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საქართველოს ევროპული გზა

GEORGIA’S EUROPEAN WAY № 6 / 10 / 2015


საქართველოს ევროპული გზა

Georgia's European Way

saqarTvelos saxelmwifo ministris aparati evropul da evroatlantikur struqturebSi integraciis sakiTxebSi Office of the State Minister of Georgia on European and Euro-Atlantic Integration


სარჩევი 

მიმართვა 06 საქართველო და ნატო 08

„მეტი საქართველო ნატო-ში და მეტი ნატო საქართველოში”

საქართველოს გზა ნატო-ს 10 2016 წლის ვარშავის სამიტისკენ ვარშავის სამიტი: შემდეგი ნაბიჯი ნატო-ს 14 წევრობისკენ მიმავალ გზაზე ნატო და საქართველო: 18 შემდგომი ნაბიჯი გაწევრიანებისკენ საქართველო და ევროკავშირი 22

საქართველოს ევროპული გზა

გიედრიუს პუოჯუნასი: 26 თავისუფლებისთვის ყოველდღე უნდა იბრძოლო ევროკავშირის საზღვრისპირა 30 თანამშრომლობის ინიციატივა: არსებული თანამშრომლობა და წარმატებული მაგალითები „ევროპის ახალი გეოპოლიტიკური 36 ლანდშაფტი~ თბილისში პოლონეთის წარმატების გასაღები 42 ევროინტეგრაციის გზაზე საჯარო მმართველობის რეფორმა 46 მიგრაციის ახალგაზრდა სპეციალისტთა 48 ტრენინგი საქართველოში ბიზნესი და ეკონომიკა 50

მითი, თითქოს ევროკავშირმა დაანგრია საქართველოს სოფლის მეურნეობა, უსაფუძვლოა

გარემოს დაცვა, ეკონომიკური 58 განვითარება და სოციალური კეთილდღეობა ერთ კონტექსტში უნდა განიხილებოდეს 

განათლება და კულტურა

კულტურა მნიშვნელოვანია

66

საქართველოს ევროპული არქიტექტურა 70

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Georgia’s European Way October 2015


Content Address

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Georgia and NATO

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More Georgia in NATO and more NATO in Georgia Georgia’s Way Towards the NATO Warsaw Summit 2016

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The Warsaw Summit: Next step on Georgia’s NATO Membership Track

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NATO-Georgia: Next Step Towards Membership

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Georgia and EU

22 26

Giedrius Puodžiūnas: One has to Fight for Freedom Every Day

30

EU Cross-Border Cooperation Programme: Ongoing Cooperation and Success Stories

36

“Europe’s New Geopolitical Landscape” in Tbilisi

42

Poland’s Key to Success on the Way to the EU Integration

46

Public Administration Reform

48

Training a New Generation of Future Migration Specialists in Georgia

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58

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70

Georgia`s European Way

Business and Economy

Myth about the EU Destroying Georgia’s Agriculture is Groundless

Protection of Environment, Economic Development and Social Well-being shall be Considered in a Single Context

Education and Culture

Culture Matters

Georgia’s European Architecture

ოქტომბერი 2015 საქართველოს ევროპული გზა

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Address | მიმართვა

saredaqcio sabWo mariam raqviaSvili evropul da evroatlantikur struqturebSi integraciis sakiTxebSi saqarTvelos saxelmwifo ministris moadgile zurab qarumiZe politikis analizis, strategiuli dagegmvisa da koordinaciis departamentis, sagareo urTierTobaTa samsaxuris pirveli mrCeveli, saqarTvelos mTavrobis administracia laSa tuRuSi aRmosavleT partniorobis samoqalaqo sazogadoebis saqarTvelos erovnuli platformis Tavmjdomare ivane CxikvaZe evrointegraciis mimarTulebis menejeri, fondi `Ria sazogadoeba _ saqarTvelo~ elene gocaZe sainformacio centris _ nato-sa da evrokavSiris Sesaxeb _ direqtori Tornike nozaZe evropul da evroatlantikur struqturebSi integraciis sakiTxebSi saqarTvelos saxelmwifo ministris aparatis strategiuli komunikaciis departamentis ufrosi Tengiz buaCiZe evropul da evroatlantikur struqturebSi integraciis sakiTxebSi saqarTvelos saxelmwifo ministris aparatis strategiuli komunikaciis departamentis mTavari specialisti gansakuTrebuli madloba: Tamar miqaZe saqarTveloSi evrokavSiris warmomadgenlobis politikisa da presis ganyofilebis TanamSromeli aleqsandre imedaSvili daibeWda Sps `sezanSi~

Editorial Board Mariam Rakviashvili Deputy State Minister of Georgia on European and Euro-Atlantic Integration Zurab Karumidze First Advisor, Foreign Relations Unit, Department of Political Analysis, Strategic Planning and Coordination the Administration of the Government of Georgia Lasha Tugushi Head of Georgian Civil Society National Platform for the Eastern Partnership Ivane Chkhikvadze EU Integration Field Manager Open Society Georgia Foundation Elene Gotsadze Director of the Information Center on NATO and EU Tornike Nozadze Head of Strategic Communication Department of the Office of the State Minister of Georgia on European and Euro-Atlantic Integration Tengiz Buachidze Chief Specialist of Strategic Communication Department of the Office of the State Minister of Georgia on European and Euro-Atlantic Integration Special thanks to: Tamar Mikadze Press and Information Officer at the Political and Press Section of the Delegation of the European Union to Georgia Aleksandre Imedashvili Printed by "Cezanne Ltd." ISSN: 1987-8486

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Georgia’s European Way October 2015

Jurnalis winamdebare gamocema eZRvneba nato-s rigiT merve kvireuls, romelic imarTeba ama wlis 25 oqtombridan 8 noembramde. am yovelwliuri proeqtis farglebSi saqarTvelos nato-Si gawevrianebis sakiTxebze sazogadoebasTan intensiuri dialogi mimdinareobs, rac gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania qveynis winaSe mdgari gamowvevebisa da mzardi antidasavluri propagandis fonze. evroatlantikuri integraciis mimarT maRali mxardaWera da am sakiTxisadmi saqarTvelos mosaxleobis didi interesi ganapirobebs konkretuli da xelSesaxebi Sedegebis molodins Cveni moqalaqeebis mxridan. Sesabamisad, nato-Si gawevrianebis gzaze miRweuli progresis Sesaxeb Cveni sazogadoebis informireba saqarTvelos mTavrobis, da kerZod, saxelmwifo ministris aparatis erT-erTi upirvelesi amocanaa. saqarTvelos usafrTxoeba, da Sesabamisad qveynis demokratiuli da mdgradi ekonomikuri ganviTareba damokidebulia rogorc qveynis erovnuli SesaZleblobebis gaZlierebaze, ise evroatlantikur struqturebTan kavSirebis ganmtkicebaze. amrigad, nato-sTan politikuri dialogisa da praqtikuli TanamSromlobis gaRrmaveba, iseve rogorc aliansTan saqarTvelos Tavsebadobis gaZliereba, Cveni qveynis sagareo-politikuri dRis wesrigis umTavresi prioritetebia. nato-s saerTaSoriso samSvidobo misiebSi monawileobiT, saqarTvelom moipova usafrTxoebis eqsportiori qveynis statusi da daamtkica, rom aliansis Rirebuli da saimedo partnioria. uelsis samitze miRebuli nato-saqarTvelos arsebiT RonisZiebaTa paketi da mis farglebSi daarsebuli nato-saqarTvelos wvrTnisa da Sefasebis erToblivi centris daarseba warmoadgens mniSvnelovan winsvlas qveynis Tavdacvisunarianobis donis asamaRleblad da xels uwyobs aliansSi saboloo gawevrianebas. saqarTvelosTvis, aseve, umniSvnelovanesia samitze miRebuli gadawvetileba, fineTTan, SvedeTTan, iordaniasa da avstraliasTan erTad, gaZlierebuli SesaZleblobebis partniorebis jgufSi CarTvis Sesaxeb. aRniSnuli gadawyvetilebiT, saqarTvelom aliansis gansakuTrebuli partnioris statusi moipova, rac gulisxmobs aliansTan Tavsebadobisa da TanamSromlobis xarisxobrivad uprecedentod maRal doneze gadasvlas. rogorc aspiranti qveyana, saqarTvelo Tanamimdevrulad miiwevs win saboloo miznisaken nato-Si gawevrianebisken. vimedovneb, rom Jurnal „saqarTvelos evropuli gzis“ winamdebare gamocema mkiTxvelisTvis aRniSnuli procesebis gaSuqebis mxriv saintereso da sasargeblo iqneba.


Address | მიმართვა

დავით ბაქრაძე ევროპულ და ევროატლანტიკურ სტრუქტურებში ინტეგრაციის საკითხებში სახელმწიფო მინისტრი

David Bakradze State Minister of Georgia on European and Euro-Atlantic Integraion The sixth issue of the Periodical is devoted to the 8th NATO Week to be held in Georgia within the period from October 25 till November 8, 2015. Intensive dialogue with the society on Georgia’s NATO Integration is being held in the frame of this annual project, especially important in the view of challenges facing the country and increasing Anti-Western propaganda. High support of Euro-Atlantic integration and great interest of population of Georgia towards this matter creates preconditions for citizens of Georgian comprehensive expectations of specific and tangible results. Thus, providing information to the population on our achievements in NATO integration process is one of the primary goals of the Government of Georgia and in particular the State Minister’s Office. The State Security of Georgia and respectively the State’s democratic and sustainable economic development are related to the growth of national capabilities, as well as, to the enhancement of mutual cooperation with Euro-Atlantic structures. Therefore, intensification of political dialogue and practical cooperation with NATO, as well

as, increasing Georgia’s compatibility with the Alliance are the major priorities of our country at international-political level. By participating in NATO international peacekeeping missions, Georgia has gained status of the country providing security and has proved that it is a valuable and reliable partner of the Alliance. Substantial NATO-Georgia Package (SNGP) adopted at Wales Summit and setting up the NATO Training Center in Georgia proves significant progress in country’s Defence capacity and facilitates the process of final accession to the NATO. Decision made at the Summit on including Georgia together with Finland, Sweden, Jordan and Australia into the group of countries with enhanced opportunities is also highly important for Georgia. With this decision Georgia has gained status of Alliance Special Partner, which means moving to the much higher level of compatibility and cooperation with the Alliance. Georgia, as the aspirant country, progressively proceeds to achieve the final goal - accession to NATO. I hope that readers will find this edition of periodical “Georgia’s European Way”, and the abovementioned processes discussed within, both interesting and informative.

ოქტომბერი 2015 საქართველოს ევროპული გზა

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Georgia and NATO | საქართველო და ნატო

„მეტი საქართველო ნატო-ში და მეტი ნატო საქართველოში“ ალექსანდრ ვერშბოუ, ნატო-ს გენერალური მდივნის მოადგილე

More Georgia in NATO and more NATO in Georgia Alexander Vershbow, NATO Deputy Secretary General

xSirad gvsmenia, rom saqarTvelo mniSvnelovani partnioria nato-sTvis, da es marTlac asea. saqarTvelo natos arawevri qveynebidan iyo erT-erTi udidesi samxedro kontributori avRaneTSi, Cvens ISAF-is operaciaSi da is dResac sididiT meore wvlilis Semtania avRaneTSi mimdinare „mtkice mxardaWeris misiaSi“. am Tavdadebas

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Georgia’s European Way October 2015

You often hear that Georgia is an important partner for NATO, and it is. Georgia was one of the largest non-NATO contributors of troops to our ISAF operation in Afghanistan, and it remains the second largest overall contributor to the current Resolute Support Mission there. This remarkable commitment has not come without loss and Allies honour your sacrifice.


Georgia and NATO | საქართველო და ნატო danakargis gareSe ar Cauvlia da mokavSireebi pativs miageben Tqven mier gaRebul msxverpls. saqarTvelo nato-sTvis mniSvnelovania sxva mravali TvalsazrisiTac. 1994 wlidan saqarTvelo, evropel partniorebTan erTad, SeuerTda nato-s mWidro TanamSromlobis programas _ „partnioroba mSvidobisTvis“. saqarTvelo da nato TanamSromloben Tavdacvis sferos reformaze da Cveni saerTo Zalebis erToblivad moqmedebis unar-Cvevebis ganviTarebaze. saqarTvelo axdens samxedro ganaTlebis reformirebas da zrdis Tavdacvis seqtoris gamWvirvalobas. saqarTvelo agreTve CarTulia maRali mzadyofnis „natos swrafi reagirebis ZalebSi“, rac qveyanas nato-s maRali donis wvrTnebSi monawileobis miRebis SesaZleblobas aZlevs. es aqtivobebi xels uwyobs saqarTvelos SeiaraRebuli Zalebis modernizacias da uzrunvelyofs saqarTvelos winsvlas im miznisken, rac sabolood nato-s wevrobas gulisxmobs. 2008 wlis buqarestis samitze mokavSireebi SeTanxmdnen, rom saqarTvelo gaxdeboda nato-s wevri qveyana. buqarestSi miRebuli gadawyvetilebebi ZalaSia, vinaidan isini xelaxla dadasturda yvela momdevno samitze. garda amisa, saqarTvelos specialuri forumis meSveobiT eZleva mokavSireebTan dialogis SesaZlebloba. nato-saqarTvelos komisia Zalian sasargeblo aRmoCnda mravali wlis ganmavlobaSi mimdinare politikuri dialogis uzrunvelyofisa da im procesebis gakontrolebis mizniT, romlebic Cven buqarestis samitze wamoviwyeT. SarSandeli uelsis samitis Semdeg Cveni urTierTobebi axal etapze gadavida. avstraliasTan, fineTTan, iordaniasa da SvedeTTan erTad, saqarTvelo SeirCa nato-sTan kidev ufro mWidro partniorobisTvis. aRniSnuli formati saqarTvelos aZlevs damatebiTi politikuri konsultaciebisa da urTierTTavsebadobis sakiTxebze TanamSromlobis SesaZleblobebs. kidev ufro mniSvnelovania mokavSireebis mier „nato-saqarTvelos arsebiTi RonisZiebebis paketis“ mxardaWera, rac miznad isaxavs Tavdacvisunarianobis amaRlebas, wvrTnebsa da urTierTkavSiris gaZlierebas. es niSnavs _ „kidev ufro meti saqarTvelo nato-Si da kidev ufro meti nato saqarTveloSi“. aRniSnuli RonisZiebebi miznad isaxavs saqarTvelos Tavdacvisunarianobis gaZlierebas da saqarTvelos evroatlantikur struqturebSi gawevrianebasTan miaxloebas. dResdReobiT, Tvrametma mokavSire qveyanam saqarTvelos SesTavaza eqspertTa konsultacia Tavdacvis saministroSi reformebis gatarebasTan dakavSirebiT, nato-saqarTvelos erToblivi wvrTnisa da Sefasebis centris Sesaqmnelad. centri, romelic 2015 wlis seqtemberSi nato-s generalurma mdivanma iens stontelbergma gaxsna, xels Seuwyobs gaerTianebuli Zalebis, saqarTvelos da sxva partniori qveynebis urTierTTavsebadobis gaZlierebas. „nato-saqarTvelos arsebiTi RonisZiebebis paketis“ farglebSi mxareebi iReben valdebulebas, daexmaron erTmaneTs ekonomikuri sirTuleebis dros. momaval wels varSavaSi dagegmili nato-s samitis mzadebisas unda gvaxsovdes Cveni erToblivi valdebulebebi. nato kvlavac mxars dauWers saqarTvelos evroatlantikur struqturebSi integraciasa da reformebs. uaRresad mniSvnelovania, rom saqarTvelo erTguli darCes demokratiis, pirovnebis Tavisuflebisa da kanonis uzenaesobis principebisa, rac nato-s aliansis safuZvelia.

But Georgia is also important to NATO in many other ways. Georgia has been a member of the Partnership for Peace, NATO’s programme for close collaboration with our European partners, since its inception in 1994. Georgia and NATO are working together on defence reform and to ensure our forces are able to operate together. Georgia is transforming its military education and increasing the transparency of its defence sector. And Georgia contributes to the high-readiness NATO Response Force, which gives Georgia access to highend NATO exercises. All of these activities are helping to modernise the Armed Forces of Georgia, and ensure that Georgia progresses towards its goal of NATO membership. At the Bucharest Summit in 2008, Allies agreed that Georgia will become a member of NATO. The decisions made at Bucharest stand, and have been reaffirmed at all subsequent summits. Georgia also has a special forum for dialogue with Allies. The NATO-Georgia Commission has proven very useful over the years in ensuring political dialogue and in supervising the process we set in motion at the Bucharest Summit. Last year’s Wales Summit took our relations to a new level. Georgia, along with Australia, Finland, Jordan and Sweden, was selected to form an even closer level of partnership with NATO. This partnership enables Georgia to benefit from enhanced opportunities for political consultations and cooperation on interoperability issues. Perhaps even more importantly, Allies endorsed the Substantial NATO-Georgia Package, which includes defence capacity building, training, exercises, and strengthened liaison. As some say, there is more Georgia in NATO and more NATO in Georgia. These measures aim to strengthen Georgia's defence capabilities, and help Georgia move closer to Euro-Atlantic integration. To date, 18 Allies have offered experts to work with the Georgian Ministry of Defence on their reforms and, in particular, on setting up the NATO-Georgia Joint Training and Evaluation Centre. This Centre, inaugurated in September 2015 by NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg, will help to strengthen the interoperability of Allied, Georgian and other partners’ forces. The Substantial NATO-Georgia Package represents a significant commitment from the Allies and Georgia, with both sides agreeing to provide scarce resources in a time of austerity and economic hardship. As we prepare for the NATO Summit in Warsaw next year, it is worth reminding ourselves of that joint commitment. NATO will remain committed to Georgia’s Euro-Atlantic integration and reforms. It is imperative that Georgia remain equally committed to the principles of democracy, individual liberty and the rule of law, the very foundation of the NATO Alliance.

ოქტომბერი 2015 საქართველოს ევროპული გზა

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Georgia and NATO | საქართველო და ნატო

თინათინ ხიდაშელი და იენს სტოლტენბერგი

Tinatin Khidasheli and Jens Stoltenberg

საქართველოს გზა ნატო-ს 2016 წლის ვარშავის სამიტისკენ თინათინ ხიდაშელი საქართველოს თავდაცვის მინისტრი

Georgia’s Way towards the NATO Warsaw Summit 2016 Tinatin Khidasheli Defence Minister of Georgia

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vropuli da evroatlantikuri integracia saqarTvelos sagareo da usafrTxoebis politikis uryevi prioritetia, romelsac moqalaqeTa umravlesoba mxars uWers. saqarTvelom, rogorc nato-s partniorma qveyanam, 1992 wlidan dRemde grZeli gza gamoiara. nato-sa da saqarTvelos Soris urTierTobebma intensiuri xasiaTi miiRo da miuaxlovda im mdgomareobas, romlis farglebSic ukve arsebobs konkretuli Sedegebi. mocemuli momentisTvis, aliansTan saqarTvelos TanamSromloba moicavs aucilebel rogorc politikur, ise praqtikul instrumentebs saqarTvelos Semdgomi winsvlisa da

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Georgia’s European Way October 2015

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uropean and Euro-Atlantic integration represents the enduring foreign and security policy priority of Georgia, which is supported by the overwhelming majority of its citizens.

Since 1992, Georgia as a NATO partner has come a long way, with its relations having greatly expanded, reaching a point where concrete advancements are in order. At this moment, Georgia’s cooperation with the Alliance contains both the political and practical tools necessary to further advance Georgia towards eventual membership. The decision taken at the Bucharest Summit represents a major political commitment of the Allies that


Georgia and NATO | საქართველო და ნატო aliansSi saboloo gawevrianebisTvis. buqarestis samitze miRebuli gadawyvetileba, „saqarTvelo gaxdeba nato-s wevri qveyana“, mokavSireebis umTavresi politikuri valdebulebaa, romelic kidev erTxel dadasturda nato-s samitis deklaraciebSi. saqarTvelosa da aRmosavleT evropis partniori qveynebis miswrafebebi aSkara winaaRmdegobaSia kremlis imperiul ambiciebTan. saqarTvelos 2008 wlis omi da ukrainis krizisi naTlad asaxavs ruseTis eqspansionisturi strategiis amoqmedebas da mcdelobas, aRadginos Tavisi eqskluziuri gavlenis sferoebi yofili sabWoTa kavSiris teritoriebze. ruseTi iyenebs hibriduli omis warmoebisTvis saWiro erovnuli Zalis elementebs Tavisi sagareo da usafrTxoebis politikis miznebis misaRwevad. ruseTis agresiuli politika mniSvnelovani safrTxea evropuli usafrTxoebis arqiteqturisTvis da imavdroulad, Zirs uTxris evropis erTianobis, Tavisuflebisa da mSvidobis ideas. ruseTis gamanadgurebeli qmedebebi ukrainaSi, saqarTvelos teritoriaze mimdinare „mcocavi aneqsia“ da destruqciuli CarTuloba siriaSi, dasavleTis mxridan iTxovs adekvatur pasuxs, rac Sesabamisi reagireba iqneba ruseTisgan damatebiT Seqmnil safrTxeebze. saqarTvelo evropuli demokratiis qveyanaa, romelsac, miuxedavad uamravi Sida gamowvevisa, Tavisi wvlili Seaqvs saerTo evroatlantikuri usafrTxoebis arqiteqturaSi. saqarTvelo, rogorc nato-s aspiranti qveyana da saimedo strategiuli partniori evroatlantikur regionSi, kvlav rCeba mokavSireTa Zalisxmevis erTgul saxelmwifod _ saerTaSoriso mSvidobisa da usafrTxoebis garemos uzrunvelyofisTvis. mas mniSvnelovani wvlili Seaqvs nato-s, evrokavSirisa da gaeros samSvidobo operaciebSi. saqarTvelo erT-erTi yvelaze didi kontribuciis mqone nato-s arawevri saxelmwifoa avRaneTSi, sadac qarTveli samxedro mosamsaxureebi nato-s droSis qveS amayad dganan mokavSireTa jariskacebis gverdiT. dRes Cveni samxedroebi ganagrZoben saerTo usafrTxoebis sadarajoze yofnas gadamwyveti mxardaWeris misiis dasrulebamde. Cveni qveyana, 900 samxedro mosamsaxuriT, amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis Semdeg, kontribuciis mxriv rigiT meore saxelmwifoa da gaagrZelebs avRaneli xalxis mxardaWeras nato-s gaZlierebuli mtkice partniorobis misiis farglebSi. dResdReobiT, saqarTvelos SeiaraRebuli Zalebi sargeblobs nato-sTan Tavsebadobis umaRlesi donis maCvenebliT. 12 aTasze metma qarTvelma samxedro mosamsaxurem gaiara ISAF-is misiaSi „gadasrolis wina momzadeba“ amerikeli sazRvao qveiTebis instruqtaJiT. garda amisa, saqarTvelo nato-s arawevr oTx qveyanas Soris erT-erTia, romelic nato-s swrafi reagirebis ZalebSi monawileobs, rac saqarTvelos SeiaraRebuli Zalebis mokavSireebis SeiaraRebul ZalebTan maRal Tavsebadobaze miuTiTebs. es, imavdroulad, aliansTan maRali donis Tavsebadobis naTeli dadasturebaa. saqarTve-

ევროპული და ევროატლანტიკური ინტეგრაცია საქართველოს საგარეო და უსაფრთხოების პოლიტიკის ურყევი პრიორიტეტია. European and Euro-Atlantic integration represents the enduring foreign and security policy priority of Georgia. was reiterated in subsequent NATO Summit declarations, namely that Georgia will become a member of NATO. The aspirations of Georgia and other Eastern European partner countries apparently contradict the Kremlin’s imperial ambitions. The War in Georgia in 2008 and the Ukrainian crisis clearly illustrate that Russia has resumed an expansionist strategy, which tries to restore the spheres of its exclusive influence over the former Soviet area by any means. Russia is using all elements of its country’s might in its particular approach of hybrid warfare to achieve its foreign and security policy objectives. Russia’s aggressive policy poses significant threats to the European security architecture and thus undermines the idea of a Europe Whole, Free and at Peace. Russia’s devastating actions in Ukraine, the on-going “creeping” annexation in Georgia and destructive engagement in Syria require an adequate response from the West to counter the security threats coming from Russia in light of an already-challenging security environment. Georgia is a European democracy and in spite of internal challenges, it contributes to the common Euro-Atlantic security architecture. Georgia as a NATO aspirant and as a reliable strategic partner remains strongly committed to the efforts of Allied forces in order to ensure the peace and security of the Euro-Atlantic region and beyond through considerable contributions to NATO, EU and UN-led operations. In Afghanistan, Georgia is one of the largest non-NATO contributors where its soldiers have been standing proudly beside Allied troops under the NATO flag. Today, our servicemen serve for common security goals and will continue to do so until the end of the Resolute Support Mission. Our country is the second largest troop contributor after the United States by deploying around 900 personnel on the ground and will continue to support the Afghan people in the framework of NATO’s Enhanced Enduring Partnership.

ოქტომბერი 2015 საქართველოს ევროპული გზა

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Georgia and NATO | საქართველო და ნატო

თინათინ ხიდაშელი და იენს სტოლტენბერგი

Tinatin Khidasheli and Jens Stoltenberg

los SeiaraRebuli Zalebis msubuqi qveiTi aseuli nato-s swrafi reagirebis ZalebSi monawileobs 2015-2017 wlebSi da kontribucias 2017 wlis Semdegac gaagrZelebs. aqtiurad vmonawileobT da Cveni wvlili Segvaqvs evrokavSiris krizisebis marTvis operaciebSi saerTo usafrTxoebisa da Tavdacvis politikis farglebSi. ufro metic, saqarTvelos mTavrobam gamoxata politikuri neba, monawileoba miiRos gaeros samSvidobo misiebSi, riTac kidev erTxel daadastura mtkice erTguleba da mzadyofna saerTaSoriso mSvidobisa da stabilurobis uzrunvelsayofad. saqarTvelo nato-Si integraciis gzaze ganagrZobs aliansTan praqtikuli TanamSromlobis meqanizmebis farTod gamoyenebas. nato-saqarTvelos komisiis efeqtiani funqcionirebis meSveobiT, 2008 wlis Semdeg, saqarTvelo yvela doneze kidev ufro aRrmavebs aliansTan politikur dialogs da praqtikul TanamSromlobas. saqarTvelo warmatebiT da pirnaTlad axorcielebs nakisr valdebulebebs, rac araerTgzis aRuniSnavT da amis Sesaxeb 8 oqtombers, nato-s Tavdacvis ministerialzec kidev erTxel iTqva. saqarTvelos Tavdacvis saministrom didi Zalisxmevis Sedegad uzrunvelyo saqarTvelos SeiaraRebuli Zalebis modernizacia, TavdacviTi SesaZleblobebis gaZliereba da gaaRrmava nato-sTan Tavsebadoba, ramac, Tavis mxriv, kidev ufro unda daaCqaros Cveni qveynis saboloo miznis miRwevis procesi _ saqarTvelo unda gaxdes nato-s wevri. damatebiT, saqarTvelom miaRwia mniSvnelovan progress saerTo Tavdacvis transformaciis procesSi, samxedro mosamsaxureebis profesiuli ganviTarebis TvalsazrisiT, genderTan dakavSirebul sakiTxebSi, Ta-

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Georgia’s European Way October 2015

Nowadays, the Georgian Armed Forces enjoy the highest levels of NATO interoperability than ever before. Over 12,000 Georgian military servicemen have undergone the ISAF (International Security Assistance Force) pre-deployment training under the supervision of US Marines and have participated in ISAF. In addition to our engagement in NATO-led operations, Georgia is one of four non-member countries participating in the NATO Response Force which indicates a high level of interoperability and intensive cooperation of the GAF and Allied troops. The Georgian light infantry company has contributed to the NRF 2015-2017 and will continue to do so beyond 2017. Georgia is also an active contributor to the EU crisis management operations under the auspices of the Common Security and Defence Policy. Moreover, the Government of Georgia has expressed the political will to participate in UN Peacekeeping missions that would reaffirm its strong commitment to ensuring global peace and stability. En route to NATO integration Georgia has continued its extensive use of practical cooperation mechanisms with the Alliance. Since 2008, Georgia has deepened political dialogue and practical cooperation with NATO at all levels through the efficient functioning of the NATO-Georgia Commission. Georgia is dedicated to successfully implementing its commitments that have already been praised on several occasions by NATO and its member states, including at the NATO Defence Ministerial (October 8th, 2015). The Ministry of Defence has put enormous efforts in modernizing the Georgian Armed Forces, strengthening its


Georgia and NATO | საქართველო და ნატო vdacvisa da usafrTxoebis seqtorSi gamWvirvalobasa da institucionalur mSeneblobaSi. 2014 wlis uelsis samitze saqarTvelosa da alianss Soris urTierTobebis kidev erTi mniSvnelovani nabiji aRiniSna da saqarTvelo, rogorc nato-s operaciebSi mniSvnelovani kontributori, „gaZlierebuli SesaZleblobebis partniorTa jgufSi“ miiwvies. amave samitze saqarTvelos SesTavazes nato-saqarTvelos arsebiTi paketi, romlis efeqtianad implementacia saqarTvelos moamzadebs aliansis wevrobisTvis da kidev ufro daaCqarebs Cveni qveynis integraciis process. nato-saqarTvelos arsebiTi paketi erovnuli donis prioritetia da saqarTvelos mTavroba mzad aris, moaxdinos saWiro resursebis mobilizeba, raTa paketis farglebSi arsebuli iniciativebis srulad ganxorcieleba uzrunvelyos. saqarTvelos Tavdacvis saministro Zalisxmevas ar iSurebs nato-saqarTvelos arsebiTi paketis implementaciis procesis efeqtiani marTvisTvis. Tavdacvis saministrom ukve uzrunvelyo nato-saqarTvelos paketis farglebSi 2015 wlisTvis dasaxuli umniSvnelovanesi prioritetebis ganxorcieleba, rac saqarTvelos mxridan nato-Si integraciis politikis Seuqcevadi procesis mkafio dadasturebaa. 2015 wlis 27 agvistos, nato-s generaluri mdivnis vizitisas, Cven erTad davafuZneT wvrTnisa da Sefasebis centri (JTEC). es unikaluri centri regionSi miznad isaxavs saqarTvelos aliansTan, partnior qveynebTan da mokavSireebTan Tavsebadobis gazrdas, saqarTvelos Tavdacvisunarianobis amaRlebas, Savi zRvisa da kavkasiis regionis stabilurobis uzrunvelyofaSi wvlilis Setanas. centri mokavSireebsa da partnior qveynebs mravalerovnul wvrTnebs, swavlebebs, Sefasebebsa da sertifikaciis SesaZleblobebs SesTavazebs. nato-saqarTvelos arsebiTi paketis farglebSi, 2015 wlis ivlisSi warmatebiT gaimarTa nato-saqarTvelos pirveli swavleba, Agile Spirit 2015, romelSic monawileobdnen partniori qveynebis warmomadgenlebi. nato-s erToblivi saswavlo centris daxmarebiT meore samxedro swavleba 2016 wlis noemberSi Catardeba. saqarTvelosa da nato-s Soris urTierTobebis am etapze mniSvnelovania mZlavri politikuri gzavnilebi imis dasadastureblad, rom saqarTvelo stabilurad da swori gziT moZraobs aliansis wevrobisken. amasTan, integraciis gzaze saqarTvelos xelSesaxebi progresis demonstrireba SesaZloa iqces ruseTis Zaladobrivi politikis daZlevis yvelaze efeqtian saSualebad. mxolod msgavs midgomas SeuZlia efeqturad SeaCeros ruseTis agresia da daukargos mas samezobloSi Semdgomi provokaciuli qmedebebis survili. msoflios am nawilSi grZelvadiani usafrTxoebisa da stabilurobis uzrunvelyofis erTaderTi saSualeba evroatlantikuri qolgis ganvrcobaa, romelic, Tavis mxriv, mniSvnelovan wvlils Seitans globalur usafrTxoebasa da stabilurobaSi.

defence capabilities and enhancing NATO interoperability, which in its part contributes to reaching the ultimate goal of NATO membership. Furthermore, Georgia has achieved significant progress in its overall defence transformation process, professional development of personnel, gender-related issues, transparency, and institutional building within the defence and security sector. This should serve as an efficient tool used to boost Georgia’s NATO integration process. The NATO Wales Summit in 2014 marked another important milestone in Georgia’s relations with the Alliance. Georgia as a significant contributor to NATO-led operations was invited to the Enhanced Opportunities Partners Group. Furthermore, Georgia was offered a Substantial NATO-Georgia Package designed to help it advance its preparations towards membership in the Alliance. The Substantial NATO-Georgia Package represents a national level priority and the Government of Georgia is fully committed to mobilize the necessary resources to successfully implement all Package initiatives. Georgia’s defence establishment spares no effort in effectively managing the SNGP implementation process. A year after the Wales Summit, the MoD managed to launch the implementation of the top SNGP priorities set for 2015, which reaffirms Georgia’s irreversible NATO integration policy. On 27 August 2015, through common efforts, Georgia managed to officially inaugurate the Joint Training and Evaluation Center during the visit of the NATO Secretary General. This unique Center in the region aims to increase Georgia’s interoperability with the Alliance; strengthen interoperability between Allies and partner nations; enhance Georgia’s defence capabilities and contribute to promoting regional stability in the Black Sea and Caucasus region. The Center will offer multinational trainings, exercises, evaluations, and certification opportunities for the Allies and partner countries. Under the SNGP, in July 2015, Georgia successfully conducted its first NATO-Georgia exercise open to partners called Agile Spirit 2015. The second exercise, with the support of NATO’s Joint Force Training Centre, will take place in November 2016. At this stage of NATO-Georgia relations, it is crucial to convey a strong political message that Georgia moves steadily towards the direction of irreversible membership. Therefore, demonstrating Georgia’s specific progress on its integration path can be seen as the most effective means to counter Russia’s coercive policy. Only this approach can effectively deter Russian aggression and discourage the Kremlin from taking further destabilizing actions in its neighborhood. Expanding the Euro-Atlantic umbrella is the key to ensuring long-term security and stability in the region, which will in return contribute to greater global security and stability as a whole.

ოქტომბერი 2015 საქართველოს ევროპული გზა

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Georgia and NATO | საქართველო და ნატო

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Georgia’s European Way October 2015


Georgia and NATO | საქართველო და ნატო

ვარშავის სამიტი

შემდეგი ნაბიჯი ნატო-ს წევრობისკენ მიმავალ გზაზე ალექსანდრე მაისურაძე საქართველოს მუდმივი წარმომადგენელი ჩრდილოატლანტიკურ ალიანსში

The Warsaw Summit

next step on Georgia’s NATO membership track Alexander Maisuradze Permanent Representative of Georgia to NATO

e

vropuli da evroatlantikuri integracia saqarTvelosTvis ara mxolod sagareo politikis prioriteti, aramed saerTo erovnuli arCevania, romelic mosaxleobis absoluturi umravlesobisa da mTavari politikuri Zalebis mxardaWeriTaa gamyarebuli. saqarTvelos umTavresi mizania dasavlur institutebSi srulad integrirebuli, Tanamedrove evropuli demokratiis aSeneba. saqarTvelos mosaxleoba Tavisuflebisa da demokratiis im saerTo faseulobebis erTgulia, romlebzedac dafuZnebulia evrokavSiri da nato. amasTan, saqarTvelos nato-Si gawevrianebas alternativa ar gaaCnia, radganac Crdiloatlantikuri aliansi koleqtiuri usafrTxoebis principze damyarebuli erTaderTi organizaciaa, romelsac SeuZlia maqsimalurad uzrunvelyos saqarTvelos usafrTxo da demokratiuli ganviTareba. saqarTvelo, romelic nato-s erTaderTi aspiranti qveyanaa regionSi, mtkiced axorcielebs gawevrianebis politikas mas Semdeg, rac 2002 wels oficialurad ganacxada Tavisi miswrafeba gamxdariyo aliansis wevri. am xnis ganmavlobaSi saqarTvelo mniSvnelovnad dauaxlovda nato-s rogorc instituciuri, ise samxedro Tavsebadobis TvalsazrisiT. am mxriv seriozuli progresi ukve miRweulia, Tumca samomavlo mizania imis uzrunvelyofa, rom saqarTvelom ganagrZos winsvla aliansSi gawevrianebisken. 2016 wlis ivlisSi varSava umaspinZlebs aliansis morig Sexvedras saxelmwifosa da mTavrobis meTaurebis doneze. SesaZloa, es samiti civi omis dasrulebis Semdeg erT-erT yvelaze rTul geopolitikur viTarebaSi gaimarTos. dRes nato dgas usafrTxoebis araerTi gamowvevis winaSe rogorc aRmosavleTiT, ise samxreT sazRvrebze. ukrainaSi da mis irgvliv Seqmnilma krizisma cxadyo, rom ruseTis agresiuli politika samezobloSi safrTxes uqmnis evroatlantikur usafrTxoebas.

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eorgia’s European and Euro-Atlantic integration is not only a foreign policy priority, but also a nationwide choice. It is supported by the overwhelming majority of our citizens, as well as the major political forces. The ultimate goal of Georgia is to build a modern European democracy fully integrated into the Western institutions. Citizens of Georgia strongly adhere to the shared values of freedom and democracy, which lie at the heart of these institutions. At the same time, there is no alternative to NATO membership as the North Atlantic Alliance is the only collective security organization, which can ensure the safe and democratic development of Georgia. Being the only NATO aspirant country in the region, Georgia has been irreversibly following a policy of pursuing NATO membership since formally declaring its goal to join the Alliance in 2002. In this time, Georgia has moved significantly closer to NATO both institutionally and in terms of interoperability. While much has been accomplished, one goal remains, namely to ensure that Georgia continues moving forward to become a fully-fledged member of the Alliance. In July 2016, Warsaw will host the next meeting of the Alliance at the level of heads of state and government. The Summit will take place amid arguably one of the most complex geopolitical environments since the end of the Cold War. Currently, NATO faces numerous security challenges on its borders to the East and South. Moreover, the crisis in and around Ukraine has made it clear that Russia’s aggressive policy in the neighborhood poses a threat to Euro-Atlantic security. Certainly, the changed security environment significantly affects ongoing discussions related to the Warsaw Summit agenda. While NATO integration is a performance-based process, the broader security context may influence the Allies’ decisions on Georgia

ოქტომბერი 2015 საქართველოს ევროპული გზა

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Georgia and NATO | საქართველო და ნატო rasakvirvelia, usafrTxoebis Secvlili garemo mniSvnelovan gavlenas axdens varSavis samitis dRis wesrigTan dakavSirebul diskusiebze. miuxedavad imisa, rom nato-Si integracia qveynis progresze damyarebuli procesia, SesaZloa, usafrTxoebis farTo konteqstma mokavSireebis mier saqarTvelos sakiTxze misaReb gadawyvetilebebzec iqonios gavlena. arsebuli viTareba CvenTvis erTgvari gamowvevac aris da SesaZleblobac. Sesabamisad, saqarTvelos diplomatiuri korpusi gansakuTrebul Zalisxmevas mimarTavs integraciis gzaze Semdgomi winsvlis misaRwevad. rasakvirvelia, Cveni umTavresi safiqrali da sazrunavi varSavis moaxloebuli samitia, romelic am mimarTulebiT Semdgomi winsvlis kargi SesaZleblobaa. am sakiTxze muSaoba uelsis samitis damTavrebisTanave daviwyeT, rasac kargad asaxavs nato-sa da saqarTvelos Soris aqtiuri TanamSromloba umaRles doneze. uelsis samitidan dRemde saqarTvelos prezidenti da premierministri vizitebiT ewvivnen nato-s Stab-binas, gaimarTa nato-saqarTvelos komisiis sxdoma (NGC) Tavdacvis ministrebis doneze, agreTve NGC-is Sexvedrebi generaluri Stabis ufrosisa da saqarTvelos xelisuflebis maRali rangis sxva warmomadgenlebis monawileobiT. aRsaniSnavia, rom sazafxulo ardadegebamde nato-Si erT-erTi bolo Sexvedra iyo nato-saqarTvelos komisiis sxdoma saqarTvelos parlamentis TavmjdomaresTan. TbilisSi nato-s generaluri mdivnis viziti agvistoSi da wvrTnisa da Sefasebis erToblivi centris inauguracia kidev erTxel adasturebs, rom saqarTvelo nato-s dRis wesrigis erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi sakiTxia. amasTan, saqarTvelo ganagrZobs mis xelT arsebuli integraciuli meqanizmebis, NGC-is, wliuri erovnuli programisa (ANP) da nato-saqarTvelos arsebiTi paketis (SNGP) srul da efeqtian gamoyenebas, rac saqarTvelos gawevrianebis procesSi stabilur winsvlas uzrunvelyofs. ukve dawyebulia uelsis samitze miRebuli paketis ganxorcieleba, romlis mizania xeli Seuwyos saqarTvelos wevrobisTvis momzadebaSi. paketi exmareba saqarTvelos Tavdacvisunarianobis amaRlebaSi, aliansTan Tavsebadobis SenarCunebasa da Semdgom gazrdaSi da uzrunvelyofs nato-s met CarTulobas saqarTveloSi. saqarTvelos evroatlantikuri integracia mokavSireebTan maRali donis ormxrivi konsultaciebis erT-erTi mTavari sakiTxia. imavdroulad, varSavis samitze saqarTvelosTan dakavSirebiT misaRebi SesaZlo gadawyvetilebebi aliansSi mimdinare diskusiebis drosac ganixileba. rogorc mokavSireebma uelsSi aRniSnes, nato-saqarTvelos urTierTobebi moicavs saWiro instrumentebs saqarTvelos integraciis gzaze Semdgomi winsvlisTvis. saqarTvelos mier demokratiuli reformebis procesSi miRweuli progresi, aseve, saerTo evroatlantikuri usafrTxoebis ganmtkicebaSi Setanili mniSvnelovani wvlili da mokavSire ZalebTan Tavsebadobis maRali xarisxi Semdgomi winsvlis myar safuZvels qmnis.

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Georgia’s European Way October 2015

as well. This presents both challenges and opportunities as the diplomatic corps applies maximum effort to advance Georgia’s NATO integration. Of course, we are focused on the upcoming Summit in Warsaw, which is a good opportunity to move forward in this regard. We started working in this direction immediately after the Wales Summit as demonstrated by our active interaction with the Alliance at a high level. Since the Wales Summit, both the President and the Prime Minister of Georgia have visited NATO. A Defence Ministerial meeting of the NATO–Georgia Commission (NGC) has been held, as well as NGC meetings with the participation of the Chief of Defence (CHOD) and other top government officials. It is noteworthy that one of the last sessions convened in NATO before the summer break was the NGC meeting with the Chairman of the Parliament of Georgia. The visit of the NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg in Tbilisi in August and the inauguration of the Joint Training and Evaluation Center (JTEC) is another demonstration that Georgia remains high on the NATO agenda. At the same time, we continue the full and effective use of integration mechanisms, namely NGC, Annual National Program (ANP) and the Substantial NATO–Georgia Package (SNGP), allowing us to gradually advance Georgia’s membership process. The SNGP was designed to better prepare Georgia for membership, and is already on track. It helps to develop our Defence capacity, maintain and increase interoperability with the Alliance and ensures stronger NATO engagement in Georgia. Georgia’s Euro-Atlantic integration is a key topic of all high level bilateral talks with NATO members and possible decisions regarding Georgia’s integration is a part of the ongoing discussions within the Alliance as well. As noted in Wales, Georgia's relations with NATO contain tools necessary to advance Georgia’s integration. Indeed, our progress in democratic reforms, significant contribution to common Euro-Atlantic security and ensuring a high level of interoperability with the Allied forces has laid strong foundations for further progress. Georgia today is a far more democratic and stable country than it was several years ago with strong, functioning institutions. Meanwhile, Georgia has proved to be a reliable partner of the Alliance, including through its active participation in NATO-led operations and missions. This clearly indicates that, as a future member, Georgia is capable of contributing to common EuroAtlantic security. Considering Georgia’s unwavering commitment to NATO integration, combined with its impressive record of democratic transformation, Georgian citizens naturally and legitimately have clear expectations from both the Warsaw Summit and Georgia’s NATO integration process in general. Under current and foreseeable circumstances, it is critical that the Alliance continues its open door policy. We all expect to


Georgia and NATO | საქართველო და ნატო saqarTvelo dRes bevrad ufro demokratiuli da stabiluri qveyanaa, qmediTi saxelmwifo institutebiT, vidre ramdenime wlis win iyo. amasTan, saqarTvelom nato-s operaciebsa da misiebSi aqtiuri monawileobiTac daadastura, rom aliansis sando partnioria. es naTlad metyvelebs imaze, rom saqarTvelos, rogorc nato-s momaval wevrs, Seswevs unari Tavisi wvlili Seitanos saerTo evroatlantikuri usafrTxoebis ganmtkicebaSi. saqarTvelos mier evroatlantikuri integraciis kursis ganuxreli erTgulebisa da demokratiuli gardaqmnis gzaze miRweuli STambeWdavi progresis gaTvaliswinebiT, saqarTvelos moqalaqeebs aqvT savsebiT bunebrivi da legitimuri molodini varSavis samitTan da, zogadad, nato-Si integraciis procesTan dakavSirebiT. arsebuli garemoebebis gaTvaliswinebiT, umniSvnelovanesia aliansma ganagrZos Ria karis politika. am TvalsazrisiT, veliT montenegros wevrobis sakiTxze nato-s gadawyvetilebas, romelic dekembris sagareo saqmeTa ministerialze iqneba miRebuli. montenegrosTan dakavSirebiT pozitiur gadawyvetilebas gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba aqvs saerTo evroatlantikuri usafrTxoebisTvis, radganac es gaamyarebs Ria karis politikas da, imavdroulad, damatebiT stimuls miscems mokavSireebs, miiRon konkretuli gadawyvetilebebi sxva aspirantebTan, maT Soris saqarTvelosTan dakavSirebiTac. am fonze, buqarestis samitis gadawyvetilebis Sesabamisad, varSavis samiti saukeTeso SesaZleblobas qmnis saqarTvelos evroatlantikuri integraciis procesSi Semdegi nabijisTvis. saqarTvelosTvis Semdgomi winsvla wevrobis gzaze Zlieri gzavnili iqneba Cveni regionis qveynebisTvisac, riTac kidev erTxel mkafiod dadasturdeba, rom nato sakuTari principebisa da gadawyvetilebebis erTgulia da mesame mxare ver Seaferxebs suverenuli saxelmwifoebis TanamSromlobas aliansTan. Sesabamisad, kidev erTxel aRvniSnav, rom saqarTvelos xelisuflebis umTavresi mizania TiToeuli mokavSiris darwmuneba, rom droa gadaidgas Semdegi nabiji natoSi saqarTvelos gawevrianebis gzaze. saqarTvelo mzad aris am nabijisTvis rogorc politikuri, ise praqtikuli TvalsazrisiT. vimedovnebT, rom amisTvis mzad aris aliansic. varSavis samiti evroatlantikur Tanamegobrobas aZlevs SesaZleblobas, kidev ufro dauaxlovdes saerTo mizans _ erTian, Tavisufal da mSvidobian evropas. saqarTvelos integraciis gzaze gadadgmuli Semdegi nabiji swored am mimarTulebiT iqneba gadadgmuli. nato-s generalurma mdivanma iens stoltenbergma TbilisSi vizitisas aRniSna, rom Cven gvaqvs „meti saqarTvelo nato-Si da meti nato saqarTveloSi“, rac kidev erTi naTeli demonstrirebaa imisa, rom qveyana ganagrZobs winsvlas aliansis wevrobisken mimaval gzaze.

ვარშავის სამიტი საუკეთესო შესაძლებლობას ქმნის საქართველოს ევროატლანტიკური ინტეგრაციის პროცესში შემდეგი ნაბიჯისთვის. upcoming summit in Warsaw provides us with an excellent opportunity to take the next step in Georgia’s EuroAtlantic integration

hear NATO’s decision regarding Montenegro’s membership at the December Foreign Ministerial meeting. A positive decision on Montenegro would be significant for common Euro-Atlantic security as it would reinforce the open door policy, while giving additional impetus to the Allies to take certain decisions on other aspirant countries, including Georgia. In this context, the upcoming summit in Warsaw provides us with an excellent opportunity to take the next step in Georgia’s EuroAtlantic integration, in accordance with the Bucharest summit decision. Advancing Georgia on its membership track would send a strong message to the countries of our region underlining that NATO stands by its principles and commitments. It would also reaffirm that no third party can prevent cooperation of sovereign countries with the Alliance. Accordingly, I must reiterate that it is a goal of the Government of Georgia to persuade every single ally that it is the right time to take the next step on our membership track. Georgia is ready both politically and practically to take this step. We hope that the Alliance is ready as well. The Warsaw Summit provides the EuroAtlantic community with an opportunity to come even closer to the common goal – Europe, whole, free and peaceful. The step taken on Georgia’s integration path will be a step in this direction. Secretary General Stoltenberg recently noted in Tbilisi that “there is more Georgia in NATO and more NATO in Georgia”, which demonstrates that our country continues is advancing on its way to membership of the Alliance.

ოქტომბერი 2015 საქართველოს ევროპული გზა

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Georgia and NATO | საქართველო და ნატო

ნატო და საქართველო: შემდგომი ნაბიჯი გაწევრიანებისკენ NATO-Georgia: next step towards membership

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ato-saqarTvelos urTierTobebi Tanamimdevrulad viTardeba 1992 wlidan, mas Semdeg, rac saqarTvelo gaxda Crdiloatlantikuri TanamSromlobis sabWos damfuZnebeli wevri, xolo 1994 wels SeuerTda nato-s programas -„partnioroba mSvidobisTvis“.

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Georgia’s European Way October 2015

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ATO-Georgia cooperation has been developing gradually since the early 1990s. In 1992, Georgia became a founding member of the North Atlantic Cooperation Council and in 1994 joined the Partnership for Peace program.


Georgia and NATO | საქართველო და ნატო saqarTvelo 10 wlis ganmavlobaSi rigiT partniors warmoadgenda, xolo 2002 wlidan nato-saqarTvelos urTierTobebSi axali etapi daiwyo. 2002 wlis 21-22 noembers praRaSi gamarTul nato-s samitze saqarTvelom oficialuri ganacxadi gaakeTa nato-Si gawevrianebisken swrafvis Sesaxeb da gamoTqva survili, mierTeboda partniorebisTvis Seqmnil axal programas _ partniorobis individualur samoqmedo gegmas (IPAP). 2006 wels aliansma mniSvnelovani nabiji gadadga saqarTvelosTan dakavSirebiT. niu-iorkSi gamarTul nato-s wevri qveynebis sagareo saqmeTa ministrebis Sexvedraze miiRes gadawyvetileba nato-Si gawevrianebis swrafvisa da Sesabamisi reformebis sakiTxebze saqarTvelosTan intensiuri dialogis dawyebis Sesaxeb. nato-sa da saqarTvelos Soris arsebuli TanamSromlobis procesSi mniSvnelovani sicxade Seitana 2008 wels buqarestSi gamarTulma nato-s samitma. aliansma mxari dauWira saqarTvelos nato-Si gawevrianebisken swrafvas da yovelgvari vadebis miTiTebis gareSe miiRo gadawyvetileba, rom saqarTvelo gaxdeba nato-s wevri. aliansis am gadawyvetilebam saqarTvelo formalurad ukve daayena nato-sken gawevrianebis gzaze. aRsaniSnavia, rom buqarestis samitis Semdeg nato-saqarTvelos TanamSromlobis procesSi mimdinare movlenebi qveynis nato-Si gawevrianebazea orientirebuli. nato-saqarTvelos urTierTobebi xarisxobrivad kidev ufro maRal safexurze avida nato-s 2014 wlis uelsis samitze. aliansma kidev erTxel gausva xazi, rom saqarTvelo gaxdeba nato-s wevri. amavdroulad, saTanadod Sefasda qveynis mier globaluri usafrTxoebisa da stabilurobis uzrunvelyofaSi Setanili wvlili da avstraliasTan, SvedeTTan, fineTsa da iordaniasTan erTad Cvens qveyanas gansakuTrebuli SesaZleblobebis partnioris statusi mieniWa. amasTan, saqarTvelom miiRo SeTavazeba Tavdacvisa da usafrTxoebis SesaZleblobebis ganmtkicebis iniciativaSi CarTvasTan dakavSirebiT. Tumca, uelsis samitis mTavar Sedegs saqarTvelosTvis natos arsebiTi paketi warmoadens, romelic Seicavs Zalzed mniSvnelovan elemntebs, romelTa efeqtianad ganxorcieleba moamzadebs qveyanas natoSi gawevranebisTvis, ganamtkicebs qveynis Tavdacvisunarianobas, amavdroulad, aamaRlebs regionSi stabilurobasa da usafrTxoebas. mimdinare wlis agvistoSi, natos generaluri mdivnis iens stoltenbergis viziti saqarTveloSi da nato-saqarTvelos erToblivi wvrTnisa da Sefasebis centris (JTEC) daarseba kidev erT mniSvnelovan movlenas warmoadgens saqarTvelos natoSi gawevrianebis procesSi. nato-saqarTvelos erToblivi wvrTnisa da Sefasebis centri Tavisi modalobebiT aris sruliad uni-

მიხეილ დარჩიაშვილი საქართველოს თავდაცვის მინისტრის ყოფილი მოადგილე

Mikheil Darchiashvili Former Deputy Defence Minister of Georgia

Georgia was an ordinary partner country for 10 years before 2002 when NATO and Georgia moved to a new and higher level of cooperation. At the NATO Summit in Prague, held in November 2002, Georgia made an official declaration about its NATO membership aspirations and expressed its willingness to join a new program tailored specifically for partner nations – Individual Partnership Action Plan (IPAP). In 2006, NATO took an important step forward in cooperation with Georgia. During a ministerial meeting in New York, allied foreign ministers decided to launch intensified dialogue with Georgia on membership aspirations and relevant reforms. The NATO Bucharest Summit in 2008 marked a significant breakthrough in Georgia’s NATO membership process. The Alliance endorsed Georgia’s NATO membership aspirations and, without indicating any specific dates, stated that Georgia would become a NATO member. This has apparent breakthrough put Georgia formally on a NATO membership path. NATO-Georgia cooperation moved to a qualitatively new level in 2014 at the NATO Summit in Wales. Here, the Alliance once again underlined that Georgia will become a NATO member. At the same time, Georgia’s contribution to global peace and stability was duly assessed and together with Australia, Sweden, Finland and Jordan, Georgia was included in a group of partners with enhanced opportunities. In addition, Georgia received an invitation to participate in the Defence and Related Security Capacity Building Initiative.

ოქტომბერი 2015 საქართველოს ევროპული გზა

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Georgia and NATO | საქართველო და ნატო kaluri rogorc saqarTvelosTvis, ise regionisTvis. JTEC-is mTavari amocanaa nato-s SekavSirebuli Zalebis iniciativis mxardaWera, rac aliansis wevrebsa da partniorebs Soris urTierTSekavSirebulobisa da Tavsebadobis kidev ufro amaRlebas emsaxureba. centris daarseba mniSvnelovani win gadadgmuli nabijia nato-s uelsis samitis gadawyvetilebebis Sesasruleblad. Tumca, nato-saqarTvelos erToblivi wvrTnisa da Sefasebis centris daarsebasTan erTad, mokavSireebsa da saqarTvelos mniSvnelovani Zalisxmeva marTebT qveynis teritoriaze nato-s wvrTnebis intensifikaciis mizniT. amavdroulad, mniSvnelovania arsebiTi paketiT gaTvaliswinebuli sxva elementebis srulad ganxorcieleba, maT Soris saqarTveloSi Tavdacvis institucionaluri aRmSeneblobis skolis daarseba. eWvgareSea, rom nato-saqarTvelos TanamSromlobis gaaqtiurebuli faza unda aisaxos aliansis politikur gadawyvetilebebSi nato-Si saqarTvelos gawevrianebasTan dakavSirebiT. am mxriv, Zalze mniSvnelovania 2016 wels varSavaSi dagegmili nato -s samiti, sadac, savaraudod, mniSvnelovan adgils daikavebs nato-s gafarToebis sakiTxi. uaRresad mniSvnelovania agreTve, rom gamoviyenoT yvela SesaZlebloba, upirveles yovlisa, nato-s samitamde dagegmili sagareo da Tavdacvis ministerialebi, raTa momzaddes xelsayreli garemo varSavaSi saqarTvelosTvis mniSvnelovani gadawyvetilebis misaRebad. bolo periodSi, vuaxlovdebiT ra nato-s varSavis samits, gansakuTrebiT aqtiurad ganixileba saqarTvelosTvis gawevrianebis samoqmedo gegmis (MAP) miniWebis mizanSewonilobis sakiTxi. gawevrianebis samoqmedo gegma, romelic aliansis instrumentebis kalaTaSi 1999 wlis aprilidan Cndeba, warmoadgens gawevrianebis meqanizms, romelic Sedgeba ori ZiriTadi elementisgan: 1) politikuri gzavnili imis Sesaxeb, rom qveyana gaxdeba nato-s wevri; 2) yovelwliuri erovnuli gegma _ praqtiku-

The most important deliverable of the Wales Summit for Georgia is NATO’s Substantial Package. Effective implementation of the Substantial Package will prepare Georgia for NATO membership, will enhance the Defence capabilities of the country, and positively contribute to the stability and security of Georgia and the whole region. The visit of the NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg to Georgia the and launch of the NATO–Georgia Joint Training and Evaluation Center (JTEC) in August this year is yet another important development toward Georgia’s NATO membership. The JTEC with its modalities is unique not only for Georgia, but for the whole region. One of the main objectives of the JTEC is to support the NATO Connected Force Initiative (CFI), which aims to enhance the existing high level of interconnectedness and interoperability during joint operations of allied and partner countries. The establishment of the JTEC is an important step in the process of the implementation of NATO Wales Summit decisions concerning Georgia. At the same time, the Alliance and Georgia will have to make considerable efforts to intensify NATO military exercises on the territory of Georgia. It should be underlined that effective implementation of all the elements of the substantial package is of critical importance, including establishment of the Defence Institution Building School in Georgia. It is clear that the active level of cooperation between NATO and Georgia should be adequately reflected in the political decisions of the Alliance regarding Georgia’s NATO membership. Accordingly, the upcoming NATO Warsaw Summit in 2016 will be a very important opportunity, where the enlargement issue will most likely be one of the most important topics to be addressed by the Allies. It is critically important for Georgia to use all available opportunities, particularly the NATO Foreign and Defence Ministerial meetings, in order to prepare an environment for favorable decisions concerning Georgia’s NATO membership process at the Warsaw Summit. As next year’s Warsaw Summit approaches, we witness discussions on the relevance of the Membership Action Plan (MAP) for Georgia more often.

2008 წელს ბუქარესტში გამართულმა ნატო-ს სამიტმა მიიღო გადაწყვეტილება, რომ საქართველო გახდება ნატო-ს წევრი. NATO Bucharest Summit in 2008 underlined that Georgia will become a NATO member. 20

Georgia’s European Way October 2015

MAP, which has been a part of the NATO toolbox since April 1999, is a membership instrument consisting of two key elements. First, the political decision of the Allies that the country will become a NATO member and, second, The practical mechanism known as the Annual National Plan (ANP), which helps aspirant countries to achieve interoperability with the Alliance. At the NATO Bucharest Summit a decision was made that MAP would be the next step for Georgia on its direct path to membership, however the available mechanisms in NATO–Georgia cooperation have been significantly enhanced and upgraded. These include the NATO-Georgia Commission has been established, which


Georgia and NATO | საქართველო და ნატო li instrumenti, romelic nato-Si gawevrianebamde aspirant qveyanas aliansTan Tavsebadobis miRwevaSi exmareba. aRsaniSnavia, rom miuxedavad 2008 wlis nato-s buqarestis samitis gadawyvetilebisa, rom saqarTvelos nato-Si gawevrianebis procesSi Semdegi nabiji gawevrianebis samoqmedo gegmaa (MAP), buqarestis samitidan moyolebuli mniSvnelovnad ganviTarda da xarisxobrivad amaRlda nato-saqarTvelos urTierTobebSi arsebuli instrumentebi. dafuZnda nato-saqarTvelos komisia, romelic mniSvnelovani da faseuli sakonsultacio forumia, maT Soris qveynis nato-Si gawevrianebis sakiTxebze. amavdroulad, 2009 wels, aliansma saqarTvelos SesTavaza yovelwliuri erovnuli programa, romelic SinaarsiTa da miznebiT MAP-is praqtikuli nawilia. aRniSnuls emateba nato-saqarTvelos arsebiTi paketis elementebi, saqarTvelo-nato-s samxedro komitetis samuSao gegma da dagegmvisa da mimoxilvis procesi, rac saqarTvelos nato-Si gawevrianebis process yovlismomcvel da yvela drois aspirantebisgan gansxvavebul saxes aZlevs. udavoa, rom gawevrianebis samoqmedo gegma (MAP) ar aris nato-Si gawevrianebis erTaderTi gza. am pozicias Tavad mokavSireebi iziareben. gasaTvaliswinebelia agreTve nato-s uelsis samitis deklaraciaSi mokavSireTa Sefasebebi imis Sesaxeb, rom saqarTvelo-nato-s urTierTobebi moicavs saWiro instrumentebs, raTa saqarTvelom gaagrZelos nato-Si gawevrianebisken svla _ `aRsaniSnavia, rom saqarTvelos urTierTobebi aliansTan moicavs im meqanizmebs, romlebiTac saqarTvelos SeuZlia miaRwios saboloo mizans _ natoSi gawevrianebas~. Sesabamisad, zemoaRniSnuli instrumentebi, nato-s buqarestis samitis gadawyvetilebasTan erTad, rom saqarTvelo gaxdeba nato-s wevri, iZleva srul safuZvels ganvacxadoT, rom MAP-ma rogorc politikuri, ise praqtikuli TvalsazrisiT saqarTvelosTvis relevanturoba dakarga. nato-saqarTvelos mimdinare TanamSromlobis maRali xarisxis, qveynis mier evropul da evroatlantikur stabilurobis saqmeSi Setanili wvlilisa da aRmosavleT evropaSi arsebuli usafrTxoebis gamowvevebis gaTvaliswinebiT, darwmunebuli var, rom nato-Si saqarTvelos gawevrianebis procesSi gadasadgmeli momdevno nabijs wevrobis sakiTxebze molaparakebebis (Accession Talks) dawyeba warmoadgens _ process, romlis dasrulebis Semdegac aspiranti qveyana formalurad nato-s wevri xdeba. aRniSnul sakiTxze natos 28 wevr qveyanas Soris konsensusi unda Sedges. amdenad saqarTvelom Zalisxmeva ar unda daiSuros, raTa e.w. „saSinao davalebis“ efeqtiani SesrulebiT xeli Seuwyos alisnsSi konsensusis miRwevis process, romlis mTavar samiznes 2016 wels varSavaSi dagegmili natos samiti unda warmoadgendes.

დარწმუნებული ვარ, რომ ნატო-ში საქართველოს გაწევრიანების პროცესში გადასადგმელი მომდევნო ნაბიჯი წევრობის საკითხებზე მოლაპარაკებების დაწყებაა. I am confident that the next step in Georgia’s NATO membership process will be invitation to start accession talks on membership. is an effective forum for consultations, including on the issues of Georgia’s NATO membership. At the same time, in 2009, the Alliance has offered Georgia an Annual National Program (ANP), which constitutes the practical element of the MAP considering its content and purpose. In addition, NATO’s Substantial Package for Georgia, the NATO-Georgia Military Committee work plan as well as the Planning and Review Process (PARP), makes Georgia’s NATO membership process exclusively comprehensive and different from all other NATO aspirant countries. Certainly, MAP is not the sole path towards NATO membership – position widely shared among NATO Allies. At the same time, wording of the Wales Summit Declaration clearly underlines that “... Georgia's relationship with the Alliance contains the tools necessary to continue moving Georgia forward towards eventual membership”. All of the above listed instruments, together with NATO Bucharest Summit decision that Georgia will become a NATO member gives me the confident to state that MAP as an instrument has lost its political and practical relevance for Georgia. Taking into account the current level of ongoing cooperation between NATO and Georgia, Georgia’s contribution to European and Euro Atlantic stability as well as security challenges in Eastern Europe, I am confident that the next step in Georgia’s NATO membership process should be the invitation to start accession talks on membership – a process after which the aspirant country becomes a formal member of the Alliance. Of course, the decision to launch accession talks between NATO and Georgia requires consensus among all 28 members. Needless to say that, Georgia should spare no efforts to facilitate consensus building process within the Alliance through effective implementation of the “home work” targeting 2016 NATO Summit in Warsaw.

ოქტომბერი 2015 საქართველოს ევროპული გზა

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Georgia and EU | საქართველო და ევროკავშირი

საქართველოს ევროპული გზა

დავით ბაქრაძე ევროპულ და ევროატლანტიკურ სტრუქტურებში ინტეგრაციის საკითხებში სახელმწიფო მინისტრი

Georgia`s European Way David Bakradze State Minister of Georgia on European and Euro-Atlantic Integraion

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aTumis yovelwliuri konferencia „saqarTvelos evropuli gza“ mniSvnelovan adgils ikavebs evropis kontinentze regularulad gamarTul konferenciebs Soris. is ara mxolod uzrunvelyofs saqarTvelos evroatlantikuri integraciisa da regionuli usafrTxoebis sakiTxTa sistemur ganaxlebas, aramed qarTvel politikosTa da maRali Tanamdebobis pirTa, evrokavSiris institutebisa da wevri saxelmwifoebis, arasamTavrobo seqtorisa da biznesis warmomadgenlTa Sexvedris adgilia. konferenciis msvlelobisas Cven SevecadeT mogvexdina qarTuli stumarTmoyvareobis demonstrireba SesaniSnavi qarTuli RviniTa da samzareuloTi. es mniSvnelovanwilad ganapiroba qalaqma baTumma, romelic saukeTesoa amgvari RonisZiebis gasamarTavad da sadac didebuli SesaZleblobebia rogorc saqmiani SexvedrebisTvis, ise dasasveneblad. mimdinare wlis ivnisis konferencia mieZRvna aRmosavleT partniorobis rigis samitis Sedegebsa da evrokavSirsa da saqarTvelos Soris dadebul asocirebis SeTanxmebis im-

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Georgia’s European Way October 2015

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he annual Batumi Conference ‘Georgia`s European Way’ has become a regular event on the European conference landscape. The Conference not only provides a systematic update on Georgia’s path to Euro -Atlantic integration and regional security issues, but also brings together politicians and senior officials from Georgia, EU institutions and Member States as well as representatives from nongovernmental and business sectors. The high level of turnout may also be due to the fact that Batumi is a wonderful location for a conference, with great facilities for meetings and leisure. During the Conference we try to demonstrate true Georgian hospitality with a mix of great food and Georgian wines. The conference is usually addressed by members of Georgia’s government and parliament. This year's conference in June focused on the outcomes of the Eastern Partnership Riga Summit and the implementation of the EU-Georgia Association Agreement, including the DCFTA. It also covered the geopolitical situation in the region, notably Russia’s aggression in Ukraine.


Georgia and EU | საქართველო და ევროკავშირი

კონფერენცია "საქართველოს ევროპული გზა"

Conference Georgia`s European Way

plementaciis sakiTxebs. asocirebis SeTanxmeba Rrma da yovlismomcveli Tavisufali savaWro sivrcis Sesaxeb SeTanxmebasac (DCFTA) moicavs. konferenciis msvlelobisas, aseve ganxilul iqna regionis geopolitikuri viTareba, kerZod _ ruseTis agresia ukrainaSi. 2014 wels xelmowerili asocirebis SeTanxmeba iyo mniSvnelovani etapi saqarTvelosTvis evrokavSirSi integraciisken mimaval gzaze. SeTanxmeba ZiriTadad qveynis modernizaciis samoqmedo gegmaa, igi uzrunvelyofs demokratiuli institutebis gaZlierebasa da ekonomikuri zrdis xelSewyobas. asocirebis Sesaxeb SeTanxmeba Slis sruliad axal Tvalsawiers evrokavSirisa da saqarTvelos urTierTobaSi. es TavisTavad ar aris procesis dasasruli, piriqiT, es aris Zalian mniSvnelovani etapis dasawyisi. asocirebis SeTanxmebis xelmoweriT, romelic moicavs Rrma da yovlismomcveli Tavisufali savaWro sivrcis Sesaxeb SeTanxmebas, saqarTvelom mniSvnelovani nabiji gadadga da amiT qveynis evrointegracia, rogorc sagareo politikuri prioriteti, Sida politikis prioritetad aqcia. reformebi iTvaliswinebs evrokavSirTan politikur asocirebas da Tanamimdevrul ekonomikur integracias, rac qveynis evropeizaciis process Seuqcevads xdis. es Cveni xalxis istoriuli arCevania da saqarTvelos mTavroba mzad aris daaCqaros evrokavSirTan integraciis dRis wesrigiT gaTvaliswinebuli reformebi. konferenciis msvlelobisas evrokavSiris liderebma xazi gausves asocirebis SeTanxmebisa da Rrma da yo-

2014 წელს ხელმოწერილი ასოცირების შეთანხმება იყო მნიშვნელოვანი ეტაპი საქართველოსთვის signing of the Association Agreement in 2014 was an important milestone for Georgia The signing of the Association Agreement in 2014 was an important milestone for Georgia on its path to EU membership. The Agreement is essentially a modernisation action plan, providing an opportunity to strengthen democratic institutions and promote economic growth. The Association Agreement brings a new horizon to EU-Georgia relations. This is not an end in itself - rather it is just the beginning of a highly important process. By signing the AA and DCFTA, Georgia crossed an important line taking EU integration from the realm of foreign to domestic policy. The reforms envisage a political alignment and gradual economic integration with the EU that will make the Europeanization of our country irreversible. This

ოქტომბერი 2015 საქართველოს ევროპული გზა

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Georgia and EU | საქართველო და ევროკავშირი

როზენ პლევნელიევი, ბულგარეთის პრეზიდენტი

Rosen Plevneliev, President of Bulgaria

vlismomcveli Tavisufali savaWro sivrcis Sesaxeb SeTanxmebis efeqtianad ganxorcielebis mniSvnelobas saqarTvelosTvis. marTlac, Rrma da yovlismomcveli Tavisufali savaWro sivrcis Sesaxeb SeTanxmebis amoqmedebis Sedegebi ukve sagrZnobia: 2015 wlis pirveli 6 Tvis registrirebuli monacemebiT, qarTuli eqsportis zrdis maCvenebeli 12 procentia. is SesaZleblobebi, romlebsac Rrma da yovlismomcveli Tavisufali savaWro sivrcis Sesaxeb SeTanxmeba iZleva, mniSvnelovanwilad ganpirobebulia saqarTveloSi arsebuli biznesgaremoTi, romelic msoflioSi erT-erT saukeTesod aris aRiarebuli. amas adasturebs isic, rom msoflio bankma saqarTvelos mianiWa me-15 adgili saukeTeso biznesgaremos mqone qveynebis reitingSi, rac biznesis warmoebis simartives gulisxmobs. Heritage Foundation-ma saqarTvelos 22-e adgili mianiWa msoflios Tavisufal ekonomikaTa reitingSi, xolo evropis rekonstruqciisa da ganviTarebis bankma ivnisSi daafiqsira mcire, magram stabiluri ekonomikuri zrda saqarTveloSi. amis gaTvaliswinebiT, baTumis yovelwliuri konferencia „saqarTvelos evropuli gza“ imavdroulad aris forumi, sadac saqarTvelos biznesseqtors eZleva pirdapiri komunikaciis saSualeba rogorc evrokavSiris warmomadgenlebTan, ise qarTvel politikosebTan. naTelia, rom DCFTA-s potenciuri sargeblis misaRebad saqarTvelos mTavrobam unda gaagrZelos mniSvnelovani reformebis ganxorcieleba sxvadasxva mimarTulebiT. ivlisSi, TbilisSi vizitis dros, aRniSnuli daadastura evrosabWos prezidentma donald tuskmac, romelmac ganacxada: „saqarTvelo-evrokavSiris urTierTobebi mtkicea da Cven viziarebT saerTo xedvas imis Sesaxeb, Tu ra unda gakeTdes“. evrokavSiri mzadaa daexmaros saqarTvelos yvela mimarTulebiT, raTa qveyanam SeZlos maqsimaluri sargeblis miReba asocirebis xelSekrulebidan, iseve rogorc Rrma da yovlismomcveli Tavisufali vaWrobis sivrcis Sesaxeb SeTanxmebidan. baTumSi msgavsi gzavnilebi movismineT aRmosavleT evropis im saxelmwifoebis warmomadgenlebisganac, ro-

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Georgia’s European Way October 2015

კონფერენცია "საქართველოს ევროპული გზა"

Conference Georgia`s European Way

is our people’s historic choice and the government is fully committed to further accelerating reforms across the EU integration agenda. EU leaders have continually stressed that the effective implementation of the AA and DCFTA would be vital for Georgia. And indeed, the DCFTA is already yielding tangible results for the Georgian economy: in the first six months of 2015 alone, Georgian exports have registered a 12% growth rate. The opportunities offered by the DCFTA are particularly positive thanks to Georgia’s business environment, which is recognised as one of the best in the world: the World Bank ranks Georgia 15th worldwide in its ease of Doing Business rankings; the Heritage Foundation ranks Georgia as the 22nd Freest economy in the world; and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development in June affirmed timid, but stable, growth for Georgia, in a region that is experiencing economic deceleration. With this in mind, the annual Batumi Conference is also designed as a forum in which Georgian businesses can interact directly with EU stakeholders and Georgian politicians. Yet, it is clear that in order to fully unlock the potential benefits of the DCFTA, Georgia must continue to implement its substantial reform agenda. This was confirmed during the President of the European Council, Donald Tusk’s visit to Tbilisi in July 2015, where he stated that "EU-Georgia relations are strong and we share a common view of what needs to be done". The EU is committed in helping Georgia in every way to benefit from the AA and DCFTA; however Georgia must manage much heavy lifting itself in order to achieve this. A similar message was passed in Batumi by speakers from Eastern Europe, many of whom had actually piloted similar reforms in their own parliaments. The Marshal of the Polish Senate, Bogdan Borusewicz, was warmly applauded when he stated that “the door to the European Union should be open for Georgia and for any country that satisfies the relevant criteria”. Of course, opening the door for Georgia means first and foremost opening the door for Georgian citizens, who are overwhelmingly in support of the EU and Georgia’s path towards it. This is why


Georgia and EU | საქართველო და ევროკავშირი melTa didma nawilma analogiuri reformebi sakuTar qveyanaSi ukve ganaxorciela. poloneTis senatis marSalma bogdan boruSevicma mxurvale taSi daimsaxura, rodesac ganacxada: „evrokavSiris kari Ria unda iyos saqarTvelosTvis da agreTve yvela im qveynisTvis, romlebic akmayofileben Sesabamis kriteriumebs“. cxadia, rom saqarTvelosTvis gaRebuli kari upirvelesad niSnavs Ria kars saqarTvelos moqalaqeebisTvis, mosaxleobis im didi umravlesobisTvis, romelic mxars uWers saqarTvelos evrokavSirisken aRebul gezs. swored amitom, saqarTvelos mTavroba gansakuTrebul yuradRebas uTmobs evrokavSirTan vizis liberalizaciis sakiTxs. didi xnis molodinis Semdeg, Cven mivesalmebiT mimdinare wlis 8 maiss gamoqveynebul evrokomisiis angariSs, romelSic xazgasmiTaa aRniSnuli _ drois am mcire monakveTSi „saqarTvelos aqvs mniSvnelovani progresi da misi Sedegebi Seesabameba meore etapis dasawyebad gansazRvrul kriteriumebs. igi TanxvedraSia „viza liberalizaciis samoqmedo gegmis“ meore etapTan“. rigis samitis daskvnebi kidev ufro aZlierebs Cvens molodins, rom saqarTvelos Semdgom nabijebsac warmatebulad Seafaseben. baTumis konferencia rigis samitidan erTi Tvis Semdeg gaimarTa. es iyo pirveli SemTxveva, rodesac saqarTvelos pirvel pirebs, biznesseqtoris warmomadgenlebsa da arasamTavrobo organizaciebs hqondaT saSualeba, Sexvedrodnen evrokavSiris pirvel pirebs, raTa rigis samitis Sedegebis gaTvaliswinebiT saqarTvelos samomavlo perspeqtivebze emsjelaT. konferencia warimarTa ormxrivi Sexvedrebis reJimSi da piradad me momeca SesaZlebloba mesaubra vizis liberalizaciis sakiTxze, razec evrokavSiris institutebisa da wevri qveynebis warmomadgenlebis mxridan mtkice mxardaWera miviReT. regionuli usafrTxoeba da ukrainaSi rusuli agresiis sakiTxi iyo baTumis konferenciis kidev erTi ZiriTadi Tema. qarTvelma momxseneblebma TavianT gamosvlebSi aRniSnes, rom maTi qveyanac dazaralda 2008 wels moskovis mier ganxorcielebuli agresiis dros. samxreTi oseTi da afxazeTi ruseTma faqtobrivi kontrolis qveS moaqcia da viTareba am mxriv dRemde ar Secvlila. rusuli propaganda sul ufro da ufro Zlierdeba. amitomac, monawileebis azriT, gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania strategiuli komunikaciis mimarTulebiT TanamSromloba. saqarTvelo ganagrZobs reformebs sakuTari kanonmdeblobisa da mmarTvelobis evropul standartebTan Sesabamisobis uzrunvelsayofad da amis paralelurad mniSvnelovania, rom teqnikuri cvlilebebi daukavSirdes ufro farTo sagareo ambiciebs. am mxriv, „saqarTvelos evropuli gza“ aris RonisZieba, romelic yvela dainteresebul mxares _ evrokavSirs, saqarTvelos, biznesseqtoris warmomadgenlebsa da samoqalaqo sazogadoebas aZlevs SesaZleblobas, Seafason wlidan wlamde evrointegraciis mimarTulebiT miRweuli progresi. amgvarad, ukve 12 welia saqarTvelo Tanamimdevrulad ganagrZobs svlas evropul da evroatlantikur organizaciebSi integraciis gzaze.

DCFTA-ს პოტენციური სარგებლის მისაღებად საქართველოს მთავრობამ უნდა გააგრძელოს მნიშვნელოვანი რეფორმების განხორციელება. in order to fully unlock the potential benefits of the DCFTA, Georgia must continue to implement its substantial reform agenda. the Government of Georgia places so much emphasis on visa liberalisation. We welcomed on 8 May the publication of a longawaited European Commission report, which recognised that “Georgia's progress has been significant in a short period of time and is broadly in line with the second-phase benchmarks” of the Visa Liberalisation Action Plan. The conclusions of the Riga Summit in May further strengthened Georgia`s position on expecting a positive decision on the next step. Held just one month after Riga, the Batumi conference was the first time Georgian leaders, business representatives and NGOs could meet EU leaders to discuss the outcomes of Riga from a Georgian perspective. In a series of bilateral meetings held on the side-lines of the event, I had the opportunity to raise the issue of visa liberalisation with representatives of EU institutions, Member States and beyond, and was pleased to hear strong support for visa liberalisation. The other major theme at this year’s Batumi conference was of course regional security and how to respond to Russian aggression against Ukraine. Georgian speakers pointed out that their country had also suffered from Moscow’s aggression in 2008: South Ossetia and Abkhazia were still under effective Russian control and the situation was not improving. With increased Russian propaganda dominating discussions, participants underlined the importance of cooperation on strategic communication issues. As Georgia pushes forward reforms to bring its legislation and governance in line with European standards, it is important to tie the technical changes we implement into our broader ambitions. ‘Georgia’s European way’ is an annual event which allows stakeholders on all sides – the EU, Georgia, business, civil society – to take a step back and review progress on a yearly basis. As such, for already 12 years, Georgia has been committed to ensuring consistency and continuity in its endeavours on its Euro-Atlantic path.

ოქტომბერი 2015 საქართველოს ევროპული გზა

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Georgia’s European Way October 2015


Georgia and EU | საქართველო და ევროკავშირი


Georgia and EU | საქართველო და ევროკავშირი

გიედრიუს პუოჯუნასი ლიტვის რესპუბლიკის საგანგებო და სრულუფლებიანი ელჩი საქართველოში

Giedrius Puodžiūnas Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the Republic of Lithuania to Georgia

გიედრიუს პუოჯუნასი: თავისუფლებისთვის ყოველდღე უნდა იბრძოლო

p

irvelad saqarTvelos zustad 12 wlis win vewvie. Cemi stumroba samuSao vizitis farglebSi ganxorcielda, Tumca pirvelma STabeWdilebam da emociebma waruSleli kvali datova. saqarTvelos meored ramdenime Tvis win, gvian gazafxulze vestumre. saSualeba mqonda quTaisidan Tbilisisken mimaval gzaze saqarTvelos gasaocar bunebas gavcnobodi. saqarTveloSi elCad mimdinare wlis zafxulSi Camovedi. orTvianma dinamikurma da intensiurma saqmianobam, megobrulma da nayofierma Sexvedrebma sxvadasxva mxareSi _ qarTlSi, raWaSi, guriasa da aWaraSi _ qarTveli xalxis stumarTmoyvareoba, adamianebs Soris urTierToba da gulaxdiloba damanaxva. gasaocaria saqarTvelos regionebis unikaluroba, individualoba da tradiciebis mravalferovneba, rac TiToeul mxares axasiaTebs. nanaxma me da Cems ojaxs sxvadasxva qveyanaSi mogzaurobis SegrZneba dagvi-

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tova. gamonaklisi ar viqnebi, Tu qarTul stumarTmoyvareobasa da ugemrieles qarTul samzareulos vaxseneb, rac mdidari qarTuli kulturis ganuyreli nawilia. rodesac saqarTvelosa da litvis urTierTobaze vsaubrobT, pirveli, rac azrad momdis, aris is, Tu ra aqvs saerTo or qveynas, romlebic dedamiwis sxvadasxva kuTxeSi mdebareobs. Tu gadaxedavT Cveni urTierTobebis istorias, naxavT, rom Cvens qveynebs Zveli da uaxlesi istoriiT Zalian bevri aqvT saerTo. Cvenma erebma bevri ram gawires sakuTari teritoriis, kulturisa da erovnuli identobis SesanarCuneblad. Tavisufleba boZebuli rodia, misTvis yoveldRe unda ibrZolo, is yovel wams unda daicva. Tavisuflebis wyurvili aris Cvens erebs Soris arsebuli gansakuTrebuli urTierTobis umTavresi safuZveli. litva mtkiced uWers mxars saqarTvelos evropul da evroatlantikur integracias da mzad aris daexmaros saqarTvelos am gzaze. misasalmebelia Tqveni qveynis Tavdadeba da erTguleba arCeuli miznis mimarT. saqarTvelom mokle droSi did warmatebebs miaRwia. Tavdajerebuloba, saimedooba da simtkice saqarTvelos warmatebuli momavlis sawindaria. evrokavSirTan asocirebis Sesaxeb SeTanxmebis xelmoweram, romelic aseve gulisxmobs Rrma da yovlismomcvel Tavisufal savaWro sivrces, saqarTvelos ukve moutana pirveli Sedegebi. importi saqarTvelodan litvaSi, iseve rogorc evrokavSiris sxva qveynebSi, SesamCnevad gaizarda. darwmunebuli var, rom Cven aucileblad SevinarCunebT intensiur urTierTobas, romelic saerTo faseulobebs, globalur interesebsa da Cvens erebs Soris Zlier kavSirs efuZneba. litva yovelTvis dauWers mxars saqarTvelos suverenitetsa da teritoriul mTlianobas saerTaSorisod aRiarebuli sazRvrebis farglebSi.


Georgia and EU | საქართველო და ევროკავშირი

Giedrius Puodžiūnas: one has to fight for Freedom every day

I

first visited Georgia 12 years ago. It began as a working visit, but the first impressions and emotions left an indelible footprint in my heart. I paid my second visit to Georgia late in spring this year. A road trip from Kutaisi to Tbilisi gave me the chance to once again enjoy the landscape of Georgia’s amazing nature. I resumed my duties as the Ambassador of Lithuania to Georgia this summer. Two months of dynamic and intensive activities and friendly and fruitful meetings not only in Tbilisi but also in the regions (Khashuri, Racha, Guria and Adjara) made me realise how interpersonal relations, the appreciation of honesty and unbeatable hospitality are so important for the Georgian people. The individuality and diversity of traditions, characterizing each region of Georgia made me and my entire family feel as if we were travelling from country to country. I will not be an exception in giving praise to Georgian hospitality and delicious cuisine, which is an integral part of Georgia’s rich culture. When we speak about relations between Georgia and Lithuania, perhaps the first thing that comes to mind is what these two countries, located in different parts of the world, could have in common. However, if we take a good look at the history of our relations, we will see that our countries share old and new historical ground. Our nations have sacrificed a lot to maintain our lands, culture and national identities. Freedom is not granted, one has to fight for it every day and defend it at every moment. A thirst for freedom is at the core of the unique relationship shared between our nations.

Lithuania strongly supports Georgia's aspiration for Euro-Atlantic integration and is assisting Georgia in this ambition and we welcome Georgia’s dedication and commitment. Georgia has made huge steps forward in a very short period of time. Self-confidence, reliability and determination are crucial to Georgia’s further success. The signing of the Association Agreement with the EU, which also includes the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area, has already brought initial results to Georgia. For instance, imports from Georgia to Lithuania, as well as to other EU countries, have increased noticeably. I will do my best to maintain an intense relationship based on common values, global interests and ties between our nations. Lithuania will always support Georgia's sovereignty and territorial integrity within its internationally recognized borders.

ოქტომბერი 2015 საქართველოს ევროპული გზა

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Georgia and EU | საქართველო და ევროკავშირი

ევროკავშირის საზღვრისპირა თანამშრომლობის ინიციატივა: არსებული თანამშრომლობა და წარმატებული მაგალითები რომან კაკულია

დავით ბუჯიაშვილი

ევროპულ და ევროატლანტიკურ სტრუქტურებში ინტეგრაციის საკითხებში სახელმწიფო მინისტრის აპარატის ევროკავშირის დახმარების კოორდინაციის დეპარტამენტის უფროსი

ევროპულ და ევროატლანტიკურ სტრუქტურებში ინტეგრაციის საკითხებში სახელმწიფო მინისტრის აპარატის ევროკავშირის დახმარების კოორდინაციის დეპარტამენტის უფროსის მოადგილე

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Georgia’s European Way October 2015


Georgia and EU | საქართველო და ევროკავშირი

EU Cross-Border Cooperation Programme: Ongoing Cooperation and Success Stories Roman Kakulia

Head of the EU Asssistance Coordination Department, Office of the State Minister of Georgia on European and Euro-atlantic Integration

David Bujiashvili

Deputy Head of the EU Asssistance Coordination Department, Office of the State Minister of Georgia on European and Euro-atlantic Integration

ოქტომბერი 2015 საქართველოს ევროპული გზა

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2

014 wels asocirebis SeTanxmebis xelmoweriT saqarTvelos urTierTobebi evrokavSirTan Tvisebrivad axal etapze gadavida. evrointegracia gaxda qveynis saSinao da sagareo politikis ganuyofeli nawili, rac safuZvlad daedo evropuli transformaciis gzaze mimdinare reformebis ganxorcielebas, maT Soris _ erovnuli kanonmdeblobis harmonizaciasa da erovnuli standartebis daaxloebas evrokavSiris saukeTeso gamocdilebasTan. asocirebis SeTanxmebis implementaciis procesSi mniSvnelovani roli eniWeba evrokavSiris finansur daxmarebas, romelic saqarTvelos demokratiuli reformebis warmatebis kvalobaze yovelwliurad izrdeba. amasTanave, saqarTvelosTvis xelmisawvdomi xdeba evrokavSiris ufro farTo da mravlismomcveli daxmarebis araerTi iniciativa. amJamad evrokavSiris daxmarebis ZiriTadi nawili xorcieldeba erovnuli _ ormxrivi daxmarebis programebis saSualebiT, romlebic miznad isaxavs saeqsperto da teqnikur daxmarebas, aseve sabiujeto daxmarebas asocirebis SeTanxmebisa da misi Semadgeneli Rrma da yovlismomcveli Tavisufali vaWrobis komponentis (DCFTA) ganxorcielebaSi CarTuli uwyebebis mxardasaWerad. aseve, saqarTvelo monawileobs evrokavSiris sxvadasxva regionul iniciativaSi energetikis (INOGATE), transportisa (TRACECA) da garemosdacviT sferoebSi, xolo evrokavSiris Tematuri programebi (ERASMUS+, HORIZON 2020), ZiriTadad, mimarTulia ganaTlebis, axalgazrdobis, sportis, mecnierebisa da inovaciebis sferoSi TanamSromlobis mxardasaWerad. aRniSnuli tradiciuli daxmarebis instrumentebis garda, evrokavSiris daxmarebis erT-erTi met-naklebad axali da inovaciuri mimarTulebaa sazRvrispira TanamSromlobis (CBC) programebi, romlebmac xeli unda Seuwyos evrokavSiris qveynebsa da mis mezobel saxelmwifoebs Soris regionuli TanamSromlobis ganviTarebas. saqarTvelo Tavisi geografiuli mdebareobis gaTvaliswinebiT monawileobs Savi zRvis auzis sazRvrispira TanamSromlobis programaSi (BSCBC), romelSic CarTulia rva qveyana (saqarTvelo, rumineTi, bulgareTi, saberZneTi, TurqeTi, ukraina, moldova da somxeTi) da miznad isaxavs arasamTavrobo organizaciebis, universitetebisa da regionuli warmomadgenlobebis (municipalitetebi) doneze TanamSromlobis ganviTarebas. 2014-2020 wlebis periodSi, BSCBC programis biujeti rva monawile qveynisTvis ormoci mln. evroa da misi ZiriTadi prioritetebia turizmi, garemos dacva, ganaTleba, kultura da mcire biznesis mxardaWera. am programis farglebSi proeqtebis dafinanseba xorcieldeba konkursebis safuZvelze, romlebic periodulad cxaddeba programis vebgverdze (http://www.blacksea-cbc.net/).

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Georgia’s European Way October 2015

B

y signing the Association Agreement in 2014, the level of Georgia’s relations with the EU reached a qualitative new high. In the process, European integration became an integral part of the country’s domestic policy creating a solid basis for the implementation of reforms including harmonization of the national legislation and standards with EU best practices. EU assistance to Georgia plays a crucial role in the process of implementation of the Association Agreement and its related reforms. In light of successful implementation of democratic reforms, the amount of this assistance is annually increasing as new and more comprehensive EU assistance instruments become available for Georgia. Currently, the majority of the EU assistance is implemented through national (bilateral) programmes aimed at providing expertise and technical assistance as well as budgetary support to the Georgian state institutions involved in the implementation of the Association Agreement and its integral Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area (DCFTA) component. Moreover, Georgia participates in different EU regional initiatives in the fields of energy (INOGATE), transport (TRACECA) and environment. Georgian organizations are actively involved in the EU thematic instruments (ERASMUS+, HORIZON 2020) targeted on strengthening cooperation in the areas of education, youth, sports, science and innovation. In addition to the abovementioned traditional assistance instruments, one relatively new and innovative avenue of EU assistance is the Cross-Border Cooperation (CBC) programmes which are focused on the enhancement of regional relations between the EU and its neighbourhood. Accordingly, Georgia participates in the Black Sea Basin CBC programme that unites eight participating countries (Georgia, Romania, Bulgaria, Greece, Turkey, Ukraine, Moldova and Armenia) and aims to enhance relations at the levels of local selfgovernance organisations (municipalities), NGOs and universities.

ასოცირების შეთანხმების იმპლემენტაციის პროცესში მნიშვნელოვანი როლი ენიჭება ევროკავშირის ფინანსურ დახმარებას. EU assistance to Georgia plays a crucial role in the process of implementation of the Association Agreement


Georgia and EU | საქართველო და ევროკავშირი amJamad dasrulebulia programis pirveli faza (2007-2013 ww.), romelSic warmatebiT monawileobdnen organizaciebi saqarTvelodan. specifikuri da saqarTvelosTvis axali saproeqto ganacxadis momzadebisa da wardgenis procedurebis miuxedavad, am organizaciebma warmatebiT moipoves ormocdaaTamde proeqtis dafinanseba BSCBC programis farglebSi. dafinansebuli proeqtebis umravlesoba, daaxloebiT oTxmoci procenti, modis arasamTavrobo seqtorze, Tumca dafinansebis mopoveba aseve SeZles quTaisisa da Coxatauris municipalitetebma, iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetma da ilias saxelobis universitetma. mTlianobaSi, BSCBC programiT dafinansebuli proeqtebis farglebSi dasaqmda daaxloebiT orasi qarTveli eqsperti, gaimarTa samocdaaTamde seminari da sxvadasxva saxis regionaluri Sexvedra rogorc saqarTveloSi, ise sxva monawile qveynebSi qarTveli eqspertebis aqtiuri monawileobiT. BSCBC programis warmatebuli proeqtebia:  „narCenebis marTvis inovaciuri meTodebis danergva saqarTvelos, moldovasa da somxeTis SerCeul qalaqebSi“. igi miznad isaxavs narCenebis marTvis Tanamedrove meTodebis danergvas da am mxriv evropuli gamocdilebis gaziarebas. proeqtis ganxorcielebaSi CarTulia oTxi qveynis (saqarTvelo, moldova, somxeTi da rumineTi) Svidi partniori organizacia, maT Soris saqarTvelos mxridan _ quTaisis municipaliteti da arasamTavrobo organizacia „imereTis mecnierTa kavSiri speqtri“. proeqti xorcieldeba quTaisSi da ukve arsebobs TvalsaCino Sedegebi. kerZod, proeqtis farglebSi quTaisSi dainerga plastmasis narCenebis daxarisxebuli Segroveba, risTvisac damontaJda asi specialuri konteineri (separirebuli) plastmasis narCenebis Sesagroveblad. aRsaniSnavia, rom saqarTveloSi, da kerZod quTaisSi, municipalur doneze pirvelad dainerga msgavsi evropuli gamocdileba, rasac sawyis etapze eqsperimentis xasiaTi hqonda, Tumca igi aSkarad warmatebiT ganxorcielda, moqalaqeebma gamoavlines maRali TviTSegneba da aqtiurad CaerTnen plastmasis narCenebis Segrovebis procesSi. Tumca, unda aRiniSnos isic, rom amas win uZRoda intensiuri saganmanaTleblo da sainformacio kampania narCenebis marTvis Tanamedrove meTodebisa da plastmasis narCenebis daxarisxebuli Segrovebis popularizaciis mizniT. Catarda trening-seminarebi sxvadasxva samizne jgufisTvis, momzadda da gavrcelda mravali publikacia, sainformacio masala, Seiqmna videoklipi da sxva. aRsaniSnavia, rom proeqtSi monawile qalaqebic daZmobildnen. kerZod, 2015 wlis 20 ivliss quTaisSi gamarTul proeqtis daskvniT konferenciaze qalaqebis _ quTaisisa da ungenis (moldova) merebs Soris gaformda SeTanxmeba TanamSromlobis Sesaxeb. 2015

The budget for all countries of the BSCBC programme is 40 million euros and focuses on the following priorities: Tourism, environment, education, culture and support to SMEs. Projects are awarded under the programme through calls for proposals which are periodically published on the BSCBC programme web-site: http://www.blacksea-cbc.net/. Georgian beneficiaries successfully participated in the first phase of the programme which covered the 2007-2013 indicative periods. Despite the specific and relatively new project application procedures, organizations from Georgia obtained financial support among the 50 awarded BSCBC projects. The majority (about 80%) of Georgian stakeholders awarded under the programme are from the nongovernmental sector, but grants were also obtained by Kutaisi and Chokhatauri municipalities, as well as by Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University and Ilia State University. In total, about 200 Georgian experts have been engaged in the awarded BSCBC projects. Up to 70 seminars, conferences and regional workshops have been organized in Georgia as well as in other participating countries with the active involvement of Georgian experts. Several of the successful BSCBC projects involving Georgian organizations are listed below:  Project - “Introduction of innovative waste management practices in the selected cities of Georgia, Moldova and Armenia.” The aim of this project is to introduce modern waste management practices and share European experience in this field. Seven partner organizations from four countries (Georgia, Moldova, Armenia and Romania) have been involved in the implementation of the project including Kutaisi municipality and the Georgian non-governmental organization “Imeteri Scientists Union Spectri”. The project is implemented in Kutaisi and stands out for its visually tangible results. In the framework of the project, sorted collection of plastic waste has been successfully conducted through the placement of 100 specially designed containers for collecting plastic. For the first time in Georgia, this European standard practice was introduced at the municipal level. At the initial stage, the project took on a pilot model, but later proved to be a successful bona fide project. The citizens actively participated in the process

ოქტომბერი 2015 საქართველოს ევროპული გზა

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Georgia and EU | საქართველო და ევროკავშირი

wlis 26 seqtembers aseTsave SeTanxmebas xeli moaweres qalaqebis _ araratisa (somxeTi) da ungenis (moldova) merebma.  „Savi zRvis turizmis mdgradi ganviTarebis proeqti“. igi aerTianebs xuT qveyanas (saqarTvelo, bulgareTi, moldova, ukraina da TurqeTi) da miznad isaxavs turizmis ganviTarebis xelSewyobas Savi zRvis regionSi. proeqtis farglebSi saqarTveloSi SemuSavda eko- da agroturizmis ganviTarebis marketinguli kvlevis meqanizmi, Catarda Sesabamisi kvleva, Tematuri treningebis seria qarTveli turoperatorebisa da turizmis sferoSi dasaqmebuli sxva pirebisTvis, SemuSavda eko- da agroturizmis ganviTarebis strategia proeqtSi monawile yvela qveyanaSi.  „Savi zRvis kulturuli animaciis proeqti“, romlis farglebSi Catarda sxvadasxva saxis kulturuli RonisZieba rogorc saqarTveloSi, ise mis farglebs gareT, moewyo erovnuli rewvis nimuSebis gamofena da erovnuli kulturis popularizaciis mizniT Catarda aqtiuri sainformacio kampania proeqtSi monawile sxva qveynebSi (bulgareTi, rumineTi, somxeTi, TurqeTi).  „Savi zRvis bunebrivi gamwmendi sistemebis proeqti“. masSi monawileobs Svidi qveyana (saqarTvelo, saberZneTi, TurqeTi, somxeTi, moldova, ukraina da rumineTi) da igi moicavs Sav zRvaSi Camdinare wyle-

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Georgia’s European Way October 2015

of collecting plastic waste. This was preceded by an intensive educational and informational campaign promoting modern methods of waste management and sorted collection of plastic waste. In particular, various trainings and seminars were organized for different target groups, numerous publications and informational materials were prepared and disseminated and a special video clip was presented. One of the most important elements of the project is twinning at city level and, on July 20, 2015, at the final conference of the project, the partnership agreement between the mayors of Kutaisi Ungeni (Moldova) was signed. On September 26, a similar agreement was signed by the mayors of Ararat (Armenia) and Ungen.  "Black Sea tourism sustainable development project." The project unites five countries (Georgia, Bulgaria, Moldova, Ukraine and Turkey) and aims to promote tourism development in the Black Sea region. In the scope of the project, eco and agro-tourism development marketing research has been carried out in Georgia, a series of thematic trainings have been conducted for tour operators and other employees in the field of tourism, while eco and agro-tourism development strategies have been developed in all participating countries.  "Black Sea Cultural Animation project." The project hosted different cultural events both in Georgia and abroad. For the promotion of national culture, national handicrafts exhibitions and active informational campaigns have been organized in other participating countries (Bulgaria, Romania, Armenia and Turkey).


Georgia and EU | საქართველო და ევროკავშირი

bis problematikas da bunebrivi gamwmendi saSualebebiT am wylebis gawmendas. proeqtis farglebSi momzadda sxvadasxva saxis sainformacio da saswavlo masala, Catarda kvleva, romliTac Sefasda proeqtSi monawile TiToeul qveyanaSi arsebuli mdgomareoba, aseve momzadda teqnikuri gzamkvlevi, sadac aRwerilia sxvadasxva saxis bunebrivi Waobebis Seqmnis saSualebiT problemis mogvarebis gzebi. amasTanave, BSCBC programiT dafinansda araerTi saintereso proeqti, romlebic exeba globalur klimatur cvlilebebs, Savi zRvis dabinZurebis prevencias, mcire da saSualo sawarmoTa xelSewyobas, kulturuli memkvidreobis SenarCunebas da sxva. 2016 wlis miwuruls igegmeba BSCBC programis Semdegi konkursis gamocxadeba da masSi monawileobis miReba SeeZlebaT dainteresebul organizaciebs saqarTvelos yvela regionidan. programis pirveli fazis farglebSi, Cveni gamocdilebis gaTvaliswinebiT, vimedovnebT, rom momaval wels saqarTvelos monawileobiT dafinansebuli proeqtebis raodenoba kidev ufro gaizrdeba, rac xels Seuwyobs Savi zRvis regionis qveynebTan TanamSromlobis kidev ufro gaRrmavebas, saukeTeso evropuli gamocdilebis gaziarebas, kontaqtebis gamyarebas arasamTavrobo organizaciebis, universitetebisa da adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis organoebis doneze.

 “Black Sea natural treatment project.” The project unites seven participating countries (Georgia, Greece, Turkey, Armenia, Moldova, Ukraine and Romania). The project targets the Black Sea wastewater problems and the treatment thereof with natural facilities. Accordingly, different kinds of informational and educational materials were prepared, an evaluation study was conducted reflecting the current state of play in each participant country and a technical guide was presented describing the establishment of different types of natural wetland as a solution to the problems. In addition, awarded projects under the BSCBC program covered various interesting activities in the areas of global climate challenges, prevention of Black Sea pollution, SME support and preservation of national cultural heritage. The next BSCBC call for proposals, which is scheduled to be announced by the end of 2016, will be open for all interested organizations from all Georgian regions. Taking into account the current experience gathered from the first phase of the programme, we hope that the number of awarded projects aiding Georgian beneficiaries will increase to further contribute to strengthening the partnership among the countries of the Black Sea region, sharing of European experience and promotion of people-to-people contact at the levels of NGOs, universities and local self-government organizations.

ოქტომბერი 2015 საქართველოს ევროპული გზა

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„ევროპის ახალი გეოპოლიტიკური ლანდშაფტი“ თბილისში ნინო ევგენიძე

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Georgia’s European Way October 2015


Georgia and EU | საქართველოCulture და ევროკავშირი | კულტურა

“Europe’s New Geopolitical Landscape” in Tbilisi Nino Evgenidze ოქტომბერი 2015 საქართველოს ევროპული გზა

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Georgia and EU | საქართველო და ევროკავშირი

2015 wlis 7-8 seqtembers saqarTvelos dedaqalaqi, Tbilisis saerTaSoriso konferenciis farglebSi, maRali rangis ucxour delegaciebs maspinZlobda. konferencias, romlis ZiriTadi Tematika evropis axal geopolitikur, ekonomikur da usafrTxoebis gamowvevebs exeboda, aSS-is, evropisa da saqarTvelos gavleniani eqspertebi, politikuri da saerTaSoriso urTierTobebis mecnierebi da sajaro moxeleebi stumrobdnen. Tbilisis saerTaSoriso konferenciis organizatorebi iyvnen makkeinis instituti saerTaSoriso liderobisTvis da ekonomikuri politikis kvlevis centri (EPRC). ori dRis ganmavlobaSi, konferenciis monawileebs Soris uprecedentod Ria, kvalificiuri da siRrmiseuli diskusiebi da debatebi gaimarTa evropisa da saqarTvelos samomavlo perspeqtivebsa da gamowvevebze.

On September 7-8, 2015, within the framework of the Tbilisi International Conference, the capital of Georgia hosted high-level delegations from abroad. The conference which focused on Europe’s new geopolitical, economic and security challenges was attended by influential experts, scholars of political sciences and international relations as well as public officials from the United States, Europe and Georgia. The Tbilisi International Conference was organized by the McCain Institute for International Leadership in partnership with the Economic Policy Research Center (EPRC). Those two days saw open, professional and profound discussions and debates of an unprecedented level about the future prospects and challenges faced by Europe and Georgia.

k

onferenciaze makkeinis instituts warmoadgendnen: kurt volkeri, institutis aRmasrulebeli direqtori da devid krameri, institutis direqtori demokratiisa da adamianis uflebebis mimarTulebiT. aRsaniSnavia, rom ekonomikuri politikis kvlevis centri, bolo erTi wlis ganmavlobaSi, msgavsi tipis saerTaSoriso donis RonisZiebas ukve mesamed maspinZlobs. 2014 wlis seqtemberSi da 2015 wlis martSi, ekonomikuri politikis kvlevis centrisa da stenfordis universitetis demokratiis, ganviTarebisa da kanonis uzenaesobis centrTan TanamSromlobiT, gaimarTa ori saerTaSoriso forumi stenfordis universitetis profesorebis _ frensis fukuiamasa da lari daimondis monawileobiT. forumis monawileebi ganixilavdnen saxelmwifos mSeneblobisa da demokratiis arsis im ZiriTad principebs, romlebic umniSvnelovanes rols TamaSobs ganviTarebadi qveynebis Semdgomi transformaciis procesSi. aseTi rangisa da Tematikis RonisZiebebis organizebiT, ekonomikuri politikis kvlevis centri miznad isaxavs saqarTveloSi daamkvidros profe-

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Georgia’s European Way October 2015

T

he McCain Institute for International Leadership was represented by its Executive Director Kurt Volker and Senior Director for Human Rights and Democracy David Kramer. It is worth noting that the Tbilisi International Conference was the third event of such a level hosted by the EPRC over a one year period. In September 2014 and March 2015, the EPRC in partnership with Stanford University Center on Democracy and the Rule of Law (CDDRL) organized two forums which were attended by professors from Stanford University Francis Fukuyama and Larry Diamond. Participants in the forums discussed those basic principles of state building and democracy that play a crucial role in the further transformation of developing countries. By organizing events of this level and on such important topics, the EPRC aims at establishing a platform for professional political debates in Georgia, which brings together experienced politicians, leading diplomats, academicians and experts from the US, Europe and Georgia, and representatives of Georgian political parties and civil society to discuss the successes and challenges of European development and democratic transformation for Georgia in particular and the region in general. The 2015 Tbilisi International Conference was attended by the President


Georgia and EU | საქართველო და ევროკავშირი

გიორგი მარგველაშვილი - საქართველოს პრეზიდენტი

Giorgi Margvelashvili - President of Georgia

ირაკლი ღარიბაშვილი - საქართველოს პრემიერ-მინისტრი

კურტ ვოლკერი - მაკეინის ინსტიტუტის აღმასრულებელი დირექტორი

Irakli Garibashvli - Prime Minister of Georgia

Kurt Volker- Executive Director of The McCain Institute

siuli politikuri debatebis platforma, romelSic monawileoben saqarTvelos, aSS-is da evropis moqmedi da yofili maRali rangis politikuri, diplomatiuri, akademiuri da eqspertuli wreebis liderebi, saqarTvelos politikuri partiebis, samoqalaqo seqtoris warmomadgenlebi. isini Cveni qveynisa da regionis magaliTze ganixilaven evropuli ganviTarebis, demokratiuli gardaqmnebis warmatebebsa da gamowvevebs. 2015 wlis Tbilisis saerTaSoriso konferenciaSi monawileobdnen: saqarTvelos prezidenti giorgi margvelaSvili, premier-ministri irakli RaribaSvili, parlamentis Tavmjdomare daviT usufaSvili, Tavdacvis ministri TinaTin xidaSeli. rac Seexeba ucxo qveynebis delegaciebs, konferenciis muSaobaSi monawileobis misaRebad Tbiliss ewvivnen: litvis sagareo saqmeTa ministri linas linkeviCusi, aSS-is evropis armiis sardali, generali ben hodjesi, latviis sagareo saqmeTa ministris moadgile andres pildegoviCi, evrokavSiris yofili komisari gafarToebisa da evropis samezoblo politikis sakiTxeb-

of Georgia Giorgi Margvelashvili, Prime Minister Irakli Gharibashvili, Parliament Speaker Davit Usupashvili and Defence Minister Tinatin Khidasheli. Meanwhile, the participants from foreign countries included: Lithuanian Foreign Minister Linas Linkevicius; U.S. Army Europe Commander LTG Ben Hodges; Deputy Foreign Minister of Latvia Andrejs Pildegovics; former EU Commissioner for Enlargement Stefan Fule; former UK Ambassador to Latvia Ian Bond; former Diplomatic Advisor to the Italian President Ambassador Stefano Stefanini; Senior Fellow at the Brookings Institution Lilia Shevtsova; President of Orion Strategies Randy Scheunemann; Senior Fellow and Director of Special Projects at the Prague Security Studies Institute Jiří Schneider; Director of the International Centre for Defence and Security Jüri Luik; Urszula Pallasz, Senior Advisor, Strategic Planning Division, European External Action Service; and Resident Fellow at the Center for Transatlantic Relations of John Hopkins University Dr. Donald Jensen. The Conference was also attended by Senior Fellow at the Center for Strategic and International Studies Edward C. Chow and two fellows at the German Marshall Fund of the United States, Daniel Twining and Pavol Demes. As the developments that are taking place in Ukraine were one of the major topics of the Conference, Tbilisi was visited by two MPs from the Ukrainian parliament: Mr. Mustafa Nayyem and Mr. Vladislav Golub.

ოქტომბერი 2015 საქართველოს ევროპული გზა

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Georgia and EU | საქართველო და ევროკავშირი Si Stefan fule, britaneTis yofili elCi latviaSi ian bondi, italiis prezidentis yofili saerTaSoriso mrCeveli stefano stefanini, aSS-is brukingsis institutis mkvlevari lilia Sevcova, „orion stratejis“ prezidenti rendi Sonemani, praRis usafrTxoebis kvlevis institutis wamyvani mkvlevari da sagangebo proeqtebis direqtori irJi Snaideri, Tavdacvisa da usafrTxoebis saerTaSoriso centris direqtori iuri luiki, evropis sagareo aqtivobebis samsaxuris ufrosi mrCeveli ursula palaSi, jons hopkinsis universitetis transatlantikuri urTierTobebis centris mkvlevari doqtori donald ienseni. konferencias aseve stumrobdnen strategiuli da saerTaSoriso kvlevis centris wamyvani mkvlevari edvard Cou da amerikis marSalis fondis ori mkvlevari _ deniel Tviningi da pavol demeSi. konferenciaze gansakuTrebuli yuradReba daeTmo ukrainaSi mimdinare movlenebs, romlebzec ukrainis sakanonmdeblo organos parlamentarebTan _ mustafa naiemTan da vladislav golubTan erTad imsjeles. organizatorebis gadawyvetilebiT, Tbilisis konferenciaze gansaxilveli sakiTxebi xuT ZiriTad mimarTulebad daiyo: erTiani, Tavisufali da mSvidobiani evropa; evropuli integraciis gzaze arsebuli gamowvevebi da maTi daZlevis gzebi; ukrainis gansakuTrebuli qeisi; ekonomika da energetikuli usafrTxoeba; demokratiuli ganviTareba. civi omis dasrulebis Semdeg Camoyalibda evropis usafrTxoebis axali da inkluziuri xedva, romelic efuZneboda ideas: „evropa _ erTiani, Tavisufali da mSvidobiani“. parizis qartiaze, budapeStis memorandumze, nato-ruseTis dafuZnebis aqtsa da evropaSi SeiaraRebuli Zalebis Sesaxeb SeTanxmebis dokumentebze dayrdnobiT, evropuli qveynebi, da maT Soris ruseTi, SeTanxmdnen, daicvan Semdegi ZiriTadi principebi: demokratiisa da adamianis uflebebis mxardaWera; TiToeuli evropuli qveynis teritoriuli mTlianobisa da damoukideblobis pativiscema; Zalis gamoyenebisgan Tavis Sekaveba da TiToeuli evropuli qveynis ufleba gaakeTos sakuTari usafrTxoebis arCevani. 25 wlis Semde, evropis usafrTxoebis arqiteqtura mniSvnelovnad Seirya da evropis aRmosavleTSi, ise rogorc arasdros, Soreul perspeqtivad iqca realizeba ideisa: „evropa _ erTiani, Tavisufali da mSvidobiani“. ruseTi SeiWra saqarTvelosa da ukrainaSi da jer kidev okupirebuli aqvs am ori qveynis, aseve moldovas teritoriis nawilebi. ruseTma moaxdina yirimis aneqsia da afxazeTi da samxreTi oseTi damoukidebel qveynebad cno, rac, praqtikulad, meore msoflio omis Semdeg evropis sazRvrebis Zalismieri meTodebiT Secvlis pirveli SemTxvevaa. garda amisa, dasavleT evropis saxelmwifoebis miswrafeba, aRmosavleT da centraluri evropis qveynebis usafrTxoebis misaRwevad gaafarToon

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Georgia’s European Way October 2015

By the decision of the organizers, the topics to be discussed at the Tbilisi International Conference were divided into five main areas: Europe Whole and Free and at Peace; Challenges on the Path to European Integration and Ways to Overcome them; the Special Case of Ukraine; the Economy and Energy Security; and Democratic Development. After the end of the Cold War, a new and inclusive vision of European security was developed, which rested on the idea of Europe Whole and Free and at Peace? Based on the Charter of Paris, the Budapest Memorandum, the NATO-Russia Founding Act and the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe, the European countries, including Russia, agreed upon the following principles: to support democracy and human rights; to honor the territorial integrity and independence of each European country; to refrain from the use of force; and to respect the right of each European country to make its own security choices. Twenty-five years later, Europe’s security architecture has been significantly undermined and the realization of the idea of Europe Whole and Free and at Peace in Eastern Europe looks a distant prospect. Russia invaded Georgia and Ukraine and now occupies territories of these two countries as well as parts of Moldova. Russia annexed Crimea and


Georgia and EU | საქართველო და ევროკავშირი

evrokavSiri da Crdiloatlantikuri xelSekrulebis organizacia, arcTu warmatebiT xorcieldeba. evropis mraval qveyanaSi gaaqtiurebuli ultramemarcxene da ultramemarjvene politikuri Zalebi safrTxes uqmnian civi omis Semdgomi evropis integracias. 2015 wlis Tbilisis saerTaSoriso konferenciaze daiwyo am gamowvevebze msjeloba da diskusiebi, romlebic miznad isaxavda konkretuli winadadebebis SemuSavebas erTiani, Tavisufali da mSvidobiani evropis ideis ufro aqtiurad mxardaWerisTvis. konferenciis organizatorebma qarTveli, amerikeli da evropeli politikuri liderebis, eqspertebis, mkvlevrebisa da praqtikosebis mowveviT miznad daisaxes SeeqmnaT erTiani sivrce, sadac evropis usafrTxoebis, ekonomikisa da politikuri landSaftis Sesaxeb imsjelebdnen. konferenciis dasrulebis Semdeg dialogis monawile mxareebi agrZeleben saboloo dokumentze muSaobas, romlis mizanic saqarTvelos da monawile qveynebis xelisuflebebisTvis evropuli ganviTarebis gzaze samoqmedo rekomendaciebis SemuSavebaa.

recognized Abkhazia and South Ossetia as independent states thereby setting a post-World War II precedent of forceful changes of Europe’s borders. Moreover, the aspiration of Western European countries to enlarge the EU and NATO in order to ensure the security of Eastern and Central European states has not been overly successful. Extreme left-wing and right-wing forces, being highly active in many European countries, endanger the integration of post-Cold War Europe. The 2015 Tbilisi International Conference represented an effort to start discussing these very challenges and to come up with concrete proposals for a more active support of the idea of Europe Whole and Free and at Peace. By inviting political leaders, experts and researchers from the US, Europe and Georgia, the organizers of the Conference pursued the aim to create a common space for discussing opinions about the existing security, economic and political landscape of Europe. A follow-up work after the Conference is in progress with participants in the dialogue drawing up the final document which will contain recommendations for action by the governments of Georgia and participating countries on the path towards European development.

ოქტომბერი 2015 საქართველოს ევროპული გზა

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Georgia and EU | საქართველო და ევროკავშირი

პოლონეთის წარმატების გასაღები ევროინტეგრაციის გზაზე მაია გაბულდანი

დღეს პოლონეთის მოსახლეობის 65 პროცენტი დასაქმებულია მცირე და საშუალო ბიზნესში, მშპ-ის 75 პროცენტს ქმნის მცირე და საშუალო საწარმოები, აქედან, 80 პროცენტი მომსახურების სექტორზე მოდის, 20 კი - წარმოებაზე. მოხდა პოლონეთის სოფლის მეურნეობის მნიშვნელოვანი მოდერნიზაცია. დღეს პოლონური პროდუქციის თითქმის 80 პროცენტის ექსპორტი ხდება ევროკავშირის ბაზარზე.

Poland’s key to success on the way to EU integration Maia Gabuldani

Today, 65% of Poalnd’s population is employed in small and medium enterprises (SME) and 75% of its GDP is set by the SMEs – from which 80% is accounted to services and 20% to production. Significant modification of Poland’s agriculture sector has resulted in 80% of Polish products being exported to the EU market.

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Georgia and EU | საქართველო და ევროკავშირი

~p

oloneTis transformacia unda ganvixiloT warmatebul magaliTad, ara lamazi avtomagistralebisa da qalaqebis gamo, aramed imitom, rom dRes gvyavs ufro fxizeli samoqalaqo sazogadoeba. ar gveSinia imis, Tu vin mova xelisuflebaSi, radgan Tu isini Secdomebs dauSveben, xalxi amas ar Seegueba,“ _ ambobs varSavaSi dafuZnebuli evropis diplomatiuri akademiis direqtori katarJina pisarska. sabWoTa kavSiris daSlis Semdeg poloneTma moskovSi Seqmnili qaosiT isargebla da es SesaZlebloba evropul ojaxSi dasabrunebelad gamoiyena. qveynis warmatebuli gardaqmnis erT-erTi faqtori swored geopolitikuri viTareba gaxda _ „arc evrokavSirs da arc nato-s ar uTqvams, Cven unda gamogvyveTo, Cven vTqviT, rom es Cveni gadarCenis erTaderTi Sansia. rac mTavaria, mniSvnelovan mxardaWeras iCendnen dasavleTi da maTi institutebi: aSS, saerTaSoriso savaluto fondi, evrokavSiri“. geopolitikur viTarebasa da dasavleTis mxardaWeraze aranakleb mniSvnelovani istoriuli mexsierebaa _ „travmebisa da dramebis istoria“ _ ase uwodeben polonelebi damoukideblobis 123 wliT dakargvas, ribentropmolotovis paqts, meore msoflio omsa da holokosts _ es iyo mexsiereba, romelic mosaxleobaSi verasdros waiSleboda. polonelebs sjerodaT, rom evrokavSirSi gawevrianebiT isini evropul ojaxSi dabrundebodnen. reformebis erT-erTi mamoZravebeli Zala swored antirusuli ganwyobebi iyo. „aucileblia mkafio istoriuli politika. 10-15 wlis win, ukrainasa da ruseTSi mogzaurobisas gvikvirda, rom xalxi ar saubrobda sakuTar istoriaze. komunistebis propagandiT Seiqmna koleqtiuri mexsiereba, ar hqondaT individualuri mexsiereba, rac yvelaze mniSvnelovania identobis Sesaqmnelad. axalgazrdebma unda icodnen TavianTi fesvebi, memkvidreoba _ is, rac ganzrax daangries sabWoTa kavSiris dros. ar SegeZlo gqonoda individualuri mexsiereba, radgan maSin SekiTxvebic gagiCndeboda“. damoukideblobis pirveli wlebi gansakuTrebiT mtkivneuli aRmoCnda mosaxleobisTvis: „ekonomikuri SokTerapia“ _ reformebi da maqsimaluri cvlilebebi minimalur droSi, ekonomikurი liberalizaciis Sedegad samuSao adgilebis dakargva, saxelmwifo kompaniebisa da industriebis dacema, hiperinflacia. miuxedavad amisa, xalxi ar gamosula reformebis winaaRmdeg, isev istoriuli mexsierebisa da geopolitikuri viTarebidan gamomdinare. „maxsovs, skolaSi sendviCSi 2000 zlots (polonuri valuta) vixdidi. Catarda mTliani sistemis struqturuli reformebi. iyo didi ukmayofileba muSebSi, solidarobis moZraobis wevrebSic. im adamianebma, vinc ibrZoda am damoukideblobisTvis, ukeTesi cxovrebis nacvlad, dakarges samuSao, magram zogadi ganwyoba da cvlilebebis survili bevrad mniSvnelovani iyo, vidre is uaryofiTi movlenebi, rac Tan sdevda reformebis process“.

“T

he Transformation of Poland should be perceived as a successful example not for the charming highways and cities, but for the fact that today we can claim we have a more engaged civil society. We are not afraid of who will be next in our government, because people will not put up with their mistakes if they make such”, - says Dr. Katarzyna Pisarska, the Executive Director of the Warsaw-based European Academy of Diplomacy. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, Poland took advantage of the existing chaos in Moscow and used the opportunity to return to the European family. The geopolitical situation was one of the principle factors behind the country’s successful transformation – “Neither the EU, nor NATO said we had to follow them, it was our decision because we knew it was the only way to survive. It is also important that we had the support from the West and it's institutions such as the USA, the International Monetary Fund and the European Union.” Historical memory is equally significant – and the “history of traumas and dramas”- is how Poland refers to the loss of their independence for 123 years, with the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, the Second World War and holocaust memories that will never be erased from the minds of Poland’s population. The Polish believe that by joining the EU, they would return to the European family. One of the driving forces behind the reforms was anti-Russian sentiments. “A clear historical policy is necessary; 10-15 years ago, when travelling to Ukraine and Russia, we were surprised that people would not talk about their history. Communist propaganda has created a collective memory, they did not have an individual memory, which is crucial for creating an identity, and the youth needs to know their roots, heritage - something that was deliberately destroyed during Soviet times. You could not have had an individual memory, because then you would have to answer questions as well.” The first years of independence were particularly painful for Poland’s population. “Economic shock therapy” were reforms and maximum changes taken in the minimum amount of time, the liberalisation of the economy which resulted in the loss of jobs, the fall of stateown companies and industries, and hyper-inflation. However, the people did not oppose reforms due to their historical memory and geopolitical situation. “I remember we would pay 2000 ZL (Polish currency) for a sandwich at school. The whole system was structurally reformed. People who fought for this independence lost their jobs; dissatisfaction was widespread among workers and members of solidarity movement. However, the overall mood and the will for change were more significant than the developments that accompanied reforms”. In 1994, after signing the Association Agreement with the EU, Poland, whose economy was totally dependent on the Soviet market, was to become competitive in Europe. Since 1994, Polish products started to access the EU market without customs duties, after EU member states agreed that at the first stage the EU would not accept Polish

ოქტომბერი 2015 საქართველოს ევროპული გზა

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Georgia and EU | საქართველო და ევროკავშირი 1994 wels evrokavSirTan asocirebis SeTanxmebis gaformebis Semdeg qveyana, romlis ekonomika mTlianad sabWoTa bazarze iyo damokidebuli, konkurentunariani unda gamxdariyo evropaSic. 1994 wlidan daiwyo polonuri produqciis evrokavSiris bazarze sabaJo gadasaxadis gareSe Sesvla. mxareebi SeTanxmdnen, rom pirvel etapze poloneTi Sida bazarze ar miiRebda evropul produqcias, vinaidan adgilobrivi nawarmi ver gauwevda konkurencias dasavleT evropuls. am periodSi gaizarda mSp, ekonomikuri situacia gaumjobesda. ekonomikuri zrdis mTavari mizezi kerZo seqtori gaxda. dRes mosaxleobis 65 procenti dasaqmebulia mcire da saSualo biznesSi, mSp-is 75 procents qmnis mcire da saSualo sawarmoebi, aqedan, 80 procenti momsaxurebis seqtorze modis, 20 ki _ warmoebaze. moxda poloneTis soflis meurneobis mniSvnelovani modernizacia. dRes polonuri produqtis TiTqmis 80 procentis eqsporti xdeba evrokavSiris bazarze. sasoflo-sameurneo saqmianoba qveynis ekonomikis mniSvnelovani nawilia, miuxedavad imisa, rom am seqtorze mSp-is mxolod 3,4 procenti modis, soflis meurneobaSi muSaxelis 12,4 procentia dasaqmebuli, 39 procenti ki soflad cxovrobs. poloneli fermerebis Semosavali mniSvnelovnad gaizarda mas Semdeg, rac qveyana 2004 wels evrokavSiris wevri gaxda. „fermerebi evrokavSiris fulis yvelaze didi beneficiarebi arian da yvelaze metad maT isargebles evrokavSirSi SesvliT, Tumca Tavidan Zalian skeptikurad iyvnen ganwyobili. 80-ian, 90-ian wlebSi bevrad meti adamiani muSaobda soflis meurneobaSi, vidre amis saWiroeba iyo, Semdeg xalxi ukve tovebda soflis meurneobas da qalaqSi midioda. dRes soflis meurneoba ufro metad specializebulia“. gansakuTrebuli yuradReba eTmoboda sazogadoebis informirebas, aqtiurobda evrokavSiris sainformacio centri. ministrTa sabWom 1999-2002 wlebisTvis 4-wliani gegma daamtkica sainformacio da saganmanaTleblo kampaniis sawarmoeblad. mosaxleobas evrokavSiris sargebels acnobdnen, amavdroulad, uxsnidnen, rom garkveuli safasuris gadaxda maTac mouwevdaT evrokavSiris standartebTan dasaaxloeblad. programis mizani iyo sazogadoebas hqonoda wvdoma zust da sando informaciaze da gamiznuli iyo ara mxolod im fenaze, romelic ukve uWerda mxars evrokavSirSi integracias, aramed maTzec, visac jer gadawyvetili ar hqonda da vinc ewinaaRmdegeboda kavSirSi Sesvlas. programis meSveobiT mWidro TanamSromloba Camoyalibda samTavrobo struqturebs, arasamTavrobo institutebs, sazogadoebis azris formirebaze gavlenis mqone wreebs Soris. informaciis gavrcelebaSi did rols TamaSobda arasamTavrobo seqtori da media. mniSvnelovani iyo elitebis rolic. procesSi CarTuli iyo yvela _ postkomunistebi, opozicia, liberalebi, axalgazrdebi Tu xanSiSesulebi. saintereso momenti iyo referendumze poloneTis bolo komunisti lideris voicex iaruzelskis gamoCena, romelmac xmis micemis Semdeg Jurnalistebs ganucxada: „20 wlis win vinmes rom eTqva,

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Georgia’s European Way October 2015

product to the internal market, because they could not compete with those from Western Europe. During this period, Poland’s GDP increased and the economic situation improved. The main reason for the economic growth was the private sector. Today, 65% of the population are employed in small and medium business, 75% of Poland’s GDP is set by small and medium enterprises - from which the service sector accounts for 80%, while 20% comes from production. Poland’s agricultural sector has been significantly modernised. Today, almost 80% of products are exported to the EU market. Agricultural activities are an important part of the economy, despite the fact that only 3.4% of GDP comes from this sector, with the agricultural sector employing 12.4% of the workforce, while 39% of the population live in rural areas. The income of Polish farmers has significantly increased since the country joined the EU in 2004. “Farmers are the largest beneficiaries of the EU money and they have mostly benefited from the accession to the EU, although initially they were rather sceptical. In the 80s and 90s, more people worked in agriculture than was needed, after which people started to leave the agricultural sector and move to the cities. Today agriculture is rather specialized.” Furthermore, special attention was paid to public awareness with the EU Information Center particularly active in this regard. The Council of Ministers approved a four-year-long action plan in 19992002 on an information and education campaign. The benefits of EU integration were introduced to the population, while at the same time it was explained that they would have to pay certain dues, in order to move closer to EU standards. The programme enabled the public to have access to accurate and reliable information, and to target not only those who had been supporting the EU, but also those who had not decided yet and those who opposed EU accession altogether. Through this programme, close cooperation was established among government agencies, non-governmental institutions and circles, which had an influence on the formation of public opinion. The nongovernmental sector and the media played a significant role in the dissemination of such information. The role of elites was equally important. The process involved all stakeholders – post-communists, opposition, liberals, the youth and the elderly. An interesting point was the appearance of Poland's last communist leader Wojciech Jaruzelski at a referendum who after casting his vote told reporters: “20 years ago, if someone had told me this would happen, I would have replied that it is absurd, but the reality is changing, both domestically and internationally. Taking into consideration the new reality, I have voted for Poland's accession to the EU.” The Director of the Diplomatic Academy recalled that when Leszek Miller, the leader of the Social Democratic Party, which was established based on the Communist Party, was asked what his biggest success was, he replied that it was Poland's entry to the European Union. Miller was the Prime Minister, who signed the EU accession agreement. President Aleksander Kwaśniewski, who was the sports minister in Poland’s communist government in 1980s, personally


Georgia and EU | საქართველო და ევროკავშირი rom es moxdeboda, vityodi, rom absurdis Teatria, magram realoba icvleba rogorc qveynis SigniT, ise saerTaSoriso arenaze. am axali realobis gaTvaliswinebiT, me xma miveci poloneTis evrokavSirSi Sesvlas“. evropis diplomatiuri akademiis direqtori ixsenebs _ rodesac komunisturi partiis safuZvelze Seqmnil social-demokratiuli partiis lider leSek milers hkiTxes, Tu ra iyo misi yvelaze didi warmateba, man upasuxa: poloneTis Seyvana evrokavSirSi. mileri iyo premier-ministri, romelmac xeli moawera evrokavSirSi Sesvlis Sesaxeb SeTanxmebas. prezidenti aleqsandr kvaSnievski ki, romelsac 1980-ian wlebSi komunistur mTavrobaSi sportis ministris Tanamdeboba ekava, Tavad Caudga saTaveSi proevropul kampanias. prezidenti sxvadasxva qalaqSi marTavda sajaro Sexvedrebs, yvela ojaxs urigebdnen broSuras, evrokavSiris, rogorc warmatebuli proeqtis Sesaxeb. didi gavlena iqonia polonuri warmoSobis romis papis, ioane pavle meoris Ria mxardaWeram evrokavSirisadmi. poloneTis mosaxleobis 90 procenti kaTolike qristiania da maTTvis romis papi didi avtoritetia. Zlieri iyo „ara“ kampaniac lozungiT _ „guSin moskovi, xval briuseli“. xalxs arwmunebdnen, rom kavSirSi gawevrianebiT damoukideblobas kidev erTxel dakargavdnen, aseve, moxdeboda abortis, evTanaziisa da seqsualuri umciresobebis qorwinebis legalizeba, germanelebi ki dasavleT poloneTSi miwebs daepatronebodnen. aseve SiSobdnen, rom polonur bazars mTlianad daikavebda evrokavSiridan Semosuli iafi produqcia, mcire da saSualo biznesi gakotrdeboda da fermerebis mdgomareobac gauaresdeboda, Tumca arc erTi es SiSi ar gamarTlebula. zog SemTxvevaSi sapirispirod moxda _ araTu evrokavSiridan Semosulma produqciam daipyro polonuri bazari, aramed Tavad polonuri nawarmi gaxda eqsportis mamoZravebeli Zala da mniSvnelovani adgili daikava evrokavSiris bazarze. vaSlis eqsportiT poloneTi evrokavSiris bazarze pirvel adgils ikavebs, meore pozicia aqvs Wvavisa da kartofilis, mesame _ Saqris Warxlis, meoTxe _ xorblisa da Zroxis rZis eqsportSi. „evrokavSiris wevroba aris SesaZlebloba da ara ganviTarebis garantia. SeZlebs Tu ara qveyana, rom es SesaZlebloba srulad kapitalad aqcios, damokidebulia imaze, Tu rogor gadawyvets marTos Tavisi ekonomikuri politika“, _ weria poloneTis sagareo saqmeTa saministros 2014 wlis moxsenebaSi, sadac evrokavSirSi yofnis 10 welia Sejamebuli. ekonomikur politikasTan erTad warmatebuli transformaciis gasaRebi, rogorc katarJina pisarskas miaCnia, Tavad xalxSia, romelsac esmis, rom aucileblad mouwevs msxverplis gaReba ukeTesi momavlisTvis. „imisaTvis, rom moaxdinoT warmatebuli transformacia, xalxs unda sjerodes da esmodes, rom yoveli reforma da cvlileba sazogadoebisgan iTxovs did msxverplSewirvas. swored aq gWirdeba istoriuli elementebi, sazogadoebis istoriuli mexsiereba“, _ ambobs katarJina pisarska.

დამოუკიდებლობის პირველი წლები განსაკუთრებით მტკივნეული აღმოჩნდა პოლონეთის მოსახლეობისთვის. The first years of independence were particularly painful for Poland’s population. took on the leadership of the pro-European campaign. He held public meetings in various cities and families were provided with brochures on the European Union, which was regarded as a successful project. Originally from Poland, the open support from Pope John Paul II to the EU had a significant influence on the Polish population; with 90% of Poland’s population Catholic and thus the Pope having a huge influence among them. It is noteworthy that the “No” campaign was rather strong with its slogan – “Yesterday Moscow, tomorrow Brussels”. They assured people that accession to the EU would mean a loss of independence once again, and that abortion, euthanasia and gay marriage would be legalised, and that the Germans would take over the lands in Western Poland. Additionally, they feared that the Polish market would be taken over by cheap products from the EU, which would adversely affect small and medium enterprises and worsen the situation of farmers. None of these statements turned out to be true. In some cases, the opposite happened – it was not the products from the EU that conquered the Polish market, but the Polish exports that became the driving force and played an important place in the EU market. In apple exports Poland is in the first place on the EU market, and second in the export of rye and potatoes, third in white beet, and fourth for wheat and cow milk. “EU membership is an opportunity and not a guarantee for development; whether the country manages to turn this opportunity into full capital, depends on how Poland manages its economic policy” - a statement written in 2014 by the Foreign Ministry of Poland, which summarized 10 years of EU membership. Along with economic policies, the key to successful transformation, according to Dr. Katarzyna Pisarska, lays with the people themselves, who understand that they will have to make sacrifices for a better future. “In order to make a successful transformation, people need to believe and understand that every reform and change in society requires great sacrifice. This is where historical elements and historical memory is mostly needed” - says Dr. Pisarska.

ოქტომბერი 2015 საქართველოს ევროპული გზა

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Georgia and EU | საქართველო და ევროკავშირი

თბილისის იუსტიციის სახლი

Tbilisi House of Justice

საჯარო მმართველობის რეფორმა Public Administration Reform

n

ebismieri qveynis ganviTarebis ZiriTadi winapirobaa sajaro mmarTvelobis sistemis gamarTuli funqcionireba, romelic sazogadoebis socialur Tu ekonomikur ganviTarebasa da mdgradobas gansazRvravs. sajaro mmarTveloba xels uwyobs socialur ganviTarebas da mas mniSvnelovani adgili ukavia harmoniuli sazogadoebis Camoyalibebis procesSi. sajaro mmarTvelobis reformam Seuqcevadi xasiaTi miiRo mas Semdeg, rac mimdinare wlis 19 agvistos, saqarTvelos mTavrobis dadgenilebiT (№427), damtkicda „saqarTvelos sajaro mmarTvelobis reformis gzamkvlevi 2020“. premier-ministris gadawyvetilebiT, saqarTvelos mTavrobis administracias daevala sajaro mmarTvelobis im reformis koordinacia, romelic xorcieldeba evrokavSirisa da mmarTvelobisa da menejmentis gaumjobesebis mxardaWeris programis (OECD/ SIGMA) xelSewyobiT da iTvaliswinebs sajaro mmarTvelobis eqvsive princips. demokratiuli faseulobebi, moqalaqeTa CarTuloba da sazogadoebrivi interesebis maqsimaluri gaTvaliswineba sajaro mmarTvelobis reformis qvakuTxedad ganisazRvra. „sajaro mmarTvelobis reformis gzamkvlevis“ SemuSavebiT Camoyalibda aRniSnul sferoebSi saqarTvelos mTavrobis saSualovadiani politika. sajaro mmarTvelobis reforma saqarTveloSi miznad isaxavs damsaxurebaze dafuZnebuli sajaro samsaxuris ganviTarebasa da gaZlierebas. igi Tavisufalia politikuri zegavlenisgan, axasiaTebs gamWvirvale finansuri mmarTveloba da Ria, angariSvaldebuli da

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H

aving a well-functioning public administration system is a fundamental precondition for any country’s development. It determines the social and economic development of the society. Public administration aids social development and has a significant role in the process of establishing a harmonious society. The process of public administration reform became irreversible when the ‘2020 Georgian Public Administration Reform Guide’ was adopted by the Georgian state resolution 427 on 19 August this year. Based on the Prime Minister’s decision, the Georgian State Administration was tasked with coordinating the public administration reform. This process is being conducted with the EU’s and OECD/SIGMA’s support, and it takes all six principles of public administration into consideration. Democratic values, citizens’ involvement, and maximum consideration for public interests have been identified as cornerstones of the public administration reform. Through the Public Administration Reform Guide, the government of Georgia has devised its medium-term policy regarding this issue. The public administration reform in Georgia aims to develop and strengthen a public sector that is based upon merit, is free from political pressure, provides transparent financial administration, and represents open, accountable and corruption-free state institutions that serve the citizens. Work on the Public Administration Reform Guide began in December 2014. The process was led by the G overnment’s Administration, State Planning and Innovations team, with help from other state departments. Those involved in the process of devising the document included the Office of the State Minister of Georgia on European and Euro-Atlantic Integration, the Ministry of Justice, the Ministry of Finance, the Ministry of Infrastructure and Regional Development, and the Public Service Bureau.


Georgia and EU | საქართველო და ევროკავშირი arakorumpirebuli saxelmwifo institutebi, romlebic moqalaqeTa samsaxurSi dganan. sajaro administrirebis reformis gzamkvlevis SemuSaveba 2014 wlis dekemberSi daiwyo. samuSao process xelmZRvanelobda mTavrobis administraciis samTavrobo gegmebisa da inovaciebis gundi sxva saxelmwifo uwyebebTan TanamSromlobiT. dokumentis SemuSavebaSi CarTuli iyvnen saxelmwifo ministris aparati evropul da evroatlantikur struqturebSi integraciis sakiTxebSi, saqarTvelos iusticiis saministro, finansTa saministro, infrastruqturisa da regionuli ganviTarebis saministro da sajaro samsaxuris biuro. „saqarTvelo-evrokavSiris asocirebis Sesaxeb SeTanxmebis“ Sesabamisad, sajaro mmarTvelobis reformis gzamkvlevi _ es aris sajaro mmarTvelobis politikis yovlismomcveli xedva. masSi aRwerili problemebi efuZneba arsebuli situaciis detalur analizs da mis Sedegad SemuSavebul amocanebs, prioritetebsa da konkretul aqtivobebs, romlebic miznad isaxavs saqarTvelos sajaro administrirebis daaxloebas evropis sajaro administrirebis sivrcesTan. arsebuli situaciis analizi ganxorcielda samTavrobo gegmebisa da inovaciebis samsaxuris gundis mier prioritetizaciis kiTxvaris gamoyenebiT, romelic OECD/SIGMA-s eqspertebis mier SemuSavebuli instrumentia. igi gamoiyeneba saxelmwifo uwyebebidan informaciis srulyofilad gamoTxovisa da prioritetuli sakiTxebis indentificirebisTvis. sajaro mmarTvelobis reformis strategiuli CarCo sabolood daixvewa ukve arsebuli politikis dokumentebisa da kanonmdeblobis analizis, agreTve saxelmwifo uwyebebis warmomadgenlebTan interviuebis Sedegad. mimdinare reformis gatarebiT qveynis sajaro seqtorSi yalibdeba: Sedegze orientirebuli marTvis, angariSgebis, monitoringisa da Sefasebis sistemebi; profesiuli sajaro samsaxuri, romelic efuZneba damsaxurebis princips da uzrunvelyofs profesionalizmis waxalisebas, xelSewyobasa da dafasebas; angariSvaldebuli da sazogadoebisTvis gaxsnili saxelmwifo institutebi; saxelmwifo servisebis unificirebuli sistema, romelic uzrunvelyofs moqalaqeebis xarisxian da xelmisawvdom momsaxurebas; sajaro finansebis marTvis sistema, romelic emyareba finansuri saxsrebis ganawilebas saxelmwifo prioritetebis Sesabamisad. sajaro mmarTvelobis reformis monitoringis meqanizms uzrunvelyofs sabWo, romelic zedamxedvelobas uwevs strategiis ganxorcielebis process da im progress, romelic Tan axlavs samoqmedo gegmis ganxorcilebas. monitoringis farglebSi dakvirveba xorcieldeba rogorc raodenobriv, ise xarisxobriv maCveneblebze imisTvis, rom droulad Sefasdes miRweuli progresi da moxdes SesaZlo problemuri sferoebis identificireba.

ანა გვენეტაძე საქართველოს მთავრობის ადმინისტრაციის პოლიტიკის ანალიზის, სტრატეგიული დაგეგმვისა და კოორდინაციის დეპარტამენტის სამთავრობო გეგმებისა და ინოვაციების სამსახურის უფროსი

Ana Gvenetadze

Head of Government Planning and Innovations Unit of the Administration of Government of Georgia

In accordance with the Georgia-EU Association Agreement, the Public Administration Reform Guide presents a comprehensive view of the public administration policy. The problems described in it are based upon a detailed analysis of the existing situation, and as a result, challenges, priorities and specific activities have been devised with the aim to bring public administration in Georgia closer to the European public administration area. The analysis of the existing situation has been conducted by the State Planning and Innovations team with the help of the prioritization questionnaire – a tool devised by experts from OECD and the SIGMA (Support for Improvement in Governance and Management) project. It is used for obtaining full information from state agencies, as well as for identifying issues of priority. The strategic framework for the public administration reform was finalized following an analysis of existing documents and legislation, as well as interviews with representatives of various state agencies. As a result of the ongoing reforms, the following is being established within the country’s public sector: results-oriented administration, accounting, monitoring and assessment systems; professional public services that are based upon the principle of merit and where professionalism is encouraged, supported and rewarded; state institutions that are accountable, as well as open and accessible to the public; a centralized state service system that provides citizens with a high-quality and affordable service; a system of administration of public finances that allocates funds in accordance with the established state priorities. The mechanism for monitoring the public administration reform is provided by a council which oversees the process of development of strategy and the progress of the action plan. Both the quantitative and qualitative indicators are being monitored in order to provide a prompt assessment of the achieved progress, and to promptly identify any potentially problematic areas.

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Georgia and EU | საქართველო და ევროკავშირი

მიგრაციის ახალგაზრდა სპეციალისტთა ტრენინგი საქართველოში პრესრელიზი მოამზადეს საზაფხულო სკოლის სტუდენტებმა მათთვის მიცემული დავალების შესაბამისად.

TRAINING A NEW GENERATION OF FUTURE MIGRATION SPECIALISTS IN GEORGIA This press release was developed by students at the ENIGMMA Summer School as part of their assignment.

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015 wlis ivnis-ivlisSi, migraciis axalgazrda specialistebisTvis treningis Casatareblad, msoflios sxvadasxva kuTxidan migraciis sferoSi moRvawe wamyvani akademiis eqspertebi yvarels ewvivnen. treningis mizani iyo saqarTvelos ganviTarebis, kerZod, migraciis marTvisa da kvlevis xelSewyoba. yvarelSi, sastumro „roial batonSi“ Seikribnen: britaneTis oqsfordisa da holandiis maastrixtis universitetebis, avstriis ludvig bolcmanis adamianis uflebaTa institutis, agreTve venis, sorbonisa da Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetebis, saerTaSoriso da adgilobrivi arasamTavrobo organizaciebisa da saqarTvelos samTavrobo uwyebebis eqspertebi. gaimarTa Teoriuli da praqtikuli treningi migraciis sferoSi moRvawe ocdaaTi qarTveli studentisTvis. samuSao jgufebsa da leqciebze msjelobdnen iseT sakiTxebze, rogorebicaa: adamianis uflebebi, migracia da ganviTareba, media da migracia, migraciis ekonomika, socialuri mecnierebebi da migraciis kvlevis meTodebi. kursi dagegma da ganaxorciela migraciis politikis ganviTarebis saerTaSoriso centrma (ICMPD), romlis saTavo ofisic mdebareobs q. venaSi, xolo misi oficialuri warmomadgenloba _ q. TbilisSi. proeqtis menejerisa da sazafxulo skolis xelmZR-

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n June-July 2015, leading academics from around the world came to Kvareli, Georgia, to train a new generation of future migration specialists in migration management. The aim of the training was to support Georgia’s development efforts, especially in the field of migration management and research. Experts representing the University of Oxford in the UK, the Maastricht Graduate School of Governance in the Netherlands, the Ludwig Boltzmann Institute of Human Rights in Austria, as well as the University of Vienna, the Sorbonne University in France, Tbilisi State University, international and national NGOs and Georgian governmental agencies came to the Royal Batoni Hotel in Kvareli to conduct theoretical and practical workshops for 30 Georgian students in areas related to international migration. Workshops and lectures were held on human rights, the linkages between migration and development, media and migration, economics of migration, social sciences and migration research methods. The course was designed and implemented by the International Centre for Migration Policy Development (ICMPD), based in Vienna, Austria, with an official representation in Tbilisi, Georgia. Violeta Wagner, Head of the summer school and Project Manager at ICMPD stated: “This was an amazing opportunity for young Georgian students and professionals to learn from some of the world’s leading


Georgia and EU | საქართველო და ევროკავშირი

vanelis violeta vagneris gancxadebiT _ „aRniSnuli RonisZieba saukeTeso SesaZlebloba iyo qarTveli studentebisa da axalgazrda profesionalebisTvis, rom eswavlaT migraciis sferoSi moRvawe wamyvani eqspertebisgan. rac ufro efeqtianad marTavs saqarTvelo emigraciasa da imigracias, miT ufro ukeT iTanamSromlebs is sxva qveynebTan, rogorc evrokavSiris SigniT, ise mis sazRvrebs gareT. es saboloo jamSi sargebels moutans yvela qarTvels“. maastrixtis universitetis migraciis fakultetis xelmZRvanelma, profesorma melisa sigelma aRniSna, rom „saqarTvelos ganviTarebisa da evrokavSirTan mWidro TanamSromlobisTvis aucilebelia migraciis efeqtiani marTva. am sazafxulo skolam Seqmna umniSvnelovanesi resursi _ migraciis axalgazrda qarTvel specialistTa saxiT, romelTac SesaZlebloba aqvT qveynis samomavlo winsvlaze izrunon“. „migraciis marTvis gaZliereba saqarTveloSi“ (ENIGMMA) _ es aris proeqti, romelsac afinansebs evrokavSiri da swored mis farglebSi moewyo yvarlis sazafxulo skola. rigiT meore sazafxulo skola 2016 wlis zafxulSi gaimarTeba.

experts on migration. The better Georgia is able to manage both immigration and emigration, the better it will be able to cooperate with other countries both within and outside the EU, which will bring benefits for all Georgians.” Dr. Melissa Siegel, Head of Migration Studies at the Maastricht Graduate School of Governance added: “It is crucial for the development of Georgia and its relationship with the EU that migration issues are effectively managed. This summer school has provided a vital resource for Georgia – a core group of future Georgian migration specialists who can help move the country forward.” The summer school was organised as part of the EU-funded Enhancing Georgia’s Migration Management (ENIGMMA) project. A second ENIGMMA summer school will take place in the summer of 2016.

ოქტომბერი 2015 საქართველოს ევროპული გზა

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Business and Economy | ბიზნესი და ეკონომიკა

მითი, თითქოს ევროკავშირმა დაანგრია საქართველოს სოფლის მეურნეობა, უსაფუძვლოა ზურაბ მოდებაძე

Myth about the EU destroying Georgia’s agriculture is groundless Zurab Modebadze

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Georgia’s European Way October 2015


Business and Economy | ბიზნესი და ეკონომიკა

ოქტომბერი 2015 საქართველოს ევროპული გზა

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Business and Economy | ბიზნესი და ეკონომიკა

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iTebi, TiTqos evrokavSirTan asocirebis xelSekruleba qarTuli soflis ganadgurebas gamoiwvevs, safuZvels moklebulia. realurad, evrokavSiri xels uwyobs saqarTvelos soflis meurneobis ganviTarebas, soflad dasaqmebis gaumjobesebas, fermeruli meurneobebis waxalisebas, xarisxiani produqciis warmoebasa da maT evropul bazarze gatanas. am mizniT xorcieldeba ori ZiriTadi proeqti _ ENPARD (evropis samezoblo programa soflis meurneobisa da soflis ganviTarebisTvis) da CIB (yovlismomcveli instituciuri ganviTareba).

ENPARD ENPARD-is programis ganxorcieleba 2013 wlis martSi daiwyo da misi mTliani biujeti 52 milioni evroa. soflis meurneobis saministros SesaZleblobebisa da efeqtianobis gazrdis xelSewyobasTan erTad, programis mizania: raionis donis sakonsultacio da sainformacio centrebis meSveobiT fermerTa iniciativebisa da SesaZleblobebis ganviTareba; mwarmoeblobis gazrdis mizniT, fermerebTan da fermerebs Soris TanamSromlobis gaZliereba; soflad dasaqmebisa da sacxovrebeli pirobebis gaumjobeseba.

ENPARD-is daxmareba mimarTulebebis mixedviT saqarTvelos mTavrobisTvis gamoyofili finansuri daxmareba 24,5 milioni evroa da es daxmareba iTvaliswinebs: 2014-2020 wlebis soflis meurneobis ganviTarebis strategiis ganxorcielebas (7 mln), sul cota 30 raionSi fermerebisTvis sakonsultacio samsaxurebis daarsebas (5,5 mln), fermerTa daaxloebiT 350 kooperativisTvis saxelmwifo programebiT daxmarebas (8,5 mln), soflis meurneobis saministroSi politikis danayofis Seqmnas (2 mln) da soflis meurneobis statistikis gaumjobesebas (1,5 mln). programis meSveobiT eqspertuli da teqnikuri daxmareba gaeweva:

მითები, თითქოს ევროკავშირთან ასოცირების ხელშეკრულება ქართული სოფლის განადგურებას გამოიწვევს, საფუძველს მოკლებულია. It is a mere myth that the EUGeorgia Association Agreement will cause the destruction of Georgian agriculture with this opinion completely groundless. 52

Georgia’s European Way October 2015

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t is a mere myth that the EU-Georgia Association Agreement will cause the destruction of Georgian agriculture with this opinion completely groundless. In reality, the EU greatly supports the development of Georgian agriculture, the improvement of rural employment, while encouraging farming, and the production of high quality products and their export to the European market. For this reason two principle projects - the European Neighborhood for Agriculture and Rural Development (ENPARD) and the Comprehensive Institution Building (CIB) have been implemented.

ENPARD ENPARD was launched in March 2013 with its total budget constituting EUR 52 million. The programme aims at building capacity and increasing the effectiveness of the Ministry of Agriculture, as well as developing the initiatives of farmers through regional consultations and information centers; and the enhancement of cooperation between farmers to increase productivity; while the improvement of employment and living conditions in rural areas is also envisaged by the programme.

Various directions of ENPARD assistance Financial assistance to the Government of Georgia (EUR 24.5 million) – this assistance envisages the implementation of the 2014-2020 Strategy for Rural Development (EUR 7 million), the establishment of at least 30 regional consultation service centers for farmers (EUR 5.5 million), assistance to at least 350 farmers’ cooperatives through various state programmes (EUR 8.5 million), the establishment of a policy unit at the Ministry of Agriculture (EUR 2 million) and the improvement of agricultural statistics (EUR 1.5 million). Technical support to the capacity and efficiency of agricultural institutions (EUR 7 million) – the programme aims to provide expert assistance to the Ministry of Agriculture (EUR 2.5 million), with technical support to the Cooperative Development Agency (EUR 2.5 million), as well as technical assistance to the Ministry of Agriculture of Adjara and Agroservice Center of Adjara (EUR 2 million, UNDP). Grants for civil society organizations (EUR 19.75 million) – envisages four grants to 160 cooperatives for financial and technical assistance (EUR 16 million), two regional pilot programmes (EUR 3 million) and the support of higher education and research (EUR 0.75 million).

Cooperatives Under the framework ENPARD - cooperative agricultural cooperative status has been granted to 1092 cooperatives, where 7341 shareholders are united, including 1635 women. The capital of the status-granted cooperatives is 14,286, 990 GEL. The highest number of cooperatives in the field of agriculture has been registered in cattle-breeding (Samtskhe-Javakheti, Kvemo Kartli) and potato farming (Samtskhe-Javakheti, Kvemo Kartli). Cooperatives by region are settled as follows: Kakheti - 83; Kvemo Kartli - 168; Mtskheta - 51; Shida Kartli - 75; Samegrelo-Zemo Svaneti - 92; Guria - 65; Adjara - 125; Samtskhe-Javakheti - 211; Racha-Lechkhumi - 89; Tbilisi - 35. At


Business and Economy | ბიზნესი და ეკონომიკა

sasoflo-sameurneo institutebs (7 mln evro), soflis meurneobis saministros (2.5 mln), kooperativebis ganviTarebis saagentos (2,5 mln), aseve aWaris soflis meurneobis saministrosa da aWaris agroserviscentrs (2 mln, UNDP). programa moicavs: arasamTavrobo organizaciebisTvis gankuTvnil grantebs (19,75 milioni evro). 160 kooperativisTvis gamiznul finansur da teqnikur oTx grants (16 mln), or raionSi sapilote proeqtebisa (3 mln) da umaRlesi ganaTlebis da kvlevis xelSewyobisTvis (0,75 mln) daxmarebas. garda amisa, soflis meurneobis saministrosTvis gamoyofili Tanxa (2,5 mln) moxmardeba eqspertul teqnikur daxmarebas.

kooperativebi ENPARD-is proeqtis farglebSi, dRevandeli mdgomareobiT, sasoflo-sameurneo kooperativis statusi miniWebuli aqvs 1092 kooperativs, romlebSic 7341 mepaiea gaerTianebuli, maT Soris 1635 qalia. statusis mqone kooperativebSi mobilizebuli kapitali 14,286 990 laria. dargebis mixedviT yvelaze meti kooperativi daregistrirebulia mecxoveleobisa (samcxe-javaxeTi, qvemo qarTli) da mekartofileobis (samcxe-javaxeTi, qvemo qarTli) mimarTulebiT. regionebis mixedviT kooperativebi ase ganawilda: kaxeTi _ 83; qvemo qarTli _ 168; mcxeTa-mTianeTi _ 51; Sida qarTli _ 75; samegrelo-zemo svaneTi _ 92; guria _ 65; aWara _ 125; samcxe-javaxeTi _ 211; raWa-leCxumi _ 89; Tbilisi _ 35. am etapze Seqmnilia oTxi meore donis kooperativi guriaSi, imereTSi, raWasa da qvemo qarTlSi.

this stage, four second level cooperatives are created in Guria, Imereti, Racha and Kvemo Kartli regions. With the assistance of the EU, the following programmes are currently ongoing in the Agricultural Cooperative Development Agency: The agricultural cooperatives blocks and hand sowing assurance programme provides small-sized agricultural equipment at a reduced price (900 GEL) and provides for the transfer of cooperatives, which is set at 24% of its market value. Each set includes aggregate blocks, mowing, plow, cultivator and hand sowing equipment. Registered cooperatives of refugees and migrants, as well as those based in mountainous, border or demarcation regions, will be awarded with an additional set of hand sowing equipment for a symbolic price of 1 GEL. At present, 490 agricultural cooperatives have received 1275 aggregate blocks and 194 sets of hand sowing equipment. With this, small-sized agricultural cooperatives have received small profile agro-technical equipment, thus making it possible to cultivate on rough-relief and small-size lands. Under the state programme which advances the production of nuts an agricultural cooperation production infrastructure has been built in Darcheli, based in the Zugdidi Municipal village, which offers the opportunity for drying 24 tons of nuts daily and storing 500 tons of hazelnuts. For establishing international standards in the nut production business, relevant consultations for cooperatives will be carried out for free in the scope of the programme, which will also provide a unified cycle for production, processing and marketing, and will support the need for cost reduction and increase the export potential of the nut business.

ოქტომბერი 2015 საქართველოს ევროპული გზა

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Business and Economy | ბიზნესი და ეკონომიკა evrokavSiris daxmarebiT sasoflo-sameurneo kooperativebis ganviTarebis saagentoSi ramdenime programa xorcieldeba: „sasoflo-sameurneo kooperativebis motoblokebiTa da xelis saTesebiT uzrunvelyofis programa“ iTvaliswinebs kooperativebisTvis mciregabaritiani agroteqnikis gadacemas SeRavaTian fasad _ 900 larad, rac misi Rirebulebis 24 procentia. TiToeul kompleqtSi Sedis: motoblokis agregati, saTibi, guTani, kultivatori da xelis saTesi. devnilebisa da ekomigrantebis mier Seqmnil, aseve maRalmTian, sasazRvro Tu gamyofi xazis mimdebare soflebSi registrirebul kooperativebs TiTo kompleqtis Sesyidvisas damatebiT 1 xelis saTesi simbolur fasad _ 1 larad gadaecemaT. dRevandeli mdgomareobiT 490-ma kooperativma 1275 agrokompleti da 194 xelis saTesi miiRo. am programis saSualebiT sasoflo-sameurneo kooperativebi mciregabaritiani agroteqnikiT aRiWurva, rac xels uwyobs rTuli reliefis mqone da mcire miwis nakveTebis damuSavebasa da ekonomikur saqmianobaSi CarTvas, miwis damuSavebis xarjebis Semcirebas. „Txilis warmoebis ganviTareba sasoflo-sameurneo kooperaciis mxardaWeris gziT“ _ am saxelmwifo programis farglebSi zugdidis municipalitetis sofel darCelSi iqmneba sawarmoo infrastruqtura, sadac yoveldRiurad 24 tonamde naWuWiani Txilis gamoSrobisa da erTdroulad 500 tona Txilis dasawyobebis SesaZlebloba gaCndeba. programis farglebSi, saerTaSoriso standartebis danergvis uzrunvelsayofad, sasoflo-sameurneo kooperativebi Sesabamis sakonsultacio momsaxurebas usasyidlod miiReben. programa xels Seuwyobs Txilis warmoebis, gadamuSavebisa da realizaciis erTiani ciklis Seqmnas, TviTRirebulebis Semcirebasa da Txilis saeqsporto potencialis zrdas. sasoflo-sameurneo kooperativebis daxmareba 30-mde municipalitetSi daaxloebiT 400 warmomadgenlis sagadasaxado kanonmdeblobaSi praqtikul treningsac iTvaliswinebs.

fermerTa sakonsultacio centrebi ENPARD-is proeqtis meore mniSvnelovani mimarTulebaa eqstenciis servisis ganviTareba. evrokavSiris aqtiuri mxardaWeriT, 30 centris nacvlad fermerTa sakonsultacio centrebi 54 municipalitetSi amoqmedda.

ENPARD 2 52-milioniani programis dasrulebis Semdeg igegmeba ENPARD 2-is dawyeba, romlis biujeti 60 milion evromde gaizrdeba. axali programa ufro metad orientirebuli iqneba saqarTveloSi soflis ganviTarebasa da soflad mcxovrebTa dasaqmebis zrdis xelSewyobis momsaxurebaze.

CIB sursaTis erovnul saagentoSi xorcieldeba evrokavSiris dafinansebuli kidev erTi proeqti _ CIB (yovlismomcveli instituciuri ganviTareba). pirvel etapze CIB

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52-მილიონიანი პროგრამის დასრულების შემდეგ იგეგმება ENPARD 2-ის დაწყება, რომლის ბიუჯეტი 60 მილიონ ევრომდე გაიზრდება. When the EUR 52 million programme comes to an end, ENPARD 2 is scheduled to start, with a budget of EUR 60 million. Assisting 400 representatives of agricultural cooperatives in 30 municipalities also includes practical trainings in the field of tax legislation.

Farmer advisory centers Another important direction of the project ENPARD is the development of the extension service. Under the active support of the European Union, rather than 30, a total of 54 consultation centers were launched in the municipalities.

ENPARD 2 When the EUR 52 million programme comes to an end, ENPARD 2 is scheduled to start, with a budget of EUR 60 million. This new programme in Georgia will be oriented towards assisting rural development and supporting the growth of rural employment.

CIB Another EU-funded project - CIB (Comprehensive Institutional Development) is carried out at the National Food Agency. At the first stage of the CIB programme (EUR 3.4 million, 80% of EU funding) the main goal concerns equipment, capacity building and training of NFA staff. The second stage of the project (EUR 4.5 million) is joined by the Agriculture Laboratory and Revenue Service of Georgia, since the import of the products and phytosanitary control at the border is carried out by the revenue services. At the third stage of the programme EUR 4.5 million of the funds allocated will be spent on the institutional strengthening of the National Food Agency.

DCFTA Indirect agricultural aid programmes could be considered as a project of the EU DCFTA Facility, with a budget of EUR 37.5 million. This programme includes soft loans for entrepreneurs and farmers to provide for production to European standards. The implementation of the project starts from 2016. Beside this aid, some EU members are individual donors and include the Austrian Development


Business and Economy | ბიზნესი და ეკონომიკა

programis (3,4 milioni evro, 80 procenti evrokavSiris dafinansebiT) mizani iyo sursaTis erovnuli saagentos aRWurva, SesaZleblobebis zrda da treningebis gziT saagentos TanamSromlebis kvalifikaciis amaRleba. meore etapze proeqtSi (4,5 milioni evro) ukve soflis meurneobis saministros laboratoria CaerTo, masTan erTad _ Semosavlebis samsaxuric, radgan sazRvarze importuli produqciis fitosanitariul da sxva kontrols Semosavlebis samsaxuri axorcielebs. mesame etapze gamoyofili Tanxa (4,5 milioni evro) isev sursaTis erovnuli saagentos instituciur gaZlierebas moxmardeba. CIB proeqtis mxardaWeriT, ramdenime sasazRvro-gamSvebi punqti „evrokavSirTan Rrma da yovlismomcveli Tavisufali savaWro sivrcis Sesaxeb“ SeTanxmebis (DCFTA) valdebulebebis Sesrulebisa da efeqtiani kontrolis ganxorcielebisTvis aucilebeli danadgarebiT aRiWurva.

DCFTA soflis meurneobis arapirdapiri daxmarebis programad SesaZloa ganvixiloT evrokavSiris kidev erTi proeqti DCFTA mxardaWeris programa, romlis biujeti pirvel etapze 37,5 milioni evroa. am programis erT-erTi komponenti iTvaliswinebs SeRavaTiani kreditebis gacemas im mewarmeebisa da fermerebisTvis, romlebic warmoebas evropuli standartebis Sesabamisad aawyoben. proeqtis ganxorcieleba 2016 wlidan daiwyeba. garda am daxmarebebisa, evrokavSiris zogierTi qveyana saqarTvelos individualuri donoria. magaliTad: avs-

Agency, the German government's development bank KFW, and the German Society for International Cooperation GIZ. In addition, the Netherlands supports Georgia with a land reclamation project. Nowadays the EU is Georgia’s main donor and partner in institutional and agricultural development.

Agriculture Figures During 2014 the output value of agricultural products was USD 3.4 billion, with 4.5 billion products created as a result of processing these. The entire production of agribusiness is 10% more than it was in 2013, which is mainly caused by the growth of the processing sector, which is at 13.8%, with primary production 5.2% more than it was last year.

Investments According to preliminary data for 2014, foreign investment amounted to approximately USD 19 million in the agricultural sector, which is 38% more than it was in the same period in the previous year. In 2012 the amount of investments was 119 million GEL, which is 15.6% less than it was in 2014.

Examples of success Positive trends of Georgia entering the European market can be seen in some successful examples of individuals: Kiwi – the Georgian company “Nergeta”, which produces kiwis in the village of Ingiri, based in the region of Zugdidi, sells their product in “LIDL” - one of the largest trade centers in Europe. LIDL buys one kg of kiwi for EUR 1.20 from Georgian producers.

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Business and Economy | ბიზნესი და ეკონომიკა triis ganviTarebis saagento, germaniis mTavrobis ganviTarebis banki KFW, germaniis saerTaSoriso TanamSromlobis sazogadoeba GIZ. niderlandebis samefo ki saqarTvelos melioraciis ganviTarebis proeqtiT exmareba. dResdReobiT, evrokavSiri mTavari donori da stabiluri partnioria rogorc instituciuri ganviTarebis, ise soflis meurneobis dargis strategiuli ganviTarebis mimarTulebiT. saqarTvelos soflis meurneobis ganviTarebis dagegmvaSi evrokavSiris CarTvis Semdeg dargis mzardi dinamika fiqsirdeba.

soflis meurneoba cifrebSi 2014 wlis ganmavlobaSi qveyanaSi soflis meurneobis produqciis warmoebis Rirebulebam 3,4 mlrd lari Seadgina, xolo soflis meurneobis produqtebis gadamuSavebis Sedegad 4,5 mlrd laris Rirebulebis produqcia Seiqmna. agrobiznesis seqtorSi produqciis mTliani gamoSveba 2013 wlis analogiur monacems 10 procentiT aRemateba, rac ZiriTadad ganpirobebulia gadamamuSavebeli seqtoris zrdiT, romlis maCvenebeli 13,8 procentia, pirveladi produqciis gamoSvebis maCvenebeli ki wina welTan SedarebiT 5,2 procentiT gaizarda.

investiciebi 2014 wlis monacemebiT, soflis meurneobis seqtorSi 19 090 600 mln aSS dolaris Rirebulebis pirdapiri ucxouri investiciebi ganxorcielda, rac wina wlis analogiuri periodis maCvenebels 38 procentiT aRemateba. 2012 wels investiciebis moculoba 16 119 300 lari iyo, rac 15,6 procentiT naklebia 2014 wlis monacemTan SedarebiT.

warmatebuli magaliTebi evropul bazarze qarTuli produqciis Sesvlis pozitiur tendencias calkeuli warmatebuli magaliTebic aCvenebs: kivi. evropis erT-erTi udidesi savaWro qselis LIDL-is supermarketebSi qarTuli kompania „nergetas“ mier zugdidis raionis sofel ingirSi moyvanili kivi iyideba. LIDL-i qarTveli mwarmoeblisgan 1kg kivis 1,20 evrod yidulobs. bioRvino. 2006 wels iago bitariSvilis bioRvinis _ „Cardaxis“ pirveli partia eqsportze gavida Semdeg qveynebSi: italia, safrangeTi, aSS, iaponia, inglisi, SvedeTi, dania, slovenia, fineTi, belgia. iagos Rvino evropaSi iseT cnobil restornebSi iyideba, rogorebicaa: „Satobriani“ parizSi da „teruari“ londonSi. lurji mocvi. saqarTveloSi moyvanili 12 tona lurji mocvi didi britaneTis bazarze wels pirvelad Sevida. evrokavSiris bazarze misi fasi 4-dan 10 evromde meryeobs. kompania „Vanrik Agro Group“-ma lurji mocvis gaSeneba ozurgeTis raionis sofel laiTurSi 2012 wlis bolos daiwyo. kompaniis menejmenti uaxloes momavalSi meurneobis 400 ha-mde gafarToebas apirebs.

Biowine – Biowine’s “Chardakhi” of Iago Bitarishvili was first imported in 2006 to the following countries: Italy, France, USA, Japan, England, Sweden, Denmark, Slovenia, Finland and Belgium. Iago’s wine is sold in well-known restaurants in Europe such as “ChatoBrian” (Paris) and “Teruari”(England).

eqsportis perspeqtiva

Perspective of export

qafSia. qarTuli TevzmWeri sawarmoebi evrokavSirSi eqsportisTvis emzadebian. Savi zRvis qarTul akvatoriaSi

Anchovies - Georgian fishing producers are getting ready for export to the EU. Anchovies, which are caught in the Black Sea

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Blueberry - Twelve tons of blueberry produced in Georgia was first imported to the UK market and the price of this product on the EU market ranges between EUR 4 and EUR 10. The company “Vanrik Agro Group” started cultivating blueberries in Laituri, in the Ozurgeti region, at the end of 2012. The company’s management is planning to increase its agriculture space by 400 hectares.


Business and Economy | ბიზნესი და ეკონომიკა

mopovebuli qafSia SesaZloa evrokavSiriis bazarze gavides. Tevzis kompaniebis Sesamowmeblad evrokavSiris misia DG SANCO (Directorate General Health and Consumers Affairs) saqarTveloSi orjer Camovida. qarTul sanapiroze daWerili Tevzis fqvilisa da Tevzis zeTis evrokavSirSi eqsporti am misiis dadebiT daskvnazea damokidebuli. Tafli. DCFTA-s xelSekrulebaze muSaobis paralelurad evrokavSirSi qarTuli Taflis eqsporti Tavidanve aqtiurad ganixileboda. qarTuli Tafli rom evrokavSiris bazarze moxvdes, laboratoriuli kvlevis Sedegad TaflSi antibiotikebis narCenebi da sxva damabinZureblebi ar unda aRmoCndes. Taflis sinjebis Sesamowmeblad soflis meurneobis saministro Tavisi laboratoriis aRWurvaze muSaobs. es ki Taflis mwarmoebel fermerebs warmoebis gaumjobesebisa da evrokavSiris bazarze Sesvlis SesaZleblobas miscems.

region of Georgia, may then be exported to the EU market. To examine Georgian fishing companies, the mission of EU DG SANCO (Directorate General Health and Consumers Affairs) visited Georgia twice. The export of fish oil and flour to the EU is largely dependent on the positive assessment of these missions. Honey - while working on the DCFTA agreement, the export of Georgian honey to the EU market was actively discussed. To export Georgian honey into the EU market laboratorial research should show decrease of antibiotic residues and other pollutants in the product. The Ministry of Agriculture of Georgia is working on the laboratories’ equipment, where honey samples will be checked, which will result in improving the production of honey by Georgian farmers and thus will give Georgian honey a greater chance to successfully enter the EU market.

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Business and Economy | ბიზნესი და ეკონომიკა გიგლა აგულაშვილი გარემოსა და ბუნებრივი რესურსების დაცვის მინისტრი

Gigla Agulashvili

Minister of Environment and Natural Resources Protection of Georgia

გარემოს დაცვა, ეკონომიკური განვითარება და სოციალური კეთილდღეობა ერთ კონტექსტში უნდა განიხილებოდეს Protection of environment, economic development and social well-being shall be considered in a single context „yvelas aqvs ufleba cxovrobdes janmrTelobisaTvis uvnebel garemoSi“... „yvela valdebulia gaufrTxildes bunebriv da kulturul garemos“. saqarTvelos konstituciis 37-e muxli Everyone shall have the right to live in a healthy environment Everyone shall be obliged to protect the natural and cultural environment Constitution of Georgia, Article 37

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Business and Economy | ბიზნესი და ეკონომიკა

s

aqarTvelos evrokavSirSi integraciis procesi ara marto garkveuli valdebulebebis Sesrulebas, aramed qveynis socialur-ekonomikuri ganviTarebis axleburi xedvisa da midgomebis gaziarebas gulisxmobs. Tanamedrove gagebiT, garemos dacva, ekonomikuri ganviTareba da socialuri keTildReoba erTian konteqstSi ganixileba. saqarTvelos garemosa da bunebrivi resursebis dacvis saministros umTavresi miznebi, amocanebi da maT misaRwevad gadasadgmeli nabijebi swored am sami faseulobis erTianobas efuZneba.

ra aris Cveni mizani? janmrTelobisTvis uvnebel garemoSi cxovreba saqarTvelos moqalaqeebis konstituciuri uflebaa, jansaRi garemos SeqmnaSi monawileoba ki _ maTi konstituciuri valdebuleba (saqarTvelos konstituciis 37-e muxli). saqarTvelos garemosa da bunebrivi resursebis dacvis saministros ZiriTadi funqciac swored konstituciidan gamomdinareobs _ daicvas adamianis usafrTxo garemoSi cxovrebis ufleba, gaakontrolos da xeli SeuSalos garemos dabinZurebas. xSirad fiqroben, rom garemos dacva xels uSlis qveynis ekonomikur winsvlas, aferxebs biznesis ganviTarebas an damatebiT SezRudvebs uwesebs moqalaqeebs. dRes ukve moZvelebulia midgoma, roca garemosdacviTi organizaciebi metwilad bunebis konservaciaze arian orientirebuli, savaWro da finansuri organizaciebi _ ekonomikur zrdaze, xolo socialur sakiTxebs orives dRis wesrigSi meorexarisxovani roli eniWeba. Cveni mizania, qveyanaSi davamkvidroT iseTi midgoma, rom garemos dacva ar Semoifarglebodes mxolod konservaciuli RonisZiebebiT, aramed is mWidrod ukavSirdebodes qveynis ekonomikis ganviTarebasa da mosaxleobis socialuri mdgomareobis gaumjobesebas. asocirebis Sesaxeb SeTanxmebiT nakisri garemosdacviTi standartebis danergva uciloblad gansaxilvelia qveynis ekonomikuri ganviTarebis erTiani xedvis konteqstSi. evropul normebTan harmonizebuli garemosdacviTi kanonmdebloba, erTi mxriv, xels uwyobs jansaRi garemos Seqmnasa da ekologiuri mdgomareobis gaumjobesebas, xolo, meore mxriv, uzrunvelyofs qveyanaSi sakanonmdeblo stabilurobis miRwevas, damatebiTi investiciebis mozidvas, qmnis axal biznes-SesaZleblobebs, axal samuSao adgilebs, rac safuZvlad unda daedos codnasa da racionalur gaTvlebze damyarebuli ekonomikis Camoyalibebas. asocirebis Sesaxeb SeTanxmebaSi garemos dacvas didi yuradReba eniWeba _ garemosdacviTi valdebulebebis CamonaTvali erT-erTi yvelaze moculobiTia seqtorul mimarTulebebs Soris. garemos dacvis Tavi moicavs Svid dargobriv mimarTulebas. esenia: garemosdacviTi mmarTveloba; haeris xarisxi; wylis xarisxi; narCenebis marTva; bunebis dacva; samrewvelo dabinZureba da samrewvelo safrTxeebi; qimiuri nivTierebebis

T

he EU integration process is not only the implementation of certain obligations, but also the sharing of a new vision and approach on the country's socio-economic development. The modern approach encompasses environmental protection, economic development and social well-being in a single context. The integrity of these three values serves as the foundation for the main goals and objectives of the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources Protection of Georgia as well as for the steps to be taken in order to thus achieve them.

What is our Goal? It is a constitutional right of every Georgian citizen to live in a safe environment while the very constitution obliges them to partake in the creation of a healthy environment. The main function of the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources Protection of Georgia – the protection of the right to live in a healthy environment and the control the pollution - also derives from the constitution. Environmental protection is often considered as an obstacle to the country’s economic progress and for business development thus posing additional restrictions for citizens. Yet the modern approach views both the environmental and economic policies in a single context. Approaches that boils environmental organizations down mostly to the conservation of nature and trade institutions and financial organizations to economic growth, while keeping social issues reduced to a secondary role in their agendas, are nowadays regarded as being quite outdated. Therefore, our goal is to establish an approach that is closely linked to the country's economic development and the improvement of social conditions, which does not depict the protection of the environment in merely conservation terms. The introduction of new environmental standards as part of the Association Agreement must be considered in line with the country's economic development. On the one hand environmental legislation harmonized with European standards promotes a healthy environment and improved ecology while on the other it also provides legislative stability, increases the country’s credibility, facilitates additional investments openings, and creates new business and job opportunities that eventually must lay the foundation for a knowledge-based and rationally-planned economy. The environment is one of the main priorities of the Association Agreement – the list of environmental requirements is one of the most extensive compared to other sectoral policies. The Chapter “Environment” consists of seven directions: environmental governance; air quality; water quality; waste management; nature protection; industrial pollution and industrial hazards; chemicals management; and a separate chapter devoted to climate action. Furthermore, the trade related part of the Association Agreement - Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area (DCFTA) – covers four additional directions: Multilateral environmental agreements; sustainable management of forests and trade in forest products; biodiversity; and trade in fish products. The deadline for the

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Business and Economy | ბიზნესი და ეკონომიკა

საქართველოს რუკა

Map of Georgia

marTva. calke Tavi eZRvneba klimatis cvlilebas. garda amisa, asocirebis Sesaxeb SeTanxmebis ekonomikuri TanamSromlobis nawili _ Rrma da yovlismomcveli Tavisufali savaWro sivrcis Sesaxeb SeTanxmeba (DCFTA) _ moicavs oTx damatebiT mimarTulebas, rogorebicaa: mravalmxrivi garemosdacviTi SeTanxmebebi, biomravalferovneba, tyis mdgradi marTva, xe-tyis nawarmiTa da Tevzis produqciiT vaWroba. qveynis mier nakisri garemosdacviTi valdebulebebis Sesrulebis vadebi 2-idan 15 wlamde meryeobs.

ras vakeTebT Cven dagegmva da instituciuri cvlilebebi zemoT CamoTvlili valdebulebebidan gamomdinare, garemosa da bunebrivi resursebis dacvis saministrom upirveles amocanad daisaxa koordinaciis moqnili da efeqtiani meqanizmebis Camoyalibeba. evrokavSiris xelSewyobiT momzadda asocirebis Sesaxeb SeTanxmebis garemosdacviTi Tavebis ganxorcielebis e. w. sagzao ruka, romelic moicavs gasatarebeli reformebisa da sakanonmdeblo harmonizaciis gegmas. zemoxsenebuli dokumenti saministros saSualebas aZlevs, sworad dagegmos gansaxorcielebeli RonisZiebebi da sazogadoeba winaswar iyos informirebuli aRniSnulis Sesaxeb. evrokavSirTan TanamSromlobis gaumjobesebis, aseve sazogadoebasTan komunikaciis gaZlierebis mizniT, gaviziareT evrokavSiris partnior da kandidat qveynebSi aprobirebuli praqtika da saministroSi Seiqmna evrointegraciasa da sakanonmdeblo harmonizaciaze pasuxismgebeli sammarTveloebi.

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implementation of the assumed environmental obligations varies from two to 15 years.

What we do Planning and institutional changes Given the complexity of the above mentioned commitments the establishment of flexible and efficient coordination mechanisms is the primary goal of the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources Protection. As such, the “Road Map for the Implementation of Environmental Chapters of the Association Agreement” has been developed with EU support. Here, the map encloses a list of necessary reforms and a plan of legal harmonization, which allows the Ministry to outline future activities as well as to keep the public aware of upcoming environmental events. In order to strengthen cooperation with the EU as well as to improve communication with the public, we have shared the accepted practices by EU partner and candidate countries and established special divisions responsible for EU integration policy and legal harmonization. Waste Management Solid and other types of waste are some of the most troublesome environmental problems in Georgia. Unfortunately, until 2015 waste management regulations were fragmented and scattered around various legislative acts. This year we have successfully completed a long and extensive process and a new code on waste management has been approved based on Association Agreement requirements. At this stage, by-laws of the Code, as well as National Waste Management


Business and Economy | ბიზნესი და ეკონომიკა narCenebis marTva saqarTveloSi garemos dacvis TvalsazrisiT erT -erTi mtkivneuli problemaa sayofacxovrebo Tu sxva tipis narCenebi. samwuxarod, narCenebis marTvis maregulirebeli wesebi 2015 wlamde fragmentulad iyo gabneuli sxvadasxva sakanonmdeblo aqtSi. wels warmatebiT davasruleT sakmaod xangrZlivi da Sromatevadi procesi da damtkicda asocirebis Sesaxeb SeTanxmebis valdebulebebze dafuZnebuli narCenebis marTvis axali kodeqsi. am etapze mimdinareobs muSaoba kodeqsis kanonqvemdebare normatiuli aqtebis, agreTve narCenebis marTvis erovnuli strategiisa da samoqmedo gegmis mosamzadeblad. garda amisa, SemuSavda kanonproeqti „radioaqtiuri narCenebis Sesaxeb“ da Tanamdevi sakanonmdeblo cvlilebebis paketi.

Strategy and Action Plan, are being prepared. Besides that a draft law on “radioactive waste” and related legislative amendments has been elaborated. Biodiversity, forestry and protected areas Georgia has a rich biodiversity. About 40% of the country's territory is covered with forest, which is home to numerous endemic species and habitats of rare and endangered species. To ensure the legal regulation of this area, the new draft law on "Species and habitats" is being prepared in accordance with the Association Agreement obligations. The Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan for 2014-2020 has been developed and approved for medium-term planning. Last year the new law on geneticallymodified living organisms banned the use of genetically-modified seeds throughout the country, which will significantly contribute to the country's biological security.

biomravalferovneba, tye da daculi teritoriebi saqarTvelo mdidaria biomravalferovnebiT, qveynis teritoriis daaxloebiT 40 procenti tyiT aris dafaruli, sadac gvxvdeba mravali endemuri saxeoba, agreTve iSviaTi da globaluri masStabiT gadaSenebis safrTxis winaSe myofi saxeobis habitati. swored am sferos sakanonmdeblo regulirebis mizniT, asocirebis valdebulebebis Sesabamisad, mimdinareobs kanonproeqtis momzadeba „saxeobebisa da habitatebis Sesaxeb“. saSualovadiani dagegmvisTvis, 2014-2020 wlebisTvis, SemuSavda da damtkicda biomravalferovnebis strategia da samoqmedo gegma. gasul wels, axali kanoniT cocxali genmodificirebuli organizmebis Sesaxeb, qveynis masStabiT aikrZala genmodificirebuli Teslis gamoyeneba, e. w. garemoSi introduqcia, rac biologiur usafrTxoebas mniSvnelovnad Seuwyobs xels. biologiuri faseulobis garda, mogexsenebaT, tyis resursebs qveynis mosaxleobisTvis sasicocxlo mniSvneloba aqvs. es tendencia saqarTveloSi kidev ufro gamokveTilia, radgan regionebis did nawilSi saSeSe merqani kvlavac ZiriTadi saSualebaa gasaTbobad da sakvebis mosamzadeblad. gazifikaciis miuxedavad, mosaxleobis SeSaze damokidebuleba ar Semcirebula. satyeo seqtori kargi magaliTia imisa, Tu rogor unda SevusabamoT garemos dacvas socialuri sakiTxebi da ekonomikuri sargeblis miReba. Rrma da yovlismomcveli Tavisufali savaWro sivrcis Sesaxeb SeTanxmebis (DCFTA) Sesabamisad, qveyanaSi daiwyo tyis mdgradi marTvis principebis danergva, rac gulisxmobs merqnis mopovebas, romelic, erTi mxriv, daakmayofilebs mosaxleobis saWiroebebs da amasTanave ar daazianebs tyes. am etapze saministro amzadebs tyis axal kodeqss, romelic gaaumjobesebs tyis mdgradi marTvis samarTlebriv bazas da xels Seuwyobs tyesTan dakavSirebuli samarTlebivi urTierTobebis mowesrigebas. satyeo seqtoris reformis pirvel etapze SemuSavda da damtkicda erovnuli satyeo koncefcia, romlis Sedegad gaimijna satyeo politikis marTvisa da zedamxedvelobis funqciebi. dasrulda saqarTvelos

Besides the biological value, forest resources carry vital importance for the population as a whole. This trend is even more prevalent in Georgia since in several places around the country firewood is still the main source of heating and cooking. In spite of gasification the population’s dependence on firewood has not been significantly reduced. The forestry sector is a good example of how environmental conservation should be coupled with regard to social issues and economic benefits. According to the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Agreement (DCFTA), Georgia has started to exercise the principles of sustainable forest management, which involves the extraction of timber in a manner that simultaneously meets the population's needs and avoids irreversible damage to the forest. At this stage the new Forest Code is being prepared in order to improve the legal framework for sustainable forest management and stimulate the regulation of forest-related legal interactions. As the first stage of forest sector reform, the National Forest Concept was developed and approved by separating the functions of forest

ჯანმრთელობისთვის უვნებელ გარემოში ცხოვრება საქართველოს მოქალაქეების კონსტიტუციური უფლებაა. It is a constitutional right of every Georgian citizen to live in a safe environment. ოქტომბერი 2015 საქართველოს ევროპული გზა

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Business and Economy | ბიზნესი და ეკონომიკა tyiT dafaruli farTobis rukis momzadeba, rac qveynis tyis resursebis Sesaxeb ganaxlebul informacias gvawvdis. dainteresebul mxareTa sruli CarTulobiT mimdinareobs erovnuli satyeo programis SemuSaveba. daculi teritoriebis erTiani farTobi gaizarda 1,2 procentiT. Seiqmna 17 axali bunebis Zegli, erTi aRkveTili da erTi erovnuli parki, maT Soris fSav-xevsureTis daculi teritoriebi _ fSav-xevsureTis erovnuli parki, roSkis bunebis Zegli, daarsda asis aRkveTili. gaumjobesda arsebuli daculi teritoriebis marTvis sistemebi, daixvewa bunebis konservaciis meqanizmebi. garda amisa, yvela daculi teritoriisTvis muSavdeba saerTaSoriso standartebis Sesabamisi marTvis gegmebi, romlebic iTvaliswinebs ara mxolod mis ZiriTad funqcias _ biomravalferovnebis dacvas, aramed daculi teritoriebis garkveul zonebSi da mis mimdebared mcxovrebi mosaxleobis socialuri da ekonomikuri mdgomareobis gaumjobesebas, bunebrivi resursebis efeqtianad marTvas, ekoturizmis ganviTarebas, aseve samecniero da saganmanaTleblo saqmianobis xelSewyobas.

garemosdacviTi Sefasebis axali sistema garemosdacviTi mmarTvelobis gasaumjobeseblad, garemoze zemoqmedebis sanebarTvo sistemis dasaxvewad da evropul standartTan dasaaxloeblad, evropel partniorebTan erTad momzadda „garemosdacviTi Sefasebis kodeqsis“ proeqti. kanons mravali siaxle Semoaqvs qarTul realobaSi, kerZod: axali kanonmdeblobiT gafarTovdeba da srulyofilad Camoyalibdeba im saqmianobebis CamonaTvali, romlebic ekologiur eqspertizas eqvemdebareba. dainergeba skriningisa da skopingis etapebi, rac saministrosa da saqmianobis ganmaxorcielebels Soris swor komunikacias uzrunvelyofs. aseve, SesaZleblobas miscems saqmianobis ganmaxorcielebels, droulad aRiqvas proeqtTan dakavSirebuli nebismieri riski. pirvelad saqarTveloSi, dainergeba seqtoruli strategiuli garemosdacviTi Sefasebis sistema. erTi mxriv, Tu Semcirdeba investoris SesaZlo finansuri danakargebis riski, meore mxriv ki, saministrosTvis gaCndeba meti berketi, miiRos gonivruli da argumentirebuli gadawyvetileba. axali kanonproeqtis mixedviT, sazogadoebas SesaZlebloba eqneba CaerTos rogorc nebarTvis gacemis, ise strategiuli garemosdacviTi Sefasebis procesSi.

reformebi sxva garemosdacviT seqtorebSi dawyebulia wylis integrirebuli marTvis sistemaze gadasvlis procesi, momzadda evropul standartze dafuZnebuli axali kanonproeqti „wylis resursebis marTvis Sesaxeb“, romelic daadgens wylis resursebis racionalurad sargeblobis wesebs. magaliTad, Tu ramdenime mewarmes samewarmeo saqmianobisTvis dasWirdeba mdinaris wylis gamoyeneba, wyali ganawildeba yvela wyalmosargeblis interesebis gaTvaliswinebiT. bolo dros dedaqalaqsa Tu devdorakis xeobaSi ganviTarebulma movlenebma kidev erTxel dagvanaxva, Tu

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policy management and supervision. Work on the forest cover map was completed this year, which updated information about forest resources throughout the country. The development of the national forestry program is now underway with the full participation of its stakeholders. The size of the Protected Areas has increased by 1.2%. Seventeen new natural monuments, one reserve and one national park were established. What is noteworthy is the founding of Mtskheta-Khevsureti Protected Areas: Pshav-Khevsureti National Park, Roshka natural monument and the Asa reserve. The management systems of the existing Protected Areas were improved and mechanisms for nature conservation were refined. Furthermore, international standard-based management plans are being elaborated for all protected areas making provisions for the


Business and Economy | ბიზნესი და ეკონომიკა

ramdenad mniSvnelovania bunebrivi katastrofebis riskis sworad Sefaseba da Semcireba, gansakuTrebiT Cvennairi reliefis mqone qveynisTvis. swored am mizniT, qveynis masStabiT mimdinareobs dasaxlebuli punqtebis Sefaseba saSiSroebis riskebis mixedviT. SemuSavda rekomendaciebi SesaZlo safrTxis Tavidan asacileblad da prevenciuli zomebis gasatareblad. am mimarTulebiT saministro gegmavs qveyanaSi adreuli gafrTxilebis sistemis gamarTvas, rac Seamcirebs bunebrivi katastrofebiT gamowveul adamianur msxverpls da ekonomikur-materialur zarals. atmosferuli haeris dacvis sferoSi daiwyo haeris xarisxis monitoringis sistemis etapobrivi danergva. ozondamSleli nivTierebebis moxmarebis Sesamcireblad SemoRebulia import-eqsportis licenzirebisa da

conservation of biodiversity as its core function, as well as focusing on the improvement of the social and economic conditions of the population that resides in certain zones of Protected Areas and surrounding areas, the effective management of natural resources, development of ecotourism and facilitation of scientific and educational activities. The new system of Environmental Assessment The “Environmental Assessment Code" has been drafted with the support of European partners who envisage the improvement of environmental governance, thus refining the environmental impact permit system and bringing it in line with European standards. The new law is about to bring many innovations to reality in Georgia; namely, that the new legislation will expand and clearly formulate the list of activities that require environmental expertise. Screening and

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Business and Economy | ბიზნესი და ეკონომიკა

ბოლო დროს დედაქალაქსა თუ დევდორაკის ხეობაში განვითარებულმა მოვლენებმა კიდევ ერთხელ დაგვანახვა, თუ რამდენად მნიშვნელოვანია ბუნებრივი კატასტროფების რისკის სწორად შეფასება და შემცირება. Recent events in the capital and Devdorak Valley have demonstrated once again the importance of natural disaster risk reduction and determination. kvotirebis sistema, Segrovda am nivTierebebis narCenebi, romlebic gatanilia qveynidan maTi usafrTxo ganadgurebis mizniT. momzadda sakanonmdeblo cvlilebebi mcire biznesis xelSewyobisTvis, ris safuZvelzedac gamkacrda saavtomobilo sawvavis erovnuli standartebi. Cveni gegmiT, benzinis xarisxi 2017 wels srulad unda Seesabamebodes evrokavSiris normebs.

klimatis cvlileba erovnuli gamowvevebis garda, saqarTvelo aqtiurad aris CarTuli saerTaSoriso aqtivobebSi globaluri garemosdacviTi problemebis daZlevis mimarTulebiT. wlis bolos parizSi dagegmilia klimatis cvlilebis konvenciis mxareTa konferencia. saqarTvelo mxars uWers konferenciis ideas, rom pasuxismgebloba ar unda ekisrebodes mxolod ganviTarebul qveynebs da saTburi gazebis Semcirebis winaswar gaTvlebze damyarebuli valdebuleba unda itvirTos yvela qveyanam. Sesabamisad, saqarTveloSi dawyebulia dabalemisiani ganviTarebis strategiis SemuSavebis procesi, momzadebulia „erovnul doneze gansazRvruli wvlilis“ (INDC) dokumenti, romelSic asaxulia saqarTvelos valdebulebebi 2030 wlamde saTburis efeqtis mqone gazebis Sesamcireblad.

garemosdacviTi ganaTleba aRsaniSnavia, rom saqarTveloSi garemosdacviTi sakiTxebis mimarT sazogadoebis interesi maRalia, Tumca mosaxleobis didi nawili am mxriv moklebulia profesiul codnas. swored amitom, saministrom daiwyo kompleqsuri RonisZiebebis ganxorcieleba cnobierebis amaRlebis mizniT, maT Soris dawyebiT, saSualo Tu umaRles saganmanaTleblo dawesebulebebSi garemosdacviTi ganaTlebis

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scoping stages will be introduced to ensure for correct and proper communication between the Ministry and the developer. It will also enable the developer to get informed about project-related risks in a timely manner. For the first time in Georgia the sectoral Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) system will be installed. Investors will run a lower risk of financial loss while the Ministry will gain a new leverage to come to more reasonable decisions. The new law will grant the public the opportunity to take part in the issuing of permits as well as the strategic environmental assessment process. Reforms in other environmental sectors The transition process to the integrated water management system has commenced and a new European standard-based code on "Water Resources Management" to establish rules for the rational use of water resources has been drawn up. For example, the interest of all water users will be considered if river water is utilized by multiple entrepreneurs. Recent events in the capital and Devdorak Valley have demonstrated once again the importance of natural disaster risk reduction and determination. With this aim country-wide assessments of the risks of hazards have been launched for all settlements. Recommendations have been prepared to avoid possible risks and to undertake preventive measures. The Ministry plans to introduce the early warning system throughout the country in order to reduce the level of human casualties as well as economic losses caused by natural disasters. The Ambient Air protection sector was marked with the gradual installation of an air-quality monitoring system. An import and export licensing and quota system was introduced to reduce the consumption of ozone depleting substances, with the waste collected and then transported for destruction out of the country. Legislative changes orientated towards small businesses as well as stricter national standards on automobile fuel have been introduced, with the plan to bring the quality of gasoline in 2017 into full compliance with EU standards. Climate change Apart from national challenges Georgia is also actively involved in international activities to overcome global environmental problems. The conference of the Convention on Climate Change is scheduled in Paris by the end of the year. Georgia supports the idea of the conference that not only developed states should carry the responsibility to limit or reduce greenhouse gas emissions, but that the same obligations based on preliminary calculations should also be assumed by all countries regardless of economic development. Hence the elaboration of the Low Emissions Development Strategy (LEDS) has been initiated in Georgia. The Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) document has been prepared to reflect Georgia's commitments and contributions to greenhouse gas reduction insofar as 2030. Environmental Education It is noteworthy that environmental issues are of high public interest in Georgia despite the majority of the population lacking basic


Business and Economy | ბიზნესი და ეკონომიკა

komponentis CarTvis TvalsazrisiT. 2013 wlidan saministros daqvemdebarebaSi funqcionirebs ssip garemosdacviTi ganaTlebisa da informaciis centri, romlis mizanic aris sazogadoebisTvis drouli, sando da zusti informaciis miwodeba, aseve garemosdacviT sakiTxebSi sazogadoebis CarTulobis zrda. centris iniciativiT, saqarTvelos ganaTlebisa da mecnierebis saministrosTan erTad, skolamdeli asakis bavSvebis saskolo mzaobis saganmanaTleblo saxelmwifo standarts 2015-2016 saswavlo wlisTvis daemata garemosdacviTi komponentebi, romlebic moicavs Semdeg Temebs: biomravalferovneba, energiis dazogva, wylis resursebis gonivruli moxmareba da narCenebis marTva. aseve minda aRvniSno, rom asocirebis Sesaxeb SeTanxmebis garda qveyanas sxvadasxva saerTaSoriso valdebuleba aqvs. dResdReobiT, saqarTvelo 31 mravalmxrivi garemosdacviTi xelSekrulebis mxarea, romelTa farglebSic nakisri valdebulebebis Sesrulebas saministro didi pasuxismgeblobiT ekideba. qveyana mravali garemosdacviTi gamowvevis winaSe dgas. arsebuli problemebi gavlenas axdens rogorc qveynis ekologiur mdgomareobaze, igi aseve pirdapir aris dakavSirebuli sxva seqtorebTan (soflis meurneoba, jandacva, energetika da sxva). mimdinare gamowvevebTan gasamklaveblad mniSvnelovania sazogadoebis CarTulobis gazrda. Cveni mizania, rom garemosTvis zianis miyenebis potenciuri pirebi iqcnen partniorebad garemos dacvisa da qveynis bunebrivi resursebis gonivrulad moxmarebis sferoSi, ris Sedegadac mniSvnelovnad unda Semcirdes garemoze zemoqmedeba.

professional knowledge in this field. That is why the Ministry has launched comprehensive awareness raising activities, including the enclosure of an environmental education component in primary, secondary and higher educational institutions. The Legal Entity of Public Law (LEPL) Environmental Education and Information Center operating under the Ministry since 2013 aims to provide reliable and accurate information to the public in a timely manner and to increase public involvement in environmental issues. As a joint initiative by the Centre and the Ministry of Education and Science of Georgia environmental components have been added to preschool-children school preparedness educational standards for the year of 2015-2016 incorporating topics such as biodiversity, energy saving, reasonable use of water resources and waste management. Finally, it is worth mentioning that besides the Association Agreement Georgia has other international obligations. At present Georgia is a party to 31 multilateral environmental agreements fulfilling all imposed obligations with great responsibility. As noted above, our country faces a variety of environmental challenges. Asides from affecting ecological conditions there are problems linked directly to other sectors as well (agriculture, healthcare, energy, etc.). Thus to respond to the current challenges it is essential to encourage greater public participation. Our goal is to turn the potential harassers of the environment into our partners in terms of environmental protection and the sustainable use of natural resources that will significantly reduce pressure on the environment.

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Education and Culture | განათლება და კულტურა

COMUS-ის კონფერენცია თბილისში

COMUS Conference in Tbilisi

კულტურა მნიშვნელოვანია ლევან ხარატიშვილი

საქართველოს კულტურისა და ძეგლთა დაცვის მინისტრის მოადგილე

Culture Matters Levan Kharatishvili

Deputy Minister of Culture and Monument Protection of Georgia

p

olitikur-ekonomikuri reformis Sedegad, 2014 wlis ivnisSi evrokavSirsa da saqarTvelos Soris asocirebis xelSekruleba gaformda, rac mniSvnelovnad Seuwyobs xels evrokavSirisa da saqarTvelos urTierTobis gamyarebas aRmosavleT partniorobis farglebSi. asocirebis xelSekruleba sxva valdebulebebTan erTad iTvaliswinebs saqarTvelos CarTvas programaSi _ „SemoqmedebiTi evropa“. 2015 wlis 24 Tebervals xeli moewera SeTanxmebas, ris Sedegadac saqarTvelo aRniSnuli programis oficialuri wevri gaxda. saqarTveloSi evrokavSiris delegaciis xelmZRvanelis, sagangebo da sruluflebiani elCis ianuS hermanis gancxadebiT, programa „SemoqmedebiTi evropa“ _ saqarTvelosTvis SesaZleblobaa, Seqmnas axali samuSao adgilebi, ganaviTaros ekonomika da adamianuri resursebi, misces qarTvel xelovanebs profesiuli srulyofis saSualeba da daexmaros maT partniorebis moZiebaSi. programa aseve mxars dauWers xelovnebis sferoSi ekonomikuri sargeblis gazrdas, rac sabolood saqarTvelos globalur ganviTarebaze aisaxeba. kultura saWiroebs konceptualur midgomas, radgan mas mravalfunqciuri datvirTva aqvs. yvelaze farTo gagebiT, kultura msoflios aRqmisa da gacnobierebis unikalur SesaZleblobas iZleva. kultura bevrad metia, vidre mxolod Zeglebi, saSemsruleblo xelovneba da wignebi _ kultura Cven varT, kulturaa sxva adamianebis amocnobisa da maTTan

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B

y signing the Association Agreement with the European Union in June 2014 relations between the EU and Georgia were brought to a qualitatively new stage. The Association Agreement is the result of Georgia’s European aspirations, which significantly deepens the political and economic ties with the European Union in the framework of the Eastern Partnership. One of the commitments Georgia undertook under the Association Agreement was to join the Creative Europe Programme. On February 24th, 2015 Georgia signed an agreement with the EU and officially became a member state of the Creative Europe Programme. According to the Head of the European Union Delegation to Georgia, Ambassador H.E. Mr. Janos Herman said: “Joining Creative Europe will provide new opportunities for Georgia, for human and economic development: it will help to create jobs and increase the presence of Georgian artists and help them in establishing new contacts. It will also support the economy in the field of arts which will reflect Georgia’s global development". The concept of culture is complex and has many shades of meaning. In the broader sense culture describes the ways in which we see and understand the world around us. Culture is much more than monuments, performing arts and books – it is who we are and how we open up to other people, to the vast diversity of meanings and experiences.


Education and Culture | განათლება და კულტურა

მიხეილ გიორგაძე - საქართველოს კულტურისა და ძეგლთა დაცვის მინისტრი

Mikheil Giorgadze - Minister of Culture and Monument Protection of

ტიბორ ნავარაჩიჩი - ევროკომისარი განათლების, კულტურის, ახალგაზროდობისა და სპორტის მიმართულებით

Tibor Navracsics - European Commissioner for Education, Culture, Youth and

Georgia

Sport

kontaqtis damyarebis saSualeba _ is mravalferovneba da gamocdilebaa. kulturis gareSe SeuZlebelia qveynis, sazogadoebis Camoyalibeba, uimisod verc erT sferoSi ver iqneba ganviTareba mdgradi, vinaidan kultura aris inkluziuri zrdis instrumenti. wlebis ganmavlobaSi ekonomistebi ayalibebdnen kulturis koncefciasa da mis rols qveynis ganviTarebaSi. bolo aTwleulis ganmavlobaSic SemuSavda ramdenime Teoria. swored kulturuli memkvidreoba, SemoqmedebiTi industriebi, kulturuli turizmi da misi infrastruqtura SeiZleba gaxdes strategiuli instrumenti, gansakuTrebiT iseTi mravalferovani istoriis mqone qveynisTvis, rogoric saqarTveloa. am seqtoris xelSewyoba SesaZlebelia mcire investiciiTac. mas aqvs dabali sakanonmdeblo barierebi da amavdroulad, SeuZlia uSualo gavlena iqonios socialurad daucvel mosaxleobaze. xelovneba umniSvnelovanes rols asrulebs rTuli gamowvevebis daZlevaSi. bolo 30 wlis ganmavlobaSi, centralurma da adgilobrivma xelisuflebam ixila araerTi warmatebuli investiciis Sedegi kulturis sferoSi. adamianebis inkluziuri ganviTarebisTvis aucilebelia kulturis warmoCena ganviTarebis strategiebsa da politikur dokumentebSi. am droisTvis, saqarTvelos kulturisa da ZeglTa dacvis saministroSi mimdinareobs erovnuli kulturis strategiis SemuSaveba, romlis mizania Seiqmnas grZelvadiani xedva xelovnebisa da SemoqmedebiTi sferos gansaviTareblad. am xedvis mixedviT SesaZlebeli iqneba im potencialis gamoyeneba, romelic kulturas ekonomikis ganviTarebaSi, identobis ganmtkicebasa da socialuri erTobis gamyarebaSi aqvs.

No society can ever flourish without culture; no development can be sustainable without it. It is a driver and a tool of inclusive growth. For years economists have struggled with the concept of culture and its role in development. However, in the past decade a few theoretical and empirical studies have appeared. Cultural heritage, cultural and creative industries, cultural tourism, and cultural infrastructure can serve as strategic tools for revenue generation, especially in countries like Georgia, given its centurieslong rich cultural heritage. Promoting this sector requires limited investment; it involves low entry barriers and can have a direct impact on vulnerable populations. Arts and culture play a significant role in helping tackle difficult challenges at a local level. In the past 30 years governments and city leaders have seen significant success when investing in culture. Integrating culture into development strategies and policies is essential to ensure a human-centered and inclusive approach to development. Currently, the Ministry of Culture and Monument Protection of Georgia is leading the process of elaborating a national strategy for Georgian culture with the main objective to set a long-term vision for culture and creativity for Georgia that highlights the fundamental value of culture as well as the potential that culture plays in developing the economy, strengthening identity and enhancing social cohesion. Culture is about people, and not just about governments. History has repeatedly shown that only governments alone cannot successfully manufacture or create culture – it must come from the people. This is why we chose the strategy elaboration process to be as transparent and inclusive as possible.

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Education and Culture | განათლება და კულტურა kulturis arsi da wyaro xalxia da ara mmarTvelobiTi sistema. istoria cxadyofs, rom mTavroba ver Seqmnis kulturas, Tu is ar momdinareobs xalxidan. swored amitom, saministros gadawyvetilebiT, strategiis SemuSavebis procesi maqsimalurad gamWvirvale da inkluziuria. 2015 wlis 18 seqtembers TbilisSi oficialurad gaixsna aRmosavleT partniorobis kulturis programa 20152018, romelsac aRmosavleT partniorobis eqvsi qveynis kulturis saministros, evrokomisiisa da evropis sabWos oficialuri warmomadgenlebi daeswrnen. programa miznad isaxavs kulturisa da SemoqmedebiTi seqtoris socialur-ekonomikuri mdgomareobis mdgrad ganviTarebas. evrokavSiris delegaciis xelmZRvanelis moadgilem karlo natalem ganacxada, rom „Zlierma samTavrobo CarTulobam da sazogadoebis warmomadgenlebTan erToblivma muSaobam ganapiroba kulturis rolis zrda da mniSvnelovani adgilis damkvidreba saerTo dRis wesrigSi. sazogadoebis monawileoba yvela doneze mniSvnelovania sferos ganviTarebisTvis“. evropis sabWos demokratiuli mmarTvelobis direqtorma klaudia luCianim ganacxada: „Tanamedrove Semoqmedeba da tradiciuli kultura, kontrastis garda, unda atarebdes saerTo xazs erTiani kulturis Sesaqmnelad. saqarTvelos kultura aucileblad unda gaCndes msoflio kulturul rukaze“. aRmosavleT partniorobis kulturis programa faravs aRmosavleT partniorobis eqvs qveyanas (somxeTi, azerbaijani, belarusi, saqarTvelo, moldova da ukraina) da masSi gaerTianebulia ori komponenti: „evrokavSirisa da aRmosavleT partniorobis kulturisa da Semoqmedebis programa“ da „Temebis mier marTuli urbanuli strategiebi istoriuli qalaqebisTvis (COMUS)“. evrokavSirisa da aRmosavleT partniorobis kulturisa da Semoqmedebis programa katalizatoris funqcias Seasrulebs aRmosavleT partniorobisa da evrokavSiris wevr qveynebs Soris urTierTobaSi. COMUS daexmareba 6-dan 12-mde sapilote qalaqs kulturuli memkvidreobis ganviTarebaSi, rac ekonomikis mdgradi ganviTarebis erT-erTi mZlavri garantiaa. evrokavSirisa da aRmosavleT partniorobis kulturisa da Semoqmedebis programis xelmZRvanelis teri sandelis gancxadebiT, „regionSi arsebobs kulturis rolis zrdis mniSvnelovani survili da mzadyofna. programis prioritetia saqarTveloSi kulturis sferoSi momuSave organizaciebis integracia evropul aliansebSi, kulturul qselebsa da profesiul asociaciebSi monawileobis gziT“. COMUS-is wamyvanma eqspertma filip Steinma ganmarta, rom „integrirebuli, mdgradi da erToblivi urbanuli ganviTarebis misaRwevad saWiroa iseTi evropuli iniciativebis politikuri formulireba, rogorebicaa laifcigis qartia, evropa 2020 da COMUS-is miznebis Sesasruleblad Seqmnili qalaqis merebis SeTanxmeba“. evrosabWos programa „SemoqmedebiTi evropa“, romelsac saqarTvelo oficialurad SeuerTda, miznad isaxavs evropuli kulturisa da mediaseqtorisTvis axali saerTaSo-

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Georgia officially joined the European Commission Programme - Creative Europe, which has thus provided culture and creative actors an opportunity to develop their ideas together with European partners and to apply for funding. The EU is investing EUR 1.46 billion in the audiovisual and cultural sectors through Creative Europe (2014-2020). Cultural actors from Georgia now have the unique opportunity to explore new horizons of opportunities and to share experiences with organizations from across the EU. On 18th September representatives of the Ministries of Culture of the six Eastern Partnership countries, European Commission and Council of Europe officials welcomed the official launch of the Eastern Partnership Culture Programme 2015-18 in Tbilisi, which aims to enhance the contribution of cultural and creative sectors to sustainable social and economic development. Mr. Carlo Natale, Deputy Head of the Delegation of the European Union to Georgia, stated: “The society’s participation coupled with a strong link with government has made it possible for culture to claim a more prominent place on the agenda. Engaging citizens and administrations at all levels is vital for the success of cultural sector development”. Ms. Claudia Luciani, Director of Democratic Governance of the Council of Europe, said: “The culture of modern technology versus traditional culture should have a defining line but the aim is still to join the two. Culture needs to be put on the map”. The Programme covers six Eastern Partnership countries (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine) and includes two components: EU-Eastern Partnership Culture and Creativity Programme and Community-led Urban Strategies in Historic Towns (COMUS). The EU-Eastern Partnership Culture and Creativity Programme will act as an important catalyst for stimulating greater cooperation between the cultural and creative sectors in EaP countries and EU Member States. COMUS will help six to 12 selected pilot towns in the region to capitalize on cultural heritage as a key feature of sustainable urban development. The EU-EaP Culture and Creativity Programme Head, Mr. Terry Sandell explained: “There’s a genuine desire to increase the practical importance of culture in the region. The Programme’s priorities include the creation of mutually-beneficial alliances and the integration of local cultural organizations into the European cultural space including through increasing participation in European cultural networks and professional associations”. Mr. Philip Stein, Lead Expert of COMUS project explained: “Evolving EU policy framed in initiatives such as the Leipzig Charter, Europe 2020 and the Covenant of Mayors provide important motivations for COMUS project goals – to mainstream cultural heritage as a key component in the drive


Education and Culture | განათლება და კულტურა

riso SesaZleblobebis, bazrebisa da auditoriis gaxsnas. programis menejerma rob van ierselma potenciur ganmcxadeblebs urCia _ „sakuTari proeqtis SemuSavebamde Seiswavlon sxvebi da daeyrdnon maTs gamocdilebas, evropeli partniorebisgan miiRon rCevebi da Seafason yvela dadebiTi da uaryofiTi mxare“. programis farglebSi, saqarTvelos kulturisa da SemoqmedebiTi seqtoris warmomadgenlebs SesaZlebloba eqnebaT ganaviTaron TavianTi ideebi evropel partniorebTan erTad da moipovon evrokavSiris dafinanseba, romelic 1.46 miliardi evroTi ganisazRvreba. aseTi mxardaWera kulturis sferoSi moqmed organizaciebs evropasa da mis farglebs gareT funqcionirebis Sanss aZlevs. saqarTvelo iyo pirveli qveyana, romelic evrokomisiasTan TanamSromlobis safuZvelze CaerTo evrokavSiris sajaro samsaxurebis daZmobilebis, tviningis proeqtSi saxelwodebiT _ „saqarTvelos kulturuli memkvidreobis dacvis erovnuli saagentos institucionaluri ganviTarebis mxardaWera“. 22 Tvis ganmavlobaSi, evropeli eqspertebi qarTvel kolegebTan erTad sami ZirTadi mimarTulebiT muSaobdnen:  kulturuli memkvidreobis administrirebisa da marTvis efeqtiani modelis SemuSaveba;  kulturuli memkvidreobis sferos maregulirebeli sakanonmdeblo CarCos gaumjobeseba;  saagentos TanamSromelTa da Sesabamis dainteresebul mxareTa kvalifikaciis amaRleba da codnis gaRrmaveba.

to achieve integrated, sustainable and participative urban development”. Mr. Rob Van Iersel, Manager of the Creative Europe Programme of the European Commission presented ‘Creative Europe’ which aims to provide European culture and media sectors with access to new international opportunities, markets and audiences. He advised potential applicants “before embarking on [their] own project to learn from others and to gain experience” and insists that they “use [their] European partners and get their advice to learn the positives and negatives”. Georgia was the first country to cooperate with the European Commission in the framework of the Twinning Project for Public Authorities “Support to the Institutional Development of the National Agency for Cultural Heritage Preservation of Georgia”. Throughout a period of 22 months European experts along with Georgian colleagues had been working on three main directions:  Development of an effective model for administration and management of cultural heritage;  Improvement of a legislative framework for regulating the field of cultural heritage;  Upgrading the qualifications and enhancing the knowledge of agency staff and relevant interested parties.

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თბილისი, აბანოთუბანი

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Georgia’s European Way October 2015

Tbilisi, Abanotubani


Education and Culture | განათლება და კულტურა

საქართველოს ევროპული არქიტექტურა ნესტან თათარაშვილი არქიტექტორ-რესტავრატორი

Georgia’s European Architecture Nestan Tatarashvili Architect-restaurateur

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onstantinopolis dacemis Semdeg (1453w.) evropisgan didi xniT izolirebuli saqarTvelo me-19 saukunidan, amjerad rogorc ruseTis imperiis nawili, daubrkoleblad urTierTobs dasavleT samyarosTan. Cveni qveynis geografiuli mdebareoba, da konkretulad Savi zRva, saSualebas gvaZlevda ruseTis centrze ufro swrafad davkavSirebodiT evropas, da mosazreba, rom yvelaferi evropuli CvenTan mxolod ruseTis gavliT Semodioda, simarTles ar Seesabameba. imperiis roli gadamwyveti ar iyo Cveni qveynis evropeizaciis procesSi. qveynis gaevropelebaSi ZiriTadi datvirTva maSin sazogadoebam itvirTa _ xalxma da misma saukeTeso Svilebma; maT, visac, qarTuli arqiteqturis saukeTeso mkvlevris _ vaxtang beriZis TqmiT, yvelaze metad esadageba nikoloz baraTaSvilis fraza: „qarTvelT ar sZinavT gonebiT“. evropisken gzagaxsnili sazogadoeba Tavad iyo axali modis, wesebisa Tu nairgvari mecnieruli siaxlis qveyanaSi Semomtani da gamavrcelebeli, magram es ase advilad ar moxdeboda, saamiso safuZvlebi adreve rom ar yofiliyo qveyanaSi. cxadia, „niadagi amgvari evropeizaciisaTvis adreve, jer kidev me-18 saukunidan mzaddeboda, Tu aRarafers vityviT imaze, rom saqarTvelos bunebrivi kulturuli orientacia saukuneTa manZilze swored evropisken hqonda. „aRmosavleTi“, Tavisi specifiuri adaT-CvevebiT, mas ZaliT moaxvies Tavs qarTuli samefoebis arsebobis bolo saukuneebSi“ (v. beriZe. Tbilisis xuroTmoZRvreba. tomi 1. Tbilisi, 1960, gv. 17.). marTalia, saqarTvelo ruseTis imperiis politikur-administraciuli centri iyo amierkavkasiis regionSi, magram me-19 saukunis pirvel naxevarSi evropisgan CamorCena gansakuTrebiT mwvaved igrZnoboda. miuxedavad amisa, saCveno warmateba ukve gvqonda xuroTmoZRvrebaSi: sustma, jer kidev feodalurma qveyanam me-19 saukunis 40-iani wlebisTvis SeimuSava da ganaviTara axali epoqisa da viTarebis Sesaferisi, Tavisufali Semoqmedebis nimuSi _ Tbilisuri sacxovrebeli saxli, evropuli da adgilobrivi, klasicisturi xuroTmoZRvrebisa da tradiciuli arqiteqturis sinTezi. me-19 saukunis Sua wlebidan ki evropisa da msoflios sxva qalaqebis msgavsad evropulma ekleqtizmma saqar-

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solated from Europe after the fall of Constantinople (1453), and despite being part of the Russian Empire, Georgia freely launched relations with the West from the 19th century. The geographical position of Georgia, and in particular with its coastline on the Black Sea, enabled it to establish and maintain relations with Europe more rapidly than when as a central part of Russia. Therefore, the belief that everything European reached us only through Russia is not valid. The role of the Russian Empire was not decisive in the Europeanization of Georgia. That said it is true that being part of the Russian Empire did open for us a path to Europe that had been blocked for centuries. However, this path had existed since ancient times. Moreover, we were already connected to Europe due to our common spiritual roots in traditional cultures and the Bible. The population played a key role in the Europeanization of the country – people and the best sons of nation; the nation which according to famous architect researcher is precisely described by the famous words of Nikoloz Baratashvili: “Georgian minds do not sleep”. Those who enjoyed an open road to Europe brought new fashions, aesthetics, and various novelties back to Georgia and disseminated them. However, this could not have happened if the necessary climate had not already existed in the country. It is clear that the “ground for such Europeanization had been prepared earlier, back in the 18th century, not mentioning the fact that it was Europe that Georgia had naturally been culturally oriented towards for centuries. The 'East' with its specific habits and traditions was imposed on it by force during the last centuries of the existence of Georgian kingdoms” (Beridze, V. Architecture in Tbilisi. 1960, Vol. 1, p.17). Although Georgia was the political and administrative centre of the Russian Empire in the Transcaucasia, the gap between Georgia and Europe was particularly evident in the early 19th century. However, we had already achieved certain successes in terms of architecture - by the 19th century, this weak country of feudalism elaborated and developed a model corresponding to the conditions of the new era: the residential houses typical of Tbilisi were a combination of local, classical, and traditional architecture. By the mid-19th century eclectic architecture, as in European and other cities throughout the world, started to become widespread in Georgia. Buildings of this type implied varied facades created on the basis of a mixture of European styles from different periods. However, novelties and improvements could be detected in terms of design and functional order.

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Education and Culture | განათლება და კულტურა TveloSic iwyo gavrceleba. am tipis Senobebi sxvadasxva periodis evropul stilTa aRreviT Seqmnil mravalferovan fasadebs gulisxmobda, magram siaxle da gaumjobeseba SeiniSneboda gegmarebisa da funqciuri gamarTulobis TvalsazrisiT. ekleqturi tipis saxlebs liTonis dekoratiuli moajiris mqone mcire zomis aivnebi ukeTdeboda. es gadauxuravi da patara Ria sadgomebi mosaxleobisTvis sakmarisi ar iyo. amitom, organulad gamomuSavebul da funqciurad gamarTul xis did aivnebs qarTvelebi mainc ver Seelien da evropuli yaidis ekleqturi saxlebis yvela sarTuli ukana mxridan kvlav xis rikulebiani Tu Wviruli dekoriT Semkuli farTo aivnebiT Semoses. es arqiteqturuli siaxle umniSvnelovanesia qarTuli xuroTmoZRvrebis istoriaSi da savsebiT ganumeorebeli Tavisi originalobiT. zogadad kosmopolituri xasiaTis evropul ekleqtizms Cven erovnuli, tradiciuli niSani SevZineT. samSeneblo saqmeSi ukve kargad gawafulma adgilobrivma xelosan-ostatebma es axali amocana „Tbilisuri saxlis“ msgavsad laRad, mxatvrulad da sainteresod gadaWres. namdvili evropuli movlena saqarTveloSi ekleqtikad ki ara, ucxosa da adgilobrivis organul Serwymad, warmatebul sinTezad aqcies. yovelive es ki imis imedsac

თბილისი, თავისუფლების მოედანი 3

Tbilisi, Freedom Square 3

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Georgia’s European Way October 2015

Eclectic style houses had small balconies with decorative metal banisters. These roofless and small open spaces were however insufficient for people. Therefore, Georgians failed to part with the large wooden balconies that were rather organic to them and built broad wooden balconies with balustrade decorations on the back side of every storey of these European Eclectic houses. This novelty is most important in the history of Georgian architecture and is regarded as entirely original and inimitable. Georgians then added traditional local features to the European Eclectic style, which was cosmopolitan in general. Local craftsmen, who were rather skilled in building techniques, interpreted this new task in a free, creative, and interesting manner and transformed what had been a purely European phenomenon in Georgia not into eclecticism, but rather into an organic and successful fusion of alien and local elements. All of this gave us the hope that Georgia was ready for a new creative stage in architecture, which was soon confirmed by creating a new European style of buildings, which spread throughout Georgia. In 1861, a movement called ‘Arts and Crafts’ was launched in England under the leadership of William Morris (1834-1896), a poet and architect inspired by socialist ideas and by the works of art critic John Ruskin (1819-1900). Morris and his friends opposed Capitalist industrialisation and uniform mass production, trying instead to elevate traditional craftsmanship to the level of art. Morris himself implemented his ideas by building his own residential house (Red House, 1859), effectively preparing the grounds

თბილისი, წმ. აბო თბილელის 6

Tbilisi, St. Abo Tbileli 6


Education and Culture | განათლება და კულტურა nergavda, rom qveyna mzad iyo arqiteqturaSi namdvilad SemoqmedebiTi procesis dasawyebad, rac mokle xanSi damtkicda kidec axali evropuli stilis, modernis, nimuSebis SeqmniTa da gavrcelebiT saqarTvelos mTels teritoriaze. 1861 wels, inglisSi Seiqmna moZraoba „xelovneba da xelosnoba“ (Arts and Crafts), romlis saTaveSi idga poeti da arqiteqtori, socialisturi ideebiTa da xelovnebis kritikos jon raskinis (John Ruskin, 18191900) naSromebiT STagonebuli uiliam morisi (William Morris, 1834-1896). morisi da misi megobrebi kapitalisturi industrializaciis, qarxnuli warmoebis erTgvarovani produqciis winaaRmdeg gamodiodnen da tradiciuli xelosnobis xelovnebis rangSi ayvanas cdilobdnen. morisi Tavisi sacxovrebeli saxlis (Red House, 1859) SeqmniT Tavad gaxda sakuTari ideebis praqtikaSi ganmaxorcielebeli da amiT, faqtobrivad, safuZveli Cauyara termin „dizainis“ cnebas. marTalia, is sastikad damarcxda Tanamedrove mrewvelobasa da standartizaciasTan brZolaSi, magram swored misi damsaxurebiT daiwyo maSin evropis sxvadasxva qveyanaSi axali stilisa da misi gamomsaxveli originaluri formebis Zieba. axali stili Taviseburad aitaca yvela qveyanam da saxelic sxvadasxva daarqva: Art Nouveau, Jugendstiel, Style Liberty, Modernisme, Modern, Secession… ruseTSi da CvenTanac is modernis saxeliT damkvidrda. modernis arqiteqturaSi xelovnebis lamis yvela dargis sinTezi xdeboda. amasTan, axali stili aqtiurad nergavda da farTod iyenebda uaxles teqnologiur da Tanamedrove samSeneblo-sainJinro miRwevebs: eleqtroganaTeba, centraluri gaTboba, liftebi, sanitariuli uzrunvelyofa da sxva sayofacxovrebo inovaciebi modernis Senobebs saocrad Tanamedrovesa da komfortuls xdida. arqiteqturisa da dizainis garda, modernma yofisa da xelovnebis TiTqmis yvela sferoSi swrafad SeaRwia da epidemiasaviT moedo mTel msoflios. es gasakviri sulac ar iyo. xangrZlivi stilis uqonlobiT mowyenil evropaSi axali xelovnebis gaCenas yvela aRtacebiT Sexvda. modernis uCveulo da sruliad gansxvavebuli dekori, simboluri da poeturi motivebi, feradovneba da zRapruli siuJetebis Tematika, sakarnavalo da mozeime ieri, fantastikis samyarosTan siaxlove _ gulgrils aravis tovebda. modernis ostatebi xvdebodnen, rom es Zveli da didebuli epoqis ukanaskneli stili iqneboda, amitom maT SemoqmedebaSi mZafri emocia da STambeWdavi mxatvruli gadawyveta Warbobda. isini kargad grZnobdnen, rom adamiani iwyebda manamde arnaxul Sromasa da garjas materialuri keTildReobisTvis. qveynebis mzardi moTxovnebi axal gamowvevebs udebda saTaves _ iwyeboda sul sxva, sastiki msoflio omebis, xelovnuri masalebis mozRvavebis, manqanebisa da caTambjenebis, sarekordo urbanizaciis epoqa _ aRbeWdili religiis,

for the term “design”. It is true that he was bitterly defeated in the struggle against modern industry and standardisation, but it was due to his efforts that people in various European countries started searching for new styles and original forms to embody them. Each country adopted this new style in its own specific manner and it evolved under a variety of names: Art Nouveau, Jugendstil, Style Liberty, Modernism, Modern, and Secession. In Russia and Georgia it was known as Modern. Modernism was a combination of all fields of art. It actively introduced and broadly used up-to-date technological and building achievements. Correspondingly, innovations such as electricity, central heating, elevators, and sewerage systems made Modernist houses not only beautiful, but also comfortable. In addition to architecture and design, Modernism penetrated almost all spheres of life and the arts and, unsurprisingly, spread rapidly throughout the world, with this fact not surprising. In a Europe coming off a long period without any true stylistic innovation, everyone welcomed with admiration the emergence of a new style. Few could remain indifferent to Modernism's unusual and entirely original approach to decoration, its symbolic and poetic motives, its colourful and fabulous issues, its carnivallike and jubilant appearance, and its closeness to the world of fantasy. Modernist masters realised that this was going to be the last style of the old and brilliant era; hence, acute emotions and impressive artistic decisions prevailed in its creation. They could fully feel that people had started working much harder than they used to in order to achieve higher living standards. New challenges emerged due to a growing political demand in such countries. This new and completely different era of fierce world wars and rapid urbanization was developing at a high speed – characterised by a deep crisis of religion, spiritualty, and art and cultural; not to mention a strong desire to rethink notions of beauty and eternal values. Despite its seemingly “non-serious” appearance, it was the novelty and progressive nature of Modernism that laid the foundations for 20th century architecture. In this regard, its contribution to the overall history of architecture is outstanding. If we go back to Georgia after this lengthy definition of Modernism, it is surprising to see how rich our architectural heritage is in this style not only in Tbilisi, but also in Sukhumi, Batumi, Poti, Kutaisi, Gagra, Akhali Atoni, Borjomi, Kobuleti, and Dusheti. The first three towns are ports; the fourth was an industrial town; and the remaining four – health resorts. It is, however, the example of Dusheti, a small administrative settlement in a mountain region, having had a Modernist building, which proves that the new style was indeed very popular in Georgia. It is clear that there were no ideological, philosophical, or other intellectual grounds prepared in Georgia, but rather this proved to be no obstacle in introducing and spreading this completely new style that was highly interesting in terms of creation. This was an organic continuation of the developmental trend of Georgian architecture that started with the creation of Tbilisi residential houses in the early 19th century. The successful path of the development of builders' skills moved from relatively boring Eclecticism to Modernism without hindrance, which set a new path for

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Education and Culture | განათლება და კულტურა sulierebis, xelovnebisa da kulturis mZafri krizisiT, mSvenierebisa da maradiuli faseulobebis gadafasebis jiuti JiniT. erTi SexedviT „araseriozuli“ garegnobis miuxedavad, siaxliTa da progresulobiT swored modernma daudo saTave me-20 saukunis Tanamedrove arqiteqturas da am TvalsazrisiT misi wvlili Seucvlelia msoflio arqiteqturis istoriaSi. modernis am uxvsityviani ganmartebis Semdeg Tu kvlav saqarTveloSi gadmovinacvlebT, sasiamovnod gavocdebiT, roca vnaxavT, am stilis arqiteqturis ra seriozuli memkvidreoba SemogvrCa ara mxolod qveynis dedaqalaqSi, aramed soxumSi, baTumSi, foTSi, quTaisSi, gagraSi, axal aTonSi, borjomSi, qobuleTsa da duSeTSi. amaTgan pirveli sami saporto qalaqia, meoTxe _ samrewvelo, danarCeni oTxi _ kurorti, magram duSeTi, mTiani regionis patara administraciuli daba, Tavisi modernis SenobiT kargad gviCvenebs, rom axali stili, marTlac, Zalian popularuli iyo saqarTveloSi. cxadia, aq misi mosamzadebeli ideur-filosofiuri Tu sxva inteleqtualuri safuZvlebi ar arsebobda, magram amas xeli ar SeuSlia swrafad dagvenerga da gagvevrcelebina savsebiT axali da SemoqmedebiTad Zalian sainterso stili. es organuli gagrZeleba iyo qarTuli xuroTmoZRvrebis ganviTarebis im xazisa, rac jer kidev Tbilisuri saxlis SeqmniT daiwyo me-19 saukunis pirvel naxevarSi. mSenebelTa da ostatTa warmatebuli gza mosawyeni ekleqtikidan modernze daubrkoleblad gadavida da bunebrivi ganviTarebis axali SesaZleblobebi dausaxa rogorc profesional specialistebs, ise adgilobriv marjve xelosnebs, romlebic mzad aRmoCndnen axali stilis SemoqmedebiTi gaazrebisTvis. me-20 saukunis dasawyisSi saqarTvelo ukve bevrad ganviTarebuli, ganaTlebuli da ekonomikurad moZlierebuli iyo. informacia axali stilis Sesaxeb swrafad Semodioda evropaSi samuSaod, saswavleblad Tu samogzaurod wasuli xalxisa da aq Camosuli ucxoelebis saSualebiT. did rols TamaSobda wignebi, albomebi da Jurnal-gazeTebic, romlebsac Savi zRvis wyalobiT sul ramdenime dRis dagvianebiT viRebdiT evropidan. evropaSi modernis pirveli Senobis, viqtor hortas „taselis sastumros“ aSenebidan 7 wlis Semdeg, 1901 wels, CvenTan am stilis pirveli nageboba Cndeba _ kavkasiis saiubileo gamofenaze warmodgenili Zmebi nobelebis pavilioni, romelic iakob nikolaZis qandakebebiT iyo gaformebuli. dRes is mxolod fotoze arsebobs, magram sxva Senobebis umetesoba dRemde SemogvrCa. maTi arseboba kargad gviCvenebs rogorc aqauri ostatebis sanaqebo profesionalizms, ise Cveni mosaxleobis arCevansa da gemovnebas. me-19 saukunis damlevs ukve qarTveli, akademiuri ganaTlebis mqone profesionali inJinrebi da arqiteqtorebic iwyeben moRvaweobas. arqiteqtorebis simon kldiaSvilisa (1865-1920) da grigol qurdia-

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the natural development of both professionals and local craftsmen, who proved to be both open and technically prepared to creatively share and contribute in this new style. At the beginning of the 20th century, Georgia was a rather developed, educated and economically strong country. Information about new styles was directly delivered through people who studied or travelled in Europe or through foreigners, who visited our country. In this regard, books, albums and magazines, which were delivered via the Black Sea, played a huge role. In 1901, seven years after the first Modernist building, Victor Horta's Hotel Tassel, was built in Europe, the first building in this style appeared in Georgia: the pavilion of the brothers Nobel, decorated with sculptures by the Georgian artist Iakob Nikoladze, was unveiled at the Caucasus exhibition. The building can now be seen only in photos, but most of the other structures remain, which fully demonstrate the praiseworthy professionalism of local craftsmen and the preferred choice and taste of our population. Professional Georgian engineers and architects with academic education launched their activities at the end of the 19th century. Houses in the Modernist style designed in 1902 and 1904 by architects Simon Kldiashvili (1865-1920) and Grigol Kurdiani (1873-1957) are still standing in Tbilisi at 4 Rome Street and 28 Ninoshvili Street, making the environment attractive by their beauty and originality. Prominent Georgian figures – Ilia Chavchavadze and philanthropist David Sarajishvili in Tbilisi, Niko Nikoladze in the village of Didi Jikhaishi, Abkhaz Prince Giorgi Sharvashidze in Sukhumi, and philanthropist Akaki Khoshtaria in the village of Sujuna – chose the Modernist style for their residential houses. However, as noted above, unlike Europe, this style was available not only for those who were well-off in Georgia; but rather representatives of almost all social strata also had access thereto. Despite the overall interest in Modernism, the creative approach of local craftsmen and the public nevertheless had an impact on the architecture of residential houses. As in the case of Eclecticism, the back sides of houses were again covered with traditional balconies; however the decorations of these balconies were done in the Modernist style and wooden banisters were replaced with decorative nets. In Georgia, Modernism also acquired many features rarely found elsewhere. Numerous houses were built that had little in common with the Modernist style; nonetheless their details were nevertheless rendered in the Modernist style. It was quite common to resort to this style when repairing or reconstructing houses. Along with being international in nature, Modernism became the most democratic style in Georgia. It enabled any interested person, irrespective of his or her social or public status, to have his/her own say and to become involved in the European process. It is also pleasing to note that this process was a genuinely creative one, and not merely one of mechanical repetition. One more international and democratic feature of Modernism in Georgia was that the Latin greeting ‘SALVE’ that could frequently be seen on the floors of halls in buildings of the Eclectic style was replaced by translation thereof in Georgian, Armenian, and Russian.


თბილისი, მაზნიაშვილის 16

Tbilisi, Mazniashvili Str. 16


Education and Culture | განათლება და კულტურა nis (1873-1957) 1902 da 1904 wlebSi daproeqtebuli modernis stilis saxlebi romisa (N4) da ninoSvilis (N28) quCebze axlac arsebobs da silamaziTa da originalobiT mimdebare ganaSenianebas metad mimzidvels xdis. modernis stili airCies sakuTari sacxovrebeli saxlebisTvis cnobilma qarTvelebma _ ilia WavWavaZem da daviT sarajiSvilma TbilisSi, niko nikolaZem sofel did jixaiSSi, afxazeTis princma giorgi SarvaSiZem soxumSi, akaki xoStariam sofel sujunaSi. aRsaniSnavia, rom moderni evropasaviT marto sazogadoebis SeZlebuli fenisTvis ar gaxda xelmisawvdomi. mas saqarTveloSi TiTqmis yvela socialuri fenis warmomadgeneli aqtiurad iziarebda. miuxedavad modernis sayovelTao gatacebisa, adgilobrivma ostatebma da sazogadoebam sakuTari SemoqmedebiTi midgoma mainc daatyves sacxovrebeli saxlebis arqiteqturas: ekleqtikis msgavsad, Senobebis ukana fasadebi kvlav tradiciuli aivnebiT davfareT, oRond am SemTxvevaSi aivnebis dekoris Tematika ukve modernis stilis motivebze gavawyveT da xandaxan aivnis xis moajirebic liTonis dekoratiuli badeebiT CavanacvleT. modernma bevri iseTi Tavisebureba SeiZina saqarTveloSi, sxvagan Znelad rom SevxvdebiT: bevri axali saxli ise Sendeboda, modernTan saerTo araferi hqonda, magram detalebs kvlav am stiliT ukeTebdnen. Zveli saxlebis saremonto Tu sarekonstruqcio samuSaoebSi moderns xSirad mimarTavdnen, da es Cveulebrivi movlena iyo. internacionaluri xasiaTis garda, moderni realurad yvelaze demokratiul stilad iqca saqarTveloSi. is yvela dainteresebul adamians, miuxedavad socialuri Tu sazogadoebrivi statusis gansxvavebisa, saTqmelis gamoxatvis saSualebas aZlevda saerToevropul procesSi CasarTavad da sasixaruloa, rom es iyo namdvili Semoqmedeba da ara meqanikuri gameoreba. saqarTveloSi modernis demokratiuli xasiaTi imiTac gamoCnda, rom ekleqtikis dros sadarbazoebis iatakze dawerili da sayovelTaod gavrcelebuli misalmebis aRmniSvneli laTinuri „salve“ (SALVE), modernis SenobebSi misi Sesatyvisi sityvebiT Canacvlda qarTul, somxur da rusul enebze. modernis Senoba-nagebobebis funqciuri mravalferovnebac sruliad gamorCeulia saqarTveloSi. sayovelTaod gavrcelebuli sacxovrebeli saxlebisa da bankebis garda, aSenda modernis stilis saavadmyofo da samSobiaro, konservatoria, biblioTeka, etlebis sadgomi, xorcis gadamamuSavebeli qarxana, lombardi, oranJerea, skolebi da sxva saswavlo dawesebulebebi, maRaziebi da saxelosnoebi, Teatrebi da kinoebi. dRemde SemogvrCa aseTi stiliT nagebi Tambaqos fabrika, pirveli Tboeleqtrosadguri, agreTve magnituri observatoria mcxeTasTan axlos, sofel karsanSi. Senobebis garda, SesaniSnavi memorialuri Zeglebia daculi Zvel, istoriul sasaflaoebze.

76

Georgia’s European Way October 2015

ბათუმი, 9 აპრილის ქ. 12

Batumi, 9 April Str. 12

დუშეთი

Dusheti


Education and Culture | განათლება და კულტურა sainteresoa, mainc ra iyo modernSi iseTi, ase erTianad rom moxibla Cveni qveynis sazogadoeba da ostat-xelosnebi? upirveles yovlisa albaT is, rom es namdvilad axali da SemoqmedebiTi sixaruliT savse saqme iyo, da ara ekleqtikis msgavsad ukve arsebuli detalebis dausrulebeli gameoreba. garda amisa, modernis Seqmna-gavrceleba maSindeli evropis kvaldakval siarulsa da garkveulwilad masTan profesionalur SejibrebiTobas gulisxmobda. misi danergva da ganviTareba pirdapir exmaureboda Cvens mudmiv miswrafebas _ sakuTari SesaZleblobebiT, kulturiTa da xelovnebiT evropis Tanaswor, Tavisufal qveynad gvegrZno Tavi; Tavi, romelic didi xania Cven aRar „gveyudnoda“. moderni mxolod ostat-SemsrulebelTa surviliT ase myarad ver moikidebda fexs saqarTveloSi. rogorc yovelTvis, arqiteqturaSi damkveTs _ mosaxleobasac didi wvlili miuZRvis. Tavisuflebas mowyurebul xalxs moderni saSualebas aZlevda Tavisi arCevaniT im qveynebisTvis miebaZa, romelTa gverdiT Tanaswori yofnac misi didi xnis survili da natvra iyo. miuxedavad imisa, rom kvlav dapyrobili qveyana viyaviT, amas Cvens SemoqmedebiT Tavisuflebaze gavlena ar mouxdenia. Tanabrad vuwyobdiT fexs evropasa da danarCen msoflios. vcdilobdiT, Cveni sityva gveTqva kulturisa da xelovnebis yvela sferoSi. bunebrivia, es arqiteqturasac exeboda. roca es ukve aSkarad gacxadda am yvelaze rTulad gansaxorcielebel dargSi, romelic Tavis TavSi aerTianebs yofa-cxovrebasa da xelovnebas, yvelaze marTlad asaxavs eris niWs, unars, gemovnebasa da, rac mTavaria, mis arCevans _ swored es gaxda Cveni evropuli orientaciis saukeTeso dadastureba. arqiteqtura samosi xom ar aris, vTqvaT, parizidan rom gamoeweraT erTeulebs an aq SeekeraT ucxouris mibaZviT ramdenime dReSi. misi ganxorcieleba konkretuli droisa Tu epoqis sazogadoebis kompleqsuri Rvawlis Sedegia, uSualod damokidebuli qveynis politikur, socialur, religiur da kulturul viTarebaze; istoriulad gamomuSavebul tradiciebsa da cxovrebis wesze. saqarTveloSi modernis xibls, ZiriTadad, misi gavrcelebis araZaladobrivi xasiaTi gansazRvravda. es, pirdapir da erTmniSvnelovnad, arCevanis TavisuflebasTan igivdeboda da, rac mTavaria, araviTari kavSiri ar hqonda Cvens dampyrobel ruseTTan da mis xelovnebasTan. es iyo Cveni samSoblos arCevani. saqarTvelo am dros ukve damoukidebeli „siarulisTvis“ emzadeboda, rac SeZlo kidec 1918-1921 wlebSi mopovebuli politikuri TavisuflebiT. samwuxarod, didxans ar gagrZelda imperiuli ruseTis daSlis Sedegad miRweuli damoukidebloba. saqarTvelo male kvlav xangrZliv tyveobaSi aRmoCnda, Tan, bedis ironiiT, isev ruseTis, oRond amjerad komunisturis, romlis sisastikem winas bevrad gadaaWarba, da qveyanaca da misi xuroTmoZRvrebac didi xniT totalitarul sistemas daumorCila.

The functional variety of Modernist buildings is very specific in Georgia. In addition to residential houses and banks built in this style, a hospital, maternity house, conservatoire, library, carriage depot, pawnshop, greenhouse, schools and other educational institutions, shops and manufacturing plants, theatres and theatre cinemas were also built. We can still witness a tobacco plant, the country’s first thermoelectric power plant, and a magnetic observatory in the village of Karsani near Mtskheta. There are also impressive memorial monuments at historic cemeteries in addition to buildings. What were the features of the Modernist style that enabled it to charm all the craftsmen of our country? The first thing to mention here is probably the fact that the approach was indeed new and full of creative joy, not something like the endless repetition of pre-existing elements, as in Eclecticism. In addition, the introduction and emergence of Modernism implied, to a certain extent, a moving along the European path and, by extension, professionally competing with Europe. The introduction and development of Modernism was directly linked to our constant aspiration to become a free country equal with Europe in our own capabilities, culture, and art, as we had been unable to make independent decisions for a long time. However, the Modernist style could not have become so firmly established in Georgia if it had only been embraced by craftsmen and builders. As usual, customers – the people – also greatly contributed to the evolution of architecture. The Modernist style allowed people, who yearned to be free, to make a choice and to move in the direction of those countries that they had long aspired to live with on an equal footing. Although Georgia remained to exist as a conquered country, this particular status had no impact on our creative freedom. We moved step by step with Europe and the rest of the world, trying to make our contribution to all spheres of culture and art, including architecture. Previously, when speaking about the development of architecture, which is a combination of life and art, and entirely describes the ability and choices of mankind, it becomes a sphere that confirms Georgia’s European orientation. Of course, architecture is not like clothes that, for instance, you can get delivered from Paris, or sew on location according to existing models. Its realization is the result of the complex merit of society in a concrete time period that directly depends on the political, social, spiritual and cultural landscape; and on traditions developed throughout history and lifestyle. The Modernist style was attractive in Georgia mostly due to the fact that it was not introduced in an extreme manner, something which directly and unambiguously identified it with freedom of choice and, more importantly, had nothing to do with the conquering power of Russia. It implied our voluntary involvement in Europe. Georgia was getting ready to start "walking" independently at that time and political independence was also restored in 1918-1921. Unfortunately, the independence achieved as a result of the collapse of the Russian Empire did not last long. Georgia again found itself facing a long period of captivity and, ironically, again Russia was the conquering force, although this time it was Communist Russia that proved, in the end, to be much crueller. Thus, the country and its architecture were subordinated to a totalitarian system for decades.

ოქტომბერი 2015 საქართველოს ევროპული გზა

77


Georgia's European Way- sixth edition  

Georgia's European Way საქართველოს ევროპული გზა მეექვსე პერიოდული გამოცემა sixth edition of the magazine

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