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საქართველოს ევროპული გზა

GEORGIA’S EUROPEAN WAY № 7 / 12 / 2015


საქართველოს ევროპული გზა

Georgia's European Way

saqarTvelos saxelmwifo ministris aparati evropul da evroatlantikur struqturebSi integraciis sakiTxebSi Office of the State Minister of Georgia on European and Euro-Atlantic Integration


Content

სარჩევი 

მიმართვა 06

იანოშ ჰერმანი 08 საქართველო განუხრელად მიიწევს წინ 10 ევროინტეგრაციის გზაზე საქართველო და ევროკავშირი 12

უვიზო მიმოსვლის რეჟიმი ევროკავშირთან

Address

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Janos Herman

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Georgia’s Steady Progress on the Path to European Integration

Georgia and EU

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საქართველოს გზა ევროპული 16 თავისუფლებისაკენ

Visa Free Travel Regime with the EU Georgia's Path towards European Freedoms

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ევროპული სამეზობლო პოლიტიკა: 18 საფრთხეები და შესაძლებლობები ბიზნესი და ეკონომიკა 22

Georgia’s Ski Tourism Continues to Grow

საავტორო უფლებები 28 საქართველოში

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Copyright in Georgia

2016 წლიდან 34 საწვავის ხარისხს სახელმწიფო გააკონტროლებს

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The State will Monitor the Quality of Fuel from 2016

საქართველო და ნატო 42

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Business and Economy

ეროვნული ინტერესების განხორციელების პროცესში საზოგადოებრივი მხარდაჭერის მნიშვნელობა

48

ანალიზი და მოსაზრება 48

სტრატეგიული კომუნიკაცია და საზოგადოებრივი დისკურსი

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განათლება და კულტურა 58

გაიცანით ქუჩის ხელოვნების ქართველი გურუ – Dr. Love

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ევროპის გულში 62 „ქალის ხმით” ამეტყველებული ქართული სცენოგრაფია ევროპიდან დაბრუნება 68

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Business and Economy

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საქართველოში სათხილამურო ტურიზმი ვითარდება



European Neighborhood Policy: Threats and Opportunities

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Georgia’s European Way December 2015

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Importance of Public Support in the Process of Implementation of the National Interests

Analysis and Opinion

Poland’s Key to Success on the Way to the EU Integration

Education and Culture

Meet Georgian Street Art Guru, Dr.Love

Georgian Scenography Delivered by “The Voice of a Woman” to the Heart of Europe Returning from Europe

დეკემბერი 2015 საქართველოს ევროპული გზა

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Address | მიმართვა

saredaqcio sabWo mariam raqviaSvili evropul da evroatlantikur struqturebSi integraciis sakiTxebSi saqarTvelos saxelmwifo ministris moadgile zurab qarumiZe politikis analizis, strategiuli dagegmvisa da koordinaciis departamentis, sagareo urTierTobaTa samsaxuris pirveli mrCeveli, saqarTvelos mTavrobis administracia laSa tuRuSi aRmosavleT partniorobis samoqalaqo sazogadoebis saqarTvelos erovnuli platformis Tavmjdomare ivane CxikvaZe evrointegraciis mimarTulebis menejeri, fondi `Ria sazogadoeba _ saqarTvelo~ elene gocaZe natosa da evrokavSiris Sesaxeb sainformacio centris direqtori Tornike nozaZe evropul da evroatlantikur struqturebSi integraciis sakiTxebSi saqarTvelos saxelmwifo ministris aparatis strategiuli komunikaciis departamentis ufrosi Tengiz buaCiZe evropul da evroatlantikur struqturebSi integraciis sakiTxebSi saqarTvelos saxelmwifo ministris aparatis strategiuli komunikaciis departamentis mTavari specialisti gansakuTrebuli madloba: Tamar miqaZe saqarTveloSi evrokavSiris warmomadgenlobis politikisa da presis ganyofilebis TanamSromeli

daibeWda Sps `sezanSi~

Editorial Board Mariam Rakviashvili Deputy State Minister of Georgia on European and Euro-Atlantic Integration Zurab Karumidze First Advisor, Foreign Relations Unit, Department of Political Analysis, Strategic Planning and Coordination the Administration of the Government of Georgia Lasha Tugushi Head of Georgian Civil Society National Platform for the Eastern Partnership Ivane Chkhikvadze EU Integration Field Manager Open Society Georgia Foundation Elene Gotsadze Director of the Information Center on NATO and EU Tornike Nozadze Head of Strategic Communication Department of the Office of the State Minister of Georgia on European and Euro-Atlantic Integration Tengiz Buachidze Chief Specialist of Strategic Communication Department of the Office of the State Minister of Georgia on European and Euro-Atlantic Integration Special thanks to: Tamar Mikadze Press and Information Officer at the Political and Press Section of the Delegation of the European Union to Georgia

Printed by "Cezanne Ltd." ISSN: 1987-8486

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Georgia’s European Way December 2015

Address | მიმართვა 2015 weli erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi weli iyo saqarTvelos evropul da evroatlantikur struqturebSi integraciis TvalsazrisiT. evrointegraciis procesSi miRweuli warmatebebis TvalsazrisiT, saqarTvelo lideria „aRmosavleT partniorobis“ qveynebs Soris. evrokavSiris 28 wevrma qveyanam saqarTvelo -evrokavSiris asocirebis Sesaxeb SeTanxmebis ratificireba moaxdina. mniSvnelovani progresi iqna miRweuli asocirebis SeTanxmebisa da asocirebis dRis wesrigis 2015 wlis erovnuli samoqmedo gegmis ganxorcielebis TvalsazrisiT _ warmatebiT ganxorcielda samoqmedo gegmiT gaTvaliswinebuli 700-mde aqtivoba, rac dadebiTad Sefasda asocirebis sabWos meore sxdomaze. evrokomisiis me-4 da saboloo angariSis Sesabamisad, saqarTvelom warmatebiT daasrula savizo reJimis liberalizaciis samoqmedo gegmis ganxorcieleba, rac uaxloes periodSi, garkveuli procedurebis dasrulebis Semdeg, saqarTvelos moqalaqeebs evrokavSiris qveynebSi uvizo mimosvlis SesaZleblobas miscems. wlis ganmavlobaSi, evrointegraciis procesSi mniSvnelovani roli ekava evrokavSiris finansur daxmarebas, romelic sxvadasxva instrumentisa da programebis saSualebiT xorcieldeboda. evrokavSiris daxmarebis instrumentebidan gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia evrokavSiris institucionaluri ganviTarebis programebi, romlebic xels uwyobs saqarTvelo-evrokavSiris asocirebis SeTanxmebis farglebSi gaTvaliswinebuli reformebis warmatebiT ganxorcielebas, aseve mcire da saSualo sawarmoebisa da soflis meurneobis ganviTarebas. 2015 weli uaRresad mniSvnelovani iyo saqarTvelosaTvis Crdiloatlantikur aliansSi gawevrianebis gzaze. mimdinare wels saqarTvelos mTavroba warmatebiT axorcielebda nato-s uelsis samitze miRebul nato-saqarTvelos arsebiTi paketiT gaTvaliswinebul aqtivobebs. mimdinare wlis agvistoSi gaimarTa arsebiTi paketis erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi elementis, nato-saqarTvelos wvrTnisa da Sefasebis erToblivi centris inauguracia. saqarTvelo agrZelebs wliuri erovnuli programis warmatebiT Sesrulebas da nayofierad TanamSromlobs aliansTan nato-saqarTvelos komisiis farglebSi. momavali weli iqneba aranaklebi mniSvnelobis qveynis evroatlantikuri integraciis TvalsazrisiT, radgan Cven vemzadebiT nato-s varSavis samitisTvis. wlis ganmavlobaSi, strategiuli komunikaciis kuTxiT aqtiurad mimdinareobda saqarTvelos mosaxleobis informireba evropul da evroatlantikur struqturebSi qveynis integraciis Taobaze. saxelmwifo ministris aparatSi Seiqmna strategiuli komunikaciebis departamenti, gaixsna sami axali sainformacio regionuli centri, Catarda 400-ze meti Sexvedra, rogorc dedaqalaqSi, ise regionebSi. warmatebiT ganxorcielda evrointegraciis sakiTxTa komunikaciisa da informaciis Sesaxeb 2014-2017 wlebis saqarTvelos mTavrobis strategiis samoqmedo gegmiT gaTvaliswinebuli RonisZiebebi. darwmunebuli var, rom 2016 weli kidev ufro meti sikeTisa da warmatebis momtani iqneba Cveni qveynisa da mosaxleobisTvis.

დავით ბაქრაძე ევროპულ და ევროატლანტიკურ სტრუქტურებში ინტეგრაციის საკითხებში სახელმწიფო მინისტრი

David Bakradze State Minister of Georgia on European and Euro-Atlantic Integration 2015 was one of the most important years for Georgia`s European and Euro-Atlantic integration process. Georgia is a leader among the Eastern Partnership countries in terms of implementation of the EU integration reforms. The EU-Georgia Association Agreement (AA) has been ratified by all 28 EU Member States. Significant progress has been achieved in terms of implementation of the 2015 National Action Plan (AP) for the implementation of the Association Agreement and the Association Agenda, up to 700 actions envisaged by the AP were successfully carried out, which were positively assessed by the second AA Council. According to 4th and final report by the European Commission Georgia has successfully completed implementation of the Visa Liberalization Action Plan, which, in the near future, after completion of relevant procedures, will lead to the visa free regime with the EU. During the year, Georgia`s European Integration process was particularly marked by the financial assistance from the EU, which was implemented through various assistance instruments and programmes. In this regard, EU institutional building programmes played extremely important role in supporting ongoing reform agenda under the EU-Georgia Association Agreement, assisted small and medium size enterprises as well as facilitated development of agriculture.

2015 was an important year for Georgia as regards its progress towards the NATO membership. The Government of Georgia has been successfully implementing the Substantial NATO-Georgia Package (SNGP), which was offered to Georgia at the last year’s NATO Wales Summit. In August, Joint NATO-Georgia Training and Evaluation Centre - the key element of the SNGP was opened. Georgia continued to successfully implement the Annual National Programme and actively cooperated with NATO in the framework of NATO-Georgia Commission. In 2016, Georgia will spare no effort in ensuring that Georgia’s progress is adequately reflected at Warsaw and will continue working with Allied Nations in order to get maximum from the Summit. In terms of Strategic Communications the Government of Georgia actively continued informing population of Georgia regarding the process of country`s European and Euro-Atlantic integration. Office of the State Minister formed a new unit – Strategic Communications Department, three new information centers were opened in the regions, more than 400 meeting were held in the capital as well as in the regions. We have successfully implemented all activities envisaged under the Action Plan of the “Communication and Information Strategy of the Government of Georgia in the sphere of EU Integration for the period of 2014-2017”. I am convinced that 2016 will be even more successful and beneficial for Georgia and its population.

დეკემბერი 2015 საქართველოს ევროპული გზა

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Address | მიმართვა

Address | მიმართვა

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ელჩი იანოშ ჰერმანი, საქართველოში ევროკავშირის წარმომადგენლობის ხელმძღვანელი

Ambassador Janos Herman, Head of the European Union Delegation to Georgia

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Georgia’s European Way December 2015

aqarTvelosa da evrokavSirs amoZravebT erTiani mizani da es mizani politikuri asocireba da ekonomikuri integraciaa. es ambiciuri da grZelvadiani amocanaa, romelic sul mcire momdevno aTi wlis ganmavlobaSi Tanamimdevrul Zalisxmevas moiTxovs. axla, rodesac 2015 weli dasasruls uaxlovdeba, SegviZlia SevajamoT, Tu ra gamoarCevda mas sxvebisgan, evropuli ambiciebis Sesrulebis TvalsazrisiT. 2015 wlis Sefasebisas albaT gagvaxsendeba, rom swored am wels daiwyo evrokavSirTan asocirebis SeTanxmebis WeSmaritad ganxorcieleba. safuZveli Caeyara Rrma da yovlismomcveli Tavisufali savaWro sivrcis (DCFTA -s) Seqmnas, xolo masze pasuxismgebeli organoebi mTeli gasuli wlis ganmavlobaSi funqcionirebdnen. asocirebis xelSekrulebisa da DCFTA-s pirveli mokrZalebuli nayofi ukve gamoCnda vaWrobis, soflis meurneobisa da investiciebis sferoebSi, aseve sasamarTlo sistemasa da sajaro administrirebaSi mimdinare mniSvnelovan reformebSi. 2015 wels Catarebuli sazogadoebrivi gamokiTxvebi cxadyofs, rom saqarTvelos evrokavSirTan Semdgomi daaxloebis sazogadoebrivi mxardaWera wina gamokiTxvebTan SedarebiT odnav Semcirebulia. am tendenciis mizezebs ufro detaluri analizi da gageba sWirdeba. Tumca xazgasmiT unda aRiniSnos, rom evrokavSiri da asocirebis SeTanxmeba saqarTvelos mosaxleobis udidesi nawilis mxardaWeriT sargeblobs. vagrZelebT ra winsvlas, ufro mniSvnelovan Sedegebs mivaRwevT. saqarTvelos sul ufro meti moqalaqe miiRebs xelSesaxeb sargebels da misTvis ukeTesi pirobebi da SesaZleblobebi Seiqmneba. gasuli wlis ganmavlobaSi vizis liberalizaciis procesSi sagrZnobi winsvla aRiniSneboda, rac dadebiTi saboloo angariSiT dasrulda. vulocav did warmatebas yvelas, vinc am umniSvnelovanes, saqarTvelos mosaxleobisTvis sargeblis momtan procesSi iyo Cabmuli. rigis samitisTvis mzadebis procesSi aRmosavleT partniorobis farglebSi miRweuli warmatebis Semdeg, 2015 wels evrokavSirma gamosca dokumenti, romliTac iwyeba axali faza evropis samezoblo politikaSi. es dokumenti aris evrokavSiris axali strategia samezoblos regionisTvis, maT Soris saqarTvelosTvis. dokumentSi meti yuradReba eTmoba qveynebisadmi diferencirebul midgomas, calkeuli partnioris interesebze morgebul politikasa da usafrTxoebis aspeqtebs. saqarTvelom aqtiuri monawileoba miiRo axali dokumentis momzadebis procesSi, romelSic ukeTaa asaxuli qveynis saWiroebebi. 2015 wlis ganmavlobaSi saqarTvelom daamtkica, rom is SesaniSnavi partnioria, romelic pasuxobda da erTgulad icavda valdebulebebs rogorc asocirebis procesSi, ise regionul konteqstSi. darwmunebuli var, rom TanamSromlobis gaRrmavebis paralelurad, es procesi 2015 wlis miRwevebis gaTvaliswinebiT gagrZeldeba.

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eorgia and the European Union (EU) are guided by the common goal of establishing political association and economic integration between them. This is an ambitious and long-term objective, requiring consistent efforts for at least a decade to come. So, as 2015 draws to a close, what have been the distinguishing features of this year, with respect to these European ambitions? It is reasonable to expect that in the future 2015 will be looked back upon as marking the start of the real, on-theground implementation of our Association Agreement with the EU. The Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area (DCFTA) has now been fully been in place and the governing bodies of the association have been functioning throughout the year. The first, modest fruits of the association and the DCFTA have already become apparent in the areas of trade, agriculture, investments, as well as in progressive and important reforms in the fields of judiciary and public administration. Public opinion polls conducted this year show that Georgian public support for further approximation to the European Union is now somewhat lower than in previous times. This is a trend we need to analyse deeply and understand. But it is equally relevant to state that the EU and the Association Agreement continue to enjoy the backing of the overwhelming majority of Georgians. Moving forward, we will produce more significant results, delivering tangible benefits for a growing number of the citizens of Georgia, creating better opportunities and conditions for them. The visa liberalization process has progressed substantially this year and concluded with a positive report which is a great success. I wish to congratulate all involved in this process which is to benefit the Georgian people. In this year, the European Union issued a document, opening a new phase in the European Neighbourhood Policy – the EU strategy for the region, including Georgia while the Eastern Partnership has made progress in the wake of the Riga Summit. There is growing emphasis being placed on differentiation, tailor-made policies for the individual partners and security aspects. This has been reflected in Georgia's active contribution, and these new documents are more accommodating for Georgia’s needs. In 2015, Georgia has proved itself a remarkable partner in the association process and also in the regional context, acting responsively and committedly to its obligations. I am sure this will continue, as we further deepen our cooperation, building on the achievements of 2015.

დეკემბერი 2015 საქართველოს ევროპული გზა

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Address | მიმართვა

Address | მიმართვა

საქართველო განუხრელად მიიწევს წინ ევროინტეგრაციის გზაზე გიორგი კვირიკაშვილი საქართველოს საგარეო საქმეთა მინისტრი

Georgia’s steady progress on the path to European Integration Giorgi Kvirikashvili Minister of Foreign Affairs of Georgia

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kve weliwadze metia, rac saqarTvelom istoriuli nabiji gadadga da xeli moawera evrokavSirTan asocirebis SeTanxmebas. am gziT Cveni qveynis politikuri asocireba da ekonomikuri integracia evrokavSirTan Seuqcevadi gaxda. am drois ganmavlobaSi Sesrulebulia mravali samuSao da miRweulia konkretuli Sedegebi. evrokavSirisa da Cveni partniorebis Zlieri mxardaWeriT mniSvnelovan warmatebas mivaRwieT demokratiis konsolidirebisa da kargi mmarTvelobis ganviTarebis kuTxiT, kanonis uzenaesobisa da sasamarTlos damoukideblobis gaZlierebis, adamianis ZiriTadi uflebebisa da Tavisuflebis

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Georgia’s European Way December 2015

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t has been more than a year since Georgia made a historical step by signing the Association Agreement with the European Union that made Georgia’s political association and economic integration with the EU irreversible. Since then, we have taken the work forward and delivered concrete outcomes. With the solid support of the EU and our partners, we have advanced in numerous areas, namely consolidating democracy and good governance, strengthening the rule of law and independence of judiciary, protecting human rights and fundamental freedoms, promoting freedom of speech and media pluralism, investing in agriculture, and developing small and medium-sized businesses. The European norms and standards have been guiding each and every aspect of our political, economic and social life through consistent legislative approximation

dacvis, sityvis Tavisuflebisa da mediapluralizmis xelSewyobis, soflis meurneobis sferoSi investirebis, mcire da saSualo biznesis ganviTarebis TvalsazrisiT. evrokavSiris kanonmdeblobasTan daaxloebis gziT evropuli standartebi da normebi TandaTanobiT Cveni politikuri, ekonomikuri da socialuri cxovrebis ganmsazRvreli nawili xdeba. evrokavSirTan gavaZliereT TanamSromloba iseT mniSvnelovan dargebSi, rogorebicaa energetikuli usafrTxoeba, transporti, garemos dacva, ganaTleba, mecniereba, kultura, inovaciebi, informaciuli teqnologiebi da a.S. savizo reJimis liberalizacia Cveni qveynis evropuli integraciis dRis wesrigis umniSvnelovanesi prioritetia. gansakuTrebiT minda aRvniSno, rom savizo reJimis liberalizaciis samoqmedo gegmam, romelic saqarTvelom warmatebiT Seasrula, xeli Seuwyo qveyanaSi demokratiuli reformirebis daCqarebas. dRes, Cven gveamayeba, rom am Zalisxmevam dadebiTi Sedegi gamoiRo, rac asaxulia cota xnis win gamoqveynebul evrokomisiis saboloo angariSSi. axla, roca yvela piroba Sesrulebulia, veliT evrokaSiris gadawyvetilebas saqarTvelos moqalaqeebisTvis Sengenis sivrceSi uvizo reJimis SemoRebis Sesaxeb. usafrTxoebisa da stabilurobis xelSewyoba saqarTvelo-evrokavSiris TanamSromlobis ganuyofeli komponentia. vafasebT evrokavSiris mtkice mxardaWeras saqarTvelos teritoriuli mTlianobisadmi saerTaSorisod aRiarebul sazRvrebSi da mis, rogorc TanaTavmjdomaris, aqtiur CarTulobas Jenevis saerTaSoriso molaparakebebSi. saqarTveloSi evrokavSiris sadamkvirveblo misiis funqcionireba Zalze mniSvnelovania, radganac is adgilze monitoringis erTaderTi saerTaSoriso meqanizmia. Tavis mxriv, saqarTvelo, rogorc evrokavSiris sando partniori, iziarebs msoflioSi usafrTxoebis xelSewyobis saerTo pasuxismgeblobas. amJamad CarTuli varT evrokavSiris egidiT warmoebul saerTaSoriso misiebSi centraluri afrikis respublikaSi, malisa da ukrainaSi. dRes, rodesac saqarTvelos transformaciisa da modernizaciis procesi aqtiur fazaSia, Cveni mTavroba mzad aris, ufro meti gaakeTos evrokavSirTan Semdgomi daaxloebis mizniT. sul axlaxan gamoqveynda evropuli samezoblo politikis gadaxedvis erToblivi komunike, romelic gvTavazobs konkretul winadadebebsa da inovaciur midgomebs ufro metad fokusirebuli TanamSromlobisTvis. Cveni mizania, es SesaZleblobebi maqsimalurad gamoviyenoT. dasasrul, msurs kidev erTxel gansakuTrebiT aRvniSno, rom asocirebis SeTanxmeba saqarTvelosTvis warmoadgens ara saboloo mizans, aramed metad ambiciuri urTierTobebis dasawyiss, romelic axal SesaZleblobebs gvTavazobs evrokavSirSi progresuli integraciisTvis. es aris Sromatevadi procesi, romelic mTavrobisgan, samoqalaqo sazogadoebisa da TiToeuli moqalaqisgan moiTxovs did Zalisxmevasa da nebis simtkices imisaTvis, rom Cveni ocneba WeSmariti evropuli demokratiis aRmSeneblobisa realobad vaqcioT.

ევროპული და ევროატლანტიკური ინტეგრაცია საქართველოს საგარეო და უსაფრთხოების პოლიტიკის ურყევი პრიორიტეტია. European and Euro-Atlantic integration represents the enduring foreign and security policy priority of Georgia. with the EU acquis. We have stepped up sectorial cooperation in key areas such as energy security, transport, environment, education, science, culture, innovations and information technologies. Visa liberalization has been a crucial element of our European integration agenda. Indeed, the visa liberalization action plan, which Georgia has implemented in a successful manner, has accelerated democratic reforms. Today, we are proud that our efforts have been rewarded by the positive assessment of the European Commission in its final progress report, which was published few days ago. While the commitments are being already met, we look forward to the EU’s decision to establish the visa-free travel for Georgian citizens within the Schengen area. Promoting security and stability is an inalienable component of the EU-Georgia cooperation. We highly appreciate the EU’s firm support for Georgia’s territorial integrity within its internationally recognized borders and its active engagement in Geneva International Discussions as a co-chair. The presence of the EU Monitoring Mission (EUMM) in Georgia is of utmost importance, as it is the only international monitoring mechanism on the ground. Georgia, as a reliable partner to the EU, shares the commitment to promote security worldwide. Currently, we are engaged in the EU-led missions in the Central African Republic, Mali and Ukraine. With deep transformation and modernisation process in action, the Georgian government is committed to bring Georgia ever closer to the EU. The recently published Joint Communication on the review of the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) offers innovative approaches and concrete proposals for a more focused partnership that we are going to fully explore. Finally, I want to reiterate that the Association Agreement is not the end goal, but the beginning of a more ambitious relationship opening new avenues of progressive integration into the EU. This is a work in progress, which requires a great deal of devotion and stamina from the government, civil society, as well as each and every one of our citizens in order to achieve our vision of building a truly European democracy.

დეკემბერი 2015 საქართველოს ევროპული გზა

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Georgia and EU | საქართველო და ევროკავშირი

Georgia and EU | საქართველო და ევროკავშირი

უვიზო მიმოსვლის რეჟიმი ევროკავშირთან გიგი გიგიაძე საგარეო საქმეთა მინისტრის მოადგილე

Visa Free Travel Regime with the EU Gigi Gigiadze Deputy Foreign Minister of Georgia

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surs mivuloco saqarTvelos TiToeul moqalaqes evrokavSirTan savizo reJimis liberalizaciis procesSi miRweuli warmateba, romelic m. w. 18 dekembers gamoqveynebul evrokomisiis angariSSi aisaxa da romlis safuZvelzec saqarTvelos moqalaqeebi uaxloes momavalSi evrokavSiris/Sengenis qveynebSi uvizod mogzaurobas SeZleben. es warmateba saqarTvelos saxelmwifo struqturebis udidesi erToblivi Zalisxmevisa da umniSvnelovanesi reformebis ganxorcielebis Sedegia, risTvisac msurs madloba gadavuxado: Sinagan saqmeTa, iusticiis, Sromis, janmrTelobisa da socialuri dacvis, saqarTvelos okupirebuli teritoriebidan iZulebiT gadaadgilebul pirTa, ltolvilTa da gansaxlebisa da finansTa saministroebs, mTavar prokuraturas, evropul da evroatlantikur struqturebSi integraciis sakiTxebSi saxelmwifo ministris aparats, Serigebisa da samoqalaqo integraciis sakiTxebSi saxelmwifo ministris aparats, finansuri monitoringis samsaxurs, personalur monacemTa dacvis inspeqtors, saxalxo damcvelis aparats, sajaro samsaxuris biuros, saxelmwifo Sesyidvebis saagentos, adamianis uflebaTa dacvis samdivnos, agreTve parlaments, sasamarTlos da savizo reJimis liberalizaciis procesSi CarTul yvela sxva uwyebas. evrokavSirTan savizo reJimis liberalizaciis perspeqtiva ganisazRvra „aRmosavleT partniorobis“ iniciativis safuZvelze da saqarTvelos moqalaqeebisTvis erT-erTi yvelaze xelSesaxebi konkretuli sargebeli gaxdeba evrointegraciis procesSi. evrokavSirTan savizo reJimis liberalizacia gulisxmobs biometriuli pasportebis mflobel saqarTvelos moqalaqeTaTvis Sengenis sivrcis1 qveynebSi uvizo mimosvlis reJimis SemoRebas.

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Georgia’s European Way December 2015

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would like to congratulate every citizen of Georgia on the success achieved in the visa liberalization process, underlined in the European Commission’s progress report issued on 18 December 2015 on the bases of which, in the near future Georgian citizens will be able to travel visa-free to the EU/Schengen states. This success is a result of the efforts of Georgian state institutions and effective implementation of comprehensive reforms. For these achievements, I would like to thank the Ministry of Internal Affairs, the Ministry of Justice, the Ministry of Labour, Health and Social Affairs, the Ministry of Internally Displaced Persons from the Occupied Territories, Accommodation and Refugees, the Prosecutor's Office, the Office of the State Minister on European and Euro-Atlantic Integration, the Office of the State Minister of Georgia for Reconciliation and Civic Equality, the Financial Monitoring Service, the Personal Data Protection Inspector, the Public Defender's Office, the Civil Service Bureau, the State Procurement Agency, the Secretariat for Human Rights, as well as the Parliament, the Court and all other state agencies engaged in the visa liberalization process. The Eastern Partnership initiative opened up the perspective of visa-free travel to the EU and it will bring one of the most tangible benefits to Georgian citizens in the country’s European integration process. Visa liberalization means the introduction of visa-free travel to the Schengen Area for citizens of Georgia, holding a biometric passport.1 As a result of the visa liberalization, visa-free travel will apply for shortstay visits (up to 90 days in any 180-day period) and will not provide an opportunity for long-term stays, such as for studying or working etc. Long-stay visits will remain subject to the normal visa procedure through the relevant consulates. In addition, every citizen will still need to pass through border control and the final decision on granting entry will be taken by the relevant border authority.

დეკემბერი 2015 საქართველოს ევროპული გზა

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Georgia and EU | საქართველო და ევროკავშირი savizo reJimis liberalizaciis Sedegad uvizo mimosvlis reJimi gavrceldeba moklevadian vizitebze (90 dRe 180 dRis ganmavlobaSi) da ar Seexeba Sengenis wevr saxelmwifoebSi grZelvadian vizitebs swavlis, muSaobis an sxva mizniT. grZelvadiani vizitebisTvis saWiro iqneba evrokavSiris Sesabamisi qveynis sakonsulos mier gacemuli viza. amasTan, nebismieri moqalaqe gaivlis sasazRvro kontrols da saboloo gadawyvetileba Sengenis wevr qveyanaSi Sesvlis Sesaxeb miRebuli iqneba uSualod sazRvarze, Sesabamisi uflebamosili organos mier. evrokavSirTan uvizo mimosvlis reJimis SemoRebasTan dakavSirebuli uflebebisa da movaleobebis, kerZod, legaluri migraciisa da aralegaluri migraciis Sedegebis Sesaxeb sazogadoebrivi cnobierebis amaRlebis mizniT mimdinareobs intensiuri sainformacio kampania. saqarTvelosa da evrokavSirs Soris savizo dialogi 2012 wlis 4 ivniss gaixsna, rasac win uswrebda saqarTvelo-evrokavSirs Soris savizo SeTanxmebis safuZvelze evrokavSirTan savizo reJimis gamartiveba da readmisiis Sesaxeb SeTanxmebis warmatebuli implementacia (2011 wlis 1 martidan). 2013 wlis 25 Tebervals saqarTvelos mxares gadmoeca savizo reJimis liberalizaciis samoqmedo gegma, romelmac reformebis ganxorcielebis qmediTi instrumentis funqcia Seasrula da mniSvnelovani wvlili Seitana evrokavSirisa da saerTaSoriso standartebis Sesabamisi sakanonmdeblo da institucionaluri CarCos CamoyalibebaSi. evrokavSirTan uvizo mimosvlis reJimis amoqmedebis mTavari winapiroba iyo saqarTvelos mier samoqmedo gegmis moTxovnebis warmatebiT implementacia. VLAP-iT gansazRvruli niSnulebi (benchmarks) saqarTvelom or etapad ganaxorciela (sakanonmdeblo da saimplementacio fazebad). pirveli (sakanonmdeblo) fazis farglebSi saqarTvelos valdebuleba iyo sakanonmdeblo aqtebis miReba, xolo meore (implementaciis) fazis farglebSi _ miRebuli kanonmdeblobis aRsruleba. VLAP-is Tanaxmad, saqarTveloSi ganxorcielda mTeli rigi sakanonmdeblo da institucionaluri reformebi Semdeg sferoebSi: 1. dokumentebis usafrTxoeba; 2. sazRvris marTva, migracia, TavSesafris politika; 3. sazogadoebrivi wesrigi da usafrTxoeba (organizebul danaSaulTan, trefikingTan, narkotikebTan, korufciasTan brZola, personalur monacemTa dacva); 4. adamianis uflebebi (umciresobaTa uflebebi, diskriminaciis winaaRmdeg brZola). samoqmedo gegmis implementaciis procesSi ganxorcielebuli reformebidan gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania: dokumentebis usafrTxoebis maRali standartebis damkvidreba; migraciis sakiTxTa samTavrobo komisiis

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Georgia’s European Way December 2015

An intensive information campaign has been launched in order to raise awareness on issues related to the rights and obligations of the future visa-free travel regime with the EU, legal migration and consequences of illegal migration. Following successful implementation of the Visa Facilitation and Readmission Agreements by Georgia, the Visa Dialogue between Georgia and the EU was officially launched on 4 June 2012. On 25 February 2013, the Visa Liberalization Action Plan (VLAP) was officially handed over to the Government of Georgia, which has proved to be a catalyst for advancing reforms and has contributed to the establishment of legislative, policy and institutional framework in compliance with European and international standards. Georgia has implemented VLAP benchmarks in 2 phases (legislative and operational). In the framework of the first (legislative) phase, Georgia became obliged to consolidate its legal framework in relevant fields. The second (operational) phase entailed the effective implementation of adopted legislation. In the framework of the VLAP, a number of legislative and institutional reforms were carried out in Georgia in the following areas: 1. Document security; 2. Border management, Migration management and, Asylum policy; 3. Public order and security (fighting organized crime, trafficking, drugs and corruption; protection of personal data); 4. Fundamental rights (rights of minorities; anti-discrimination policy). The successful implementation of both phases of the VLAP was the main precondition for introducing visa-free travel to the EU for Georgian citizens. The most important reforms carried out under the VLAP are as follows: establishment of high standards for document security; setting up the governmental commission on migration issues and effective implementation of migration strategy and action plan; establishment of the unified migration risk analysis system; adoption of the Law on Personal Data Protection and introduction of the Personal Data Protection Inspector; adoption of the Law on Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination and its effective implementation; adoption and implementation of the Human Rights Strategy and Action Plan; adoption of the new Law on Civil Service which establishes an effective, transparent, quality-oriented and professional standard-based public service; establishment of the Labor Inspection Department to monitor and inspect labor conditions; introduction of a distinction between criminal liability for drug possession and distribution; and introduction of the asset declarations monitoring system, etc. According to the VLAP benchmarks, overall, more than 60 legislative amendments, about 70 bylaws, instructions and regulations, and 9

Georgia and EU | საქართველო და ევროკავშირი Seqmna da migraciis strategiisa da samoqmedo gegmis efeqtiani implementacia; migraciis riskebis analizis erTiani sistemis Camoyalibeba; personalur monacemTa dacvis Sesaxeb kanonis miReba da inspeqtoris institutis SemoReba; diskriminaciis yvela formis aRmofxvris Sesaxeb kanonis miReba da misi implementacia; adamianis uflebaTa strategiisa da samoqmedo gegmis miReba da implementacia; sajaro samsaxuris Sesaxeb axali kanonis miReba, romelic sajaro samsaxuris maRal saerTaSoriso standartebs amkvidrebs; Sromis inspeqciis departamentis Seqmna; narkotikebis flobisa da gasaRebisTvis sisxlissamarTlebrivi pasuxismgeblobis gamijvna; sajaro moxeleTa qonebrivi deklaraciebis sistematuri kontrolis meqanizmis SemoReba da sxva. saerTo jamSi, samoqmedo gegmis moTxovnebis Sesabamisad miRebulia 60-ze meti sakanonmdeblo cvlileba da 70-mde kanonqvemdebare aqti/instruqcia/ regulacia, damtkicebulia 9 strategia, ratificirebulia 7 saerTaSoriso konvencia. garda amisa, Seiqmna axali struqturuli erTeulebi, dainerga axali servisebi, SemuSavda meqanizmebi, gaaqtiurda sainformacio kampaniebi VLAP-iT gansazRvruli mimarTulebebiT. samoqmedo gegmis implementaciis process monitorings uwevda evrokomisia eqspertTa Semfasebeli misiebis vizitebis meSveobiT da periodulad evrokavSiris sabWosa da evroparlaments warudgenda angariSs saqarTvelos mier ganxorcielebuli progresis Taobaze. VLAP-is implementaciis procesSi saerTo jamSi ganxorcielda 22 Semfasebeli misia 13 mimarTulebiT da gamoqveynda evrokomisiis 4 angariSi. savizo reJimis liberalizaciis samoqmedo gegmis implementaciis meore, daskvniT fazaze saqarTvelo formalurad gadayvanil iqna evrokomisiis 2014 wlis 29 oqtombris angariSis safuZvelze. 2015 wlis 15 dekembers gamoqveynda evrokomisiis meoTxe, saboloo angariSi, romlis Tanaxmadac saqarTvelom mTlianad Seasrula savizo reJimis liberalizaciis samoqmedo gegmis 4 blokiT gansazRvruli moTxovnebi. Sesabamisad, 2016 wlis dasawyisSi evrokomisia mimarTavs oficialuri winadadebiT evrokavSiris sabWosa da evroparlaments evrokavSiris regulaciaSi N539/2001 cvlilebis Setanis Sesaxeb, romlis safuZvelzec saqarTvelos moqalaqeebisTvis Sengenis qveynebSi (+ Sengenis 4 kandidati qveyana: rumineTi, bulgareTi, xorvatia, kviprosi) uvizo mimosvlis reJimi amoqmeddeba.

ევროკავშირთან სავიზო რეჟიმის ლიბერალიზაცია გულისხმობს ბიომეტრიული პასპორტების მფლობელ საქართველოს მოქალაქეთათვის შენგენის სივრცის ქვეყნებში უვიზო მიმოსვლის რეჟიმის შემოღებას. Visa liberalization means the introduction of visafree travel to the Schengen Area for citizens of Georgia, holding a biometric passport. strategies have been adopted while 7 international conventions have been ratified. In addition, new institutional structures have been created and new services, mechanisms and procedures have been introduced. At the same time, information campaigns on the issues covered by the VLAP were intensified. The VLAP implementation process has been monitored by the European Commission through conducting visits of assessment missions. The European Commission has regularly presented progress reports on Georgia’s implementation of the VLAP to the European Parliament and the Council. Throughout the VLAP implementation process, Georgia has hosted 22 evaluation missions to assess 13 directions of the VLAP and 4 progress reports of the European Commission have been published. Based on the European Commission report from 29 October 2014, implementation of the second phase of the VLAP had already been launched. The fourth and final progress report of the European Commission was published on 18 December 2015, which concluded that Georgia has fully implemented the requirements envisaged by the 4 blocks of the VLAP. Therefore, at the beginning of 2016, the European Commission will present a legislative proposal to the European Parliament and the Council to amend regulation N539/2001, on the basis of which, visa-free travel to the Schengen Area (and 4 Schengen candidate countries) will be introduced for Georgian citizens.

[1] Sengenis sivrce moicavs evrokavSiris 22 wevr qveyanas, agreTve norvegias, lixtenStains, islandiasa da Sveicarias. gaerTianebuli samefo da irlandia ar Sedian Sengenis sivrceSi. uvizo mimosvlis reJimi aseve gavrceldeba Sengenis kandidat qveynebze: bulgareTi, rumineTi, kviprosi da xorvatia. [1] The Schengen Area consists of 22 EU Member States, plus Norway, Iceland, Lichtenstein and Switzerland. The United Kindgdom and Ireland do not belong to the Schengen zone. The visa free regime will also apply to the Schengen candidate countries: Bulgaria, Romania, Cyprus and Croatia.

დეკემბერი 2015 საქართველოს ევროპული გზა

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Georgia and EU | საქართველო და ევროკავშირი

საქართველოს გზა ევროპული თავისუფლებისაკენ პრიიტ ტურკი ესტონეთის რესპუბლიკის საგანგებო და სრულუფლებიანი ელჩი საქართველოში

Georgia's path towards European freedoms HE Mr. Priit Turk Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the Republic of Estonia in Georgia

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stoneTi aris Tavisufali da demokratiuli evropis nawili ukve 10 welze metia, mas Semdeg, rac 2004 wels estoneTi gaxda evrokavSiris wevri qveyana da sargeblobs xalxis, produqtebis, kapitalisa da servisebis Tavisufali mimosvliT. evrobarometris gamokiTxvis mixedviT, estoneTis moqalaqeebi yvelaze metad afaseben evrokavSirTan dakavSirebul xsenebul Tavisuflebebs, radgan am ukanasknelma sinamdvileSi Secvala maTi cxovreba meti keTildReobis, SesaZleblobebisa da moqmedebis Tavisuflebis motaniT. es ar exeba finansur daxmarebas an axal gzebs, rac calsaxad warmoadgens evrokavSirze xalxis STabeWdilebis mniSvnelovan nawils, aramed es ufro metad ukavSirdeba Tavisuflebas. saqarTvelos, romelic yovelTvis iyo evropis nawili, ara mxolod nawili, aramed saukunebis manZilze evropuli azrovnebisa da kulturis mniSvnelovani xelSemwyobi, gacilebiT didi xnis manZilze hqonda CamorTmeuli es Tavisuflebebi. saqarTveloSi Cemi yofnis pirvelive dRidan, romelic iyo 3 wlis win, xalxma mTels saqarTveloSi, romlebsac swamT, rom maTi saxlic unda iyos imave Tavisufali evropisa da evropuli Rirebulebebis nawili, Zalian didi STabeWdileba moaxdina Cemze. estoneTma evrokavSirTan asocirebis SeTanxmebas xeli moawera 1994 wels, rac iyo 10-wliani struqturuli cvlilebebis dasawyisi. magram estoneTisagan gansxvavebiT, saqarTvelos asocirebis SeTanxmeba, romelic moicavs evrokavSirTan Rrma da yovlismomcvel Tavisufali vaWrobis SeTanxmebas, gacilebiT met SesaZleblobebs uxsnis saqarTvelos da mis xalxs, vidre estoneTs 1994 wels, maT Soris, kapitalis, momsaxurebisa da produqciis Tavisufal mimosvlas. damatebiT, 2016 wels qarTvelebi aseve isargebleben evrokavSirSi uvizo mimosvliT. saqarTvelos amJamindelma mTavrobam Zalian STambeWdavad imuSava, raTa am etapamde moeyvana saqarTvelo, magram am SesaZleblobebma yvelasaTvis rom imuSaos da yvelas sargebeli moutanos, mTavrobam, biznesma da samoqalaqo sazogadoebrivma organizaciebma kidev ufro metad unda imuSaon erToblivad. Tumca am Tavisuflebebis pirvel xelmosaWid Sedegebs, magali-

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Georgia’s European Way December 2015

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stonia has been part of a free and democratic Europe – enjoying free movement of people, goods, capital and services – for more than ten years since joining the European Union in 2004. According to a Eurobarometer survey about the benefits of belonging to the EU, Estonian citizens value these freedoms most as they have, in reality, changed their lives by providing more prosperity, opportunities and freedom to act. Above financial support or new roads, important hallmarks of the EU in many people’s eyes, for Estonians it is about freedoms. Georgia, having always been part of Europe, and an important contributor to European thinking and culture over the centuries, has long been deprived of these freedoms. Since my first day in Georgia more than three years ago I have been extremely inspired by people all over Georgia, who believe that their homeland should also be part of the same free Europe, a part of European values again. Estonia signed its Association Agreement with the EU in 1994, which heralded the start of ten years of structural changes.

Georgia and EU | საქართველო და ევროკავშირი Tad, evrokavSirTan vaWrobis zrdas an soflis meurneobis produqciis xarisxis zrdas, ukve vxedavT. estoneTi agrZelebs saqarTvelosaTvis evropasa da natoSi integraciis procesSi daxmarebas. Cven ZiriTadad gTavazobT am gzaze Cvens gamocdilebas _ Secdomebsa da warmatebebs. 2015 wels orasze meti mTavrobis warmomadgeneli, fermeri, mecnieri da Jurnalisti ewvia estonel partniorebs, raTa eswavlaT Cveni gamocdilebidan sxvadasxva gacvliTi programis meSveobiT, romlebic ZiriTadad ganxorcielda estoneTis aRmosavleT partniorobis centris mier. saqarTvelos evrokavSirSi integraciis, asocirebis SeTanxmebisa da DCFTA-s xelSewyobis mkafio mizniT, estoneTis ormxrivi ganviTarebis TanamSromlobis farglebSi 20 proeqtze meti ganxorcielda 2015 wels, romelTa Rirebulebamac TiTqmis 1 milioni evro Seadgina. Cvens TanamSromlobaSi yuradReba gamaxvilda ganaTlebaze, maT Soris, zogad ganaTlebasa da profesiul swavlebaze; mewarmeobis ganviTarebaze, gansakuTrebiT axalgazrdebs Soris, soflis meurneobis produqciis evropis standartebTan miaxloebaSi mxardaWeraze; demokratiisa da samoqalaqo sazogadoebis gaZlierebaze _ yvela sakvanZo „Zravze“ evropuli integraciis gzaze warmatebis misaRwevad. estoneTis gamocdilebam aCvena, rom evropuli proeqti SeiZleba warmatebuli iyos mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, Tu sazogadoeba gaigebs evrokavSirSi da natoSi integraciis processa da sargebels. miuxedavad imisa, rom estoneTi damoukideblobis aRdgenidan evrokavSirSi integracias mtkiced uWerda mxars, Cven gavigeT, rom sazogadoebis yvela wevrs srulad ar esmoda, ra aris evropa, rogor muSaobs igi da Zalian bevrs gauCnda eWvi. sabednierod, evropis funqcionirebis, misi Tavisuflebebis axsnis intensiurma mcdelobam uzrunvelyo evrokavSiris qveynebis masStabiT evrokavSiris yvelaze maRali mxardaWera. axlac saqarTveloSi evropul da evroatlantikur struqturebSi saxelmwifo ministris aparatisa da evrokavSirisa da natos sainformacio centris mier evrokavSirsa da natoSi integraciaze ufro aqtiuri komunikaciis xelSewyobis mizniT, estonelma eqspertebma aRmosavluri partniorobis centris meSveobiT moamzades da informaciiT uzrunvelyves Jurnalistebi da sajaro informaciaze pasuxismgebeli pirebi, skolebsa da universitetebSi Caatares leqciebi, saqarTvelos fermerebi waiyvanes estoneTis fermebSi da a.S. _ es yvelaferi mimarTulia, raTa xalxma gaigos asocirebis SeTanxmebisa da DCFTA-s mier gaxsnili SesaZleblobebis Sesaxeb. saqarTvelos mTavrobisa da sazogadoebis mtkice Zalisxmevis Sedegad, evropis Tavisuflebebi etapobrivad ixsneboda saqarTvelosa da qarTvelebisaTvis. aucilebeli reformebis ganxorcielebis mtkice politikuri nebis gagrZelebiT, xalxTan Ria da gamWvirvale komunikaciiTa da TvalsaCino saerTaSoriso mxardaWeriT, darwmunebuli var, rom moxdeba amis materializeba mzard keTildReobaSi, stabilurobasa da saqarTvelos ganviTarebaSi.

However, unlike Estonia back then, today Georgia’s Association Agreement including DCFTA with the EU opens many more opportunities to Georgia and its people than Estonia stood to gain in 1994 – including free movement of capital, services and goods. In addition, from 2016 Georgians will also enjoy visa-free travel to the EU. Georgia’s recent governments have worked impressively to bring Georgia to reach this stage. But to make these opportunities work and benefit for all, government, businesses and civil society organizations need to work even harder. Encouragingly, the first tangible results of these freedoms such as increasing trade volumes with the EU or increasing quality in agricultural production can already be seen. Estonia continues to offer its help to Georgia in the EU and NATO integration process. We mainly offer our experience – our mistakes and successes – to help on this path. In 2015, again more than 200 Georgian government officials, farmers, scholars and journalists have visited Estonian partners to learn from our experience through different exchange programs largely implemented by the Estonian Eastern Partnership Centre. More than 20 projects worth almost 1 million Euros have been implemented in 2015 in the framework of Estonian bilateral development cooperation with a clear focus on supporting Georgia’s EU integration and implementation of the Association Agreement and DCFTA. In our cooperation, the focus has been on education including general education and vocational training, development of entrepreneurship (especially among young people), helping to bring agriculture up to EU standards and strengthening democracy and civil society – all of which are key “engines” for success on the European integration path. The Estonian experience showed that the European project can only be successful if society understands the process and the benefits of EU and NATO integration. Even though Estonians have, since the restoration of independence, strongly supported integration with the EU, we learned that not all members of society fully understood what Europe is, how it works and many citizens started to have doubts. Fortunately, intensified efforts to explain the functioning of Europe and its freedoms have secured us today the highest support for the EU among all EU countries. Similarly, now in Georgia to support the increasingly active EU and NATO related communication by the Office of the state Minister on European and Euro-Atlantic Integration and and Information Centre of NATO and EU, Estonian experts through the Estonian Eastern Partnership Centre have trained and informed journalists and public information officials, given lectures in schools and universities and taken Georgian farmers to Estonian farms among other activities. It is all about helping to make people understand the opportunities offered by the Association Agreement and DCFTA. Due to the strong commitment of successive Georgian governments and society, European freedoms have been gradually opening up for Georgia and its people. With continuing strong political will to implement the necessary reforms, with clear and transparent communication with people and with visible international support, I am confident that increased prosperity, stability and development will be realized for Georgia.

დეკემბერი 2015 საქართველოს ევროპული გზა

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Georgia and EU | საქართველო და ევროკავშირი

Georgia and EU | საქართველო და ევროკავშირი

ევროპული სამეზობლო პოლიტიკა: საფრთხეები და შესაძლებლობები European Neighborhood Policy: Threats and Opportunities

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Res, samxreTiT terorizmisa da aRmosavleTiT ruseTis agresiis Sedegad evropis kontinenti usafrTxoebis mwvave gamowvevebis winaSe dgas. es kidev erTxel adasturebs imas, rom usafrTxoebis gamowvevebi ar aris geografiulad SezRuduli da evrokavSiris sazRvrebs miRma arsebuli safrTxeebis, agreTve maTi gadmodinebis marTva/arideba kompleqsur sirTuleebs ukavSirdeba. Sesabamisad, izrdeba evrokavSiris sagareo politikis mniSvneloba da efeqtiani CarTulobis aucilebloba. evropuli samezoblo politikis saxiT evrokavSiri miznad isaxavs mis uaxloes samezobloSi usafrTxoebis, stabilurobis, keTildReobisa da keTilmezobluri sivrcis Seqmnas, rasac is usafrTxoebis erT-erT fundamentur safuZvlad miiCnevs. amasTan, gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia 2004 wlis gafarToeba, rodesac aTi axali qveynis gawevrianebasTan erTad Seicvala evrokavSiris sazRvrebi da Sesabamisad, misi geopolitikuri gamowvevebi da amocanebi. aucilebeli gaxda evrokavSiris usafrTxoebis strategiis gadaxedva. Sedegad, SemuSavda evropis samezoblo politika (ENP), rac evrokavSiris rogorc aRmosavleT, ise samxreT mezobel saxelmwifoebTan urTierTobebis mTavari ganmsazRvreli gaxda. evropis samezoblo politika iTvaliswinebs evrokavSirsa da mis mezobel qveynebs Soris mWidro TanamSomlobas politikuri, ekonomikuri da kulturuli urTierTdaaxloebis mizniT da xarisxobrivad scildeba adre arsebuli TanamSromlobis farglebs. samezoblo politikis farglebSi TanamSromlobis mniSvnelovani xelSemwyobi instrumenti qveyanasa Tu regionze morgebuli strategiuli samoqmedo gegma iyo, rac saerTo interesebs asaxavda, magram imavdroulad calkeul

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Georgia’s European Way December 2015

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he European continent continues to be engulfed by security threats, namely terrorism from the South and the assertive policy of the Russian Federation. Both old and new security threats show yet again that security challenges are not geographically confined, and dealing with threats and averting risks from beyond the EU’s borders make up a complex set of challenges. This substantially increases the importance of the efficiency of the EU’s foreign policy and heightens the urgency of its effective engagement in the neighboring regions. Ensuring a strong, secure, stable and prosperous neighborhood has been deemed one of the fundamental guarantees of European security. In this context, the EU’s enlargement of 2004 preceded the decision to review the security strategy as the expansion of the EU’s

qveynebTan mWidro individualur TanamSromlobasac iTvaliswinebda. amasTan, konkretuli politikuri da ekonomikuri parametrebi progresis Sefasebis SesaZleblobas qmnida. reformebis waxalisebisa da ganxorcielebis dasaxmareblad amoqmedda masStaburi finansuri da teqnikuri daxmarebis meqanizmebi. aRniSnuli procesi grZelvadian struqturul cvlilebebs iTvaliswinebda, maT Soris, demokratiis, kanonis uzenaesobisa da warmatebuli sabazro ekonomikis ganviTarebis gziT. es iyo pirveli koordinirebuli da yovlismomcveli midgoma, ramac mniSvnelovanwilad waaxalisa demokratiuli procesebi samezoblo regionebSi. axlo aRmosavleTsa da CrdiloeT afrikaSi TavisuflebisTvis brZolis axal iniciativebs Caeyara safuZveli. am procesebis Sedegad tu-

borders to include a further ten member states brought with it a shift in geopolitical challenges. Subsequently, the European Neighborhood Policy (ENP) was introduced which embodied the EU’s core policy in its relations with its neighbors to the South and East. The ENP envisaged close political, economic and cultural integration with the EU and was a qualitatively different form of cooperation, embodying a region-specific and country-tailored strategic approach. The ENP reflects common interests at regional level, but also envisages strong bilateral cooperation with individual states. Large-scale financial and technical assistance was put in place in order to support and trigger the required compound set of democratic reforms. The process was aimed at long-term structural changes, including enhancing democracy, the rule of law and developing a successful market economy.

დეკემბერი 2015 საქართველოს ევროპული გზა

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Georgia and EU | საქართველო და ევროკავშირი nisis warmatebas gamosvlebi mohyva egvipteSi, libiasa da siriaSi. amasTan, unda aRiniSnos, rom es brZola garkveul qveyanaSi umarTavi gaxda da e. w. „arabulma gazafxulma“ meti arastabiluroba da politikuri daZabuloba Seqmna. evrokavSiris aRmosavleT samezobloSi ENP-is farglebSi demokratiuli procesebi gansxvavebuli dinamikiT viTardeboda da calkeulma qveynebma erovnuli ambiciebis Sesabamisad gansxvavebuli Sedegebi aCvenes. demokratiuli reformebis ganxorcielebis procesSi dReisTvis saqarTvelo erT-erTi mowinave qveyanaa. Tumca ruseTis mier ganxorcielebulma agresiam kidev erTxel cxadyo axalgazrda demokratiebis mxardaWeris aucilebloba. axal gamowvevebTan adaptirebis mizniT 2011 wels evropis samezoblo politika gadaixeda. ganaxlebuli samezoblo politikis farglebSi gaZlierda integrirebuli TanamSromloba. calkeuli qveynebis gansxvavebuli miswrafebebisa da Zalisxmevis pasuxad evrokavSirma SemoiRo axali midgoma _ „meti metistvis“ (more for more) da erT-erTi prioriteti demokratiis gamyareba gaxda (deep democracy). samezoblo politikis (ENP) gadaxedvidan maleve, evropis usafrTxoebas samxreTiT e. w. „erayisa da levantis islamuri saxelmwifo“ (ISIL) upirispirdeba, igive „erayisa da siriis islamuri saxelmwifo“ (ISIS), an daeSi; xolo aRmosavleTiT _ ruseTis agresia demokratiis gaZlierebisa da evrointegraciuli miswrafebebis winaaRmdeg, amjerad ukrainaSi mimdinare omis saxiT. gaCnda legitimuri mosazreba, rom evrokavSiris samezoblo regionebi dRes gacilebiT arastabiluri da meti safrTxis Semcvelia, vidre es iyo aTi wlis win. evropis moqmedi samezoblo politikis araefeqtianobis mizezebze msjelobam gamoavlina Semdegi ZiriTadi mosazrebebi, rom: • evropis samezoblo politika miznad isaxavs cvlilebebs, romelTa miRwevac SesaZlebelia stabilur garemoSi grZelvadiani CarTulobis Sedegad, rac aRniSnuli regionebisTvis damaxasiaTebel swrafad cvalebad garemosTan Seusabamoa; • aRniSnuli politika naklebad iTvaliswinebs samizne regionebSi destabilizaciis gare faqtorebs; • ENP-is meTodologia efuZneba gafarToebis procesebis gamocdilebas, magram ar gulisxmobs gafarToebas. amgvari midgoma, kerZod, rTuli da xSirad mtkivneuli reformebis fonze evropuli perspeqtivis bundovaneba, gamaRizianebelia evrokavSirSi gawevrianebis msurvel partnior qveynebSi. aRniSnulis gaTvaliswinebiT, efeqtianobis gazrdis mizniT saWiro gaxda politikis kidev erTxel gadaxedva. amasTan, mniSvnelovania Tavidanve iTqvas, rom calkeul qveynebSi miRweuli progresisa Tu gauaresebuli mdgomareobis miuxedavad, rogorc evrokavSiri, ise ENP-Si CarTuli yvela qveyana iziarebs evropis samezoblo politikis mniSvnelobas stabilurobisa da saerTo usafrTxoebis uzrunvelyofis saqmeSi. samezoblo politikis gadaxedvis procesSi gansakuTre-

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Georgia’s European Way December 2015

The ENP is the first coordinated and comprehensive approach that has triggered democratic processes in the EU’s neighborhood. A new wave of freedom movement was sparked in the Middle East and North Africa. The success of Tunisia influenced demonstrations in Egypt, Libya and Syria. Although some of these countries demonstrated relative success, the process was uncontrollable in others. As a result, the so-called “Arab Spring” actually caused more instability and political tension in the region. In East, the democratic processes underwent different developments and demonstrated dissimilar outcomes correlating to distinct national ambitions of separate states. Georgia, had emerged as a model for democratic development, but soon fell victim to Russian aggression, which once again clarified a strong need for proper support for new democracies. Facing an aggravated situation, in 2011 the ENP was reviewed, within the framework of which, the EU strengthened its integrated cooperation with partner countries and introduced a new “more for more” approach taking into account differing European aspirations and efforts in the reforms implementation process. The reviewed ENP laid a particular emphasis on the need to ensure deep democracy in partner countries. Soon after the ENP’s revision, European security was again jeopardized by two distinct threats. First, the so-called ISIL, ISIS, IS or DAESH terrorist group spread across the Middle East and beyond, and secondly Russia’s violent interference in Ukraine. The instability of the “Arab Spring”, a war in Georgia and the consequent threatening confluence of circumstances led to a legitimate conclusion: that the EU’s neighborhood is now more unstable than it was a decade ago. Deliberations over the ineffectiveness of the policy identified the following key arguments: • The changes envisaged by the ENP require a long-term process that is only fit for a stable environment, but is incompatible with fastchanging settings in the neighborhood. • The ENP lacks a strategy for external actors causing instability in the regions. • The ENP is similar to the accession policy except that there is no promise of EU membership. Such an approach, particularly the vagueness of European prospects in response to demanding and, at times, painful reforms is challenging for countries with an ambition of EU membership. Thereafter, the ENP underwent another revision in order to increase policy effectiveness and demonstrate its adaptability to current realities. Here, it is essential to underscore that, regardless of the progress demonstrated in some ENP countries or the worsening situation in others, both the EU and the partner countries agree on the importance of the ENP in ensuring shared stability and security. The subsequent ENP revision process accentuated the need to protect European values, stronger engagement with the EU and a

Georgia and EU | საქართველო და ევროკავშირი bulad gaesva xazi evropuli faseulobebis dacvis, evrokavSiris mxridan meti CarTulobisa da mkafio evropuli perspeqtivis dafiqsirebis aucileblobas; aseve, TiToeuli partniori qveynis usafrTxoebis gaZlierebis, regionebSi arsebuli konfliqtebis mSvidobianad mogvarebis procesSi evrokavSiris CarTulobis gazrdisa da TanamSromlobis farglebSi diferenciaciis saWiroebas. Sedegad, 2015 wlis 18 noembers, parizSi ganxorcielebuli teroristuli aqtebis, aseve, evrokavSirsa da mis samezoblo arealSi usafrTxoebis, ekonomikis, politikisa da socialuri gamowvevebis pasuxad, gamoqveynda evropis samezoblo politikis ganaxlebuli midgomebis proeqti. aRniSnuli dokumenti warmoadgens evrokavSiris axal xedvas ENP-is farglebSi TanamSromlobis efeqtianobis gaumjobesebis Sesaxeb da arsebuli realobebidan gamomdinare partnior qveynebTan urTierTobebis Semdgomi ganviTarebis perspeqtivas. gamocdilebis gaTvaliswinebiT, ganaxlebuli politika unda daefuZnos erToblivi mflobelobisa da diferenciaciis principebs, rac iTvaliswinebs individualuri midgomis gaZlierebas partniori qveynebis mimarT. demokratiisa da sabazro ekonomikis ganviTarebisTvis aucilebeli Zalisxmevis gaZlierebasTan erTad, evrokavSiri gegmavs CarTulobis gazrdas usafrTxoebis sferoSi. evrokavSiri gacilebiT Tanamimdevruli da moqnili meqanizmebis saSualebiT apirebs partniori qveynebis mier gansazRvrul prioritetul sferoebSi saWiro reformebis ganxorcielebis mxardaWeras. uaxloesi 3-5 wlis ganmavlobaSi evrokavSiris sagareo politikis erT-erTi mTavari amocana mezobel regionebSi stabilurobis damyareba iqneba. Tamamad SeiZleba iTqvas, rom dRes evropa CarTulia demokratiis winaaRmdeg warmoebul brZolaSi. es aris omi, romelic mimdinareobs aRmosavleTiT ruseTis mier okupaciisa da aneqsiis politikis saxiT da samxreTiT _ e. w. islamuri saxelmwifos mier. am brZolis Sedegebis erT-erTi ganmsazRvreli faqtori usafrTxoebis gamowvevebis mimarT evrokavSiris qmediTi pasuxia. rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, Zlieri da erTiani evropa mxolod demokratiis, keTildReobisa da keTilmezobluri sivrcis ganmtkicebiT miiRweva. usafrTxoebis sakiTxebSi met CarTulobasTan erTad aucilebelia, rom evrokavSirma gamoiyenos is unikaluri SesaZleblobebi, romlebsac masTan asocirebuli qveynebi (saqarTvelo, ukraina da moldova) qmnian. demokratiis warmateba ganamtkicebs rwmenas, rom rTuli da xSirad mtkivneuli reformebis Sedegad stabilurobisa da keTildReobis miRweva SesaZlebelia, rac regionis sxva qveynebisTvisac kargi magaliTi iqneba. swored amitom, sasicocxlod mniSvnelovania efeqtiani diferenciaciis politika da mxardaWera asocirebuli qveynebisa, romlebic mudmivi gare safrTxeebis miuxedavad agrZeleben demokratiuli reformebis ganxorcielebas. mniSvnelovania, rom asocirebul qveynebs mieniWos evropuli perspeqtiva da viza liberalizaciis samoqmedo gegmis warmatebiT Sesrulebis Sedegad saqarTvelos moqalaqeebs Sengenis zonaSi uvizo mimosvlis SesaZlebloba mieceT.

clear European perspective. Throughout the deliberations, emphasis was put on enhancing the security of individual states as well as the EU’s engagement in the peaceful resolution of conflicts in the neighborhood and stronger cooperation. As a result, and especially following the Paris attacks of November 2015, the security, economic, political and social challenges faced by the EU prompted a new approach to be drafted. The document enshrines a revised vision of cooperation within the ENP framework, which aims toward applicable improvement of cooperation that will, in effect, reflect the current realities. The renewed policy will be based on mutual ownership and diverse principles that suggests stronger cooperation among partner countries. The EU is planning larger engagement in the security sphere parallel to its reinforced contribution to the development of democracy and market economy in the neighborhood. In so doing, more flexible mechanisms will be utilized to support reforms in the spheres prioritized by partner countries. In the next three to five years, stability will be the cornerstone of the ENP and the cooperation will largely depend on the interest of partner countries. The actual outcomes of the ENP are yet to be felt but, nevertheless, grasping the opportunities in the face of threatening tendencies is critically important. We live in a time, when the very idea of democracy, and indeed the EU, are openly confronted. This is a decisive battle, the outcomes of which will be depend on the EU’s reaction to current challenges. As outlined at the beginning of this article, the idea of a strong and secure Europe is achievable by ensuring peace and stability in its neighborhood. In this process, utilizing the unique opportunities offered by the Association Agreement countries, namely Georgia, Ukraine and Moldova, is just as important as enhancing the EU’s security policy. Success stories are key to reinvigorating a belief that difficult and, at times, painful reforms make stability and prosperity possible. This will trigger the enthusiasm of neighboring countries to follow successful models. This is another reason to support EUassociated countries, which continue to implement demanding democratic reforms regardless of the enduring security threats. Ultimately, offering the citizens of Georgia visa-free movement in the Schengen zone, in light of successful implementation of the Visa Liberalization Action Plan, is essential in the course of implementing the goals of the ENP.

References: • TIME TO RESET THE EUROPEAN NEIGHBORHOOD POLICY, Stefan Lehne, Carnegie Europe, 2014 • REVIEWING THE EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY: EASTERN PERSPECTIVES, GMF; • New Policies Urgently Needed for EU Neighborhood, Michael Leigh, GMF, 2015 • evrokomisiisa da evrokavSiris umaRlesi warmomadgenlis erToblivi komunikacia evroparlamentis, evrokavSiris sabWos, ekonomikuri da socialuri komitetisa da regionebis komitetis mimarT, 2015

დეკემბერი 2015 საქართველოს ევროპული გზა

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Business and Economy | ბიზნესი და ეკონომიკა

Business and Economy | ბიზნესი და ეკონომიკა

საქართველოში სათხილამურო ტურიზმი ვითარდება Georgia’s Ski Tourism Continues to Grow

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Georgia’s European Way December 2015

დეკემბერი 2015 საქართველოს ევროპული გზა

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Business and Economy | ბიზნესი და ეკონომიკა

Business and Economy | ბიზნესი და ეკონომიკა

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eorgia's tourism industry is growing, and is today one of the main priorities of our economy. Employment in the tourism sphere is, as a consequence, also expanding as it is all across the world. Out of every 11 new jobs, at least one is created in the tourism sphere. The inflow of foreign currency is also an important economic incentive. Accordingly, the Georgian National Tourism Administration (GNTA) is completing various projects with the aim of promoting our country as a tourist destination to attract international visitors.

გიორგი ჩოგოვაძე საქართველოს ტურიზმის ეროვნული ადმინისტრაციის ხელმძღვანელი

Giorgi Chogovadze Head of the Georgian National Tourism Administration

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aqarTveloSi turizmis industria mzardi tendenciiT gamoirCeva da zogadad turizmis mimarTuleba Cveni ekonomikis erT-erTi mTavari prioritetia. turizmi zrdis dasaqmebas Cvens qveyanaSi da mTlianad msoflioSi _ Seqmnili 11 samuSao adgilidan erTi swored turizmze modis. imavdroulad, is ucxouri valutis Semodinebisa da samuSao adgilebis Seqmnis mniSvnelovani wyaroa. am yvelafris gaTvaliswinebiT, turizmis erovnuli administraciis saqmianobaSi, sxva mimarTulebebTan erTad, turistebis mozidva erT-erTi mniSvnelovania. wlis ganmavlobaSi vaxorcielebT araerT proeqts, romlebic Cvens qveyanaSi saerTaSoriso mogzaurebis mozidvas emsaxureba. proeqtebsa da marketingul kampaniebs aqvs kidevac Sedegi _ saqarTveloSi Semomavali turistebis statistika mzardia da Tan pozitiuri dinamika stabilurad narCundeba. sasixaruloa, rom 2015 wlis 11 Tvis ganmavlobaSi ukve TiTqmis gavutoldiT 2014 wlis mTlian maCvenebels da saqarTveloSi noembris CaTvliT 5 431 723 saerTaSoriso viziti ganxorcielda, zrda mimdinare wlis analogiur periodTan SedarebiT +6,9 procentia. turistuli vizitebis raodenobam 2 123 514 Seadgina, rac +1.9 procentiT aRemateba wina wlis analogiuri periodis monacems. imisaTvis, rom mzardi dinamikis tendencia gagrZelebuliyo, saqarTvelos ekonomikis saministros turizmis erovnulma administraciam gaatara Semdegi RonisZiebebi: marketinguli kampaniebi miznobriv bazrebze, marketinguli kampaniebi saerTaSoriso mediasaSualebebis meSveobiT (maT Soris CNN-sa da EURONEWS-ze), 400-mde Jurnalis-

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Georgia’s European Way December 2015

GNTA’s projects and marketing campaigns have yielded positive and stable growth in the number of visits to Georgia. We are pleased to announce that, for the first 11 months in 2015, the number of arrivals to Georgia significantly exceeds the figure for the same period of 2014. The overall figures by the end of November this year, including international visits, reached 5,431,723, which represents a 6.9% increase compared to the same period last year. Tourist visits this year amount to 2,123,514, which reflects a 1.9% increase compared to the same period of the previous year. To ensure that this growth continues, GNTA and the Ministry of Economy are undertaking the following measures: marketing campaigns, precise market targeting, in the international media (including CNN and euronews), inviting more than 400 journalists, staging a media forum, negotiating an increase of direct flights and improving existing flight routes. In the first half of 2015, the total contribution to the state budget from international tourism amounted to US $766.4 million, an increase of 2.9% compared to the same period of the previous year (+US $21.2 million). Being a country with great tourist potential, Georgia offers many reasons to visit in all four seasons. Both winter resorts and summer at the Black Sea coast offer great leisure opportunities. Georgia is known for its long and captivating history, healing climate, mineral water springs, national parks and UNESCO World Heritage sites and objects. In addition, tourists are particularly fond of the national cuisine and wine. Adventure, medical, wine, eco-tourism, coastal, mountainous, cultural, pilgrim and MICE tourism – there are many types of tourism which attract international visitors. When it comes to ski tourism, Georgia boasts five resorts which bring in thousands of guests every winter, both local and foreign. This year was the first time in 20 years that the winter ski season had opened in Georgia by December 5. On this very day, the new ski resort Goderdzi, with its highest point at an altitude of 2366 meters, began operating. The resort has two types of ski lift (gondola and bubble) and accommodates eight kilometers of track. Goderdzi is a twohour drive from Batumi, and is snow-covered from November to

დეკემბერი 2015 საქართველოს ევროპული გზა

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Business and Economy | ბიზნესი და ეკონომიკა tis mowveva, mediaforumi, molaparakebis warmoeba axali pirdapiri reisebis dasaniSnad da arsebulis gasazrdelad. imata saerTaSoriso Semosavlebmac. pirveli ori kvartalis jamuri monacemebiT Semosavlebma saerTaSoriso turizmidan 766,4 milioni aSS dolari Seadgina, zrda wina wlis analogiur periodTan SedarebiT 2,9 procentia (+21,2 milioni aSS dolari). saqarTvelos udidesi turistuli potenciali aqvs. bevri mizezi arsebobs, ris gamoc turists saqarTveloSi Camosvlis survili SeiZleba gauCndes da Tan _ oTxive sezonis ganmavlobaSi. CvenTan SesaZlebelia dasveneba rogorc zamTris kurortebze, aseve zafxulSi _ SavizRvispireTSi. saqarTvelo cnobilia momxiblavi istoriiT, samkurnalo klimatiT, mineraluri wylebiT, erovnuli parkebiTa da UNESCO-s msoflio memkvidreobis siaSi Sesuli adgilebiT. turistebs gansakuTrebulad moswonT qarTuli samzareulo da Rvino. saTavgadasavlo, samedicino, Rvinis, ekoturizmi, sazRvao Tu samTo-saTxilamuro, kulturuli, piligrimuli da MICE-turizmi _ es turizmis iseTi mimarTulebebia, romlebiTac msoflios araerTi qveynidan interesdebian. rac Seexeba samTo-saTxilamuro turizms (rac am periodSi gansakuTrebiT aqtualuria), saqarTveloSi ukve zamTris xuT kurortze SeuZliaT dasveneba rogorc qarTvel, ise ucxoel stumrebs. bolo 20 wlis ganmavlobaSi pirvelad, wels zamTris saTxilamuro sezoni saqarTveloSi 5 dekembers gaixsna. welsve, 5 dekembridan funqcionirebs goderZis axali samTo-saTxilamuro kurorti, romlis umaRlesi wertili zRvis donidan 2366 metrze mdebareobs. kurortze aris ori saxis sabagiro _ gondolisa da „bablis“ tipis, trasebis saerTo sigrZe ki 8 kilometria. is baTumidan sul raRac ori saaTis savalzea da noembridan aprilamde TovliT aris dafaruli. veluri buneba, sufTa haeri da ulamazesi peizaJebi dauviwyar STabeWdilebebs hpirdeba vizitorebs mTeli wlis ganmavlobaSi. goderZis garda, saqarTvelos wels kidev erTi samTosaTxilamuro kurorti Seemata svaneTSi, mestiidan 8 kilometrSi _ TeTnuldi. es unikaluri samTo kurortia, romelic oTxive sezonis ganmavlobaSi aqtiuria. aq SesaZlebelia alpinizmiT, jomardobiT, cxenosnobT, paraplanerizmiT, Txilamurebze srialiT, samTo turizmiT dakaveba. sakurorto teritoria 7000 ha-s moicavs da aqedan 4500 ha mTis saTxilamuro teritoriaa. gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia, rom TeTnulds eqneba amierkavkasiaSi rogorc yvelaze grZeli _ 9,5 km sigrZis, ise yvelaze didi vertikaluri vardnis mqone _ 1,7 km _ sasrialo trasa, rac TxilamurebiT srialis moyvarulTaTvis mniSvnelovani maCveneblebia. sasrialo periodi aq wlis ganmavlobaSi 6-7 Tvea. TeTnuldis garda turistebs svaneTSi hawvalic elodeba. aq mestiidan, aseve 8 kilometrSi, fiWvnaris gavliT moxvdebiT. kilometrnaxevriani sigrZis sabagiros meSveobiT ki SesaZlebelia zuruldis mTaze asvla. zamTar-

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Georgia’s European Way December 2015

Business and Economy | ბიზნესი და ეკონომიკა April. Wildlife, fresh air and beautiful scenery leave visitors with unforgettable impressions throughout the year. As well as Goderdzi, another ski resort will open in Georgia this year – Tetnuldi, nestled by the mountain of the same name is 8 kilometers from Mestia in the highland region of Svaneti. This unique mountainous resort can operate during all four seasons where guests can try mountaineering, rafting, horseback riding, paragliding, skiing and hiking. The resort covers an area of 7000 hectares and includes 4500 hectares of mountain ski area. Notably, Tetnuldi has the longest pistes in the South Caucasus (9.5 km), and the biggest vertical descent (1.7 km), which will lure keen skiers to the resort for 6-7 months of the year. Another ski resort in this region expecting to receive numerous tourists is Hatsvali. Also located 8 kilometers from Mestia, it sits above pine forests and its half-kilometer-long ski lift leads you to mount Zuruldi. In winter a 2400-meter-long ski track operates here, and at any time of the year Zuruldi offers a unique view over the mountains of Ushba, Tetnuldi and the white peaks of the Caucasus Mountains. Mestia houses a range of hotels, guest-houses and travel services, helping visitors to explore the area. In addition to skiing, guests can learn about religion and history, and visit unique Georgian historical monuments, for example St. George Church, where ancient crosses, artifacts, and frescoes dating back to the 12th and 13th centuries are preserved. Also very popular among tourists is Gudauri resort with its welldeveloped infrastructure making it the best ski resort in Georgia. The vast altitude differences and unlimited opportunities for freeriding at an altitude of around 2000 meters attract skiers of an adventurous disposition. Gudauri is situated two hours from Tbilisi by car and visitors here can choose from a variety of accommodation, from cabins to hotels. The best family holidays can be spent in Bakuriani, another mountainous resort in Georgia, located in Borjomi region at the foot of the Caucasus Mountains at an altitude of 1700 meters. A three-hour drive from Tbilisi, the resort used to serve as a training base for Olympic athletes which has left an impressive legacy of excellent ski infrastructure. Bakuriani offers some of the most spectacular ski and snowboard tracks in Europe. This year in Bakuriani, a brand new ski lift with a new intermediate station was installed at mount Kokhta. The total length of tracks here reaches 4 km. Meanwhile, in the surrounding area a wealth of infrastructure projects are soon to be completed including the upgrading of hotels which will strengthen the resort’s already high reputation. At mount Mitarbi new ski lifts and tows are being constructed and will be ready for use by the end of 2016 while an additional 300 beds are to be added to the resort’s accommodation capacity.

Si aq 2400-metriani saTxilamuro trasa funqcionirebs, weliwadis nebismier dros zuruldidan unikaluri xedi iSleba uSbis mwvervalebiT, TeTnuldis TeTri kalTebiTa da kavkasionis qediT. mestiaSi mravlad aris saojaxo sastumroebi, turistTa momsaxurebis centrebi, rac Camosul stumrebs teritoriis Seswavlas uadvilebs. srialis garda stumrebs saSualeba aqvT gaecnon adgilobrivTa religias, istorias da moinaxulon unikaluri qarTuli Zeglebi, wminda giorgis eklesiaSi Semonaxuli jvrebi da nivTebi, romlebic me-12 saukuniT TariRdeba, fusdis eklesiaSi ki me-13 saukunis kedlis ferweraa Semonaxuli. turistebSi aseve didi popularobiT sargeblobs kurorti gudauri, romelic kargad ganviTarebuli infrastruqturiT saqarTveloSi saukeTeso saTxilamuro kurortia. gudaurSi SeuzRudavi SesaZleblobebia Tavisufali vardnisa da saTxilamuro turis moyvarulTaTvis _ kurorti zRvis donidan 2000 metrze mdebareobs, dedaqalaqTanac axloa _ Tbilisidan 2 saaTis savalze. aq Camosul stumrebs dabinaveba SeuZliaT kotejebsa da sxvadasxva kategoriis sastumroebSi. saqarTveloSi saojaxo dasvenebisTvis saukeTeso samTo-saTxilamuro kurorti bakuriania. is borjomis municipalitetSi, kavkasionis mTis Ziras, zRvis donidan 1700 metris simaRleze mdebareobs da Tbilisidan aq Camosvlas sami saaTi sWirdeba. adre kurorti warmoadgenda olimpieli sportsmenebis saswavlo bazas da amitomac gasakviri ar aris infrastruqturisa da bilikebis aseTi maRali done. igi gvTavazobs yvelaze sanaxaobriv saTxilamuro da snoubordis trasebs evropaSi. wels bakurianSi Camosul stumars araerTi siaxle daxvdeba: koxtis mTaze montaJdeba axali sabagiro Sualeduri sadguriT. trasebis saerTo sigrZe 4 km iqneba, mis mimdebare teritoriaze ki 500 sawolze gaTvlili turistuli infrastruqturis _ sastumroebis, apartotelebis, kotejebis, kvebisa da gasarTobi obieqtebis mSenebloba daiwyeba. mitarbis mTaze ki damontaJdeba ori sabagiro da erTi saCoCialo, romelTa mSeneblobac 2016 wlis dasawyisSi daiwyeba da imave wlis bolos dasruldeba, mimdebare teritoriaze ki gaSendeba 300 sawolze gaTvlili turistuli infrastruqtura. bakurianSi didvelis pirveli sabagiros mimdebare teritoriaze ki gakeTdeba samTo-saTxilamuro kurortis damatebiT atraqcioni _ tobogani, orrelsiani e.w. mTis ciga. aRniSnuli proeqtebis ganxorcieleba xels Seuwyobs saqarTveloSi samTo-saTxilamuro turizmis ganviTarebas, damatebiTi samuSao adgilebisa da mimzidveli sainvesticio garemos Seqmnas. saqarTvelos samTo-saTxilamuro kurortebs unikalurobas isic matebs, rom SarSan bakuriansa (didvelze) da gudaurSi xelovnuri gaTovlianebis sistema damontaJda, rac zamTris sezons xuT Tvemde axangrZlivebs.

On the territory of nearby mount Didveli in Bakuriani a two-rail toboggan (mountain sledge) is going to be installed. The implementation of all of these projects will contribute to the development of ski tourism in the country, creating more jobs and providing a more attractive environment for investors. This work builds upon successful investment in the industry including last year where snow guns were installed at Bakuriani and Gudauri ensuring that the ski season for each resort will last at least 5 months.

დეკემბერი 2015 საქართველოს ევროპული გზა

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Business and Economy | ბიზნესი და ეკონომიკა

Business and Economy | ბიზნესი და ეკონომიკა

საავტორო უფლებები საქართველოში გიგა კობალაძე საქართველოს საავტორო უფლებათა ასოციაცია

Copyright in Georgia Giga Kobaladze Georgian Copyright Association

s

aavtoro uflebebi inteleqtualuri sakuTrebis erT-erTi ganuyofeli nawilia. Tavad inteleqtualuri sakuTreba ki sakuTrebis erT-erTi saxea, rac aRiarebulia saqarTvelos konstituciiTac _ 23-e muxlis mixedviT, „inteleqtualuri sakuTrebis ufleba xelSeuvalia“. saavtoro uflebebis Canasaxi jer kidev antikur romsa da saberZneTSi arsebobda, rac mwerlobis dargSi plagiatizmis xSir gamovlinebasa da mis winaaRmdeg brZolaSi gamoixateboda. samarTlebrivad saavtoro uflebebi me-18 saukuneSi daregulirda. pirveli sakanonmdeblo aqti, romelic cnobilia rogorc „dedofal anas statuti“, 1710 wlis ianvarSi inglisSi miiRes. statuti wignis, rukebisa da naxazebis avtorebs arasanqcirebuli kopirebisgan icavda. mogvianebiT, 1878 wels, Camoyalibda „literaturasa da xelovnebaSi moRvawe pirTa saerTaSoriso asociacia“, romelmac gamomcemlobebis, im dros saavtoro uflebebis erTaderTi mmarTvelebis, SezRudvis mizniT kanonm-

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Georgia’s European Way December 2015

C

opyright is an integral component of intellectual property, which is recognized by Article 23 of the Constitution of Georgia. The origins of copyright can be traced back to ancient Greek and Roman cultures where copyright was developed as a way to fight against the common problem of plagiarism. Copyright was first codified in law in the 18th century and the earliest known piece of copyright legislation, the Statute of Anne, was adopted in England in 1710, which protected authors against unauthorized copying of their books, maps and charts. In 1878, the international association Littéraire et Artistique Internationale (ALAI) was founded, proposing a series of legal amendments to impose restrictions on publishers. The ALAI initiated considerable discussions, which eventually led to a draft document adopted at a conference convened in Berne, Switzerland on 10 September 1883. On 6 September 1886, the document was finalized as the Berne Convention. It focused on the development of an international mechanism for protecting literary and artistic works. On 5 December 1887, the Berne Convention was adopted by Australia and many other nations soon

deblobaSi garkveuli cvlilebebis Setana moiTxova. yovelive aman gamoiwvia sakmaod didi diskusia, ramac sabolood aRiareba 1883 wlis 10 seqtembers SveicariaSi gamarTul bernis konferenciaze pova. 1886 wlis 6 seqtembers ukve saboloo saxe miiRo dokumentma, romelic dRes „bernis konvenciis“ saxeliTaa cnobili. bernis konvenciis mizani iyo lituraturisa da xelovnebis naSromTa dacvis saerTaSoriso kavSiris meqanizmis Seqmna. 1887 wlis 5 dekembers konvencia ukve aRiara avstraliam, Semdgom ki mas miuerTdnen msoflios umetesi qveynebi. dResdReobiT, bernis konvencia 160 wevr qveyanas, maT Soris saqarTvelosac, aerTianebs. sabWoTa wyobis daSlis Semdgom, 90-iani wlebis saqarTveloSi, saavtoro uflebebis dacvis xarisxi uaRresad dabali iyo. ar arsebobda sakanonmdeblo baza da am sferos dacvaze pasuxismgebeli organo. 1995 wels saqarTvelos parlamentma saavtoro uflebebis dacvis saerTaSoriso konvenciebis ratificireba mo-

followed suit. Today, 160 countries have signed up to the Berne Convention, including Georgia. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, the level of copyright protection was extremely low in 1990s Georgia with neither a copyright framework nor any authority responsible for this area. In 1995, the Parliament of Georgia ratified the international copyright conventions thereby committing itself to ensuring copyright protection throughout the entire territory of Georgia. Prior to 1999, copyright-related matters were regulated by the Civil Code of Georgia. In 1999, the Parliament of Georgia adopted the Law on Copyright and Related Rights, thus forming the basis for the protection of both authors' rights and related rights in the country. The copyright law is a major legal act regulating all issues concerning copyright. It defines in detail the essence of copyright, objects of copyright, types of copyright and mechanisms for copyright implementation.

დეკემბერი 2015 საქართველოს ევროპული გზა

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Business and Economy | ბიზნესი და ეკონომიკა axdina da saxelmwifom saavtoro uflebebis qveynis mTel teritoriaze dacvis valdebuleba ikisra. 1999 wlamde saavtoro uflebebs saqarTveloSi samoqalaqo kodeqsi aregulirebda. 1999 wels saqarTvelos parlamentma miiRo kanoni „saavtoro da momijnave uflebebis Sesaxeb“ da amiT qveyanaSi safuZveli Cauyara saavtoro da momijnave uflebebis dacvis ganviTarebas. saavtoro kanoni saavtoro uflebebis regulirebis sferoSi ZiriTadi samarTlebrivi aqtia, romelic dawvrilebiT ganmartavs saavtoro uflebebis arss, dacvis obieqtebs, uflebebis saxeebsa da maTi ganxorcielebis meqanizmebs. kanonmdeblobiT dadgenilia saavtoro da momijnave uflebebis darRvevisTvis pasuxismgeblobis zomebic, romlebic exeba rogorc samoqalaqo da administraciul, ise sisxlis samarTlis wesiT pasuxismgeblobas da aerTianebs zianis anazRaurebas, fulad jarimebsa da Tavisuflebis sam wlamde vadiT aRkveTasac ki. saavtoro uflebebi aris ori saxis _ qonebrivi da araqonebrivi. qonebrivi uflebebi dakavSirebulia avtoris mier sakuTari uflebis realizaciasa da Semosavlis miRebasTan, araqonebrivi ki, e. w. moraluri uflebebi, avtoris piradi uflebebia, rac aregulirebs avtoris urTierTobas mis mier Seqmnil nawarmoebTan. aseTebia, magaliTad, saxelis ufleba, nawarmoebis xelSeuxeblobis ufleba da sxva. avtori araqonebriv uflebebs axorcielebs piradad, xolo qonebrivi uflebebis ganxorcieleba mas SeuZlia an piradad, an qonebrivi uflebebis koleqtiur safuZvelze mmarTveli organizaciis meSveobiT, koleqtiuri wesiT. saavtoro uflebis gamoyenebisTvis saWiroa avtoris nebarTva. teqnologiur ganviTarebasTan erTad, rodesac gaCnda radio, patefoni, firfita, magnitofoni, videokaseta da a. S., saavtoro uflebis mflobels praqtikulad aRar SeeZlo aRericxa Tavisi nawarmoebebis gamoyenebis faqtebi da maTze saTanado reagireba moexdina, gaeca nebarTva an aekrZala gamoyeneba, ris gamoc uflebebis individualurad marTva gaZnelda. analogiuri sazrunavi gauCnda TviT saavtoro uflebis gamomyenebelsac, romelsac sargeblobis saxis gansazRvrisa da honoraris gadaxdis TvalsazrisiT uamrav uflebis mflobelTan unda ewarmoebina molaparakeba, rac arasaTanadod did resurss moiTxovda. amis gamo gaCnda iseTi specializebuli organizaciis arsebobis saWiroeba, romelic koleqtiur sawyisebze ganaxorcielebda avtorebis qonebrivi uflebebis marTvas. pirveli aseTi organizacia 1777 wels safrangeTSi Seiqmna. dResdReobiT, msoflios TiTqmis yvela qveyanaSi arsebobs msgavsi organizacia, romlebic Tavad avtorebma Seqmnes. maT samarTvad gadacemuli aqvT avtorTa qonebrivi uflebebi, ris safuZvelzedac saavtoro uflebis gamoyenebisTvis gascemen nebarTvebs, agroveben honorars da unawileben avtorebs. koleqtiuri marTvis mizani

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Georgia’s European Way December 2015

Business and Economy | ბიზნესი და ეკონომიკა The law stipulates liability of the violation of copyright and violated rights, including civil, administrative and criminal liability. It also covers indemnity, and states that penalties range from a monetary fine to a 3-year prison sentence. There are two types of rights covered by copyright law: economic and moral rights. Economic rights enable the author to obtain remuneration from the exploitation of his/her work. Moral rights entail the private rights of the author regulating the personal connection between the author and the work created by him/her. They refer to the author's right to the integrity of the work and to the author's right to create the work under his/her own name. The author manages his/her moral rights individually, whereas economic rights can be managed individually or collectively through collective management organizations. The author’s permission needs to be sought to use copyrighted material. With the development of technology however, the copyright owner has found it more difficult to individually manage his/her rights.. The copyright user has also been confronted with similar problems, needing to negotiate the types of use and the amount of royalties with copyright owners, which required disproportionately large resources. This has raised the necessity of setting up a specialized organization, which would be entitled to collectively manage the author’s economic rights. The first such organization was founded in France, in 1977. Similar organizations now exist in almost every country. They are created by the authors themselves, who assign their economic rights to these organizations, on the basis of which such organizations issue permits for the use of copyright, collect royalties and distribute them among copyright owners. The goal of collective management is to protect the interests of copyrights owners. The wide use of collective management does not mean that the author loses his/her right to individually manage his economic rights. The author can, in any case, prohibit the use of his/her work or individually negotiate an agreement with the user, that in some cases is more reasonable as, unlike collective management, where collective management organizations set a fixed price for all uniform uses, the author can individually determine the amount of royalty on a case-bycase basis, which may often be much greater than the royalty received through collective management. However, collective management of copyright ensures a wider circle of users, which means that, on the whole, the arrangement is preferable for the author. The adoption of the copyright law provided the basis for the protection of both authors' rights and related rights. The same year, according to this law, a collective management organization entitled the Georgian Authors and Performers Association (GESAP) was founded. In 2006, in compliance with the relevant legislative amendments, GESAP was re-registered as the Georgian Authors Society (SAS). The protection of intellectual property was declared as one of the top priorities of Georgia in 2011. The necessity of enacting more effective mechanisms for the management of copyright-led SAS to convene a general assembly and elect a new management on 11 May 2011. In 2011, SAS was renamed Georgian Copyright Association (GCA) and

saavtoro uflebebis mflobelTa interesebis dacvaa. koleqtiuri marTvis farTod gavrcelebis faqti TavisTavad ar gulisxmobs imas, rom avtori kargavs qonebrivi uflebebis damoukideblad marTvis uflebas. avtors nebismier SemTxvevaSi SeuZlia akrZalos nawarmoebis gamoyeneba an individualurad moelaparakos gamomyenebels. zog SemTxvevaSi es ufro gamarTlebulia _ koleqtiuri marTvisgan gansxvavebiT (rodesac koleqtiurad mmarTveli organizacia yvela erTgvarovani gamoyenebisTvis adgens zustad gansazRvrul fass), avtors SeuZlia yovel konkretul SemTxvevaSi individualurad gansazRvros misaRebi honoraris odenoba. xSirad es Tanxa SeiZleba gacilebiT meti iyos, vidre koleqtiuri marTviT miRebuli honorari. miuxedavad amisa, saavtoro uflebebis koleqtiur safuZvelze marTva ufro zrdis momxmarebelTa wres da mTlianobaSi, avtoris mier miRebuli sargebeli ufro didia, vidre riski imisa, rom misi Semosavali SeiZleba daikargos. saavtoro kanonis miRebam safuZveli Cauyara saqarTveloSi saavtoro da momijnave uflebebis dacvis ganviTarebas. kanonis Sesabamisad, imave wels, saavtoro da momijnave uflebaTa mflobelebma daaarses koleqtiur safuZvelze mmarTveli organizacia _ „saqarTvelos avtorTa da SemsrulebelTa sazogadoeba“ (GESAP). 2006 wels, kanonmdeblobaSi ganxorcielebuli cvlilebebis Sesabamisad, GESAP-ma xelaxali registracia gaiara da daregistrirda rogorc „saqarTvelos avtorTa sazogadoeba“ (SAS). 2011 wels saxelmwifom qveynis erT-erT prioritetad inteleqtualuri sakuTrebis dacva gamoacxada. saavtoro uflebebis marTvis ufro efeqtiani meqanizmebis amoqmedebis aucileblobam ganapiroba 2011 wlis 11 maiss sazogadoebis saerTo krebis mowveva da axali menejmentis arCeva. 2011 wels organizacias ewoda „saqarTvelos saavtoro uflebaTa asociacia“ (GCA) da daiwyo sferos reformirebis aqtiuri procesi, rac dRemde warmatebiT mimdinareobs. saqarTvelos saavtoro uflebaTa asociacias, ise rogorc msgavsi tipis yvela organizacias msoflios masStabiT, mniSvnelovani roli eniWeba qveyanaSi saavtoro uflebebis dacvis procesSi. igi am sferos regulirebaSi CarTul saxelmwifo organoebTan, saerTaSoriso organizaciebTan da sxva dainteresebul pirebTan erTad uzrunvelyofs saavtoro uflebebis jansaRi garemos Seqmnasa da mis ganviTarebas. asociacia saqarTvelos teritoriaze warmoadgens 1300-ze met adgilobriv da msoflio masStabiT milionobiT saavtoro da momijnave uflebis mflobels: kompozitorebs, momRerlebs, mwerlebs, poetebs, reJisorebs, mecnierebs, mxatvrebs, dizainerebs, fotoxelovanebs da sxv. mas gaformebuli aqvs urTierTwarmomadgenlobis xelSekrulebebi msoflios 150-ze meti qveynisa da teritoriis koleqtiuri marTvis organizaciasTan da gaerTianebulia yvela saerTaSo-

საავტორო და მომიჯნავე უფლებების დაცვა მეტად მნიშვნელოვანია როგორც საზოგადოების თითოეული წევრის, ისე მთლიანად სახელმწიფოს კეთილდღეობისთვის. protection of copyright and related rights is exceedingly important for the welfare of each member of society, as well as for the state as a whole.

an intensive process for reforming the sector was launched, which is still ongoing successfully. The GCA, like any other copyright organization, plays an essential role in terms of copyright protection in the country. Along with government agencies, international organizations and other stakeholders, it ensures the formation and development of a healthy environment conducive to protecting copyright. The GCA represents over 1300 local and several millions of owners of copyright and related rights worldwide, including composers, singers, writers, poets, directors, scientists, artists, designers and photographers. It has signed mutual representation agreements with collective management organizations of over 150 countries and territories and is a member of all international umbrella organizations, including CISAC, BIEM, IFRRO and SCAPR. The GCA establishes rates for the use of copyright and related rights, determines rules and terms for paying royalties, issues licenses for use, collects royalties and pays them to the owners of copyright and related rights via direct payment within the country, or via counterpart organizations abroad whose members are owners of the relevant rights. The GCA’s role has become even greater following the signature of the Association Agreement with the EU on 27 June 2014. The Association Agreement identifies the protection of copyright and related rights as one of the main obligations of Georgia. In this context, the Association as the only collective management organization in the country and is decisive in improving the copyright environment and ensuring the implementation of each right of the author.

დეკემბერი 2015 საქართველოს ევროპული გზა

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Business and Economy | ბიზნესი და ეკონომიკა

riso qolga-organizaciaSi, rogorebicaa: CISAC, BIEM, IFRRO da SCAPR. asociacia adgens saavtoro da momijnave uflebebis gamoyenebis ganakveTebs, gansazRvravs honoraris gadaxdis wessa da pirobebs, gascems licenziebs sargeblobisTvis da agrovebs honorars, ris Semdegac Segrovebul honorars uxdis uflebis mflobelebs, rogorc qveynis SigniT pirdapiri gadaxdiT, aseve qveynis gareT, im qveynebis analogiuri partniori organizaciebis meSveobiT, romelTa wevrebic arian Sesabamisi uflebis mflobelebi. kidev ufro gazrdilia asociaciis roli dRevandel viTarebaSi, rodesac saqarTvelom 2014 wlis 27 ivniss xeli moawera evrokavSirTan asocirebis xelSekrulebas. am xelSekrulebiT saqarTvelos erT-erTi ZiriTadi valdebuleba swored saavtoro da momijnave uflebebis dacvaa. am procesSi ki, asociacia, rogorc qveyanaSi saavtoro uflebebis koleqtiur safuZvelze mmarTveli erTaderTi organizacia, ZiriTadi rgolia da mis gamarTul funqcionirebaze mniSvnelovnad aris damokidebuli rogorc zogadad qveyanaSi saavtoro uflebebis garemos gaumjobeseba, ise TiToeuli avtoris uflebis realizacia. bevri qveynis gamocdileba cxadyofs, rom saavtoro uflebaTa dacva ar gaumjobesdeba, Tu saxelmwifo pirad kontrolze ar aiyvans aRniSnul sakiTxs da uSualod ar gamoiCens am sferos samarTlebrivi regulirebis iniciativas. istoriam cxadyo isic, rom, Tu saavtoro uflebaTa sferos regulirebas ar eqneba saxelmwifos xelSewyoba, rogor kargadac ar unda funqcionirebdes koleqtiuri marTvis organizacia, SeuZlebelia iseTi konkretuli Sedegis miReba, rogoric dRes ganviTarebul evropasa da amerikis SeerTebul StatebSia. gasaTvaliswinebelia erTi garemoebac _ bolo periodSi aSkarad SeiniSneba saxelmwifos aqtiuroba saavtoro uflebebis dacvis TvalsazrisiT. Tumca imis fonze, rom CvenTan saavtoro uflebebis dacvis kultura jerjerobiT kidev ar aris saTanadod ganviTarebuli da momxmarebelTa umetesoba iyenebs mekobrul produqcias, saxelmwifos marTebs iyos ufro qmediTi ramdenime mimarTulebiT, iqneba es sazogadoebrivi cnobierebis asamaRleblad farTo xasiaTis socialuri da saganmanaTleblo kampaniebis warmarTva, Tu aRsrulebis meqanizmebis amoqmedeba, ramac unda aRkveTos darRvevebi da moaxdinos maTi Semdgomi prevencia. garda aRniSnulisa, saavtoro uflebebis dacvisas mniSvnelovani roli eniWeba TviTon saavtoro uflebiT mosargeblesac, iqneba es sazogadoebis rigiTi wevri, Tu nebismieri organizacia. mniSvnelovania mosargeble acnobierebdes, rom nebarTvis gareSe gamoyenebiT ara marto arRvevs kanons, romlisTvisac konkretuli pasuxismgebloba SeiZleba daekisros, aramed amiT iRebs uxarisxo produqts da, rac mTa-

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Georgia’s European Way December 2015

Business and Economy | ბიზნესი და ეკონომიკა

The experience of many countries has shown that the level of copyright protection will not improve unless the government puts this issue under its immediate control and undertakes the initiative to legally regulate this sector. History has proved that unless the government makes its own contribution to the regulation of this sector, regardless of how well the collective management organization may work, it will never achieve tangible results. Accordingly, the Georgian government has recently taken some active steps towards the protection of copyright. However, the copyright sector remains undeveloped and the majority of consumers continue to use pirate products. Therefore, the government needs to take more effective measures in various directions either by conducting large-scale social and educational campaigns to raise public awareness or by putting into place enforcement mechanisms for prosecuting and preventing violations. Moreover, copyright users, whether they are ordinary members of society or organizations, should also assume an important role in ensuring copyright

varia, saavtoro Tu momijnave uflebis mflobels arTmevs momavalSi ukeTesi nawarmoebis Seqmnis motivacias. da bolos, saavtoro uflebebis dacva da ganviTareba araefeqtiani iqneba TviTon uflebis mflobelebis aqtiurobis gareSe. maTi aqtiurobis maRali xarisxi unda gamoixatebodes rogorc sazogadoebis informirebis mizniT warmoebul socialur kampaniebSi aqtiuri monawileobiT, ise darRvevaTa gamovlenaSi aqtiurobiT. daskvnis saxiT SeiZleba iTqvas Semdegi: saavtoro da momijnave uflebebis, rogorc erT-erTi fundamenturi uflebis dacva metad mniSvnelovania rogorc sazogadoebis TiToeuli wevris, ise mTlianad saxelmwifos keTildReobisTvis da mis ganuxrel dacvaSi aqtiurad unda iyos CarTuli yvela dainteresebuli da monawile mxare.

protection. Copyright users should realize that by using copyrighted works without permission they not only violate the law and run the risk of incurring criminal liability, but they also receive a low–quality product and, most importantly, they strip the owner of copyright or related rights thereby reducing the motivation to produce works of better quality. Lastly, the protection and development of copyright will be ineffective without the active involvement of copyright owners. Their high level of involvement should manifest itself in their active participation in social campaigns aimed at raising public awareness, as well as in the detection of violations. In conclusion, the protection of copyright and related rights as one of the fundamental rights is exceedingly important for the welfare of each member of society, as well as for the state as a whole, which requires all parties concerned to become actively involved in ensuring their full protection.

დეკემბერი 2015 საქართველოს ევროპული გზა

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Business and Economy | ბიზნესი და ეკონომიკა

Business and Economy | ბიზნესი და ეკონომიკა

2016 წლიდან საწვავის ხარისხს სახელმწიფო გააკონტროლებს მაია გაბულდანი

The state will monitor the quality of fuel from 2016 Maia Gabuldani

T

bilisSi haeris dabinZurebis 95 procenti avtotransportis gamonabolqviTaa gamowveuli. mavne nivTierebebis gafrqvevis ZiriTad mizezebs Sorisaa sawvavis dabali xarisxi, savaldebulo teqnikuri daTvalierebis ararseboba da moZvelebuli avtoparki. haeris xarisxis gaumjobesebis valdebuleba saqarTvelom evrokavSirTan gaformebuli asocirebis SeTanxmebiTac ikisra. sawvavSi gogirdis Semcvelobis SemcirebasTan erTad, Cveni qveyana 2017 wlidan unda gadavides evro-5 standartis sawvavis moxmarebaze, rac mniSvnelovnad gazrdis sawvavis xarisxs da Seamcirebs garemos dabinZurebis maCvenebels. nakisri valdebulebebis Sesrulebamde, qveyana avtotransportis gamonabolqvis Semcirebis inovaciur meTodebsac ecnoba. „haeris dabinZureba kompleqsuri sakiTxia, ar arsebobs am problemis mogvarebis mxolod erTi gza“, _ ambobs amerikuli kompania „viskonis“ direqtori marko bergmani, romelmac garemos dacvis saministros warudgina inovaciuri produqti, romelic aumjobesebs sawvavis wvas da aqcents akeTebs emisiebis Semcirebaze _ „viskoni“ bazarze erTaderTi produqtia, romelic damowmebulia aSS-is garemos dacvis saagentos (EPA) mier. dadasturebulia, rom igi amcirebs myar nawi-

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95%

of air pollution in Tbilisi is caused by vehicle emissions. Major causes of dissipation of toxic substances in the air include the low quality of fuel, the absence of mandatory technical inspection for vehicles, and an ageing car fleet. As part of its Association Agreement with the European Union, Georgia has committed itself towards improving the air quality. Apart from reducing the sulfur levels in fuels, the country will also have to switch to using Euro 5-standard fuel by 2017, which will significantly improve the quality of fuel and reduce pollution levels. Prior to fulfilling its responsibilities, Georgia will also familiarize itself with innovative methods of reducing vehicle emissions. “Air pollution is a complex issue, and there is no single way of solving it,” says Marco Bergmann, managing director at the American company Viscon. The company has presented an innovative product to the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources Protection that improves the fuel combustion process and puts emphasis upon reducing emissions. “Viscon is the only product on the market that has been approved by the Environmental Protection Agency of the United States, and has been proven to reduce particulate matter, natural oxides, CO and CO 2. During the traditional fuel combustion

lakebs (PM), bunebriv oqsidebs, CO-sa da CO2-s. tradiciuli wvis dros, sawvavSi mZime nawilakebi gamoeyofa msubuqs. maTi wvis dro gansxvavebulia da didi nawilakebi bolomde ar iwvis. sawvavis „viskoniT“ damuSavebis SemTxvevaSi, wvis dro Tanabaria rogorc mZime, ise msubuqi nawilakebisTvis: isini ar gamoeyofa erTmaneTs, anu wva xdeba ufro efeqturad, SedarebiT nakleb temperaturaze. arsebobs sxva meTodebic, magaliTad, sawvavs amateben qimiur SenaerTebs (editivebs), Tumca ar arsebobs mecnieruli daskvna, rom es danamtebi amcirebs emisiebs. „viskoni“ ar aris danamati, is sawvavis misarTia, romelic cvlis ara qimiur Semadgenlobas, aramed sawvavis fizikur maxasiaTeblebs“, _ acxadebs marko bergmani eugeorgia.info-sTan interviuSi.

process, heavy particles separate from the lighter ones within diesel fuel. The length of time it takes for them to burn varies, and the larger particles do not combust to the end. If the fuel is treated with Viscon, then the heavy and light particles burn for an equal length of time, and they do not separate from each other. Thus, the combustion process is conducted more efficiently, at a relatively low temperature. “Looking at other methods, there are certain additives that add chemical compounds to the fuel. However, there is no conclusive scientific proof that these additives reduce emissions. Viscon is not a common additive. It modifies the physical, rather than the chemical, properties of diesel fuel,” Marco Bergman states in an interview with eugeorgia.info.

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Business and Economy | ბიზნესი და ეკონომიკა „viskonis“ gamoyenebis SemTxvevaSi emisiebis Semcireba SesaZlebelia Semdegi procentulobiT: • myari nawilakebis (PM) _ 25-idan 49 procentamde, rac dadasturebulia kaliforniis garemos dacvis saagentos (CARB) mier; • azotis Jangeulebis (NOx) _ 8-idan 20 procentamde, dadasturebulia texasis garemos dacvis saagentos (TCEQ) mier; • naxSirbadis monoqsidis (CO) _ 38 procentamde; dadasturebulia kaliforniis laboratoriis (OEETC) mier; • hidrokarbonebis (HC) – 29 procentamde; dadasturebulia kaliforniis laboratoriis (OEETC) mier. • naxSirbadis dioqsidis (CO2) _ 2,5 procentamde; dadasturebulia kaliforniis garemos dacvis saagentos (CARB) mier. • sawvavis xarjis _ 2,5 procentidan 5 procentamde; dadasturebulia kaliforniis laboratoriis (OEETC) mier. „viskonis“ teqnologiis ganviTareba amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi 1980-ian wlebSi samxedro miznebisTvis daiwyes. mTavari mizani iseTi SenaerTebis ganviTareba iyo, romlebic incidentebis dros samxedro-sahaero xomaldSi sawvavis afeTqebis safrTxes Seamcirebda. saboloo mizans, rom TviTmfrinavis Camovardnis SemTxvevaSi sawvavi saerTod ar afeTqebuliyo, ver miaRwies, Tumca teqnologiis Seswavlisas gairkva, rom sawvavma gacilebiT maRali xarisxiT daiwyo wva. „viskoni“ calke kompaniad 2000 wels Camoyalibda da mas amerikis mTavrobisgan aRiarebis misaRebad zustad 10 weli dasWirda. dRes „viskoniT“ damuSavebul sawvavs iyeneben or StatSi _ texassa da kaliforniaSi, sadac garemos dacvis kanonmdebloba yvelaze mkacria, vinaidan es ori Stati yvelaze did damabinZureblad ganixileba. garemos dabinZurebasa da klimatur cvlilebebTan brZolas gansakuTrebul yuradRebas aqceven evropaSic, Tumca evropis qveynebidan „viskonis“ teqnologiis danergvas, dioqsidebis Semcirebas mxolod norvegiaSi cdiloben. evropaSi haeris dabinZurebis mTavari wyaro mrewvelobaa, amitomac qveynebi ufro metad CO2-is Semcirebaze muSaoben. amasTan, evropaSi sawvavis xarisxi gacilebiT maRalia amerikasTan SedarebiT _ marTalia, „viskoni“ amcirebs CO2-sac, Tumca mxolod 2,5 procentiT. 2008 wlidan moyolebuli, amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi „viskoniT“ 23 miliardi litri sawvavi damuSavda. produqtis damateba SesaZlebelia terminalebSi, romlebSic sawvavi importirebis Semdeg inaxeba, aseve, benzingasamarT sadgurebze. swored „viskoniT“ sawvavis damuSavebis procesi miaCnia saqarTveloSi produqtis danergvis mTavar problemad navTobproduqtebis importiorTa kavSiris Tavmjdomares vano mTvralaSvils: „cnobilia, rom es meTodi danergilia amerikis or StatSi da darwmunebuli var, efeqtic aqvs, magram ro-

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Business and Economy | ბიზნესი და ეკონომიკა Using Viscon can reduce emissions in the following manner: • 25% to 49% reduction in particulate matter (PM) emissions, as verified by the California Air Resources Board. • 8% to 20% reduction in mono-nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions, as verified by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. • Up to 38% reduction in carbon monoxide (CO) emissions, as verified by the OEETC laboratories in California. • Up to 29% reduction in hydrocarbon (HC) emissions, as verified by the OEETC laboratories. • Up to 2.5% reduction in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, as verified by the California Air Resources Board. • 2.5% to 5% reduction in fuel costs, as verified by the OEETC laboratories. The development of Viscon technologies began in the United States during the 1980s for military purposes. The aim was to develop an additive that would reduce the risk of explosion on military airships in case of an accident. The main aim, which was to prevent fuel exploding altogether in case of a plane crash, could not be achieved. However, the research showed that a far higher quality of fuel combustion could be achieved. Viscon became a separate company in 2000, and was recognized by the United States government 10 years later. Today, Viscon-treated diesel fuel is used in the US states of California and Texas. These two states have the toughest environmental laws, as they are regarded as the biggest polluters. Europe is also paying special attention to the fight against pollution and climate change. However, Norway is the only European country that is working on implementing Viscon technologies to reduce dioxide emissions. In Europe, manufacturing is the main source of pollution, and countries are working harder on reducing CO2 emissions. Furthermore, fuel quality there is considerably higher compared to the United States. Viscon does reduce CO2 emissions as well, though only by around 2.5%. Since 2008, around 23 billion liters of fuel have been treated with Viscon. The product can be added at the terminals where the fuel is kept after being imported, or at petrol stations. The process of treating fuel with Viscon is viewed as the main obstacle to the product establishing itself on the Georgian market by the chairman of the Oil Importers Union, Vano Mtvralashvili. “The product has established itself in the United States, and I’m sure that it is also effective there, but I doubt that it can be introduced on our market under the existing circumstances. It must be added to the oil products in cisterns and terminals, which is a separate technological cycle that requires additional infrastructure. At present, it is inconceivable from technological point of

gor unda davnergoT CvenTan, Cveni realobis gaTvaliswinebiT? navTobproduqtebs unda gaerios cisternebSi, terminalebSi... es calke teqnologiuri ciklia, rac damatebiTi infrastruqturis Seqmnas moiTxovs. am etapze es teqnikurad warmoudgenelia, radgan saqarTveloSi mza, importirebuli produqti Semodis. arc erT kompaniasa da gasamarT sadgurs amis resursi ar gaaCnia. sabolood, es produqts gaaZvirebs, da rodesac bazarze produqti Zvirdeba, iq ukve bevri kiTxva Cndeba“. teqnikur gamowvevas aRiarebs Tavad amerikuli kompaniis direqtori marko bergmanic, Tumca fasis zrdasTan dakavSirebiT ambobs, rom amerikis SemTxvevaSi erT litrze daaxloebiT erTi centi emateba. erTi litri „viskoni“ ki sakmarisia 2500 litri sawvavis dasamuSaveblad. „sawvavis arc erTi kompania nebayoflobiT ar xarjavs fuls cvlilebebis ganxorcielebaze, Tu „benefitebi“ ar eqneba. asea yvela qveyanaSi, Tu saxelmwifo ar avaldebulebs navTobmwarmoebel kompaniebs awarmoon ukeTesi xarisxis produqti. magaliTad, texasis Statis mTavroba kompania „Sels“ afrTxilebs, rom ver gayidis produqts StatSi, Tu emisiebi ar eqneba naklebi. kompanias sami arCevani aqvs: uaryos es moTxovna da gadaixados jarima, Secvalos gadasamuSavebeli procesis meqanizmi, rac miliardobiT dolari daujdeba, da mesame _ iyidos danamati/misarTi da miaRwios imave Sedegs. emisiebis Sesamcireblad SeuZliaT iyidon mxolod is produqti, romelic damowmebulia aSS-is garemos dacvis saagentos an texasis mier. sawvavSi „viskonis“ Sesarevad teqnikurad saWiroa specialuri manqana-danadgari da es teqnikuri gamowvevaa, Tumca amis mogvarebasa da gamartivebaze kompania ukve muSaobs“, _ ambobs marko bergmani. sawvavis xarisxTan erTad, saqarTvelosTvis kidev erTi didi gamowvevaa avtomobilebis savaldebulo teqnikuri daTvalierebis ararseboba da moZvelebuli avtoparki. saqarTveloSi saavtomobilo parkis 91 procenti aT welze metisaa. „savaldebulo kontrolis ararsebobis pirobebSi, savaraudod, avtomobilebis didi nawili teqnikurad gaumarTavia, avtoparkis 85 procentisTvis (romelsac msubuqi avtomobilebi Seadgens) savaldebulo perioduli testireba mxolod 2018 wels amoqmeddeba, ris Sedegadac gaumjobesdeba avtoparkis teqnikuri mdgomareoba da Sesabamisad, haerSi mavne nivTierebaTa gafrqvevac Semcirdeba. amasTan, avtomobilebis umravlesobas ar gaaCnia katalizuri konverteri, romelic gamonabolqvSi mavne nivTierebebs amcirebs. importirebul avtomobilebSi didia iseTi meoradi manqanebis procenti, romlebSic katalizatorebis eqspluataciis vada TiTqmis amowurulia da xSir SemTxvevaSi isini maleve gamodis mwyobridan~, _ ambobs garemos dacvis saministros atmosferuli haeris dacvis samsaxuris ufrosi qeTevan korZaxia.

ჩვენი ქვეყანა 2017 წლიდან უნდა გადავიდეს ევრო-5 სტანდარტის საწვავის მოხმარებაზე, რაც მნიშვნელოვნად გაზრდის საწვავის ხარისხს და შეამცირებს გარემოს დაბინძურების მაჩვენებელს. georgia will have to switch to using Euro 5-standard fuel by 2017, which will significantly improve the quality of fuel and reduce pollution levels.

view, since ready-made products are being imported. None of the companies and petrol stations has the necessary resources to conduct this process. It would lead to the product becoming more expensive, and once prices go up, questions start to appear,” Mr. Mtvralashvili states. The existence of technical challenges is acknowledged by the managing director of Viscon. However, with regards to pricing, he states that in the US, the price only goes up by about 1 cent per liter. One liter of Viscon is enough to treat up to 2500 liters of diesel fuel. “Oil companies do not willingly spend money on implementing changes unless it benefits them. This is the case in every country, unless the state government makes it obligatory for oil companies to improve the quality of their products. For example, the state of Texas has told Shell that the company would no longer be able to sell its products in Texas unless it reduced emissions. Shell has been left with the following three options: to ignore the demand and pay fines; to change the mechanism of its refinement process, which would cost the company billions of dollars; or to purchase additives for the fuel and achieve the same results. To reduce emissions, they can only purchase the products that have been approved by the Environmental Protection Agency of the US, or by the state of Texas. The addition of Viscon to the fuel requires a specific machine device, and this is a technically challenging process. However, the company is working on improving and simplifying it,” says Marco Bergmann.

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Business and Economy | ბიზნესი და ეკონომიკა

Business and Economy | ბიზნესი და ეკონომიკა Service at the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources Protection. “Even if the quality of fuel is improved, it will be impossible to attain the desired results when 90% of vehicles are more than 10 years old, and catalytic converters are almost entirely absent. In terms of technical inspection for environmental protection purposes, the state government ought to devise a liberal control mechanism and rejuvenate the vehicle fleet. Restrictions should gradually be placed upon the import of old vehicles, while the import of new cars, hybrids and electric vehicles should be encouraged,” adds Vano Mtvralashvili, the chairman of the Oil Importers Union. At present, vehicles with a Maximum Absolute Mass of above 3 tonnes are subject to mandatory technical inspection. This includes buses, minibuses and heavy goods vehicles, but does not include light vehicles that make up around 85% of the entire vehicle fleet. “There are 120 000 units of transport that are ought to be tested, but only around 20 000 of them are. All tested vehicles must have an appropriate sign attached to the windscreens, and ought to be stopped and fined by the police if the sign has expired,” states the head of the Test Center Union, Vazha Iordanishvili. Based upon changes in legislature, mandatory technical inspection will be reintroduced in December 2017. It was scrapped in 2004 due to corruption, and its reintroduction has been delayed on several occasions since then.

„rodesac avtomobilebis 90 procenti aT welze metisaa da maTze katalizatorebi faqtobrivad ar arsebobs, sawvavis xarisxis gaumjobesebis SemTxvevaSic ki sasurvel Sedegs ver mivaRwevT. saxelmwifom garemos dacvis mizniT, teqdaTvalierebasTan dakavSirebiT, unda SeimuSaos liberaluri kontrolis meqanizmebi da ganaaxlos avtoparki. etapobrivad, SezRudvebi unda dawesdes Zveli avtomobilebis Semotanaze, waxalisdes axali _ hibriduli da eleqtrotransportis importi“, _ acxadebs navTobproduqtebis importiorTa kavSiris Tavmjdomare vano mTvralaSvili. dRes moqmedi kanonmdeblobiT, 3 tona sruli masis zeviT yvela transporti eqvemdebareba teqnikur daTvalierebas, maT Sorisaa avtobusebi, mikroavtobusebi,

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Apart from the fuel quality, the absence of mandatory technical inspection for vehicles and an ageing car fleet also pose challenges to Georgia, where 91% of vehicles are more than 10 years old. “In the absence of mandatory inspection, one can assume that a lot of vehicles have technical faults. Mandatory inspection for light vehicles, which form 85% of the vehicle fleet here, will only come into effect in 2018, as a result of which the technical condition of the fleet will improve, and dissipation of toxic substances in the air will be reduced. At present, most vehicles do not have a catalytic converter that reduces toxic emissions. A high percentage of imported vehicles are second-hand, and the service life of their catalytic converters often expires quickly,” states Ketevan Kordzakhia, the head of the Air Protection

satvirToebi. Sesabamisad, savaldebulo testirebas ar eqvemdebareba msubuqi avtomobilebi, romlebic mTliani avtoparkis daaxloebiT 85 procentia. „120 aTasi satransporto erTeuli unda gadiodes testirebas, magram gadis daaxloebiT 20 aTasi. yvela aseT satransporto saSualebas saqare minaze mikruli unda hqondes testirebis specialuri firniSi. vadagasuli firniSis SemTxvevaSi ki patruli unda aCerebdes aseT manqanas da mZRols ajarimebdes“, _ ambobs testirebis centrebis gaerTianebis Tavmjdomare vaJa iordaniSvili. kanonSi Setanili cvlilebebis Tanaxmad, teqdaTvaliereba savaldebulo gaxdeba 2017 wlis dekembridan. 2004 wels korufciis arsebobis motiviT gauqmebuli

“It was supposed to come into effect in 2009, then in 2011, and then again in 2013. Corruption used to be a problem in every area, but we never abolished structures such as the passport system or the traffic police. There are appropriate methods of fighting corruption, instead of abolishing things. This is what brought us to the existing catastrophic situation with regards to the environment and the faulty vehicles. The delays happened primarily as a result of political decisions made on social grounds. Politicians thought that such a move would cause social unrest, which would later have a negative effect on the elections results,” Mr. Iordanishvili adds. State control of fuel quality is scheduled to come into effect in 2016. The Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources Protection will implement a state control mechanism, and subsequently, petrol stations will be ecologically marked in accordance with the quality of the fuel that they sell. “Environment Ministry employees will be obtaining samples from petrol stations and oil storehouses. These samples will be sent to an approved laboratory, and the results will be accessible to the public. Violations will be punished appropriately, but the aim will be not to put businesses under pressure, but to allow the population to obtain real information and to better understand

დეკემბერი 2015 საქართველოს ევროპული გზა

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Business and Economy | ბიზნესი და ეკონომიკა testirebis aRdgenis TariRi bolo wlebSi ramdenjerme gadaido. „testireba jer 2009 wels unda amoqmedebuliyo, Semdeg _ 2011-Si, 2013-Si. yvela sferoSi iyo korufcia, magram ar gauqmebula iseTi struqturebi, rogorebicaa: sapasporto sistema, sagzao policia... unda ebrZolo Sesabamisi meTodebiT da ara gauqmebiT. manqanebis teqnikurma gaumarTaobam garemos dacvis TvalsazrisiT katastroful mdgomareobamde migviyvana. gadadeba xdeboda ufro politikuri gadawyvetilebiT. amas ZiriTadad ukavSireben socialur garemos, fiqroben, rom es gamoiwvevs garkveul socialur mRelvarebas, ramac SeiZleba arCevnebze uaryofiTi gavlena moaxdinos“, _ ambobs vaJa iordaniSvili. 2016 wlidan dagegmilia sawvavis xarisxis saxelmwifo kontrolis amoqmedeba. garemos dacvis saministro sawvavis xarisxis saxelmwifo kontrolis meqanizms SemoiRebs da avtogasamarTi sadgurebis ekomarkireba gayiduli sawvavis xarisxis mixedviT moxdeba. „garemos dacvis saministros TanamSromlebi navTobgasamarTi sadgurebidan da navTobbazebidan aiReben sinjebs, romlebic gaigzavneba akreditebul laboratoriaSi, miRebuli Sedegebi ki xelmisawvdomi gaxdeba sazogadoebisTvis. Tu darRveva iqneba, Sesabamisi sanqciebi gatardeba, Tumca mTavari mizania ara biznesis Seviwroeba, aramed is, rom mosaxleobas hqondes realuri informacia da ukeTesad gaigos, ramdenad aucilebelia ekologiurad ufro sufTa sawvavis moxmareba“, _ ambobs garemos dacvis saministros atmosferuli haeris dacvis mTavari specialisti noe megreliSvili. sakanonmdeblo cvlilebebis Sedegad, 2015 wels samjer Semcirda gogirdis Semcveloba benzinSi da evro 4-is standarts gauTanabrda; 2016 wlidan benzoli da aromatuli naxSirwyalbadebi unda gautoldes evro 5-is standarts, 2017 wels ki gogirdi kvlav xuTjer unda Semcirdes, raTa Seesabamebodes evro 5-is standarts. igive SeiZleba iTqvas dizelis sawvavTan dakavSirebiT _ 2016 wlidan masSi gogirdis Semcveloba 50 erTeuliT unda Semcirdes. avtotransportidan mavne nivTierebaTa gafrqveva kidev ramdenime faqtorzea damokidebuli, maT Sorisaa: avtomobilebis raodenoba da moZraobis intensivoba _ saqarTveloSi satransporto saSualebebi bolo 10 weliwadSi gaormagda da dReisTvis ukve erT milions gadaaWarba. Sesabamisad, izrdeba mavne nivTierebebis gafrqvevebi, gansakuTrebiT mwvave mdgomareobaa TbilisSi, radgan avtoparkis 40 procenti TbilisSia Tavmoyrili. mzardi importi _ avtomobilebis importi 2014 wels, 2012 welTan SedarebiT, dReSi 108 erTeuliT gaizarda. importirebuli avtomobilebis 88 procenti Svid welze meti xnisaa. es ukavSirdeba, aseve, aqciziT dabegvris sistemas, romelic 7-idan 12 wlamde avtomobilebis importis stimulirebas axdens. aqcizisa da

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Georgia’s European Way December 2015

Business and Economy | ბიზნესი და ეკონომიკა importis gadasaxadi efuZneba avtomobilis xnovanebasa da Zravis moculobas. Tumca importis gadasaxadi imdenad mcirea aqcizis gadasaxadTan SedarebiT, rom es ukanaskneli mastimulirebeli faqtoria SeZenisas. sazogadoebrivi transporti _ ar aris saTanadod ganviTarebuli, rom mosaxleobam arCevani gaakeTos sazogadoebriv transportze da ara kerZoze. sazogadoebis arasaTanado informirebuloba _ mosaxleobas ara aqvs gaazrebuli, ras niSnavs ekologiuri safrTxe.

Growing imports – compared to 2012, the import of vehicles grew by 108 units per day by 2014, whereby 88% of the imported cars were over 7 years old. This is partly due to the excise tax system that encourages the import of 7 to 12 year old vehicles. The excise tax and import duty are based on the age of the vehicle and the volume of its engine. However, the import duty is so small compared to the excise tax that the latter is a stimulating factor during the purchase. Public transport – the public transport system is not sophisticated enough for the population to choose it over private transport.

haeris monitoringis Sedegebi

the need for ecologically cleaner fuel,” says Noe Megrelishvili, the chief specialist at the Environment Ministry’s Air Protection Service. Thanks to the legislative changes, the sulfur content in petrol has decreased threefold in 2015, attaining Euro 4 standard; benzene and aromatic hydrocarbons will attain Euro 5 standard in 2016; and the sulfur levels ought to further decrease fivefold in 2017, allowing them to reach the Euro 5 standard. Furthermore, the sulfur content in diesel fuel must decrease by 50 units from 2016. Toxic emissions from vehicles are further dependent upon other factors,v which include the following: The number of vehicles and the intensity of traffic – the number of vehicles in Georgia has doubled over the last 10 years, and has now surpassed 1 million units. Toxic emissions have increased accordingly, and the problem is particularly acute in Tbilisi, where 40% of Georgia’s vehicle fleet is based.

atmosferuli haeris xarisxis saxelmwifo monitorings qveynis masStabiT eweva am saqmianobaze pasuxismgebeli organo _ garemos erovnuli saagento. am uwyebis TanamSromlebi dReSi samjer haeris sinjebs iReben dedaqalaqis yvelaze dabinZurebul adgilebSi _ kvinitaZis quCaze, wereTlis gamzirsa da moskovis prospeqtze. ZiriTadi damabinZureblebis garda, ozonisa da tyviis Semcvelobas 24-saaTian reJimSi zomavs holandiis mTavrobis mxardaWeriT vaSlijvarSi ganTavsebuli sadguri. atmosferuli haeris monitoringis bolo Sedegebi (seqtembris Tvis) aseTia: kvinitaZis quCaze zRvrulad dasaSveb niSnuls aRemateboda mtvrisa (2,2-jer) da naxSirJangis (1,6-jer) maqsimaluri erTjeradi koncentraciebi. wereTlis gamzirze mtvris maqsimaluri erTjeradi koncentracia zRvrulad dasaSveb normas aRemateboda 2,4-jer, xolo azotis dioqsidis _ 1,3-jer. „evrokavSiri imitom iTxovs saqarTvelosgan haeris xarisxze zrunvas, rom es aumjobesebs xalxis cxovrebis dones. yvelaferze SeiZleba msjeloba _ ramdeni dajdeba, ra dro dasWirdeba da a.S., magram mTavaria, risi miRweva ginda _ es aris sufTa haeri, rom mosaxleobam jansaR garemoSi icxovros. dabinZurebis Sesamcireblad arsebobs bevri meqanizmi _ axali mowyobilobebi, eleqtroZravebi. sakiTxi dgas Semdegnairad: risi Sesruleba unda dRes saqarTvelos, risi Sesruleba SeuZlia momdevno 5-10 wlis ganmavlobaSi grZelvadiani gegmis gareSe. Tu xalxs surs Sedegi dauyovnebliv naxos, am SemTxvevaSi, bevri arCevani ar aris“, _ ambobs marko bergmani. jandacvis msoflio organizaciis monacemebiT, haeris dabinZureba yovelwliurad, msoflios masStabiT, 2 milioni adamianis naadrevi sikvdilis mizezi xdeba. mtvris nawilakebis mudmivi zemoqmedeba aZlierebs gul-sisxlZarRvTa da respiratoruli daavadebebis, aseve, alergiebisa da filtvis kibos ganviTarebis risks. amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi myari nawilakebis emisias ukavSirdeba asTmis Setevis 410 aTasi SemTxveva da 21 aTasi adamianis sikvdili yovelwliurad. saqarTveloSi ki, jandacvis msoflio organizaciis monacemebiT, haeris dabinZureba daavadebebis _ 17, xolo sikvdilianobis 19 procents iwvevs.

Lack of public awareness – the population is unaware of the existing ecological threats.

Results of air monitoring The National Environmental Agency is the body responsible for conducting nationwide state monitoring of air quality. It obtains three air samples per day at the most polluted locations in Tbilisi – Kvinitadze Street, Tsereteli Avenue, and Moscow Avenue. In addition to the major pollutants, ozone and lead content is also being measured 24 hours a day at the Vashlijvari station, which was set up with the help from the Dutch government. The most recent air monitoring results (as of September) are as follows: On Kvinitadze Street, maximum concentrations of dust and carbon dioxide exceeded the maximum permissible levels by 2.2 times and 1.6 times, respectively. On Tsereteli Avenue, maximum concentrations of dust and nitrogen dioxide exceeded the maximum permissible levels by 2.4 times and 1.3 times, respectively. “The reason why the European Union demands improvements from Georgia in terms of the latter’s air quality, is to improve its population’s living standards. One can argue about anything – how much it will cost, how long it will take to implement, etc. However, what is most important, is what you are trying to achieve – that is, to have clean air and for the population to live healthily. There are several mechanisms for reducing pollution, such as modern equipment and electric engines. The question is, what does Georgia want to achieve today, and what can it achieve over the next 5-10 years without a long-term plan? If people want to see immediate results, then there is not much choice,” says Marco Bergmann. According to the World Health Organization data, air pollution causes 2 million premature deaths worldwide on an annual basis. The constant effect of dust particles increases the risks of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, allergies, and lung cancer. In the United States, emissions of heavy particles are connected to 410 000 cases of asthma attacks and 21 000 premature deaths annually. In Georgia, according to the World Health Organization, air pollution is at the root of 17% of diseases and 19% of deaths.

დეკემბერი 2015 საქართველოს ევროპული გზა

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Georgia and NATO | საქართველო და ნატო

Georgia and NATO | საქართველო და ნატო

ეროვნული ინტერესების განხორციელების პროცესში საზოგადოებრივი მხარდაჭერის მნიშვნელობა ელენე გოცაძე ნატოსა და ევროკავშირის შესახებ საინფორმაციო ცენტრის დირექტორი

Importance of public support in the process of implementation of the national interests Elene Gotsadze Director of the LEPL Information Center on NATO and EU

e

vropuli integraciis gza Cveni sazogadoebis Seuqcevadi da gaazrebuli arCevania. Sesabamisad, natosa da evrokavSirSi gawevrianeba Cveni qveynis usafrTxoebisa da sagareo politikis prioritetebia. evropul da evroatlantikur struqturebSi integracia kompleqsuri procesia da is Cveni cxovrebis TiToeul etapze, Cvens yoveldRiur yofaze aisaxeba. amitom sazogadoebis mudmiv da droul informirebas mimdinare procesebis Sesaxeb udidesi mniSvneloba aqvs.

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E

uropean integration is an irreversible and conscious choice of our society. Accordingly, attaining membership of both NATO and the EU are foreign and security policy priorities of Georgia. Integrating with the European and Euro-Atlantic structures is a very complex process and is reflected in numerous aspects of our everyday lives. Thus, providing Georgian society with correct, comprehensive and timely information regarding the ongoing processes is crucially important.

ssip „natosa da evrokavSiris Sesaxeb sainformacio centris“ mizania evropuli struqturebis Sesaxeb informaciis gavrceleba da evropuli da evroatlantikuri integraciis mimarT sazogadoebis gacnobierebuli mxardaWeris mopoveba. Cveni amocanaa, vesaubroT da evrointegraciis procesSi CavrToT saqarTvelos mosaxleobis umravlesoba, xma mivawvdinoT TiToeul adamians. evropul faseulobebze, evroatlantikuri integraciis sakiTxebze saubrebma gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba mimdinare antidasavluri kampaniis fonze SeiZina. arsebuli gamowvevebisa da sirTuleebis gaTvaliswinebiT, saqarTvelos mTavrobam miznad daisaxa evropuli da evroatlantikuri integraciis Taobaze sazogadoebasTan komunikaciis gaZliereba. es gadawyvetileba pirdapir aisaxa sainformacio centris struqturasa da funqcionirebaze. Sesabamisad, gafarTovda Cveni warmomadgenloba regionebSi. sazogadoebis maqsimaluri informirebisa da adgilobrivi proeqtebis xelSewyobis mizniT, sainformacio centris oTx regionul ofiss (aWaraSi, samegreloSi, imereTsa da kaxeTSi) daemata ori axali warmomadgenloba Sida qarTlsa (gori) da qvemo qarTlSi (marneulSi). aseve, uaxloes periodSi dagegmilia ori axali ofisis gaxsna samcxe-javaxeTsa da guriaSi. sainformacio centris saqmianoba mravalferovania. sazogadoebis informirebis mizniT imarTeba seminarebi, treiningebi, mrgvali magidebi, sportuli da inteleqtualuri TamaSebi, cxaddeba konkursebi. mxolod 2015 wlis ganmavlobaSi rogorc TbilisSi, aseve regionebSi 400-mde

Main goal of the LEPL Information Centre on NATO and EU is to disseminate information on NATO, the European Union, their structures, values and principles, progress achieved in NATO-Georgia and EU-Georgia cooperation, to obtain well-informed support of Georgian society for the process of European and Euro-Atlantic integration. One of the objectives of the Information Center is to engage Georgian population in the process of European and Euro Atlantic Integration. The special importance of information campaign about European values and the Euro-Atlantic integration process is determined by growing anti-Western campaign in the country. Taking into consideration existing challenges and difficulties, the Government of Georgia has set a goal to strengthen communication with the society regarding the European and Euro-Atlantic integration. This decision was directly reflected on the structure of the LEPL Information Center on NATO and EU by increasing the number of its regional representations from existing four offices (Adjara, Samegrelo, Imereti and Kakheti) by additional two new regional offices in Shida Kartli (Gori) and Kvemo Kartli (Marneuli). Moreover, the opening of two new offices in Samtskhe-Javakheti and Guria is planned for the near future. This will help to increase the effective functioning of the Information Center. Regional offices will provide the popuation of the regions with timely and correct information and support for local projects. Activities of the Information Center are very diverse. Seminars, trainings, round tables, sports and intellectual games and competitions are carried out in order to raise the awareness of various groups of population

დეკემბერი 2015 საქართველოს ევროპული გზა

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Georgia and NATO | საქართველო და ნატო

Sexvedra gaimarTa. es niSnavs, rom pirdapiri komunikaciis gziT dialogSi 20 aTasamde moqalaqe CaerTo. 2015 wlis mniSvnelovan siaxled SeiZleba davasaxeloT saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis warmomadgenlebTan mWidro TanamSromlobisa da regionul TviTmmarTvelobebSi aqtiuri sainformacio kampaniis dawyeba. aseve aRsaniSnavia partniori axalgazrduli arasamTavrobo organizaciebis gaaqtiureba regionebSi. amjerad yuradRebas gavamaxvilebT wlis erT-erT mniSvnelovan da masStabur proeqtze. „natos kvireuli“ 25 oqtombers ssip „natosa da evrokavSiris Sesaxeb sainformacio centris“ 10 wlis iubilesadmi miZRvnili oficialuri ceremoniiT gaixsna. kvireulis farglebSi TbilisSi, gorSi, TelavSi, baTumSi, quTaisSi, marneulSi, yvarelSi, axalqalaqsa da xaSurSi 30 RonisZieba gaimarTa. maT Soris: sainformacio centris axali regionuli biuros gaxsna q. gorSi, mediasaSualebebis warmomadgenlebis Sexvedra natoSi saqarTvelos misiis axlandel da yofil xelmZRvanelebTan, seminari kojris serJantTa momzadebis skolis msmenelebisTvis, daWrili samxedroebis Sexvedra skolis moswavleebTan, natosa da evrokavSiris auditoriis gaxsna „evropul skolaSi“, Sexvedrebi moswavleebTan, studentebTan, iunkrebTan; ganxorcielda proeqti „dabruneba skolaSi“, romelic maRali Tanamdebobis pirebis skolaSi stumrobasa da axalgazrdebTan gulaxdil saubars gulisxmobda. aseve moewyo axalgazrduli debatebi, gaimarTa konferenciebi, gamofenebi, inteleqtualuri TamaSebi da sxva. natos kvireuli 8 noembers „natos

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Georgia’s European Way December 2015

Georgia and NATO | საქართველო და ნატო

on European values and European integration process. In 2015, around 400 events were organized in Tbilisi, as well as in the regions of Georgia and approximately 20 000 citizens were involved in the dialogue by means of direct communication. An important novelty of 2015 was the commencement of close cooperation with the representatives of the clergy and representatives of local self-governanace. In addition, active engagement of youth non-governmental organizations should be emphasized. In this regard, one of the most significant and large-scale projects is NATO Week, which was held for the eighth time this year in Georgia. NATO Week was opened on 25th of October with the official ceremony dedicated to the 10th anniversary of the Information Center. In the framework of NATO Week, 30 events were held in Tbilisi, Gori, Telavi, Batumi, Kutaisi, Marneuli, Kvareli, Akhalkalaki and Khashuri. These events included the following: meeting of media representatives with current and former heads of the Mission of Georgia to NATO; seminar for the military servicemen of Kojori Sergeants Training School; meeting of wounded soldiers with pupils; opening of NATO and EU Auditorium at “European School”; “Back to School” project, where high-level government officials were requested to visit their schools and hold conversations with youths about Georgia’s Euro-Atlantic integration process. Many other interesting events such as meetings with students, debates, conferences, exhibitions, intellectual games were also held during NATO Week.

დეკემბერი 2015 საქართველოს ევროპული გზა

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Georgia and NATO | საქართველო და ნატო

Tasze“ fexburTSi mediaturniriT dasrulda. natos kvireuli saqarTveloSi wels merved gaimarTa. is evropul da evroatlantikur struqturebSi integraciis sakiTxebSi saxelmwifo ministris aparatis, Tavdacvis saministros, saqarTveloSi natos samokavSireo ofisisa da rumineTis saelCos mxardaWeriT ganxorcielda. xSirad mogvmarTaven ufrosklaselebi, studentebi, akademiuri wreebis warmomadgenlebi, ubralo moqalaqeebi qarTul enaze informaciis moTxovniT. Sesabamisad, gadavwyviteT mogvemzadebina wigni „nato da evrokavSiri _ saqarTvelos sagareo politikis prioritetebi“, romelSic warmodgenilia informacia orive organizaciis Sesaxeb da am organizaciebTan saqarTvelos urTierTobis ocwliani istoria. unda aRiniSnos agreTve, rom bolo periodSi saqarTveloSi, iseve rogorc evropis sxva qveynebSi, SeiniSneba antidasavluri kampaniis gaZliereba. misi mizani sazogadoebis evropuli integraciisadmi keTilganwyobis Secvlaa. maTi informacia mTlianad miTebzea agebuli. amitom SevecadeT, amave publikaciaSi Tavi mogveyara im cru SexedulebebisTvis, romlebzedac Cvens moqalaqeebs kiTxvebi gauCndaT. da bolos, xazgasmiT minda aRvniSno, rom sazogadoebis gacnobierebul mxardaWeras udidesi mniSvneloba eniWeba qveynisTvis strategiuli prioritetis ganxorcielebis gzaze. Cvens SemTxvevaSi saqarTvelos sagareo politikis prioriteti Cveni qveynis moqalaqeebis arCevania. Cven am arCevans vemsaxurebiT da mis gansaxorcieleblad Zalisxmevas ar daviSurebT.

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Georgia’s European Way December 2015

Georgia and NATO | საქართველო და ნატო

NATO Week was closed on 8th of November with the NATO Cup football tournament, in which eight teams from different TV channels and from the Office of the State Minister on European and Euro-Atlantic Integration took part. The project was implemented by the Information Center on NATO and EU with the support of the Georgian Football Foundation and NATO Liaison Office. Information Center systematically publishes informational and educational materials during the year. Considering that students, pupils, representatives of academic groups and ordinary citizens often request information in the Georgian simple language, we decided to prepare and publish a book “NATO and European Union – Georgia’s Foreign Policy Priorities”. This publication summarizes information about both organizations and Georgia’s 20-year history of cooperation with them. It should be also noted that an anti-Western campaign has been evident in Georgia and other neighboring countries, aimed at negatively changing the attitudes of society regarding European integration. This campaign is based only on myths. In this book we tried to collect false anti-Western narrative and dispel it using real facts. Finally, I would like to emphasize that the conscious support of Georgian society is essential for the country in the process of implementation of strategic priorities. In our case, the priority of the foreign policy of Georgia is the choice of the citizens of our country. We serve to this choice and will spare no efforts to ensure its implementation.

დეკემბერი 2015 საქართველოს ევროპული გზა

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Analysis and Opinion | ანალიზი და მოსაზრება

Analysis and Opinion | ანალიზი და მოსაზრება

სტრატეგიული კომუნიკაცია და საზოგადოებრივი დისკურსი ანტი სილანპაა ნატოს სტრატეგიული კომუნიკაციის სრულყოფის ცენტრი წინასიტყვაობა: ელინა ლანგე-იონათამიშვილი

"STRATEGIC COMMUNICATIONS AND THE NEED FOR SOCIETAL NARRATIVES" Dr. Antti Sillanpaa NATO Strategic Communications Centre of Excellence Foreword: Elina Lange-Ionatamishvili

winasityvaoba

Foreword

natos strategiuli komunikaciis srulyofis centris (NATO StratCom COE) dafuZneba 2012 wels iniciirebuli iyo latviis mTavrobis mier, raTa ganmtkicebuliyo natos SesaZlebloba axali sainformacio garemos Sedegad arsebuli gamowvevebis aRmosafxvrelad. 2014 wels, natos uelsis samitamde, centrma miiRo natos akreditacia, rac mowonebul iqna uelsis samitis deklaraciiT, rogorc mniSvnelovani wvlili natos SesaZleblobebis gaZlierebis TvalsazrisiT hibriduli omis safrTxeebTan sabrZolvelad. es centri erT-erTia im 21 centrs Soris, romlebic akreditebulia natos wevr qveynebSi. TiToeuli maTgani warmoadgens multinacionalur formirebas, romelic specializebulia da qmnis konretul SesaZleblobas. magaliTad, estoneTi maspinlobs kiberTavdacvis centrs, TurqeTSi ganTavsebulia terorizmis winaaRmdeg Tavdacvis centri, xolo rumineTSi arsebobs dazvervis centri. centrebi akreditebulia natos mier, magram maT afuZneben da marTaven monawile qveynebi. amJamad natos strategiuli komunikaciis srulyofis centrSi 7 qveyana monawileobs: latvia, litva, estoneTi, poloneTi, italia, germania da didi britaneTi. natos strategiuli komunikaciis srulyofis centri ar gamoricxavs nebayoflobiT CarTulobas, Sesabamisad, amerikis SeerTebulma Statebma, fineTma da holandiam wargzavnes

The establishment of the NATO Strategic Communications Centre of Excellence (NATO StratCom COE) was initiated by the Latvian government back in 2012 with a view to strengthening NATO’s ability to address challenges posed by the new information environment. In 2014, shortly before the NATO Summit in Wales, the Centre received NATO accreditation and was welcomed in the Wales Summit Declaration as a meaningful contribution to enhancing NATO’s capability to address hybrid warfare threats.

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Georgia’s European Way December 2015

The Centre is one of 21 Centres of Excellence accredited in NATO countries. Each is composed of a multi-national formation which specializes in a niche capability. For example, Estonia is hosting the Cooperative Cyber Defence COE, Turkey is home to the Defence Against Terrorism COE and Romania accommodates the Human Intelligence (HUMINT) COE. Although the Centres are accredited by NATO, they are established and run by the participating nations. Currently, there are seven countries participating in the NATO StratCom COE: Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Poland, Italy, Germany and the UK. The COE format also allows for Voluntary National Contributions (VNCs) to the Centre, so the USA, Finland and the Netherlands have also sent personnel to work on Centre’s projects. The Centre is open to new nations joining and cooperation is possible with NATO member countries and partner countries alike.

personali centris proeqtebze samuSaod. centris saqmianobas SesaZloa miuerTdnen sxva qveynebi, romlebsac eqnebaT SesaZlebloba, iTanamSromlon rogorc natos wevr, ise partnior qveynebTan. sxva centrebis msgavsad, natos strategiuli komunikaciis srulyofis centri mimarTavs Zalisxmevas sami ZiriTadi mimarTulebiT. esenia: doqtrinisa da koncefciis SemuSaveba, operaciebSi mxardaWera, wvrTna da ganaTleba. centri atarebs uamrav kvlevas komunikaciis sferoSi mwvaved ganviTarebul movlenebTan dakavSirebiT, gansazRvravs natos aqtivobebs da exmareba maT, visac surs monawileoba miiRos wvrTnebSi da sxva saxis treningebSi. centris mimdinare samuSao mimarTulebebs Sorisaa agreTve: ruseTis sainformacio kampaniis analizi dasavluri demokratiisa da ukrainis winaaRmdeg; islamuri saxelmwifos sainformacio kampania; gasaTvaliswinebeli faqtorebi, romlebic ganisazRvra ISAFSi natos monawileobis Sedegad, da socialuri mediis roli hibriduli omis konteqstSi. centrma iTanamSromla agreTve saqarTvelosTan, wvrTnebisa da ganaTlebis sferoSi. 2014 wlis noemberSi centrma, didi britaneTis Tavdacvis saministrosTan, nato-saqarTvelos profesiuli ganviTarebis programasTan da saqarTvelos erovnuli Tavdacvis akademiis profesiuli ganviTarebis centrTan TanamSromlobiT, TbilisSi Caatara strategiuli komunikaciis Sesaxeb informirebulobis seminari, romelsac mohyva ordRiani praqtikuli kursi informaciuli saqmianobis dagegmvis Sesaxeb. 2015 wlis ivlisSi centrma Caatara aseve ordRiani praqtikuli seminari, romelzec bolodroindeli kvlevebis mignebebi gauziares saqarTvelos samTavrobo uwyebebis TanamSromlebs. aRniSnuli seminaris farglebSi, warmomadgenlebi gaecnen aseve strategiuli komunikaciis dagegmvis process. dekembris dasawyisSi Catarda Semdgomi samdRiani kursi samizne auditoriis analizis Sesaxeb da naxevardRiani diskusia strategiuli komunikaciis dagegmvasTan dakavSirebiT. saqarTvelom ukve gadadga garkveuli nabijebi strategiuli komunikaciebis SesaZleblobebis gasaZliereblad da Seqmna koordinaciis ganyofileba premier-ministris aparatSi da sxva erTeulebi ramdenime samTavrobo uwyebaSi. saqarTvelos maRali Tanamdebobis pirebi did interess iCenen aRniSnul sakiTxis mimarT, rac dadasturda strategiuli komunikaciis informirebulobis Sesaxeb maRali donis seminaris farglebSi, romelic 11 dekembers gaimarTa. aRniSnul seminars umaspinZla saqarTvelos premier-ministrma, xolo finansuri xelSemwyobi nato-saqarTvelos profesiuli ganviTarebis programa iyo. natos strategiuli komunikaciis srulyofis centri kvlav Riaa 2016 wels saqarTvelosTan Semdgomi TanamSromlobisTvis, rogorc erToblivi samecniero-kvleviTi saqmianobis, ise wvrTnebisa da ganaTlebis sferoSi. winamdebare statia daiwera rigis konferenciisTvis, romelic 6-7 noembers latviis dedaqalaqSi gaimarTa.

ამჟამად ნატოს სტრატეგიული კომუნიკაციის სრულყოფის ცენტრში 7 ქვეყანა მონაწილეობს: ლატვია, ლიტვა, ესტონეთი, პოლონეთი, იტალია, გერმანია და დიდი ბრიტანეთი. Currently, there are seven countries participating in the NATO StratCom COE: Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Poland, Italy, Germany and the UK. Similarly to other COEs, the NATO StratCom COE focuses its efforts on three main directions: doctrine and concept development; support to operations; and training and education. The Centre conducts extensive research on topical developments in the communications field, identifies lessons for NATO and helps to integrate those in exercises and other forms of training. The current work directions of the COE include, among others: analysis of Russia’s information campaign against the Western democracies and Ukraine; the information campaign of DAESH (also known as the Islamic State); lessons identified from NATO’s participation in ISAF, Afghanistan; and the weaponization of social media in the hybrid warfare context. The Centre has also cooperated with Georgia in the field of training and education. In November 2014, the COE in partnership with the UK Ministry of Defence, the NATO-Georgia Professional Development Programme and the Professional Development Centre under the Georgian National Defence Academy conducted a strategic level StratCom awareness seminar in Tbilisi, followed by a two-day operational level course on information activity planning. In July 2015, the COE conducted a two-day operational level seminar where findings from recent researches were shared with employees of Georgian government agencies and the StratCom planning process was introduced. This activity was followed up in early December by a three-day course on Target Audience Analysis and a ½ day strategic level discussion on StratCom planning. Georgia has taken certain steps already to enhance its strategic communications capability by establishing a coordination unit under the Prime Minister’s Office and counterpart units in several government agencies. There is a high level of interest among Georgian officials in this topic which was re-affirmed during the high-level StratCom awareness seminar for senior political lead-

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Analysis and Opinion | ანალიზი და მოსაზრება Sesavali xumroba, romelic sabWoTa periods ekuTvnis, exeba or prezidents, romlebic erTmaneTs sirbilSi ejibrebodnen. orive qveynis media yuradRebiT aSuqebda oficialuri saxelmwifo vizitis yvela RonisZiebas da Sesabamisad, Sejibrebamac miipyro maTi yuradReba. gamarjvebuli mxaris presam gaakeTa gancxadeba: „Cvenma prezidentma gaimarjva!“ damarcxebuli prezidentis mrCevlebi myisierad daexmarnen sainformacio saSualebebs. mediam gaavrcela Semdegi informacia: „Cveni lideris udidesi sibrZnis wyalobiT, man daikava meore adgili, miuxedavad imisa, rom asakiT uxucesi iyo. meore prezidentma mxolod bolodan meore adgili daikava“. am istoriaSi faqtebi erTi da igivea, Tumca ambavi Sesabamisi auditoriisTvis sxvadasxvagvarad aris moTxrobili. gamarjvebuli mxaris martivi versia aris ufro myari dasavluri auditoriisTvis, romelic moiTxovs gamWvirvalobas. Tumca, xumrobis Tanaxmad, arsebobs aseve auditoria, romelsac surs miiRos sxva versia. Tanamedrove demokratiaSi gamWvirvaloba da midgoma _ „saqmeebi unda Seesabamebodes qmedebebs“ _ ganixileba rogorc mniSvnelovani principebi, miuxedavad imisa, rom SesaZloa praqtikaSi isini yovelTvis ver Sesruldes1. Tumca ar aris aucilebeli amgvari idealisturi xedva yvelgan gaiziaron. Tanamedrove epoqaSi, informaciis siWarbis pirobebSi, arsebobs ara mxolod ori, aramed ramdenime gza, rom ideebi Camoyalibdes da misi gamoxatvac SesaZlebeli iyos. winamdebare dokumentSi ganvixilav terminologiis ramdenime konceptualur aspeqts. dokumenti xels uwyobs mTavrobis valdebulebas strategiuli komunikaciis sferoSi da aRniSnuli midgomis gamoyenebiT iqmneba pozitiuri da sando sazogadoebrivi diskursi.

strategiuli komunikaciis gansazRvra strategiuli komunikacia viTardeba rogorc profesia an swavlebis sfero, rac aisaxeba terminologiasTan dakavSirebul diskusiaSi. terminologiis diskursi iwyeba safuZvlebidan, kerZod, ramdenad unda gamoiyenebodes es termini erToblivad, unda iyos mxoloobiT ricxvSi _ „strategiuli komunikacia“ Tu mravlobiT ricxvSi _ „strategiuli komunikaciebi“2. sicxadisTvis, unda aRiniSnos, rom mravlobiTi ricxvi gamoiyeneba natos konvenciebSi. amgvari magaliTebis gaTvaliswinebiT, SeiZleba vivaraudoT, rom ganmartebebTan dakavSirebiT konsensusis miRwevas jer kidev didi dro dasWirdeba. Tumca bolo diskusiis Sedegad SesaZloa bundovnad ganisazRvros aRniSnuli sakiTxis sazRvrebi. strategiuli komunikacia SesaZloa ganxilul iqnas rogorc, magaliTad, procesi, SesaZlebloba an saqmianoba, romelic xelSewyobilia SesaZleblobiT, mosalodneli efeqtebiT an komunikaciis xelovnebiT3. rogorc

Analysis and Opinion | ანალიზი და მოსაზრება ership on 11 December, hosted by the Prime Minister of Georgia and sponsored by the NATO-Georgia Professional Development Programme. The NATO StratCom COE remains open to further cooperation with Georgia during 2016 in the areas of joint research and training and education. This article was initially written for The Riga Conference, which took place on 6-7 November in Riga, Latvia.

Introduction A joke dating back to Soviet times describes two presidents who were competing in running. The media of both countries were carefully reporting every event during an official state visit and, naturally, this race also drew their attention. The press of the winning side published headlines boasting “Our president won!” The advisers of the losing president were quick to put forward their own version of events, telling the media that “Thanks to the great wisdom of our leader, he made second even though he was older. The other president finished second from last.” In the story, the facts are the same, but the respective audiences are presented with different versions. The winner’s simpler version is more compelling to a Western audience which demands transparency. But, according to the joke at least, there is an audience willing to accept the other version as well. In modern democracies, transparency and a “deeds must match deeds” approach are seen as important principles, even if in practice they are not always followed1. This idealistic view is not necessarily shared everywhere. In the present day, in an era of overabundance of information, there are a lot more than two ways to frame and express ideas. In this paper, I discuss some conceptual aspects of the terminology. The paper advocates the whole of government undertaking strategic communications to create positive and credible societal level narratives.

Defining Strategic Communications Strategic communication as a profession or a field of study is evolving, which is reflected in the discussion about terminology. The first issue to ascertain is should it be a singular word (strategic communication) or should it be pluralized (strategic communications) 2. For the sake of clarity, the plural form is used here following NATO conventions. There continues to be widespread debate over the definition of strategic communications. However, upon investigation of recent discussions, a vague approximation can be made on the boundaries of the topic as viewed in the West.

სტრატეგიული კომუნიკაცია შესაძლოა განისაზღვროს როგორც კომუნიკაციის მიზანმიმართული გამოყენება ორგანიზაციის მიერ, საკუთარი მისიის შესასრულებლად.

qmedeba, strategiuli komunikacia SesaZloa ganisazRvros rogorc komunikaciis mizanmimarTuli gamoyeneba organizaciis mier, sakuTari misiis Sesasruleblad.4 mniSvnelovania aRiniSnos, rom gza, romliTac organizacia avrcelebs erTian gzavnils, ar Semoifargleba sityvieri an werilobiTi saSualebebiT, radgan yvela qmedeba yvela doneze Seicavs garkveul gzavnils organizaciis Sesaxeb. Tatham-is definicia orientirebulia auditoriaze gavlenis mosaxdenad, Tumca moicavs sxvadasxva dones da aqtorebs: „mdgradi da Tanamimdevruli qmedebebis sistematur seriebs, romlebic xorcieldeba strategiul, operaciul da taqtikur doneebze da iZleva samizne auditoriis Secnobis SesaZleblobas, aseve gansazRvravs efeqtur arxebs, raTa xeli Seuwyos da SeinarCunos konkretuli tipis qceva“.5 farveli (Farwell) Tavis ganmartebaSi gansazRvravs rogorc miznebs, ise saSualebebs: „sityvebis, qmedebebis, suraTebis an simboloebis gamoyeneba samizne auditoriebis damokidebulebebsa da mosazrebebze zegavlenis mosaxdenad, raTa ganisazRvros qceva da moxdes interesebis an politikis gaumjobeseba an miznebis miRweva. samxedro konteqstSi aRniSnuli moicavs iseTi pirobebis Seqmnas, romlebic gansazRvravs sasurvel saboloo mdgomareobas.6 zemoaRniSnuli warmoaCens, Tu ramdenad ganisazRvreba strategiuli komunikaciis farTo da integraciuli xasiaTi. komunikacia xorcieldeba strategiuli saboloo mdgomareobis miRwevis xelSesawyobad. mizani SesaZloa zogjer naTeli iyos, magaliTad, samxedro operaciebis dros, Tumca SeiZleba saqme ufro rTulad iyos maSin, rodesac sakiTxi exeba samoqalaqo sazogadoebas, Tundac arakrizisul SemTxvevebSi. Tu ar arsebobs raime egzistencialuri an sxva seriozuli safrTxeebi, yoveldRiuri saqmianobis warmarTvam SesaZloa komuni-

strategic communications can be defined as the purposeful use of communication by an organization to fulfil its mission.

Strategic communications can be seen as a process or an activity supported by capabilities, expected effects or the art of communication3. In terms of action, strategic communications can be defined as the purposeful use of communication by an organization to fulfil its mission.4 It is important to note that the way in which an organization delivers a unified message is not limited to verbal or written actions, because all actions at every level contain some element of signalling from the organization. Tatham’s definition focuses on affecting audiences but also refers to different levels of actors: “A systematic series of sustained and coherent activities, conducted across strategic, operational and tactical levels, which enables understanding of target audiences and, identifies effective conduits to promote and sustain particular types of behaviour.” 5 Farwell, when providing a definition of strategic communications, includes both tools and objectives: “use of words, actions, images, or symbols to influence the attitudes and opinions of target audiences to shape the behavior in order to advance interests or policies, or to achieve objectives. For the military...it includes creating conditions that define a desired end-state.” 6 These various definitions show how strategic communications are seen as broad and integrative. Communication is not carried out for its own sake, but rather to support the achievement of a strategic aim. The goal can sometimes be clear, such as for military operations, while it can be less obvious in a non-crisis situation. If there are no existential or other serious threats in sight, the managing of daily business could reduce the role of communication to only informing about events. The military concept for NATO strategic communications written in 2010 follows the same logic, adding NATO-specific terms:

[1] E.g. Former chairman of the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff, Admiral Michael G. Mullen, http://ndupress.ndu.edu/portals/68/Documents/jfq/jfq-55.pdf, retrieved 20.10.2015 [2] Chistopher Paul, p. 19, Strategic Communication: Origins, Concepts, and Current Debates, April 2011 Praeger; Anais Reding, Kristin Weed, Jeremy J. Ghez, NATO's Strategic Communica-

[4] Kirk Hallahan, Derina Holtzhausen, Betteke van Ruler, Dejan Vercic & Krishnamurthy Sriramesh; Defining Strategic Communication International Journal of Strategic Communication

tions concept and its relevance, RAND TR-855/2-MOD/FR 2010, retrieved 23.10.2015.

Volume 1, Issue 1, 2007.

[3] Chistopher Paul, p. 19, Strategic Communication: Origins, Concepts, and Current Debates, April 2011 Praeger. James P. Farwell; Persuasion and Power: The Art of Strategic Communication.

[5] Steve Tatham 2008 Strategic Communication: A Primer, Advanced Research and Assessment Group December 2008.

Washington, DC, Georgetown University Press, 2012.

[6] James P. Farwell; Persuasion and Power: The Art of Strategic Communication. Washington, DC, Georgetown University Press, 2012.

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Georgia’s European Way December 2015

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Analysis and Opinion | ანალიზი და მოსაზრება kaciis roli mimdinare movlenebis Sesaxeb informirebis doned aqcios. natos strategiuli komunikaciis samxedro koncefcia, romelic gawerilia 2010 wels, misdevs imave logikas da dasZens konkretul pirobebs: „natos strategiuli komunikaciis mizania, uzrunvelyos natos auditoria, rogorc mis wevr qveynebSi, ise regionis masStabiT, sadac natos operaciebi mimdinareobs, sando, zusti da drouli informaciiT, rac xels Seuwyobs maT, gaigon da Seafason aliansis qmedebebi da ganzraxvebi. es SeaCerebs agresias da xels Seuwyobs natos miznebsa da amocanebs“.7 2009 wels admiralma maik malenma (Michael G. Mullen) Joint Forces Quarterly-sTvis moamzada statia, romelmac Zlieri gavlena iqonia strategiul komunikaciaze. amerikis SeeerTebuli Statebis gaerTianebuli Stabis Tavmjdomarem maSin kritikulad Seafasa strategiuli komunikaciis marTvis gza. 2009 wels igi Semdegnairad gansazRvravda strategiul komunikacias: „...xelsayreli funqcia, romelic axdens Cveni gadawyvetilebebis marTvasa da informirebas da ara Tavad organizaciis. imis nacvlad, rom aviTvisoT yvela sakomunikacio aqtivoba, Cven unda gamoviyenoT isini da aRvweroT procesi, romlis saSualebiTac vaxdenT integrirebasa da koordinacias“.8 miuxedavad amisa, aRniSnulma gza gaukvala Sromis pragmatul ganawilebas. normatiuli samxedro ganmartebebi xazs usvams sxvadasxva funqcias, Tu rogor xorcieldeba sxvadasxva komunikacia strategiuli saboloo mdgomareobis xelSewyobis dros. magaliTad, „natos sakomunikacio saqmianobisa da SesaZleblobebis, rogorebicaa: saxalxo diplomatia, sazogadoebrivi urTierTobebi, samxedro sazogadoebrivi urTierTobebi, sainformacio operacia da fsiqologiuri operacia, koordinirebuli da Sesabamisi gamoyeneba aliansis politikis, operaciebisa da aqtivobebis mxardasaWerad da natos miznebis xelSesawyobad“.9 RAND kvleviTma jgufma daiwyo natos ganmartebiT, Tumca moaxdina misi perifrazireba: „strategiuli komunikacia warmoadgens process, romelic SemuSavebulia uwyebaTaSorisi komunikaciis (sityvebi da saqmeebi) koordinaciisa da misi strategiuli efeqtis ganmtkicebis mizniT. aRniSnulis misaRwevad, strategiuli komunikacia iyenebs yvela arsebul eqspertizas, rac moipoveba informaciisa da komunikaciis sxvadasxva departamentSi. strategiuli komunikaciis mizans warmoadgens samizne auditoriaSi iseTi qcevis xelSewyoba, romelic xelsayrelia qmedebis subieqtisTvis sakuTari miznebis misaRwevad da Sesabamisad, gansazRvravs saoperacio garemos“.10

Analysis and Opinion | ანალიზი და მოსაზრება “the aim of NATO Strategic Communications is to ensure that NATO's audiences, whether in the Nations or in a region where a NATO operation is taking place, either friendly or adversarial, receives truthful, accurate and timely information that will allow them to understand and assess the Alliance's actions and intentions. This will deter aggression and promote NATO's aims and objectives.” 7 Admiral Michael G. Mullen produced an article in Joint Forces Quarterly in 2009, which has had a strong impact on strategic communications. The then chairman of the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff was critical about the way its strategic communications was managed. In 2009 he saw strategic communication as “... an enabling function that guides and informs our decisions and not an organization unto itself. Rather than trying to capture all communication activity underneath it, we should use it to describe the process by which we integrate and coordinate.” 8 Nevertheless, the integrative mind set has given way to pragmatic division of labour. The normative military definitions stress different functions of communication which differ according to the situation such as while supporting a strategic end-state e.g. “The coordinated and appropriate use of NATO communications activities and capabilities – Public Diplomacy, Public Affairs (PA), Military Public Affairs, Information Operations (Info Ops) and Psychological Operations (PSYOPS), as appropriate – in support of Alliance policies, operations and activities, and in order to advance NATO’s aims.” 9 A RAND research team took the NATO definition but rephrased it as follows: “Strategic Communications is a process designed to coordinate communications (words and deeds) between inter-ministerial actors and to reinforce their strategic effect. To achieve this, Strategic Communications exploits all existing expertise, to be found in the various information and communication departments. The aim of Strategic Communications is to promote behavior in target audiences that is favourable to the actors’ objectives and, thereby, to shape the operational environment.” 10 The discussion above highlights that a corporate view should be taken to strategic communications. The above excerpts show how the definition of strategic communications has largely been driven by military thinking, which is far from ideal. There is a great need for professionalism, while avoiding organizational stove piping. Strategic communications are too important to be left only to communicators. Different parts of an organization should conduct their activities in a consistent, coherent

ნატოს სტრატეგიული კომუნიკაციის მიზანია, უზრუნველყოს ნატოს აუდიტორია, როგორც მის წევრ ქვეყნებში, ისე რეგიონის მასშტაბით, სადაც ნატოს ოპერაციები მიმდინარეობს, სანდო, ზუსტი და დროული ინფორმაციით, რაც ხელს შეუწყობს მათ, გაიგონ და შეაფასონ ალიანსის ქმედებები და განზრახვები. ეს შეაჩერებს აგრესიას და ხელს შეუწყობს ნატოს მიზნებსა და ამოცანებს. zemoaRniSnuli diskusia xazs usvams, rom korporaciuli xedva miRebul unda iqnas strategiul komunikaciaSi. amonaridebi mowmobs, strategiuli komunikaciis gansazRvreba ramdenad gamomdinareobs samxedro azrovnebidan. Tumca es aris arsebuli viTarebis aRweris sakiTxi da Sors aris idealurisgan. umniSvnelovanesia, strategiuli komunikacia darCes mxolod komunikatorebisTvis. organizaciis sxvadasxva funqcia unda ganxorcieldes Sesabamisi, Tanamimdevruli da koordinirebuli gziT. erovnul an aliansis doneze farTod aris aRiarebuli, rom strategiuli komunikacia srulad unda warmoadgendes mTavrobis valdebulebas.11

ndoba da damajerebloba gansxvavebuli standartebi admiral maik malenis (Michael G. Mullen) 2009 wlis statiis ZiriTadi Temaa ndoba da saimedooba, rac gamoixateboda, magaliTad, Semdeg winadadebaSi: „Cvens Setyobinebebs akliaT damajerebloba, vinaidan ar gangvixorcielebia sakmarisi investicia ndobisa da damajereblobis uzrunvelsayofad da yovelTvis ver vasrulebdiT dapirebebs“. sajaro mosamsaxure da samxedro pirebi angariSvaldebuli unda iyvnen TavianT qmedebebsa Tu umoqmedobaze. gamWvirvalobis principi damkvidrda Ria da Tavisufal sazogadoebaSi, amitomac igi ar unda daknindes. „Cven unda viyoT angariSvaldebuli qcevis umaRlesi standartis Sesabamisad da amovavsoT is sicariele, realuri Tu pirobiTi, romelic arsebobs Cvens dapirebasa da aRniSnuli dapirebis Sesasruleblad gansaxorcielebel qmedebas Soris“.12

the aim of NATO Strategic Communications is to ensure that NATO's audiences, whether in the Nations or in a region where a NATO operation is taking place, either friendly or adversarial, receives truthful, accurate and timely information that will allow them to understand and assess the Alliance's actions and intentions. This will deter aggression and promote NATO's aims and objectives.

and coordinated manner. At national or alliance level, it is widely acknowledged that strategic communications should be a whole government undertaking. 11

Trust and Credibility – Different Standards A major theme in Admiral Michael G. Mullen’s 2009 article was trust and credibility, which is expressed in the following quote: “Our messages lack credibility because we haven’t invested enough in building trust and relationships, and we haven’t always delivered on promises. The civil servants and military must be held accountable on what they do, and what they fail to do. As transparency is ingrained in open and free societies, it should not be compromised. “When they [e.g. adversaries] find a “say-do” gap – such as Abu Ghraib – they drive a truck right through it. So should we, quite frankly. We must be vigilant about holding ourselves accountable to higher standards of conduct and closing any gaps, real or perceived, between what we say about ourselves and what we do to back it up.” 12 If we take Mullen’s views here as proxy for principles of well-functioning Western governance, the West reaches for the moral high ground. By attempting coherent, transparent and accountable communication, the West cannot say one thing and do the opposite. It is obvious that this strategic view of communication principles does not come without tactical costs. The value-driven principles of strategic communications come under question if “say-do gaps” remain open. The urge for ac-

[7] Military Concept for NATO Strategic communications 2010 [8] http://ndupress.ndu.edu/portals/68/Documents/jfq/jfq-55.pdf, retrieved 20.10.2015

[11] Chistopher Paul, p. 19, Strategic Communication: Origins, Concepts, and Current Debates, April 2011 Praeger; Anais Reding, Kristin Weed, Jeremy J. Ghez, NATO's Strategic Communi-

[9] NATO Strategic Communication Policy PO (2009) 0141

cations concept and its relevance, RAND TR-855/2-MOD/FR 2010, retrieved 23.10.2015.

[10] Anais Reding, Kristin Weed, Jeremy J. Ghez, NATO’s Strategic Communications concept and its relevance, RAND TR-855/2-MOD/FR 2010, retrieved 23.10.2015.

[12] http://ndupress.ndu.edu/portals/68/Documents/jfq/jfq-55.pdf, retrieved 20.10.2015

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Analysis and Opinion | ანალიზი და მოსაზრება Tu ganvixilavT malenis xedvebs, rogorc rwmunebulebas kargad funqcionirebadi dasavluri mmarTvelobis principebisTvis, „dasavleTi“ aRwevs moraluri upiratesobis pozicias. cdilobs ra, awarmoos Tanamimdevruli, gamWvirvale da angariSvaldebuli komunikacia, „dasavleTs“ ar SeuZlia ganacxados erTi da akeTos aRniSnulis sapirispiro. cxadia, rom mocemuli faseuloba an komunikaciis principebis strategiuli xedva warmoudgenelia taqtikuri xarjebis gareSe. faseulobebze dafuZnebuli strategiuli komunikaciis warmarTvis principebi eWvqveS dgeba im SemTxvevaSi, Tu sityva da qmedeba ar Seesabameba erTmaneTs. magaliTad, rogorc demokratiis damcvelebi, ise Ria sazogadoebis mowinaaRmdegeebi, SesaZloa SeizRudon administrirebiT, Tu sazogadoebis yuradRebas gaamaxvileben trivialur sakiTxebze. pirveli jgufi xels uwyobs Ria da Tavisufali sazogadoebis gaumjobesebas, xolo ukanaskneli cdilobs Cveni upiratesoba gardaqmnas deficitad. rogorc admirali maleni acxadebs Tavis statiaSi, Secdomis an araswori qmedebis Sedegad „mowinaaRmdegeebs“ eqmnebaT kargi berketebi TavianT sasargeblod. ar aris aucilebeli yvela iziarebdes moraluri upiratesobis primats. 2014 wlis 4 marts, ruseTis prezidentma vladimer putinma Riad ganacxada, rom rusi jariskacebi ar yofilan ganlagebuli ukrainis samTavrobo da samxedro SenobebTan yirimSi13, magram ori kviris Semdeg putinma sapirispiro gancxadeba gaakeTa, rom rus jariskacebs yirimSi unda daecvaT „Tavisufali arCevnebi“14. satelefono Canawerisas putinma ganacxada, rom ruseTs ar ganuxorcielebia Zaladobrivad yirimis aneqsia. ruseTma Seqmna garemoebebi _ specialuri SeiaraRebuli dajgufebebisa da SeiaraRebuli Zalebis daxmarebiT, pirdapir getyviT _ mxolod im mizniT, rom yirimisa da sevastopolis mosaxleobas gamoexata Tavisufali neba“.15 Tumca es istoria kvlav Seicvala, rodesac putinma mogvianebiT ganmarta, Tu rogor miiRes gadawyvetileba yirimis STanTqmis Sesaxeb 2014 wlis 22-23 Tebervals16. es aris periodi yirimelebis mier „Tavisufali nebis gamoxatvamde“ sami kviriT adre. admiral malenis logikis mimdevrebisTvis prezident putinis logikuri qmedebebi moklebulia sandoobasa da damajereblobas da agreTve xazs usvams strategiuli komunikaciis ararsebobas. Tumca SesaZloa, ruseTi ar iyos analogiuri azrovnebis mimdevari. aRniSnuli sakiTxis Semdgomi Seswavlisas ar aris gamoricxuli Sexedulebis cvlileba. Tu vinme marcxdeba TamaSSi, mas SeuZlia Secvalos TamaSi an sul mcire _ TamaSis wesebi. aRniSnuli gamoiyeneba rogorc strategiuli komunikaciis SemTxvevaSi, ise

Analysis and Opinion | ანალიზი და მოსაზრება

რუსეთს სხვებთან შედარებით უფრო სიღრმისეულად ესმის, თუ რამდენად არის შესაძლებელი არასწორმა ინფორმაციამ გავლენა მოახდინოს სხვა ქვეყნებზე. Russia might have understood thoroughly better than others that it is possible to negatively influence other countries by disseminating wrong information.

countability develops democracies but at the same time helps adversaries. For example, both advocates of democracies and adversaries of open societies can suffocate administrations by focusing public attention on trivial items. The first group improves open and free societies, while the latter tries to turn an advantage into a disadvantage. As Admiral Mullen stated in his article, if mistakes or wrong-doings are committed, “the adversaries” will leverage them for their own good. The primacy of moral high ground is not necessarily shared by everyone. On 4 March 2014, Russian president Vladimir Putin explicitly stated that Russian soldiers were not surrounding Ukrainian government and military buildings in Crimea13, while only two weeks later Putin stated the opposite. Putin claimed that Russian soldiers were in Crimea to ensure a “free vote”14. According to the phone-in transcript, Putin stated: “Russia did not annex Crimea by force. Russia created conditions – with the help of special armed groups and the Armed Forces, I will say it straight – but only for the free expression of the will of the people living in Crimea and Sevastopol.”15 This story fell into even greater confusion when Putin later explained how the decision to absorb Crimea was taken already on 22-23 February 201416. This was three weeks before the “free expression of the will” of Crimeans. For followers of Admiral Mullen’s logic, president Putin’s logical

sxva sakiTxebTan dakavSirebiT. sagulisxmoa vietnameli samxedro generlisa da samxedro moazrovnis, vietnamis SeiaraRebuli Zalebis sardlis Vo Nguyen Giap-is rCeva. aRwerilia, rom vietnamis Zalebma, romelsac xelmZRvanelobda Vo Nguyen Giap, bevri brZolis wagebis miuxedavad, omi moigo. vietnamis omi eWvqveS ayenebs strategiisa da taqtikis mizezobriobas. „rodesac Tqveni mteri cvlis Tavis strategias an taqtikas, Tqvenc analogiurad unda moiqceT. yovel omSi strategia Sedgeba rigi taqtikuri qmedebebisgan, romelTac sayovelTao SefasebiT didi strategiuli mniSvneloba aqvs, Sesabamisad, unda ecadoT amgvarad mowinaaRmdegis ganadgurebas“...17. Giap xazs usvams, Tu rogor TamaSoben oponentebi sxvadasxva TamaSs. Tu general Vo Nguyen Giap-is rCeva samagaliTod iqneba mocemuli mowinaaRmdegis strategiul komunikaciaSi, ar aris gamoricxuli, aRniSnulma sainformacio omis saxe miiRos. mowinaaRmdegem SesaZloa ganicados garkveuli danakargi calkeul brZolebSi, magaliTad, rodesac gamovlindeba misi manipulacia. mowinaaRmdegisTvis damajereblobis, sandoobisa da gamWvirvalobis dakargva SesaZloa arc iyos problema, vinaidan miekuTvneba TamaSs, romelsac „dasavleTi“ TamaSobs. ruseTis amJamindeli politika ugulebelyofs grZelvadian Tavsebadobas, amitomac igi SesaZloa warumatebel perspeqtivad ganixilebodes. nacvlad amisa, mowinaaRmdegis mizani da misi strategiuli komunikacia TamaSis Secvlis mcdelobaa. Vo Nguyen Giap ixsenebs, Tu rogor cdilobda SeerTebuli Statebi Tavisi upiratesobis gamoyenebas, magram ver miiRo mosalodneli efeqti. „da maSin, rodesac amerikelebi Seecadnen gamoeyenebinaT TavianTi taqtika _ „moviZioT da gavanadguroT“, Cven konkretuli sapasuxo taqtika gamoviyeneT, rac gulisxmobda maT mier TavianTi miznis miuRwevlobas da maT ganadgurebas. Cven unda gveiZulebina mteri SegvbrZoleboda ise, rogorc Cven gvindoda rom maT ebrZolaT. Cven unda gveiZulebina mteri, SegvbrZoleboda maTTvis ucnob adgilas“.18

digitalizacia, informacia da ndoba Tu Vo Nguyen Giap-is logikas gavyvebiT, Cndeba ori SekiTxva: SeuZlia Tu ara „dasavleTs“ moigos misi amJamindeli upiratesobiT (mag.: ndoba, saimedooba, „qmedebebi, romlebic Seesabameba sityvebs“...) da ra aris „ucnobi teritoria“, an ra aris dRevandeli da xvalindeli TamaSis dasaxeleba? aRniSnul SekiTxvebze pasuxis gacema SesaZloa gamomdinareobdes amJamindeli megatendenciiT. digitalizacia, globalizacia, teqnologiuri da informaciuli cvlileba urTierTgadajaWvulia. xalxi ganviTarebul msoflioSi moixmars da awarmoebs informacias im tempebiT, rac gaugebari iqneboda ramdenime aTeuli wlis

turns would result in a loss of credibility and trust, and underline failed strategic communications. If one is losing a game, he might try to change the game, or at least the rules. This applies to strategic communications as well. Here, one can learn from a distinguished Vietnamese military general and military thinker, Viet Minh Commander Vo Nguyen Giap. It has been recorded that the Viet Minh forces, led by Giap, won the war despite losing many battles. The Vietnam War brought questions about the causation of strategy and tactics. “When your enemy changes his strategy or tactics, you have to do the same. In every war, a strategy is always made up of a number of tactics that are considered to be of great strategic importance, so you have to try to smash those tactics”17. Giap highlights how opponents play different games. If the advice of Giap was to be given to an exemplary adversary’s strategic communicator, this communicator might see the information warfare as a war of attrition. The adversary might consider his side’s several losses in individual fights e.g. revealed manipulations as indifferent. For the adversary, the loss of credibility, trust and transparency might not be an issue, as they belong to the game being played by the West. Russia’s current policies of avoiding long-term coherence could potentially be understood from this underdog perspective. Instead, the objective of the adversary and its strategic communications is to attempt to change the game. Giap remembered how the U.S. utilized their superiority but without expected effects: “And, when the Americans tried to apply their ‘seek and destroy’ tactic, we responded with our own particular tactic that was to make their objective unattainable and destroy them instead. We had to...force the enemy to fight the way we wanted them to fight. We had to force the enemy to fight on unfamiliar territory.“18

Digitalization, Information and Trust Two questions emerge if we follow Giap’s logic described in the previous chapter. Can the West win with its current superiority in terms of trust, credibility and “deeds matching words” and what is the unfamiliar territory, or name of the game of today and tomorrow? Digitalization, globalization, technological and informational change are all intertwined. People in the industrialized world are consuming and producing information at a pace that would have been incomprehensible only a few decades ago. The amount of data grows exponentially, while our own personal capacities stay relatively the same. The never-ending flow of informational snip-

[13] Putin: Russia force only ’last resort’ in Ukraine, 4.4.2014, http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-26433309, retrieved 23.10.2015. [14] Ukraine crisis: as it happened, 17.4.2014, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/ukraine/10768250/Ukraine-crisis-as-it-happened.html, retrieved 23.10.2015. [15] Direct Line with Vladimir Putin, 17.4.2014, http://en.kremlin.ru/events/president/news/20796, retrieved 23.10.2015.

[17] http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/peoplescentury/episodes/guerrillawars/giaptranscript.html, retrieved 20.10.2015

[16] Putin reveals secrets of Russia's Crimea takeover plot, 9.3.2015, http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-31796226, retrieved 23.10.2015.

[18] http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/peoplescentury/episodes/guerrillawars/giaptranscript.html, retrieved 20.10.2015

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Analysis and Opinion | ანალიზი და მოსაზრება win. monacemTa moculoba eqsponencialurad izrdeba maSin, rodesac Cveni pirovnuli SesaZleblobebi SedarebiT igive rCeba. informaciuli fragmentebis dausrulebeli nakadi Cvens garemos TiTqos danawevrebulsa da rTuls xdis. magaliTad, TurqeTis sanapiroze gamoriyuli gardacvlili bavSvis suraTs, erTi mxriv, iyenebda DAESH Dabiq Jurnali da, meore mxriv, „Save the Children“.19 Zalian rTulia Caswvde azrs, gansakuTrebiT pozitiur azrs sxvadasxva sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT, rodesac irgvliv monacemTa aseTi qaosia. sandooba amJamad ufro martivad dasakargia, vidre adre, vinaidan xelmisawvdomia rogorc marTali, ise mcdari informacia. rogorc gadawyvetilebis mimRebebs, ise eleqtorats aqvT sirTuleebi, mihyvnen mniSvnelovan informacias da gansazRvron, ra aris trivialuri informacia an manipulacia. miyenebuli zianis anazRaureba, romelic gamowveulia cru informaciis Sedegad, yovelTvis ver xerxdeba. gavixsenoT ori yalbi werili, romlebic TiTqosda SvedeTis sxvadasxva saministrodan moiazrebda mWidro kavSirebs SvedeTsa da ukrainas Soris. werilebma gamoiwvia eWvi da SvedeTis mTavrobam aRniSnuli swrafad uaryo, rac SesaZloa yofiliyo Tavdapirveli daZabulobis mizezi.20 „ucnobi teritoria“ aseve mWidro kavSirSia sainformacio epoqasTan. dasavlur sazogadoebebSi ndobis faqtori arsebiTia. Tavisufali da samarTliani arCevnebi imis magaliTebia, Tu rogor fasdeba ndoba. arCevnebi aris Sejibreba imaT Soris, visac miniWebuli aqvs ndoba mmarTvelobisTvis. Tavisufali media TamaSobs Tavis rols mosazrebebis formirebisas da gancxadebis keTebisas. arCevnebis gziT mTavrobis Secvlam SesaZloa gamoiwvios undobloba romelime partiaSi, magram igi warmoaCens ndobas sistemis mimarT. aseT dros politikuri meqanizmebi muSaobs gegmis mixedviT. magram ra xdeba im SemTxvevaSi, Tu undobloba sistemis mimarT ar aris namdvili, aramed Canergilia garedan RonisZiebebis manipulaciis Sedegad, an arsebuli problemebi socialuri mediis Taviseburebebis gamoyenebiT gazviadebulia mosaxleobaSi an erSi ganxeTqilebis warmosaqmnelad. dRevandel realobaSi socialuri mediis meSveobiT sazogadoebaSi undoblobis Canergva SesaZloa warmoadgendes „ucnob teritorias“. ruseTs sxvebTan SedarebiT ufro siRrmiseulad esmis, Tu ramdenad aris SesaZlebeli arasworma informaciam gavlena moaxdinos sxva qveynebze. isini aRniSnuls miiCneven safrTxed, romelic SesaZloa dadasturdes maTi sainformacio usafrTxoebis axali doqtrinis Tanaxmad.21 winamdebare doqtrinaSi isini, magaliTad, cdiloben SezRudon ucxouri gavlena TavianT sainformacio garemoze. imavdroulad, rusuli satelevizio da sainformacio arxebi dasavlur enebze, socialuri mediis aqtorebTan erTad, SesaZlebels xdis gamoiwvios dabneuloba da burusiT moicvas simarTle.22 dasavleTis qveynebma ar unda gamoiyenon ruseTis magaliTi aRniSnuli problemis mosagvareblad, ramdenadac es SeiZleba iyos dasavluri faseulobebis makomprometirebeli da moraluri upiratesobis argumenti. Tu ruseTis midgoma Tavisuflebis SezRudvaa, dasavleTSi efeqturi,

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Analysis and Opinion | ანალიზი და მოსაზრება pets makes our environment appear fragmented and complicated. For example, the picture of the drowned Kurdish boy on the Turkish shore has been used in different way by the DAESH Dabiq magazine on one hand and by Save the Children on the other19. If data is manipulated this can create chaos wherein making sense of the reality become very difficult. Credibility is easier to lose today, as there is more information available, not all of it accurate. Both the decision-makers and the electorate face greater difficulty in ascertaining what is important and what is either trivial or manipulated. Damages caused by flawed information cannot always be healed. Two fake letters allegedly from different Swedish ministries implied close contact between Sweden and Ukraine. The letters caused suspicion and the Swedish government refuted quickly, which may have been a cause for the original spin.20 Unfamiliar territory also emerges in the information age and in Western societies, the concept of trust is essential. Free and fair elections are examples of how trust is evaluated. Free media plays its part in creating and forming opinions. Changing governments by elections might reveal some mistrust toward one party, while showing trust to another. In this case, the political mechanisms are working as planned. However, mistrust toward the system is sometimes not substantiated, but planted from the outside via manipulation of events, or magnifying existing problems to create divisions among the population or nations utilizing features of social media. Planting mistrust in societies through social media might be the unknown territory of today. Russia might have understood thoroughly better than others that it is possible to negatively influence other countries by disseminating wrong information. They see this as a threat, which can be evidenced in their new Information Security Doctrine21. The doctrines attempts to limit foreign influence in Russia’s information environment. At the same time, Russian TV and news channels in Western languages have, together with actors in social media, enabled Russia to spread confusion and obscure the truth22. Western countries should not follow the Russian example in tackling this problem, as this would compromise Western values. While the Russian approach is to limit freedom, in the West a vi-

[19] http://www.memrijttm.org/issue-11-of-isiss-english-language-magazine-dabiq-a-general-review.html, http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/sep/02/shocking-image-ofdrowned-syrian-boy-shows-tragic-plight-of-refugees, retrieved 23.10.2015 [20] Fake Swedish letter in Russian media http://www.svd.se/fake-swedish-letter-in-russian-media. Who wrote the fake letter about Sweden? http://sverigesradio.se/sida/artikel. aspx?programid=2054&artikel=6255194. Retrieved 23.10.2015

Tavisufali da kritikuli media gadawyvetilebis erT-erTi Semadgeneli komponentia. strategiuli komunikacia srulad warmoadgens samTavrobo sakiTxs, magram muSaobs damoukideblad Tavisufali mediis WrilSi.

strategiuli komunikaciis mosalodneli Sedegebi - iniciativa da momavalze orientirebuli diskursi Tavisufali da demokratiuli sazogadoebebi Zalian popularulia msoflioSi. aRniSnuli faqti gamyarebulia farTo mtkicebulebiT, magaliTad, Tu globaluri popularoba izomeba saemigracio nakadebiTa da sicocxlis xangrZlivobiT, dasavluri sazogadoeba miiCneva sasurvel sacxovrebel adgilad.23 sxvadasxva uaryofiTi Temis angariSgebisas, xSirad vdgebiT iseTi didi gamowvevis winaSe, rogoricaa pozitiuri mtkicebulebis Zlieri mimdinareoba. informaciuli xmauri abnevs gonebas. msgavsi problema Cndeba, rodesac metoqe tvirTavs sainformacio garemos. TiToeul manipulaciur Setyobinebaze an sicrueze pasuxis gacema moiTxovs resursis xarjvas. rTulia diskusiis warmarTva, rodesac erT-erTi mxare calkeul incidentebs misdevs. aRniSnuli qmnis socialuri donis konteqstebis an diskursis gaerTianebis saWiroebas. ZiriTadi, ufro Zlieri istoria iRebs iniciativas da alagebs monacemTa fragmentebs gasagebi rigiTobiT. Tumca aRniSnuli ar gulisxmobs, rom organizaciebma ar unda scadon, magaliTad, yvela sicruis gamosworeba. Tumca, Tu resursi SezRudulia arsebuli situaciis gaTvaliswinebiT, prioriteti unda mieniWos istoriis formirebas da mis sworad miwodebas. narativebi aris istoriebi, romlebsac SeuZlia efeqturad daakavSiros informaciis calkeuli nawilebi. narativebi Cven TavTan dakavSirebiT SesaZloa ganisazRvros rogorc identobis, upiratesobisa da ganzraxvis Sesaxeb ganacxadi, romlis irgvlivac SesaZloa xalxi gaerTiandes.24 narativebi gvexmareba Setyobinebebis Seqmnasa da sakomunikacio prioritetebis organizebaSi. socialur doneze, narativebis saSualebiT SesaZloa moxdes informireba, Tu ra mimarTulebiT midis sazogadoeba. mTavrobis sayovelTao midgoma uzrunvelyofs, yvela msxvili dainteresebuli mxaris gaTvaliswinebas. inkluziuri sazogadoebis narativebi mWidrod unda ukavSirdebodes sazogadoebis faseulobebs da, imavdroulad, unda gauZlos dros da politikur ryevebs. dadebiTi da sando diskursi uzrunvelyofs mosaxleobis mdgradobas sabrZolo moqmedebebis winaaRmdeg. aRniSnuli sandoobis SenarCuneba moiTxovs sityvisa da saqmis Sesabamisobas. winamdebare principi xazs usvams organizaciaSi TiToeuli piris sakomunikacio rols, umaRlesi donidan, yvela eSelonis gaTvaliswinebiT, TiToeuli mamakacisa da qalis CaTvliT.

[22] Giles, Keir 2015 Working Paper: Russia‘s Hybrid Warfare: a Success in Propaganda, Arbeitspapier Sicherheitspolitik, Nr. 1/2015, retrieved 23.10.2015. Rácz, András Russia’s

Implications for Strategic Communicators - Initiative and Forward-looking Narratives Free and democratic societies are very popular in the world. Indeed if global popularity is measured by immigration flows and life-expectancy, Western societies are favoured destinations23. Reporting on different negative topics often challenges the big picture i.e. strong current of positive evidence. The informational noise is distracting the mind. A similar problem occurs if an adversary is flooding the information environment. Replying to each manipulative message or lie consumes a vast amount of time and resources. It is difficult to lead a discussion if one is always running after separate incidents. This creates a need for unifying societal level contexts, or narratives. A stronger story takes the initiative, and puts data and information in comprehensible order. This is not to say that organizations should not try to correct lies. But if resources are limited, the priority should be to create a deliver one’s own story. Narratives are stories that can effectively link separate pieces of information. Narratives about ourselves can be defined as statements of identity, cause and intent around which people can unite24. They also help to create messages and organize communication priorities. At societal level, narratives can inform everyone where the society is going. A whole government approach ensures that all major stakeholders are included. Inclusive societal narratives should be strongly rooted in values of society, and therefore able to withstand time and political fluctuations. Positive and credible narratives build a population’s resilience against hostilities. Maintaining that credibility requires that the deeds match the words. This principle emphasizes the communicative role of every person in the organization, from the top to the bottom.

Disclaimer: The views in this article are these of the author and do not necessarily represent the views of the NATO Strategic Communications Centre of Excellence, NATO, Latvian Ministry of Defense or Government of Finland.

[23] This does not apply to every country or every year, and there are differences among cou-

[21] http://112.international/russia/russia-developed-the-new-doctrine-of-information-security-1099.html, retrieved 20.10.2015

able free and critical media is seen as part of a solution. Strategic communications is a whole-government issue, but operates at arm’s length from independent media.

SeniSvna: winamdebare statiaSi gamoTqmuli mosazrebebi avtoris Sexedulebebia da SesaZloa zustad ar warmoaCendes natos stra-

ntries due to e.g. economic situation. http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index. php/Migration_and_migrant_population_statistics,

https://www.cia.gov/library/publica-

tions/the-world-factbook/, retrieved 20.10.2015

Hybrid War in Ukraine – Breaking the Enemy’s Ability to Resist, FIIA report 43, 2015,

tegiuli komunikaciis srulyofis centris, natos, latviis Tav-

[24] Paul Cornish 2009 The United States and counterinsurgency: ‘political first, political last,

retrieved 23.10.2015.

dacvis saministrosa da fineTis mTavrobis xedvebs.

political always’ p. 42 International Affairs 85: 1, 2009 09 Blackwell Publishing

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Education and Culture | განათლება და კულტურა

Education and Culture | განათლება და კულტურა

გაიცანით ქუჩის ხელოვნების ქართველი გურუ - Dr. Love ნინი ზალკანიანი

Meet Georgian Street Art Guru, Dr.Love Nini Zalkaniani

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bilisi _ qalaqi, romelic cnobilia mokirwyluli quCebiT, patara saxlebiT, xis aivnebiTa da megobruli samezobloebiT, sxvadasxva ubanSi quCis xelovnebis axali formis demonstrirebas axdens. ukanaskneli ramdenime wlis ganmavlobaSi, qalaqis mxatvrebi arsebuli problemebis Sesaxeb TavianT ideebs xelovnebis amgvari formiT gamoxatavdnen. qarTveli inkognito quCis mxatvari Dr. Love ki yovelive amiT miznad isaxavs Tanaqalaqelebs Tavisi dadebiTi energia gauziaros. es yovelive TariRdeba 2010 wliT, roca man pirvelad daiwyo maisurebze xatva trafaretis teqnikiT. ramdenime eqsperimentis Semdeg, Tbilisis quCebSi gamoCnda inkognito mxatvari, romelic xatavda qarTveli eqscentrikuli musikosisa da poetis, irakli Carkvianis, portrets, misi 50 wlis iubileze. igi quCis mxatvrobis Tanamedrove tendenciebze informacias onlain moipovebda, Tumca mis Semoqmedebaze didi gavlena moaxdina qarTvelma quCis mxatvarma mirom da misma trafaretebma. 2013 wels Dr. Love TanamSromlobda frang, germanel da ruminel xelovanebTan germaniaSi, sadac man Tavisi xelwera datova. misi Semdgomi daniSnulebis adgili iyo briuseli, praRa da bristoli. „samwuxarod, aRniSnul namuSevrebs ar aqvs grZeli gza gasavleli. aseTi namuSevrebis sicocxle xanmoklea. ase mxolod saqarTveloSi ar xdeba, vinaidan quCis xelovnebis umetesoba evropul qveynebSic aseTsave beds iziarebs. Cemi zogierTi namuSevari fasads miRmaa darCenili“, _ acxadebs Dr. Love CvenTan saubrisas. miuxedavad am naklisa, igi agrZelebs Tbilisisa da baTumis auTvisebeli adgilebis dapyrobas _ qalaqi, romelic eziareba modernizms. gasul zafxuls, oTxi rTuli samuSao dRis Semdeg, man ganaTavsa Tavisi saxe-

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bilisi, the city known for cobbled streets, small houses, wooden balconies, and friendly neighborhoods, is now showcasing a new form of street art in many of its districts. In recent years, urban artists have dedicated more of their work to expressing their ideas about existing problems. In the case of a Georgian street artist who masks his identity behind the name Dr.Love, it is all about spreading positive energy among citizens. It all goes back to 2010, when he first started drawing on t-shirts using a stencil technique. After a few experiments, the mysterious artist was out on the streets of Tbilisi, drawing a portrait of the late eccentric Georgian musician and poet, Irakli Charkviani on what would have been his 50th birthday. Although much inspiration was found online, Dr.Love as also strongly influenced by the stencil works of fellow Georgian street artist Miro. In 2013, Dr.Love cooperated with French, German and Romanian artists in Lahr, Germany where he left his mark before also illustrating the streets of Brussels, Prague and Bristol.

დეკემბერი 2015 საქართველოს ევროპული გზა

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Education and Culture | განათლება და კულტურა li qveyanaSi freskuli xelovnebis udides adgilze. Dr. Love-is sazRvao „selfi“ axla ganTavsebulia zRvispira qalaq baTumSi da xSirad ipyrobs sxvadasxva qveynis turistTa yuradRebas. gasul zafxulSi, qarTveli mxatvari, 250-ze met saerTaSoriso xelovanTan erTad, monawileobda samdRian Upfest festivalSi, romelic bristolSi gaimarTa. 2015 wels bristols mieniWa evropis mwvane dedaqalaqis tituli da am faqtma gadamwyveti roli iTamaSa Dr. Love-is Sedevrze. misi cnobili ilustracia _ saavadmyofos pacienti, romelic iRebs Jangbads xisgan _ ganTavsebulia sxvadasxva onlaingverdze da aRfrTovanebas iwvevs msoflio masStabiT. inovaciurma mxatvarma gadawyvita gascdes Tavis Cveul samuSao garemos da meti sinaze Sematos Tavis namuSevrebs. yovelwliurad, rodesac festivali iwyeba, qalaqi gadaWedilia aTi aTasze meti turistiT, romlebic fokusirebas axdenen mxatvarTa namuSevrebze. Dr. Love gansakuTrebiT aRniSnavs bristolSi miRebuli gamocdilebis mniSvnelobas da dasZens, „faqti, rom Cemma namuSevrebma moipova aseTi pativiscema, gasakviri iyo CemTvis“. samomavlod, qarTveli qalaqeli mxatvari gegmavs mravali seriozuli proeqtis ganxorcielebas. imedia, Tu yvelaferi kargad iqneba, Tbilisi umaspinZlebs msoflios xelovanebs quCis xelovnebis pirvel festivalze da sazeimod aRniSnavs grafitis pirveli maRaziis gaxsnas. axla saqarTveloSi gaCnda quCis xelovnebis ganviTarebis perspeqtiva, amitomac namdvili faseulobebis mniSvneloba gadamwyvetia, da es SeiZleba ganxorcieldes axalgazrda Taobis xelSewyobiT.

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Education and Culture | განათლება და კულტურა

“Unfortunately these paintings do not last long. This does not happen only in Georgia, most of the street art in numerous European countries face the same fate. Some of my art now lies beneath the façade,” said Dr.Love in an interview with us. Regardless of this unfortunate inevitability, he continues to conquer the unexplored parts of Tbilisi and Batumi, a city that embraces modernism. This past summer, after four long days of hard work, he put his name on the largest piece of mural art in the country. Dr.Love’s Sea Selfie now resides in the coastal town of Batumi and is often captured by the cameras of tourists from different countries. The Georgian painter also participated with more than 250 international artists in the three-day Upfest Festival in Bristol, UK. In 2015, Bristol was awarded with the title of European Green Capital, which played a vital role in Dr.Love’s masterpiece. His now famous illustration of a hospital patient receiving oxygen from a tree went viral on social media and was applauded worldwide. The innovative artist decided to go beyond his usual work and added moss to his work, providing a little touch of softness. Each year, as the festival kicks in, the city is crowded with more than 10,000 tourists swarming to see the artists and their work. Dr.Love stressed the importance of the experience he gained in Bristol. He admitted: “The fact that my art work gained so much praise was surprising to me.” Looking to the future, the Georgian urban artist plans to implement a number of serious projects. All being well, Tbilisi will welcome artists from all over the world at the first street art festival in the city and celebrate its first ever graffiti shop. Now that the opportunity to develop street art in Georgia exists, the significance of conveying the right values is vital, which can be implemented with the help of the younger generation.

დეკემბერი 2015 საქართველოს ევროპული გზა

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Education and Culture | განათლება და კულტურა

Education and Culture | განათლება და კულტურა

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ევროპის გულში „ქალის ხმით“ ამეტყველებული ქართული სცენოგრაფია ნინო გუნია-კუზნეცოვა PQ15 ქართული ნაციონალური პავილიონის კურატორი, ვალერიან გუნიას სახელობის თეატრალურ ხელოვანთა ახალგაზრდული კავშირის (YTA union ) ‒ OISTAT საქართველოს ნაციონალური ცენტრის აღმასრულებელი დირექტორი

Georgian Scenography Delivered by “The Voice of a Woman” to the Heart of Europe Nino Gunia-Kuznetsova PQ15 Georgian National Pavilion Curator, Executive Director of Valerian Gunia Union of Young Theatre Artists (YTA Union) - OISTAT Georgian National Center

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eoce saukunis ganmavlobaSi qarTuli scenografiuli azrovneba da mxatvruli ena evropul scenografiaSi arsebul meinstrimTan dakavSirebiT aqtualuri da Tanadrouli iyo. amis dasturia qarTveli xelovanebis didi warmatebebi: petre ocxelis saerTaSoriso aRiareba (didi oqros medali 1939 wels londonSi organizebul scenografiis gamofenaze); qarTveli modernistebis _ irakli gamrekelisa da daviT kakabaZis Semoqmedebis saerTaSoriso Sefaseba; sabWoTa epoqis qarTveli scenografebis _ soliko virsalaZis, iozef sumbaTaSvilis, Semdgom, 60-ianelTa pleadis („sameuli“, mamia malazonia, gogi gunia, iura gegeSiZe, gogi aleqsi-mesxiSvili, muraz murvaniZe) warmatebuli moRvaweoba sabWoTa da saerTaSoriso scenebze; Teimuraz ninuas gamarjveba udides scenografiul forumze _ praRis kvadrienaleze 1979 wels (PQ79-is oqros medali saukeTeso kostiumebisTvis). dRes, ocdameerTe saukuneSi, Tavisufali da evrointegraciis gzaze mdgomi saqarTvelosTvis gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania evropul kulturul sivrcesTan organuli integrirebisTvis gadadgmuli TiToeuli nabiji; da qarTuli scenografiuli skola cdilobs saerTaSoriso asparezze kontaqtebis gagrZelebasa da gaZlierebas, sakuTari tradiciebis ganviTarebas. am mxriv mniSvnelovani iyo 2015 weli _ kulturisa da ZeglTa dacvis saministros mxardaWeriT ivnisSi, CexeTis respublikis dedaqalaqSi ganxorcielda qarTuli scenografiis uprecedentod farTo „kulturuli intervencia“ praRis kvadrienales sxvadaxva seqciaSi. performansis dizainisa da sivrcis praRis kvadrienaleze, romelic scenografiis, Teatraluri arqiteqturisa da teqnologiebis udidesi forumia msoflioSi, saqarTvelo, rogorc damoukidebeli qveyana, mxolod 2007 wlidan monawileobs. am xnis ganmavlobaSi qveynebisa da regionebis (nacionalur) seqciaSi 2015 wels mxolod meored iyo warmodgenili. wels PQ15-is nacionalur seqciaSi monawileobas iRebda valerian gunias saxelobis Teatralur xelovanTa axalgazrduli kavSiris proeqti „qalis xma“ (kuratori _ nino gunia-kuznecova, koncefciis avtori _ Tamar bokuCava), studentur seqciaSi _ Tbilisis saxelmwifo samxatvro akademiis studentTa jgufi namuSevriT „molodinSi“ (kuratori _ qeTevan SavguliZe), xolo OISTAT-is dRisadmi miZRvnili quCis performansebis programaSi _ nino maRlakeliZis „Tojinebis xalxi _ ocneba“ (qarTul-amerikuli proeqti). dRes qarTul scenografiaSi genderuli balansi aSkarad qalTa mxares gadaixara, ramac am sferos axali Tvisebrioba SesZina. qarTuli nacionaluri pavilionis kuratorisa da SemoqmedebiTi jgufis mizani iyo PQ15-ze qarTuli

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hroughout the twentieth century, Georgian scenographic thinking and artistic language was developing in the mainstream of European scenography. This claim is supported by the international recognition afforded to the great Georgian artist Petre Otskheli (who won the Big Gold Medal in the set design exhibition organized in London in 1939), and the international appraisal of Georgian modernists Irakli Gamrekeli and David Kakabadze. In addition, the successful performances of the Soviet-era Georgian theater designers Soliko Virsaladze, Joseph Sumbatashvili, then, the constellation of the 60-ies (“The Trio”, Mamia Malazonia, Gogi Gunia, Yura Gegeshidze, Gogi Alexi-Meskhishvili, Muraz Murvanidze) on the Soviet and the international stage, as well as the victory of Teimuraz Ninua on the greatest scenography forum in Prague in 1979 (the Gold Medal for the best costumes in PQ79) evidence a strong Georgian tradition. Today, in the twenty-first century, as independent Georgia navigates its path to European integration, each step into the European cultural space is of special importance. Consequently, the Georgian set designer school endeavors to maintain and strengthen its international contacts as well as to develop its own rich traditions. In this regard, the year 2015 turned out to be important, because in June, under the aegis of the Ministry of Culture and Monument Protection of Georgia, an incredibly extensive cultural invasion of Georgian scenography took place in various sections of the Prague Quadrennial in the capital of the Czech Republic. Georgia, as an independent country, participated for the first time in 2007 in the Prague Quadrennial of Performance Design and Space, which is the world’s largest forum of scenography and theatrical architecture and technology. Only this year did it make a second appearance, presented in the national section of regions and countries. This year, the Georgian participation in the PQ15 National Section involved the project of the Valerian Gunia Union of Young Theater Artists’ entitled “The Voice of a Woman” (Curator – Nino Gunia-Kuznetsova, author of concept – Tamar Bokuchava). In the student section, a group of students of the Tbilisi State Academy of Fine Arts showcased their work “Waiting for” (curator – Ketevan Shavgulidze), and in the street performance program

დეკემბერი 2015 საქართველოს ევროპული გზა

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Education and Culture | განათლება და კულტურა

Teatraluri xelovnebis panoramis qalTa scenografiis prizmaSi Cveneba. Sesabamisad, praRaSi saqarTvelo wardga dedaqalaqisa da regionaluri Teatrebis sxvadasxva speqtaklis videoklipebis „mozaikuri panoTi“, romelic 12 scenografi qalis mravalxmianobas warmoaCenda. gamofenaSi monawileobdnen sxvadasxva asakisa da mimarTulebis mxatvrebi: nino CitaiSvili, nino CubinaSvili, ana kalatoziSvili, nino surgulaZe, anano mosiZe, nuca xidaSeli, ekaterine soloRaSvili, manana gunia, ana ninua, nino kitia, Teo kuxianiZe, Tamar oxikiani. Tema „qalis xma“ kulturuli da politikuri mniSvnelobis mqonea. is organulad ukavSirdeba saqarTvelos dRevandelobas. Teatri politikisa da xelovnebis ara marto mxatvrul-metaforuli, aramed realuri urTierTqmedebis, zogjer urTierTSejaxebis asparezia. saqarTvelos rTuli geopolitikuri garemo da turbulenturi socialuri atmosfero Teatralur xelovnebas mgrZnobelobisa da refleqsiis gansakuTrebul unars sZens. es qarTul TeatrSi gadafasebebisa da Ziebebis rTul procesSi vlindeba. axali Taobis xelovanTa nawilma sazogadoebriv-kritikuli pozicia daikava; axali identobis ZiebaSi maTTvis

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devoted to OISTAT Day, Nino Maghlakelidze’s performance “The Puppet People – a Dream” (Georgian-American project) was exhibited. Today, the gender balance in Georgian scenography is apparently shifting toward women which offer new properties in this sphere. The goal of the curator and the creative team of the Georgian National Pavilion was to demonstrate at PQ15 the diversity of Georgian theater through the prism of women’s scenography. Georgia was represented in Prague by a “Mosaic Panel” of video clips of the different performances of theaters of the capital city Tbilisi and regional theaters, which, overall, demonstrated the work of 12 women-scenographers. The following artists of different ages and styles took part in the exhibition: Nino Chitaishvili, Nino Chubinashvili, Anna Kalatozishvili, Nino Surguladze, Anano Mosidze, Nutsa Khidasheli, Ekaterine Sologhashvili, Manana Gunia, Ana Ninua, Nino Kitia, Theo Khukhianidze and Tamar Okhikyan. The theme of “The Voice of a Woman” is of cultural and political importance for Georgia today. The theater is a field for not only artistic-metaphorical interplay of politics and the arts, but also their real interaction, and sometimes even collision. The complex geopolitical environment and turbulent social atmosphere has given a particular sensitivity and ability to reflect to theatrical art. This

Education and Culture | განათლება და კულტურა

mniSvnelovani gaxda genderuli refleqsiebi. am mxriv, PQ15-ze qarTuli scenografia dasavluri sazogadoebisTvis nacnob da dRemde aqtualur Temebze aqcentirebiT cdilobda sakuTari Tavis warmoCenas. „qalis xma“ _ am Temis inspiraciis wyaro gaxda reJisor robert sturuas mier SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo akademiur TeatrSi qarTveli klasikosi dramaturgis, polikarpe kakabaZis, simbolisturi piesis mixedviT dadgmuli speqtakli „asulni“. nacionaluri pavilionis sakuratoro jgufisTvis mniSvnelovani iyo meoce saukunis dasawyisis literaturul nawarmoebSi aqcentirebuli mudmivi molodinis, imedis, frustraciis, Caketili sivrcis sindromis Temebis warmoCena da dRevandelobis konteqstSi aqtualizacia, saerTaSoriso scenaze gamotana. eqspoziciis konceptualur nawils warmoadgenda videonamuSevari „qalis xma“ (videoxelovani _ TaTia sxirtlaZe, xmovani gaformeba mariana Carkvianis), romelic sxvadasxva esTetikis saxe-xatebaTa safuZvelze da Tanamedrove mediaxerxebiT eqspoziciis ideis erTian personaJul gamoxatulebas qmnida. qarTuli nacionaluri pavilionisTvis specialurad SeirCa sivrce praRis gulSi, me-17 saukunis barokos stilis palacoSi. SedarebiT mcire zomis oTaxs img-

finds expression in the complex process of soul searching and challenges facing Georgian theater. Some members of a new generation of artists have held a social-critical position, and gender reflections have become important for them in the search for a new identity. In this regard, at PQ15 Georgian scenography tried to demonstrate its own identity through focusing on topics familiar and relevant for Western society. The source of inspiration for “The Voice of a Woman” was the performance of “The Daughters” staged by director Robert Sturua at Shota Rustaveli State Theatre based on the symbolic play of the classic Georgian playwright Polikarpe Kakabadze. For the curatorial team of the National Pavilion it was important to highlight the themes of constant expectation, hope, frustration, and locked space syndrome prevalent in the fiction of the beginning of the twentieth century, to present them in a contemporary context and to bring them to the international scene. A conceptual part of the exhibition was represented by the video art piece “The Voice of a Woman” (video artist – Tatia Skhirtladze, sound design – Mariana Charkviani), which created the general characteristic expression of the exposition concept by modern media methods on the basis of images of different aesthetics.

დეკემბერი 2015 საქართველოს ევროპული გზა

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Education and Culture | განათლება და კულტურა

vari ganlageba hqonda, rom nebismieri eqspoziciis sanaxavad mayurebels qarTuli pavilionis gavla-daTvaliereba uwevda. eqspoziciaze warmodgenili iyo 12 speqtaklis klipi, kostiumebi, agreTve _ robert sturuas speqtaklidan Tojina „tyupi“ _ konceptualuri artefaqti, romelic damTvaliereblebs SesasvlelTan egebeboda. pavilionis informaciulobam da namuSevarTa naratiulobam didi interesi gamoiwvia rogorc PQ15-is monawile profesiul sazogadoebaSi, aseve rigiT damTvaliereblebSi. amdenad, 2015 wels praRis kvadrienaleze, Tanamedrove vizualuri da Teatraluri xelovnebebis am umniSvnelovanes saerTaSoriso forumze, saqarTvelos monawileoba mniSvnelovani nabiji iyo qarTuli xelovnebis profesionaluri pozicionirebisa da zogadad, qarTuli kulturis popularizaciisTvis. qarTuli delegaciisTvis, iseve rogorc yvela monawilisTvis, saamayo da sasixaruloa, rom 2015 wlis seqtemberSi Tavad PQ iyo premirebuli EFFE-is mier, rogorc erT-erTi mniSvnelovani kulturuli movlena evropul festivalebs Soris. amrgigad, evropis gulSi qarTulma eqspoziciam Ziebebisa da axlad dabadebis survilis „xma“ aaJRera.

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Education and Culture | განათლება და კულტურა

The space for the Georgian National Pavilion was specially selected in the heart of Prague, at the 17th century baroque palazzo. The comparatively small room had such a layout that, in order to view any exhibit, visitors had to pass and view the Georgian pavilion. The exhibition presented clips and costumes of 12 performances, and the doll “Twin” from Robert Sturua’s performance – a conceptual artifact, which greeted visitors at the entrance. The informative capacity of the pavilion and narrative character of works sparked great interest among both PQ15 participants from professional circles, and visitors alike. Therefore, the participation of Georgia in the 2015 Prague Quadrennial – an important international forum of modern visual and theatrical arts – was an important step in the professional positioning of Georgian art, and, in general, the promotion of Georgian culture. The Georgian delegation, as well as all participants, should take pride in the fact that in September 2015, the PQ was rewarded by EFFE as most important cultural festivals in Europe” or “one of the most important cultural events in Europe. Thus, this Georgian exposition in the heart of Europe has given its voice to a new rediscovery of identity, and a wish for rebirth.

დეკემბერი 2015 საქართველოს ევროპული გზა

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Education and Culture | განათლება და კულტურა

ევროპიდან დაბრუნება აკა მორჩილაძე

RETURNING FROM EUROPE Aka Morchiladze

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716 wels, im weliwads, rodesac gardaicvala laibnici, evropaSi elCad myofi sulxan-saba orbeliani stambolidan Tbilisisken gamoemgzavra. misma elCobam, romelic, ra Tqma unda, moicavda xangrZliv mgzavrobas zRvasa da xmeleTze da safrangeTisa da italiis qalaqebis movlas im mTavar saqmesTan erTad, romelic misTvis, rogorc elCisTvis daevalebinaT, sami weliwadi dasWirda. aqedan bolo weliwad-naxevars sulxan-saba stambolSi ijda da Tavis sxva aTas sawuxars Soris mainc eloda ukve cxadad SeuZlebel did ambavs safrangeTidan. safrangeTsa da italiaSi yofnisas sulxan-saba orjer Sexvda mefe mzes, lui meToTxmetes, pap kliments da kidev uamrav saWiro pirs da imaT qarTlis mefis vaxtang meeqvsis azrebi, SeTavazebebi da Txovnebi gadasca. mefe luim sabas mis karze yofnisas miiRo xsenebuli papis werilic, gTxov, safrangeTis mfarvelobis qveS aiyvane mag elCis qveyana, Cveni sarwmunoebisTvis es didi SenaZeni iqnebao. sulxan-saba rom evropaSi gaemgzavra, qarTli iranis ramdenime, ase vTqvaT, avtonomiaTagan erT-erTs warmoadgenda da mas formalurad Tu alalad gamuslimebuli bagrationTa samefo dinastiis wevrebi marTavdnen iranis Sahis Sexedulebisda mixedviT. vaxtang meeqvse, vinc sulxan-saba evropaSi gagzavna,

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ollowing his ambassadorship to Europe, Sulkhan-Saba Orbeliani1 em¬barked on a journey from Istanbul to Tbilisi. His journey took place in 1716, the year Leibnitz died. His voyage lasted three years, and included trips over land and sea to visit ambassadorial interests in France and Italy. Saba concluded his journey in Istanbul, restlessly waiting to hear from France on a matter that became increasing less likely to come together. During his time in France and Italy, Saba met with Louis XIV, the Sun King, Pope Clement, and other important political figures. He spent his time with them advocating for King Vakhtang VI of Kartli, now Eastern Georgia. He made such a strong impression on the pope, that the pope sent an appeal to Louis XIV, requesting him to take Saba under his wing and support Georgia.

Education and Culture | განათლება და კულტურა am elCobamde gaiwvies Sahis karze, sadac daRupuli Zmis qarTlis gvirgvini rom daemtkicebinaT misTvis. is manamde mefis moadgilis saxeliT marTavda qveyanas, radgan mefe biZa da mere ki Zma iranSi iyvnen maRal samxedro Tanamdebobebze da mefeebad ki iTvlebodnen, magram Tavis qveyanaSi ver Camodiodnen. mokled, mefed dasamtkiceblad misi gamuslimeba iyo saWiro, da raxan vaxtangma uari Tqva, es saqmec Svid weliwads gaiwela. qarTlis mmarTveloba vaxtangis Zmas, ieses Caabares, romelsac saba didad ar uyvarda. saerTod, sabas misia saidumlo iyo. albaT, imdenad, ramdenadac SeiZleboda, rom is saidumlo yofiliyo. sabas gamgzavrebas win uswrebda lui meToTxmetisgan vaxtangisadmi gamogzavnili werilebi. Tanac, saba ispahanSi gawveul vaxtangs Tan axlda, magram iqidan qarTlSi dabrunda. Cans, iq moilaparakes am elCobis ambavi da sabac evropaSi ucnaurad wavida: goridan gaacila frangi beri riSari, romelsac ukve Savi zRvis piras uTxra, Zalian minda Cemi sayvareli frangTa mefis naxva da gTxov, mec Tan gamiyoloo. vaxtangis SeTavazeba papisadmi da safrangeTis mfarvelobis qveS yofnis Txovna, savaWro gzebis saqarTveloze gadeba da sxva, imasac gulisxmobda, rom qarTvelebi kaTolikeebad gadainaTlebodnen. papsac amas moaxsenebdnen, rom araTu Cveni, garSemo 24 provinciis gakaTolikebac sul iolad SegviZliao. kaTolikuri misiebis wevrebi maSin metad miRebulni iyvnen saqarTvelos samefoebsa da samTavroebSi da isini evropasTan kavSiris mTavar saSualebas warmoadgendnen. sxvadasxva ordenis berebi axlos iyvnen samefo ojaxebTan da warCinebulebTan da xSirad TavianT upirveles misiasac warmatebiT axorcielebdnen, maT kaTolikeebad naTlavdnen. ras gulisxmobda im drois qarTveli didgvarovnebisTvis kaToliked yofna, sxva ambavia da mkvlevarebs ukeT ecodinebaT, sabac ki evropisken mimavali, ukve wminda basilis ordenis wevri iyo. manamdec faruli kaTolike iyoo, ambobdnen, magram esec sxva ambavia. imasac amboben, rom kaTolikoba politikisTvis sWirdebodao, Torem ise, iqauri dogmatebi didad ar izidavdao. misi namdvili Tu politikurad saWiro kaTolikobis Sesaxeb pasuxebs mis nawerebSic eZeben da TiTqos puloben kidec. saqme ki marTla ase iyo, rom savaraudod mTavari ram, rac romSi daainteresebdaT, swored misi rjulad daqvemdebarebis SeTavazeba iqneboda. romis uxvi misioneroba amaze aSkarad mianiSnebda. berebi TavianT relaciebSi xSirad werdnen, esa da es Tavadi movaqcie Cvens rwmenazeo, esa da es mefis ojaxis wevrio da ase dausruleblad. vaxtang meeqvse farTo gonebis kaci gaxldaT, man icoda, rom misi qveynis damxmare Sors unda eZebna. yovel SemTxvevaSi iranSi gawvevamde ase cdilobda. albaT ase Tvlida, ukeTesi swored imaTi Cvenamde moyvana iqnebao.

When Saba departed for Europe, Kartli was an autonomous region of Persia. It was governed by a formal, or possibly sincere, Islamized representative of the Georgian Bagrationi dynasty. Before dispatching Sulkhan-Saba on his ambassadorial mission, Vakhtang VI was summoned to the court of the Shah to take the place of his deceased brother as king, a step up from his role as Viceroy. Although both his uncle and brother were recognized as Kings in Persia, they were not able to return to their homeland to rule. This was be¬cause that any candidate for King was forced to accept Islam to be crowned, and since Vakhtang refused, this matter dragged on for seven years. Vakhtang’s brother Jesse, who was very fond of Saba, was placed in charge of Kartli in his brother’s place. Saba’s mission was officially confidential, but wasn’t the most well-kept secret. His departure was preceded by let¬ters from Louis XIV to Vakhtang. He accompanied the King on his way to Isfahan, and it was during this trip that Saba decided he wanted to become an ambassador to Europe. He accomplished his goal by seeing off French Monk Richard from Gori to the Black Sea coast, and then Richard take him to Louis XIV. In his letters, King Vakhtang VI plead to the Pope to be placed under French protection, offering trade routes via Georgia, and the conversion of Georgia to Catholicism as return. The Pope was informed that with the conversion of Georgia, twenty-four nearby provinces could be easily converted as well. At 235 234 that time, Catholic missions were welcome in Georgian kingdoms and prin¬cipalities and served as the main means of maintaining contact with Europe. Members of different monastic orders often had close relations with royal and noble families, generally succeeding in converting them to Catholicism. What it meant for Georgian nobility to be Roman Catholic is a different story for experts to discuss. Saba however, had already joined the Order of Saint Basil by the time he departed for Europe. Some claim that he secretly observed Catholicism even earlier for political purposes, but did not truly accept Catholic dogmas. Answers to his authentic or politically motivated Catholicism are sought and, it seems, found in his writings. The biggest incentive Vakhtang VI could offer Rome was a mass conversion to Catholicism, which is well illustrated by the abundance of Rome’s mission¬ary activities in Kartli. In their reports to the Vatican, monks often bragged about their successes in converting several members of royal family. Vakhtang VI was an open-minded man. He knew that his country had to seek assistance from abroad if it ever wanted to earn sovereignty. He must have believed, that bringing Europe to Georgia would be his best shot. At least, that was what he tried to do before being summoned to Iran. The Vakhtang’s and Saba’s luck had run out when France signed a trade agreement with Persia during one of Saba’s visits to Paris. In

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Education and Culture | განათლება და კულტურა mere ruseTze mouwia gadasvlam, magram es mere iyo. amboben, rom sabas bedma ar gauRima, safrangeTs savaWro xelSekruleba hqonda iranTano, sabas iq yofnis dros sparsi elCic iq trialebdao da aseTebi. Tan, moxucebuli mefe mze qarTveli elCis jer kidev italiaSi yofnisas gardaicvala, da mTeli misi nalaparakevi, rac isedac ar iyo didad damaimedebeli, daviwyebas mieca. romis papis pativiscemani ki rogorRac sul ufro da ufro Sordeboda politikas. hoda, saba stambolSi iyo, papis werili Tan hqonda, iq ki ewera, rom SeiZlebao, RmerTma gangeb moavlina Tqvenze aseTi gansacdeli, radgan oqro oqrod ver iqceva, Tu cecxlSi ar gaiwmindebao. raRac aseTebi ewera, mokled. 1716 wlis 13 maiss saba stambolidan Tbilisisken wamovida ramdenime kapucinTan erTad. mgzavrobis mTeli xarji frangma despanma gaiRo. manve iSova erTi Wani zRvaosani qalaq fazaridan, romelsac oTxasi marCili (silver coins) gadauxada da uTxra, eseni qobuleTs miiyvane Seni xumaldiTo, iq Caabare iqaur mTavar guriels da ukan gzaze aq Camomitane maTi werili, romelic damidasturebs, rom es xalxi kargad miiyvane adgilas da kargi patronis xelSi dastoveo. esec SeuTanxma, rom Seni oci mezRvauris garda aravin Caisva, am gems mxolod am xalxisTvis vqiraobo. is kapitani ki dahyabulda, magram rogorc ki bosfors gamoscda, miayena xumaldi da gemze ianiCarebi da maTi asisTavi amoiyvana, sul osmalebi, da ise iyo, rom sabam maRla, gembanze adgili veRar iSovna am misTvis naqiraveb gemSi da amitom gaxurebul triumSi ijda xolme mTeli dReebi da RamiTac iqve eZina. aT dRes kargad icures, radgan zurgis qari hqondaT da bolos ki es veragi kapitani, romelic manamde tkbili sityvebiT cdilobda mgzavrebis moTafvlas, moadga Tavis sacxovris qalaq fazars da iq CauSva Ruza, sabas da kapucinebs ki uTxra, madli hqeniT, raxan aqauri varo, modi, erTi-ori dRiT davisvenoTo. mec Sin mivalo, am amoyril ianiCarebsac gems davaclevineb da qobuleTSi mSvidobiT gadagiyvanTo. aba, ra unda eqnaT. kargio da imas ki Turme Tavisi gegma hqonda, an kidev meti fulis Sovna undoda. ukan trapezundis faSas Seatyobina, win kidev gonios sanjay begso, rom aseTi mniSvnelovani kaci modis, Tan ucxoelebi axlavs da ar gaataroTo. am oTxi kapucinidan, samni TbilisSi modiodnen, erTi ispahanisken unda gaestumrebinaT da amasve unda waeRo safrangeTis elCis gamotanebuli erTi didi zandukic ispahanSive. imav xumaldze yofila burseli vaWari eivaz Calabi, CvenTvis xoja aivazad dasamaxsovrebeli, romelic ganjaSi miemgzavreboda abreSumis sayidlad da Tan ki, Turme Svilic axlda. im Wanma oris nacvlad oTxi dRe aq dastova mgza-

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addition, the aged Sun King passed away when the Georgian Ambassador was in Italy, even further ruining Kartli’s hope of falling under Europe’ protection. And the benevolence of the Pope of Rome became gradually detached from politics. Saba was in Istanbul, with a letter from the Pope, which stated, “Maybe God allowed this tribulation to beset you. After all, gold is not gold unless it is tried in the fire.” On May 13, 1716, Saba left Istanbul for Tbilisi, in the company of Capuchin friars. The cost of this journey was covered in full by the French Ambassador. In Western Georgia, he found a Chani2 captain from the town of Pazar and paid him four hundred silver coins to transport Saba and the friars to Ko¬buleti, asking for a signed letter from Prince Gurieli3 to confirm they were transported safely and left in good hands.He also instructed the captain to not let anyone else onboard, save his twenty seafarers, insisting that he was renting the boat exclusively for his people. Contrary to his promise, the captain docked and anchored his ship as soon as he passed Bosporus, and allowed some Janissaries and their leader, all of whom were Otto¬mans, to board. Consequently, there was no room for Saba on the upper deck of a ship rented exclusively for him in the first place, so he was forced to travel in the ship’s isolated hold. Thanks to a fair wind, the ship sailed comfortably for ten days. The conniving captain reached Pazar, anchored the ship and requested Saba and the Capuchin friars to rest with him for two days before setting off to Kobuleti, so that he could visit his family. Without any other feasible options, Saba and his companions agreed. The captain however, had other intentions. The captain informed the Pasha of Trabzon and Sanjak Bey about his prom¬inent passenger and his foreign companions, pleading with the officials not to let Saba pass through their territories. Of the four Capuchin friars, three were traveling to Tbilisi and one was to be seen off to Isfahan, where he was expected to deliver a large coffer from the French Ambassador. Ayvaz Chalab, a merchant from Bursa, known among the Georgians as Khoja Ayvaz, was also aboard the ship. He was headed to Ganja with his son to purchase silk. The Chani captain made the passengers spend four days in Pazar, before announcing that he was unable to transport them to Kobuleti due to an Abkhazian revolt. He recommended that they procure their own boats and travel along the shore. The passengers got hold of two sailboats, with Saba leading one, and Khoja Ayvaz leading the other and sailed along the shore, but not for very long. The weather changed and worsened, and a storm separated the two sailboats. The sailboats of Khoja Ayvaz and Saba ended up in and below Hoffa, respectively. Had it not been for Ottoman slave traders herding captives from Imereti4 to Istanbul, who stopped to help, Saba’s sailboat would have never made it to the shore.

Education and Culture | განათლება და კულტურა vrebi, mere ki movida da gamoucxada, me qobuleTSi veRar gagiyvanT, afxazebi aSlilan da meSinia, Tavi ar davkargoo. Tu gindaT, navebiT wadiTo. amaT ori navi iSovnes da gadanawildnen. gamouyvnen zRvis pirs, magram didxans ver icures. gaavdrda da erTmaneTsac daekargnen im RelvaSi. rogorc mere gairkva, xoja aivazas navi xofaSi miegdo, sabasi ki kidev ufro dabla. oRondac, navi napirs ver moawevda, bedad damxmare rom ar gamoCeniliyo. imaT gaWirvebas Seeswrnen tyveTa msyidveli osmalebi, romlebic imereTidan tyveebs mierekebodnen stambolSi gasayidad. isini mieSvelnen, davixocebodiT, imaT rom ar gamoveyvaneTo. kidev oTx dRes iq iyvnen, zRvis dawynarebas elodnen. magram sanam zRva dawynarda, Wanebi movidnen da yvelani daatyveves. oci marCili fulad waarTves da Zalian awvales, zandukebi daumtvries, aqaoda mebaJeebi varT da wili gvergebao. sadardo italielebi iyvneno, arc ena icodnen, arc aqauri raoba da Tanac, rogorc dasavleTis xalxs Savi zRvis aqeT gamosvla akrZaluli hqondaT sulTnisgano. ase naZarcvni oTxi dRis Tavze isev am navSi Casxdnen da xofamde amoaRwies. iq ki zRvaSive Semoegeba gonios sanjayis xalxi, romlebmac daiWires da erT saxlSi gamohketes. xoja aivazac iq yofiliyo, misi navi xofaSi miegdo napirze, magram arafriT aCvenes sabas. im dros iqav aRmoCnda axalcixis faSis diswuli alibegi, romelic sabas scnoboda. es didi iRbali iyo. am alibegs gaego, gamoketili hyavTo da Tavisi xalxi gamoegzavna, saba da kapucinebi waeyvana da TavisTan daebinavebina. rac ram saqoneli aqamde waerTmiaT, yvelaferi ukan moetaninebina. saRamos xoja aivaza movida sabasTan da uTxra, es alibegi Seni keTilismyofeli kia, magram, ager, navTsadgurSi gamzadebuli xumaldia, romliTac is xvalve stambolSi miemgzavreba, da rogorc ki damcvelis gareSe dagiguleben, isev yvelafers wagarTmeven da am kapucinebsac daatyveveben, amitom jobs, aqaurebic davqrTamoTo. asec moiqcnen, gonios sanjay begs oTxmoci marCili gaugzavnes. diliT, alibegma cxenebi uqirava sabas da patrebs da artanujze gamoistumra, xoja aivaza ki xofaSi darCa. alibegis gamgzavreba rom Seetyo, gonios sanjay begs mTeli Rame cxendacxen evlo Tavisi xalxiT da meore dRes ki CxalasTan dasweoda sabas. es dasavleTis xalxi Sen gamoapareo, ase eTqva, xonTqris brZanebaa, amaT aqeT ar gamoiarono. momeci es xalxi da wadi sadac gindao. rogor mivcemdio, sabam da yvelaferi isev waarTves, ianiCarebs misces da isev ukan, goniosken waasxes.

Saba and his crew spent four days ashore, waiting for the sea to calm, but before it did, Chanis arrived and captured them. The captors confiscated twenty silver coins in cash and tormented the trav¬elers, masquerading as customs officers and demanding duties. The friars were miserable and helpless. They did not speak the local language and were not familiar with local customs. They were then told that as western¬ers, they were prohibited by the Sultan from crossing the Black Sea. Four days later, the robbed and abused travelers boarded the same sailboats that had delivered them to Hoffa. Once under sail, they were seized by officials from Gonio Sanjak5 and locked up in a building. Khoja Ayvaz was there too. The storm had washed his sailboat up on the Hoffa shore. Saba was prevented from seeing him. At that time, Alibeg, a nephew of the Akhaltsikhe Pasha and an acquain¬tance of Saba, learned of his confinement and dispatched his men to have Saba and the Capuchins released. He also confiscated the personal effects and returned them to the captives. In the evening, Khoja approached Saba and told them that although Alibeg was a great benefactor, he would soon set off and leave them in the same condition as before. And if the Chanis or locals were to find Saba without his protector, they would be sure to rob him again and capture the monks as well. Thus, Khoja proposed that they bribe the locals. And so they did, sending forty silver coins to Gonio Sanjak Bey. In the morning, Alibeg hired horses for Saba and the friars and saw them off to Artanuji.6 Khoja Ayvaz however, decided to stay in Hoffa. After hav¬ing learned of Alibeg’s departure, Gonio Sanjak Bey and his men spent all night on horseback in hopes of catching up with Saba, and were able to head him off the following morning near the village of Chkhala. Bey accused Saba of smuggling Westerners against the Sultan’s orders. But stated that if Saba were to hand them over, he would let him continue on his way. Saba adamantly refused, and once again, they were all driven back to Gonio and had their belongings confiscated and distributed among the Janissaries. On the way back to Gonio, Saba fell ill. Nonetheless, he was dragged up a mountain, and only after reaching the summit, was he allowed to sit down and rest. Saba would later recall that during that time he felt like giving up the ghost, and that he had no idea how he survived the ascent. Upon learning of Saba’s recapture, Khoja Ayvaz scorned Sanjak Bey of Gonio, warning him of the trouble that he would face if Saba were to die in captivity. Ayvaz promised Bey four hundred silver coins to free Saba before sunset and to which he agreed. But as the sun disappeared below the horizon, Bey grew anxious, fearing trickery on Ayvaz’s part,

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Education and Culture | განათლება და კულტურა am dros saba avad gaxda. gacivda. mainc miaTrevdnen sadRac aRmarTebSi. sadRac mTaze aiyvanes da iq dasves. suls iqiT gza ar mqondao. ubeSi samoci fluri medo da isic wamarTves, rogor avaTave is aRmarTebi, ar vicio. gonios sanjay begTan am dros movardniliyo isev is burseli xoja aivaza da kargad SeeSinebina, vis awvaleb da vis klav, etyoba kargad ar icio, am kacs rom rame mouvides, cudi ambavi dagatydeba Tavso. mokled, oTxas marCils Sehpirda, daRamebamde amogitan da gamouSvio, da sanjay begic daTanxmebula, magram rom CamoRamebula, suli dalevia, eg momtani ar ariso da es avad myofi sulxan-saba isev gaukoWavT da wvimaSi gamoigdes win da ase gakoWili miiyvanes sadRac, aq daiZinebTo. xelebi diliTRa gauxsnes da cxenze Sesves, Turme xoja aivazasTan mihyavdaT, romelsac wina RamiT saWiro Tanxa ki amoetana im mTaze, magram eseni veRar epovna. isev wvimda da erTma ianiCarma sabas mosasxami waaZro. sanam aivaza sabas gamosasyids ixdida, viRac sxvebs ori patri daeWiraT. xoja aivaza isev gaqanda, samoci marCili gadaixada da patrebi gamoixsna. mere wamovidnen nigalis xevze. visac ar daezareboda, aCerebda da Zarcvavda. fuli sul aivazasi midioda, amaT aRaraferi hqondaT. artanujs rom moaRwies, iqauri isiy faSa jayelis coli dauxvdaT, umaspinZla, daasvena da kargad gaistumra, Tan erTi Tavisi kacic gaayola. iqidan moawies artaans da artaanSi ki maSin mjdariyo aslan faSa, am isiy faSas biZaSvili da mteri, romeli romels waarTmevda xolme axalcixes, imaze iyo. eqvsi marCili imanac waarTva da kidev rasac waswvda, yvelaferi. ZaRlebic ki waiyvana Cvenio. iqidan moaRwies abocs da es ki niSnavda, rom Cems qveyanaSi movedio. mefed iyo iese, vaxtangis Zma. ver iyo Cemze kai guliso, igonebs saba. Tan Cemi ZmisSvili SeerTo, rac ar egebodao. mokled, sabasTvis Zmebs kaci SemougebebiaT, nu Semoxval, moerideo. am gaWirvebiT aqamde mosuls ufiqria, imereTSi wavalo, magram burseli vaWrebisa bevri vali mqonda, rac gzaSi wamarTves, sesxad imaTgan viRebdi da imereTSi imaT aRar gamiSveso. raRa unda eqna, Semosula qarTlSi. iesem kargad miiRoo, magram bevr xalxs xocavda da Tbilisic ayras da gaxizvnas apirebda. ivlisis TveSi yofila es bolo ambebi. is aravin icis, rame Tu hkiTxes sabas elCobis Sesaxeb. an sad iyo, an ra iyo. saba iseTi kaci gaxldaT, rom qarTveli didgvarovnis pirobaze bevrs werda. es mogzaurobac aRwera da am mogzaurobis mTavari Sedegi ki qveynisTvis is ki ar gamovida, rom safrangeTma da romma saqarTvelos

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Education and Culture | განათლება და კულტურა

and he had a bedridden and miserable Sulkhan Saba bound hand and foot and led out in the rain to a different place to spend the night. The sun had already risen when they untied the Sulkhan’s hands and feet and put him on horseback. Saba was taken to Ayvaz, who had been wait¬ing for his delivery since the night before. While Ayvaz was paying Saba’s ransom, two of the Capuchin friars were taken captive by other bandits, and Ayvaz was forced to pay sixty more silver coins to have them released. Again reunited, they set off down the Nigali Gorge. They would be stopped and robbed blind along the way by anyone who felt like it. The money all came from Ayvaz’s pocket; the others had nothing left to give. Once in Artanuji, they were greeted and hosted by the wife of Pasha Jakeli. She treated them kindly and ordered one of her servants to accompany them as they departed. Then they continued on to Artaani where Aslan Pasha was the ruler, a cousin and blood enemy of Isik Pasha. They endlessly fought for control over Akhaltsikhe. Aslan Pasha took advantage of Saba’s lack of protection as well, charging the travelers six silver coins and taking away anything of value he could find, including their hounds. Finally, they crossed the border into Kartli through Abotsi, which was un¬der the control of King Jesse, Vakhtang’s brother. Saba claimed in his journal that Jesse was not very fond of him, and was resentful that Jesse married his niece. On the outskirts of Kartli, Saba’s brothers sent a man to meet him and deliver a message advising him against entering further into the kingdom. After having spent so much effort to reach his destination, Saba consid¬ered heading toward Imereti instead. However, he was blocked from en¬tering, due to debts he owed to Bursa merchants, whom he had to borrow from to pay off robbers and extorters along the way. Thus, he had no choice but to enter Kartli. King Jesse welcomed him warm¬ly, though he had been slaughtering scores of people and even plotted to sack Tbilisi and deport its residents. The latest events in this regard had unfolded that July. No one knows whether Saba was questioned about his ambassadorship, or what he did or saw. His journey was well recorded as he wrote a lot. The main outcome of his undertaking was not the intended French or Roman support for Georgia, but rather a descriptive dictionary of the Georgian language composed by Saba himself in the eighteen months he spent wait¬ing in Istanbul. The Sulkhan gave this work to one of the monks to copy, but the monk ended up taking credit for his work. Saba later recalled

rame uSveles, aramed is, rom stambolSi weliwadnaxevriani jdomisas sabam qarTuli leqsikoni Seadgina. mere is leqsikoni gadasawerad misca erT mRvdels, da man kio, sadac Cemi saxeli naxa, is TavisiT Secvalao. etyoba, gadamwerlebSi miRebuli ambavi iyo. vaxtangi ki merec, roca kvlav dabrunda qarTlSi, swerda ukve sxva paps da avstriis imperators, momxedeT, kaTolike var, viTarebaa iseTi, rom amas sajarod ver vSvrebi, Cems qveyanaSi CemsaviT uamravia, moixedeT, aqeTac Tqvenebi varTo. im dros vaxtangs ukve formalurad islami eRiarebina, magram aseTi detalebi didi evropelebisTvis albaT damRleli iyo. ra qarTli, romeli sanjayi, rais savaWro gzis gamotareba. ra ici, egeb am qarTuli wvalebis gamoZaxilia monteskies sparsul werilebSi CarCenili fraza, aqao, sparseTis elCad gadacmuli erTi kaci Camovidao da cdilobs msoflios ori udidesi monarqi gaabriyvos, safrangeTis mefes iseTi saCuqrebi miuZRvnas, rogorebsac Cveni Sahi patara imereTis da qarTlis mefeebsac ar akadrebso. amas rustami iwereba ispahanSi parizidan. hoda, moiara sabam evropa. mgoni, iq gamgzavreba ufro ioli gamodga, vidre qarTlis sazRvramde darCenili xevebis da adgilebis gamovla. xiluli sazRvaria Tu uxilavi, vin icis. mZime kia. Tan ucvleli, isic da isic.

that the only change to the dictionary was that wherever he wrote his name, the monk replaced it with his own. As for Vakhtang, he returned to Kartli after his seven years in Persia and ap¬pealed to different great European leaders, the new Pope and the Austrian Emperor. In his correspondence, he claimed to be a secret Roman Catholic unable to proclaim his faith publicly due to the situation in the country. He pleaded with his addressees to be attentive to him and his coreligion¬ists who, according to Vakhtang, were many. By that time, Vakhtang had formally accepted Islam, though he opted against boring his great Europe¬an correspondents with this and other insignificant details, such as Kartli, Sanjak, facilitation of a trade route, who would have cared… The hardship of the Georgians during that time was well reflected in Montesquieu’s the Persian Letters, which reads as follows, “There has ap¬peared here a person who burlesques the part of Persian ambassador, and insolently makes sport of the two greatest kings in the world. He bears to the French monarch presents which ours would not offer to a king of Imereti or of Georgia”. This is how Saba traveled across Europe and back. Most likely, traveling to Europe proved much easier than covering the ravines and passageways back to the Kartli border. It is uncertain whether this border is visible or invisible. One thing is clear, though: these “borders” between Europe and Georgia (both visible and invisible) are tough and still there.

დეკემბერი 2015 საქართველოს ევროპული გზა

73


Georgia's European Way- seventh edition  

Georgia's European Way seventh edition of the magazine საქართველოს ევროპული გზა მეშვიდე პერიოდული გამოცემა

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