illusionism which is the central dialectic of modernist art“ (9, p. 19).

At the beginning of the summer of 1912, brothers Ilia and Kiril Zdanevich, who had a Georgian mother and a Polish father and were residents of Tbilisi, together with Mikhail Le Dentu, a Russian artist of French origin, left St. Petersburg for Tbilisi to spend holidays there. At that time, Georgia was still isolated from the Avant-Garde artistic trends and ideas that engrossed the minds of the creative world in the West and these three St. Petersburg students. Ilia recalled later that their friend David Kakabadze was to accompany them, but he failed to do so, because he had exams at the university (3, p. 71). It was probably then that the history of Modernism started in Georgia, because the three friends, who were full of new ideas and followers of Neo-Primitivism and Cubism-Futurism, discovered Niko Pirosmani’s canvases in the Varyag Inn in Tbilisi a few days after their arrival. From the very beginning, interest in original art uncorrupted by academic knowledge mixed with the phenomenon of Modernism. The so-called naive art was welcome where Modernist trends emerged or by those who were carried away by them. They even learned from naive art. As Robert Herbert said, “it is these pre-industrial myths that fuelled the anti-illusionism which is the central dialectic of modernist art” (9, p. 19).

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Education and Culture | ganaTleba da kultura dav suraTebs. is iyo STagonebis wyaro da gezis mimcemi modernistTa yvela Semdgomi Taobis warmomadgenelTaTvis _ mwerali iqneboda Tu mxatvari. firosmani ki Tavad SeiZleba vaRiaroT Zveli xelovnebis ukanasknel da modernizmis xanis pirvel warmomadgenlad _ rogorc warmavali samyaros tradiciebidan amozrdili da axali, qalaquri cxovrebis mWvreteli da aRmwereli. misi Semoqmedic! firosmanis aRmoCenidan erTi welic ar gava da daviT kakabaZe peterburgSi Tavis kubistur avtoportrets Seqmnis. imave wels kirile zdaneviCi parizSi gaemgzavreba. iq Cava poeti paolo iaSvilic, romelic or weliwadSi, safrangeTidan samSobloSi dabrunebuli, quTaiss aRanTebs modernistuli ideebiT. sul male danTebuli cecxlis ali tfilisSi gadmoinacvlebs. 1914 wels peterburgSi futurizmis apologeti ilia zdaneviCi futurizmis manifestis avtors tomazo marinetis Sexvdeba. im wels msoflio omi daiwyeba, male ruseTSi revolucia moxdeba da sayovelTao areuloba da siduxWire rusuli avangardis mowinave warmomadgenlebs msoflios sxvadasxva kuTxeSi gadaisvris. bevri maTgani „bolSevikuri CrdiloeTidan menSevikuri samxreTisken“ „from the Bolshevik north to the Menshevik south“ (John Bowlt, 8, p.IX) aiRebs gezs da saqarTveloSi daidebs samudamo Tu ara, droebiT binas. es qveyana - mziani, stumarTmoyvareobiT cnobili da, rac mTavaria, am dros damoukidebeli, gansakuTrebiT mimzidveli aRmoCndeba Tavis Sesafareblad. aq cocxali SemoqmedebiTi cxovreba duRs da modernistuli ideebiT STagonebuli poetebi da mxatvrebi siamovnebiT uReben kars stumrebs. amgvarad, tfilisSi (da kvlav quTaisSi) adgils povebs movlenaTa mTeli rigi, romlebic saqarTveloSi modernistuli ideebis ganviTarebisTvis keTilmyofel garemos Seqmnis, xolo qarTvel modernistTa moZraobis marSrutebSi evropis qalaqebi, pirvel rigSi ki, ra Tqma unda, parizi, Tavis uryev adgils daiWers da istorias srulyofs. *** modernizmis akvani evropis gulSi dairwa _ saqarTvelodan Sors, gansxvavebul garemoSi da gacilebiT adre, ukve me-19 saukunis 60-ian wlebSi, magram man saqarTveloSi, Tundac mogvianod da SedarebiT mcire masStabiT, mainc Zlieri gamovlena pova. axalma eram _ „maSinizmis da kinematografis“ (daviT kakabaZe) sivrcis axleburi gancda ganapiroba da novatoruli mxatvruli amocanebi wamoWra. daibada axali, dinamikuri _ industriuli epoqis Sesatyvisi mxatvruli ena, romelmac mravalferovani ganStoebebi _ mimdinareobebi warmoSva. isini ibadeboda did metropoliebSi, swrafad vrceldeboda da sadac aRwevda, axal nergebs warmoSobda.

მოდერნიზმი საქართველოში შედგა როგორც ერთი დიდი წარმატებული სპექტაკლი. Modernism was successful in Georgia like one big successful performance.

He was the source of inspiration and the setter of the course for the representatives of all future generations of Modernists, be they writers or artists. And Pirosmani can be recognised as the last representative of old art and the first in the Modernist era, a viewer and depicter of the new urban life and its creator, too, who was based on the traditions of an obsolescent world. Less than a year after Pirosmani was discovered, David Kakabadze made his first Cubist self-portrait in St. Petersburg. Kiril Zdanevich went to Paris in the same year, as did the Georgian poet Paolo Iashvili. On his return from Paris to his homeland two years later, Iashvili enflamed Kutaisi with Modernist ideas and the flames soon reached Tbilisi. An apologist of Futurism, Ilia Zdanevich met the author of the Futurist Manifesto, Tommaso Marinetti, in St. Petersburg in 1914. This was the year when World War I started, soon followed by a revolution, and prominent representatives of the Russian Avant-garde found themselves in various areas of the world due to universal unrest and poverty. Many of them headed “from the Bolshevik north to the Menshevik south” (John Bowlt, 8, p. IX) and stayed in Georgia, if not for the rest of their lives, at least for some time. This country sunny, well-known for its hospitality, and, what is most important, independent at that time - proved to be particularly attractive as a shelter. Vivacious artistic life was humming here and poets and artists inspired by Modernist ideas gladly opened doors to visitors. It was in such circumstances that a number of events that created a beneficial environment for the development of Modernist ideas in Georgia took place in Tbilisi (and, to an extent, in Kutaisi). In addition, European cities - of course, first and foremost Paris - retained their place in the routes of Georgian Modernists.

dualisturi dialeqtika

The cradle of Modernism was far from Georgia, in a different environment in the heart of Europe and much earlier, too, in the 1860s, but its reflection in Georgia, albeit belated and at a comparatively smaller scale, was nevertheless quite strong.

tfilisi, romelic 1910-iani wlebis meore naxevarSi erT-erT bohemur centrad Camoyalibda, misi geografiuli mdebareobis gamo, odiTganve dualisturi bunebis matarebeli iyo. mogzaurebi, poetebi da mwerlebi, misi mexotbenic da misdami kritikulad ganwyobilnic, mudam mianiSnebdnen, rom is, - evropisa da aziis gasayarze ganTavsebuli, am ori samyaros niSnebs

The new era - that of “machinism and cinematography” (David Kakabadze) - determined a new perception of space and gave rise to innovative artistic objectives. A new and dynamic artistic language appropriate for the industrial era was born, producing varied branches and trends. They were born in big metropolitan cities, spread quickly, and produced new seedlings, wherever they appeared.

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Education and Culture | ganaTleba da kultura

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Education and Culture | ganaTleba da kultura Seicavda sakuTar TavSi. es niSnebi ki TiTqmis yvela avtorTan urTierTsapirispirod ganixileba: dadebiTi - uaryofiTi. dadebiTia im droisTvis qalaqis centraluri ubnis (golovinis _ axlandeli rusTavelis prospeqti da misi mimdebare ganaSenianeba) namdvilad evropuli saxe. es rom ar yofiliyo, saqarTvelos albaT arc Sveicarias Seadarebdnen (osip mandelStami) da arc „meore parizad“ CaTvlidnen tfiliss. aq yvelaferi mowesrigebulia, quCebs gvian, SenobaTa arqiteqtura evropulis Sesatyvisia, ar nuvos stilis Senobebic gvxvdeba da quCebi mokirwylulia. eleqtroganaTebac aris. Teatrebic aq ideben binas. am ubnebTan SedarebiT, „uaryofiTia“ Zveli qalaqi, sadac sibinZurea, romelic „aziaturia“ Tavisi bunebiT. Tumca, rodesac qalaqis ganumeorebel xiblze saubroben, es ubnebic dadebiTad moixsenieba. aRfrTovanebas iwvevs aq mdebare aRmosavluri bazari da sxvadasxva religiis mimdevarTa saeklesio saxlebi (orTodoqsuli qristianuliT dawyebuli da mazdeanuriT dasrulebuli), mixveul-moxveuli quCebi da kibeebi (knut hamsuni). firosmani Tavisi mxatvrobiT am ori mxaris gamaerTianebelia. misi suraTebis didi nawili qalaqis Zveli ubnebis cxovrebas asaxavs, magram gamosaxvis forma Zalian axlos aris modernistulTan. modernizmis Sesaxeb man araferi icis, magram im periodSi is erTaderTia, vinc Tavisi mxatvrobiT uneburad „akademiur“ wres upirispirdeba. akademizmi, romelTan brZolac (misgan asxleta) dasavleTSi modernizmis erT-erT katalizators warmoadgenda, im dros saqarTveloSi mxolod Canasaxis saxiT Tu arsebobda. is ki ara da, es „akademikosebi“ _ ruseTSi da evropaSi ganswavlulni, garkveuli TvalsazrisiT (impresionizmis niSnebi da sxva) da garkveul konteqstSi, modernistebadac moixseniebian xolme. amis mizezi is aris, rom saqarTvelos, romelmac gauTavebeli Semosevebis da omianobis gamo Suasaukuneebis CarCoebs ver daaRwia Tavi, xelovnebaSi evropuli renesansis da misi Semdgomi periodebi (impresionizmis CaTvliT), ar gauvlia da dazguri mxatvroba aq ar ganviTarebula. Sesabamisad, aq „akademistebi“ da „modernistebi“ TiTqmis erTdroulad „idgamdnen fexs“ da albaT amave mizeziT, 1922 wels TbilisSi samxatvro akademiis (akademizmis savane) gaxsna garkveulwilad modernizmis istorias daukavSirda. saqarTveloSi aseve mudam iyo midrekileba konservativizmisken, an ufro sworad, e.w. tradiciisadmi erTgulebisken, ris gamoc aqauri poetebi da mxatvrebi xSirad jiutad icavdnen warmavls. amitom aq modernistebic yovelTvis am mimarTulebis Sesatyvisad radikalurni da Tanmimdevrulni ar iyvnen. da aq modernizmis „siZnelezec“ aravis umsjelia maincdamainc. rac Seexeba e.w. aRmosavlur an aziur sawyiss, obieqturad Tu gavaanalizebT, is yvelgan warmoadgenda erT-erT masazrdoebel elements, romelic avangardul mimarTulebebs kvebavda da amitom modernizmis konteqstis organul _ dadebiTi nawilad ganixileba. da Tumca zogi misi mowinaaRmdege iyo, zogi „damcveli“, da realur situacias iSviaTad Tu vinme ganixilavda obieqturad, es sawyisi qarTuli kulturis erT-erTi bunebrivi Semadgeneli nawili iyo mudam. SeiZleba CaiTvalos, rom saqarTvelos kulturis swored dualisturma bunebam Seqmna noyieri niada-

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Dualist dialectics Tbilisi that took shape as a Bohemian centre in the late 1910s had always been dualist in nature due to its geographical location. Travellers, poets and writers, and those who praised or criticised it always noted that being located at the confluence of Europe and Asia, it bore features of the two worlds and almost all authors considered these features as opposing positive and negative sides. The central district of the city at that time (Golovin Avenue, which is now Rustaveli Avenue) was among positive features, as it had a genuinely European appearance. Without this, Tbilisi would probably not have been compared with Switzerland (Osip Mandelstam) or described as a “second Paris”. Everything was in order here, streets were cleaned, and the architecture was European. There were buildings in Art Nouveau style and streets were paved. Electricity was available and theatres were opened. Compared with this neighbourhood, the old city was “negative”, as it was dirty and “Asian” in nature. However, when they spoke about the matchless charm of the city, these neighbourhoods were also mentioned in a positive context. The oriental bazaar and places of worship of various religions (starting with Orthodox Christian and ending with Zoroastrian), meandering streets and stairs (Knut Hamsun) caused admiration. Pirosmani and his paintings united these two sides. Most of his pictures depicted the life in the old city, but the forms of expression were very close to Modernism. He knew nothing about Modernism, but he was the only one in that period, who involuntarily opposed the “academic” circles with his paintings. Countering academism (isolating oneself from it) was a catalyst of Modernism in the West, but at that time, academism was in an embryonic state in Georgia. Moreover, “academicians” - those, who had received education in Russia and Europe were referred to as Modernists in a certain sense (signs of Impressionism and so forth) and in certain contexts. This was due to the fact that Georgia had failed to emerge from the frames of Middle Ages because of endless invasions and wars and


Education and Culture | ganaTleba da kultura

gi am qveyanaSi modernistuli mimarTulebis gansaviTareblad. Zvelis da axlis, qalaqis da soflis, aRmosavluris (azia) da dasavluris (evropa), akademiuris da modernistulis Tanaarsebobis, maT Soris zRvaris simciris gamo „garedan“ Semotanili ideebi bunebrivad daemyno adgilobriv memkvidreobas. winamorbedi etapidan gandgomis saWiroeba ar idga.

therefore, had not experienced European Renaissance and subsequent periods in arts (including Impressionism) and easel painting did not develop here. Correspondingly, “academicians” and “Modernists” were becoming active in Georgia at the same time. It was probably for the same reason that the opening of the Academy of Arts (haven of academism) in 1922 was to a certain extent linked to the history of Modernism.

*** qveynis damoukideblobam, im faqtTan erTad, rom urTulesi problemebis winaSe mdgar mTavrobas xelovnebisa da literaturisTvis ar ecala, saqarTveloSi Seqmna klimati Tavisufali TviTgamoxatvisa da saerTo SemarTebisTvis. xolo radgan menSevikuri saqarTvelos moto dasavleTisken orientacia iyo, Sesabamisad tfilisi, ra Tqma unda, „axali parizi“ unda gamxdariyo.

In addition, Georgia has always tended to be conservative or, to be more precise, loyal to traditions, which led to the situation, where local poets and artists stubbornly defended things that were obsolescent. Therefore, Modernists were not always as radical and consistent here as it could be expected from representatives of the trend. And no one thought about the “difficulty” of Modernism here.

kafe – ideaTa generatori tfilisis Zveli nawilis mniSvnelobis miuxedavad, CvenTvis saintereso movlenaTa epicentrs „evropuli“ ubani _ axlandeli rusTavelis prospeqti warmoadgenda. mis gaswvriv pova ganviTareba im movlenebma, ramac Seqmna modernizmis istoria saqarTveloSi. Camosuli stumrebic am prospeqtis mimdebare adgilebSi saxldebodnen (magaliTad, sergei da vera sudeikinebi griboedovis quCaze) an aq iyridnen Tavs. artistuli kafeebic aq ixsneboda. artistuli kafe zogadad modernizmis istoriis ganuyofel da arsebiT nawilad Camoyalibda. kafeebi bunebrivad Cndeboda iq (da upirveles yovlisa, parizSi), sadac modernistuli ideebi isaxeboda da Rvioda. kafeTa cocxali istoria qmnida axal istoriebs axal adgilebSi. aq xvdebodnen, kamaTobdnen, ibadeboda axali ideebi, iwereboda da ixateboda nawarmoebebi, aRmocendeboda mimdinareobaTa saxelwodebebi. iqve iqmneboda legendebi. urbanuli, modernistuli cx-

As regards the so-called Oriental or Asian component, if we analyse things objectively, it was one of the sources of Avant-garde trends and therefore is regarded as an organic and positive part of Modernism. Although some were its opponents, others defended it, and the situation was rarely viewed in a realistic and objective manner, as this side was always one of the natural parts of Georgian culture. It is possible to say that it was the dualist nature of Georgian culture that created a fertile soil for the development of the Modernist trend in Georgia. It was due to the coexistence of old and new, urban and rural, Oriental (Asian) and Occidental (Europe), and Academic and Modernist, and narrow divisions between them that the ideas introduced from “outside” naturally merged with the local heritage and there was no need for separation from the previous stage. The independence of the country, together with the fact that the government faced complicated problems and could not afford to deal with arts and literature, provided an environment of free expression and an overall creative upsurge in Georgia. As the Menshevik government of Georgia was Western-oriented, it was natural that Tbilisi was to become a “new Paris”.

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ovrebis am institutis gareSe modernizmis istoria warmoudgenelia. tfilisic ar warmoadgenda gamonakliss da am TvalsazrisiT dasakvexnic gaaCnda. aq kafeebis gaCenas biZgi Camosulma stumrebma da Soridan Camotanilma legendebma misca. fantastikuri _ es epiTeti xSirad gaismis tfilisur avangardTan mimarTebiT. es swored pirveli tfilisuri kafes dasaxelebas ukavSirdeba _ „fantastikuri samikitno“. is 1917 wels gaixsna poet iuri degenis TaosnobiT. aq daaarses poetebma aleqsei kruConixma, ilia zdaneviCma da igor terentievma futuristTa sindikati da futurizmis universiteti. Tavisebureba tfilisur kafeebs sufrisa da qeifis adgilobrivma kulturam SesZina. albaT arsad, arc erT artistul kafeSi daleula imdeni sadRegrZelo, ramdenic tfilisur kafeebSi. ase SesZaxebs akmeisti poeti sergei gorodecki: „Соедините ваши чувства, Дружнее гряньте вещий тост! Цвети, красуйся, щит искусства, Павлиний хвост, павлиний хвост!“

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Cafes as generators of ideas Despite the importance of the old part of Tbilisi, the “European” district - currently Rustaveli Avenue - was the epicentre of the events we are interested in. The events that created the history of Modernism in Georgia unfolded along the avenue. Visitors, who came to Tbilisi, also lived in this area or areas adjacent to it (for example, Sergey and Vera Sudeykins in Griboyedov Street) or used to assemble there. Artistic cafes were also opened there. In general, artistic cafes became an inseparable and essential part of the history of Modernism. Cafes naturally emerged in places (first and foremost in Paris), where Modernist ideas emerged and developed. The vivacious history of cafes gave birth to new stories in new places. People used to meet and argue there. New ideas emerged there, new works were written and painted, and names were given to new trends. Legends were also created there. It is impossible to imagine the history of Modernism without this institution of Modernist life. Tbilisi was no exception and could even be proud of some aspects in this regard.


Education and Culture | ganaTleba da kultura rogorc Cans, es kafe „farSevangis kuds“ exeba. sxva kafeTa saxelwodebebi iyo: „Zmuri nugeSi,“ „Wiqa Cai,“ „argonavtTa ialqani,“ „imedi,“ „internacionali“ da a.S. Tavidanve gaziarebul iqna kafeTa interierebis moxatvis tradicia. am saqmes enTuziazmiT asrulebdnen kirile zdaneviCi, lado gudiaSvili, poloneli ziga valiSevski, moqandake iakob nikolaZe, tfiliseli somexi mxatvari aleqsandre beJbeuq-meliqovi, poeti tician tabiZe da sxvebi. kafeTa Soris gansakuTrebuli saxeli moixveWa „qimerionma.“ yvelafristi futuristebi CamosulTagan tfilisSi upirveles yovlisa e.w. futuristebi sWarbobdnen. egreTwodebuli, radgan maT mimarT albaT ufro gamarTlebulia terminis _ kubo-futuristi _ gamoyeneba. futurizmi (futurum _ momavali) zogadad yvelaze xSirad gamoiyeneba rusul da „sabWoTa“ avangardTan mimarTebiT (romelTanac istoriul viTarebaTa gamo samwuxarod xSirad qarTuli avangardic asocirdeba). Tumca, futurizmi ruseTSi ar aRmocenebula. is italiaSi daibada 1909 wels. male kazimir maleviCma Seqmna axali mimdinareoba, romelsac kubo-futurizmi uwoda. misi Tavisebureba imanac gansazRvra, rom am dros ruseTSi gansakuTrebiT mZlavrobda neoprimitivizmi (sxvaTa Soris, swored am viTarebam Seuwyo xeli firosmanis saxelis gatanas saqarTvelos sazRvrebs gareT). maSin aRmocenda aseve „pioner“ abstraqtul mimdinareobad wodebuli luCizmi (лучизм – rayonism). da yovelive amis safuZvelze, luCizmis avtorTan mixeil larionovTan erTad, Zmebma zdaneviCebma da mixeil le dantium Seqmnes всёчество (sityvidan всё _ yvelaferi) everythingism, romlis manifestSi maT ganacxades, rom isini mxars uWerdnen yvela stils Tu mimdinareobas, _ warsulSi Tu amJamad arsebuls. 1917 wels tfilisSi kiriles personaluri gamofena rom moawyves, iliam da aleqsei kriuCionixma mis mxatvrobas orqestruli ferwera uwodes (ilias orqestruli poeziis msgavsad), rac isev da isev mraval sawyisTa simfoniur Serwymas gulisxmobda. maT Soris igulisxmeboda warsulic, romelsac mTeli sicocxlis manZilze eTayvaneboda da ikvlevda ilia. man, iseve rogorc araerTma qarTvelma modernistma _ lado gudiaSvilma, Salva qiqoZem, daviT kakabaZem da sxvebma, arqeologiur da siZveleTa Semswavlel eqspediciebSi miakvlies sakuTari (axali, _ modernistuli) mxatvruli enis SemuSavebisTvis umniSvnelovanes wyaroebs (qarTuli arqiteqtura, freskebi, miniatura) da amitom, zogierTma maTganma bunebrivad gaiTavisa aRmosavluri (bizantiuri, mogviano sparsuli, da sxva) mxatvruli elementebic. temperatura - 41 gradusi 1917 wlis noemberSi ilia zdaneviCma, aleqsei kriuCionixTan da igor terentievTan erTad, Seqmnes gaerTianeba, romelsac 41° gradusi uwodes (igulisxmeba Tbilisis meridiani da agreTve, adamianis sxeulis da alkoholur sasmelTa umaRlesi temperatura). SemoqmedebiTi aRtkinebis am gradusze iqmneboda maTi erToblivi mxatvruli nawarmoebebi.

Foreign visitors and the legends they brought from far-away countries gave an impetus to the emergence of cafes here. The epithet of “fantastic” can often be heard regarding Avant-garde in Tbilisi. It is linked to the name of the first cafe in Tbilisi - Fantastic Inn. It was opened in 1917 on the initiative of poet Yury Degen. Poets Aleksey Kruchenykh, Ilia Zdanevich, and Igor Terentiev founded a Futurist syndicate and Futurism University here. The local culture of feasts (supra) made cafes in Tbilisi specific. No artistic cafes of the world have probably heard as many toasts as the cafes of Tbilisi. This is what Acmeist poet Sergey Gorodetsky wrote: Join your feelings, Unanimously break out a prophetic toast! Flourish and shine, the shield of arts, Peacock’s Tail, Peacock’s Tail! These lines seem to be written about the cafe named Peacock’s Tail. Other names of cafes were as follows: Brotherly Consolation; A Cup of Tea; Argonauts’ Sail; Hope; International; and so forth. The new tradition of interior painting emerged from the very beginning. Kiril Zdanevich, Lado Gudiashvili, Polish artist Zyga Waliszewski, sculptor Iakob Nikoladze, Armenian artist from Tbilisi Bazhbeuk-Melikov, poet Titsian Tabidze, and others did things enthusiastically. Kimerioni was the most famous among the cafes. Everythingist Futurists The so-called Futurists made a majority of those who visited Tbilisi. The word so-called is necessary here, as Cubo-Futurists is the term that is more appropriate to describe them. Futurism (Lat. futurum - future) is most often used to describe Russian and “Soviet” Avant-garde (unfortunately, Georgian Avant-garde is also associated with it due to historic circumstances). However, Futurism did not emerge in Russia. It was born in Italy in 1909. Soon after, Kazimir Malevich created a new trend and called it Cubo-Futurism. Among others, the peculiarities of the trend were due to the fact that Neo-Primitivism was quite widespread in Russia at that time (incidentally, it was thanks to this that Pirosmani became known beyond Georgia). Luchism (Russian лучизм -Rayonism) that was believed to be the “pioneer” among abstract trends emerged at the same time. Based on all this, brothers Zdanevich and Mikhail Le Dentu, together with the author of Luchism, Mikhail Larionov, created Everythingism (Russian всёчество derived from the word всё - everything). They announced in their manifesto that they supported all styles and trends, past or present. Kiril Zdanevich’s personal exhibition was held in Tbilisi in 1917. Ilia Zdanevich and Aleksey Kruchenykh described his paintings as orchestral art (like Ilia’s orchestral poetry), which again implied a symphonic merger of numerous sources. Among others, they implied the past that Ilia Zdanevich admired and studied for the whole of his life. Like many other Georgian Modernists - Lado Gudiashvili, Shalva Kikodze, David Kakabadze, and others - he found sources that were most important for the elaboration of his own (new - Modernist) artistic language in expeditions organised to study archaeologi-

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Education and Culture | ganaTleba da kultura *** daaxloebiT 1913 wels peterburgSi daibada „zaumuri“ (gonebis miRma beyond mind) poezia, romelSic dadaisturi da futuristuli sawyisebi Seerwya erTmaneTs. futuristi poetebi sul adreuli etapidan stumrobdnen xolme tfiliss. ukve 1914 wels vl. maiakovskim da ukrainelma Zmebma daviT da nikoloz burliukebma aq leqciebi waikiTxes. Semdgom tfilisSi cxovrobdnen zemoT naxsenebi aleqsei kruConixi, igor terentievi, iuri degeni, kolau Cerniavski da sxvebi. aq Seqmnili futuristul-dadaisturi liTografiuli wignebi, sxva poligrafiul masalasTan erTad (afiSebi, programebi da a.S.), dResdReobiT saukeTesod inaxavs im periodis SemoqmedebiT temperaturas. es wignebi dRes bibliografiul iSviaTobad aris qceuli. maT Soris gansakuTrebiT Zvirad fasobs maSin sul or maneTad Rirebuli, kruConixis Учитесь Худоги (1917), romelic kirile zdaneviCma gaaforma. es is kriuCionixia, vinc mixeil matiuSinTan da kazimir maleviCTan erTad, 1913 wels peterburgSi ganaxorciela futuristuli opera „gamarjveba mzeze“. Sesabamisad, gasakviri ar aris, rom wignis garekanze gamosaxulia Savi kvadratis msgavsi geometriuli forma. meore futuristuli opera, romelic imave 1913 wels daidga peterburgSi, maiakovskis „tragedia“ iyo, romelic gaaformes ioseb Skolnikma da pavel filonovma. 1914 wels peterburgSi, daviT kakabaZem da kidev ramdenime naklebad cnobilma mxatvarma swored filonovis xelmZRvanelobiT Seqmnes avangarduli gaerTianeba _ „fermwerTa da grafikosTa intimuri saxelosno“. es aris qarTul avangardTan dakavSirebuli kidev erTi furceli. tfilisuri avangardis erTgvar anTologiad aRiqmeba 1919 wels ilia zdaneviCis mier gamocemuli wigni, romelSic msaxiob sofia melnikovasadmi miZRvnili leqsebi da naxatebia Tavmoyrili. aq warmodgenilia im wlebSi tfilisSi moRvawe TiTqmis yvela modernistis namuSevari. rogorc mxatvrobaSi, ise poeziaSi, am dros inergeba abstraqtuli azrovneba. arc sityva gamoxatavs zust Sinaarss _ JReradobaa wamyvani. da arc xaziT gamoisaxeba konkretuli gamosaxuleba _ xazebis wyeba, maTi TamaSi qmnis JReradobis Sesatyvis ritms. orTqlmavali gemisa Tu matareblis guguni, _ axali epoqis xmebi aRmoaceneben am JReradobas da rit­mebs. *** 1916 wels germaniidan samSobloSi dabrunebulma dimitri SevardnaZem qarTvel mxatvarTa sazogadoeba Seqmna. sul male manve daaarsa erovnuli galerea, romelmac rusTavelis prospeqtze, adrindeli „didebis taZris“ SenobaSi daido bina. 1919 wels aq moewyo qarTuli xelovnebis istoriuli gamofena, romelmac safrangeTSi warsagzavni axalgazrdebi gamoavlina. am axalgazrdebma Cauyares safuZveli axal qarTul mxatvrobas. maTi saxelebi qmnian qarTul furcels modernizmis istoriaSi. eseni arian lado gudiaSvili, elene axvlediani, Salva qiqoZe, daviT kakabaZe, qeTevan maRalaSvili.

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cal and ancient artefacts (Georgian architecture, frescoes, and miniatures). Therefore, he and some of his friends mastered eastern (Byzantine, late Persian, and other) artistic elements in a natural manner. Temperature – 41 degrees In November 1917, Ilia Zdanevich, Aleksey Kruchenykh, and Igor Terentiev created an association and named it 41 Degrees (allusion to the longitude of Tbilisi and the highest temperature of the human body and alcohol). Their joint works of art were created at this grade of excitement. The Zaum poetry (Russian заумь - “beyond mind”) emerged in St. Petersburg by 1913. It drew together Dadaist and Futurist roots. In 1914, Vladimir Mayakovsky and Ukrainian brothers David and Nikolay Burlyuk delivered lectures there. Aforementioned Aleksey Kruchenykh, Igor Terentiev, Yury Degen, Kolau Chernyavsky, and others lived in Tbilisi later. The Futurist-Dadaist lithographic books and other polygraphic materials (posters, programmes, and so forth) are the best testimony of the creative temperature of that time. The books have now become bibliographic rarities. Learn, Artniks (1917) written by Kruchenykh and decorated by Kiril Zdanevich that cost just 2 roubles at that time is particularly expensive now. It was Kruchenykh, who staged the Futurist opera Victory over the Sun in St. Petersburg in 1913 together with Mikhail Matyushin and Kazimir Malevich. Therefore, it is no surprise that a geometrical form similar to a black square can be seen on the cover of the book. Another Futurist opera staged in St. Petersburg in 1913 was Tragedy by Mayakovsky. It was decorated by Iosif Shkolnik and Pavel Filonov. David Kakabadze and several other artists of no special celebrity led by Filonov founded the Clubby Workshop of Painters and Graphics, which is yet another page linked to Georgian Avant-garde. A book of poems and paintings devoted to actress Sofia Melnikova and published by Ilia Zdanevich in 1919 is perceived as a kind of anthology of Tbilisi Avant-garde. Works by almost all Modernists working in Tbilisi at that time were represented in the book. Abstract thinking was introduced both in paintings and poetry at that time. Words did not express precise notions, sounds being the leading component. Concrete pictures were not depicted with lines either. A series of lines and their playing created rhythms corresponding to sounds. The hooting of steamers or trains - the voices of the new era - gave rise to these voices and rhythms. On his return from Germany to his homeland in 1916, Dimitri Shevardnadze founded an association of Georgian painters. He also founded the National Gallery soon after. The building of the former Cathedral of Glory in Rustaveli Avenue hosted the gallery. A historic exhibition of Georgian art was held there in 1919 to identify youths to be sent to France. The young people then laid the foundation of new Georgian painting. Their names are on a separate Georgian


Education and Culture | ganaTleba da kultura qimerebis samyofeli

page in the history of Modernism. They are Lado Gudiashvili, Elene Akhvlediani, Shalva Kikodze, David Kakabadze, and Ketevan Magalashvili.

kakabaZe da gudiaSvili „qimerionis“ kedlebs xatavdnen, tician tabiZe rom Sevida kafeSi da amcno, gaimarjveT da male parizSi gaemgzavrebiTo. maTTan erTad kedlebis moxatvaSi kirile zdaneviCi iRebda monawileobas. wamyvan Zalas interieris gaformebaSi rusi mxatvari sergei sudeikini warmoadgenda, romelsac adre moxatuli hqonda kafeebi peterburgSi da amasTan, Teatris mxatvaric iyo (am dros Teatris mxatvroba, rogorc damoukidebeli profesiuli dargi, saqarTveloSi jerjerobiT ar arsebobda). kedlebze kafeSi mimdinare realuri cxovrebis Sesatyvisma gamosaxulebebma daido bina: qimerebi, komedia del artes personaJebi, mxatvrebi da muzebi, kafes mudmivi „moqmedi pirebis” mxatvrulad gardasaxuli portretebi da sxva (es gamosaxulebebi Semdgom gadaRebes rogorc sabWoTa ideologiisTvis miuRebeli. amJamad ZiriTadad aRdgenilia, Tumca, didi nawili dazianebulia). aq xSirad poetebic xatavdnen da mxatvrebic werdnen teqstebs. Tavad sudeikini rusuli kulturis vercxlis (dekadenturi) epoqis warmomadgeneli iyo. mis SemoqmedebaSi simbolisturi elementebi sWarbobda. misi freskebi „qimerionSic“ msgavs ganwyobas qmnidnen. kakabaZis („mxatvari da muza“) da gudiaSvilis („stepkos duqani“) kompoziciebi SedarebiT neitraluri xasiaTisaa. zogadad es (dekadenturi) ganwyoba SeiZleba swored Sesatyvisi iyo saqarTvelos imdroindeli mdgomareobisa, radgan Tavisuflebis muxts, gasageb mizezTa gamo, Tan sdevda efemerulobis SegrZneba. amasTan, cisferyanwelebi, romlebmac daaarses „qimerioni“, swored simbolistebi iyvnen (dadaizmis elementebis TanxlebiT).

Sudeykin himself was a representative of the Silver (Decadent) Age of Russian Poetry. Symbolist elements prevailed in his creations. His frescoes in Kimerioni aroused the same sentiments. Compositions by Kakabadze (The Artist and Muse) and Gudiashvili (Stepko’s Inn) were comparatively neutral. In general, the decadent sentiments were probably appropriate for the situation in Georgia at that time, because due to obvious reasons, freedom was accompanied by the feeling of evanescence. In addition, members of the Blue Horns group, who founded Kimerioni, were Symbolists (with the addition of some Dadaist elements).

gurjievic aq aris

Gurdjieff is here, too

1919 wels tfilisSi aseve Camodis giorgi gurjievi meuRliTurT. mis garSemo ikribebian misi mowafeebi da mimdevrebi: kompozitori Tomas fon hartmani (vasili kandinskis megobari) da misi coli olga Sumaxeri, Teatris mxatvari aleqsandre fon zalcmani da misi coli Sveicarieli Jana. manamde Jana qarTvel gogonebs emil dalkrozis sistemiT aswavlida cekvas, magram gurjieviT moxiblulma, mas gadasca sakuTari studia da gurjievma „adamianis harmoniuli ganviTarebis instituti“ gaxsna. axla Jana misi asistenti gaxda, zalcmani dekoraciebs xatavda, hartmani roialTan ijda, olga ki kostiumebs keravda. gurjievis mecadineobebs kirile zdaneviCi da igor terentievic eswrebodnen xolme. 1919 wels gaerTianeba „41°“ mier gamocemul erTaderT gazeTSi terentievi werda: „The Gurdjeff method is twice as rich as that of Dalcroze“ (11). saqarTvelos damoukideblobam didxans ver gastana. 1921 wlis 25 Tebervals amaod mimarTavda daviT kakabaZe saqarTvelos warmomadgenlobas parizSi, fraiburgSi myof Salva qiqoZes mZime avadmyofobis gamo daxmareba sWirdebao. man ar icoda, rom im dRes tfilisis Tavze wiTeli droSa afrialda. mTavrobam parizs miaSura. ucxoeTSi myof qarTvel studentebs finansuri daxmareba SeuwydaT. Tumca modernizmis istoria saqarTveloSi aq ar Semwydara.

In 1919, the influential spiritual teacher George Gurdjieff and his wife also arrived in Tbilisi. His disciples and followers assembled around him. They were composer Thomas de Hartmann (a friend of Wassily Kandinsky) and his wife Olga Schumacher, stage designer Alexander von Salzmann and his Swiss wife Jeanne. Before that, Jeanne taught Georgian girls how to dance based on the method of Emile Dalcroze. However, Gurdjieff charmed her and she ceded her studio to him. The latter opened the Institute for the Harmonious Development of Man in the studio and Jeanne became his assistant. Salzmann painted decorations, Hartmann played the piano, and Olga made costumes. Kiril Zdanevich and Igor Terentiev also used to attend Gurdjieff’s lessons. In 1919, Terentiev wrote in the only newspaper published by the 41 Degrees association: “The Gurdjieff method is twice as rich as that of Dalcroze (11).

The Habitat of Chimaeras One day, when Kakabadze and Gudiashvili were painting the walls of the Kimerioni cafe, Titsian Tabidze came in with some good news: they had won the stipend and would go to Paris soon. Kiril Zdanevich also participated in painting the walls. Russian artist Sergey Sudeykin was the leading person decorating the interior. Previously, he had painted cafes in St. Petersburg and, at the same time, he was a stage designer (scenery design did not exist as an independent branch of art in Georgia at that time). Pictures that reflected real life in the cafe appeared on the walls: Chimaeras, characters of Comedia del Arte, artists and muses, artistically transformed portraits of the “cast of characters” of the cafe, and so forth. The images were covered with paint later, as they were unacceptable for the Soviet ideology. They have now been restored, although many of them are damaged. Poets often painted and artists wrote texts here.

Georgia’s independence did not last long. On 25 February 1921, David Kakabadze appealed to the Georgian representation in Paris, informing them that Shalva Kikodze was suffering from a serious illness in Freiburg and needed help. Kakabadze did not know that the red flag was hoisted in Tbilisi on that day. The Georgian government fled to Paris and Georgian students abroad no longer received financial assistance. However, the history of Modernism in Georgia did not come to an end at that moment.

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# 8 / 03 / 2016

ISSN 1987-8486

Georgia's European Way- eighth edition  

Georgia's European Way eighth edition of the magazine საქართველოს ევროპული გზა მერვე პერიოდული გამოცემა

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