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საქართველოს ევროპული გზა

GEORGIA’S EUROPEAN WAY № 3 / 11 / 2014


საქართველოს ევროპული გზა

Georgia's European Way

saqarTvelos saxelmwifo ministris aparati evropul da evroatlantikur struqturebSi integraciis sakiTxebSi Office of the State Minister of Georgia on European and Euro-Atlantic Integration


სარჩევი მიმართვა 06



მზადება ევროპული მომავლისთვის

აღმოსავლეთ პარტნიორობის პროგრამა 08 2014 წელს და მომავალში საქართველო-ევროკავშირის სავიზო რეჟიმის 10 ლიბერალიზაციის სამოქმედო გეგმის იმპლემენტაცია ინტერვიუ 12

„123 მომხრე, არცერთი წინააღმდეგი” ფორუმი 16

ჩვენ გვჭირდება ევროპული პერსპექტივა

კონფერენცია 18

საერთაშორისო კონფერენცია – „საქართველოს ევროპული გზა”

ბიზნესი და ეკონომიკა 20

ქართული ქვევრის ღვინო ევროპაში წარმატებით იყიდება

ქართული ლურჯი მოცვი 26 დიდ ბრიტანეთში იყიდება ბრიტანულ-ქართული 28 სავაჭრო პალატა საქართველოს მთავრობის 31 ხელშეწყობა მიგრაციის მართვის სტანდარტების გაუმჯობესების მიმართულებით ზამთრის ტურიზმი საქართველოში 36 ანალიზი და მოსაზრება 40

საბოლოო მიზანი არის გაწევრიანება

ცვლილებები ევროკავშირში: 44 მათი გავლენა საქართველოზე და სამეზობლო პოლიტიკაზე ევროკავშირ-საქართველოს 50 პოლიტიკური ასოცირების საზღვრები ღია და დემოკრატიული მმართველობა 56 საქართველოში – გამოწვევები ევროინტეგრაციის გზაზე განათლება 60

თსუ ევროპული კვლევების ინსტიტუტი

კულტურა 63

ქართული კულტურა ევროპაში ისტორიულად განსაზღვრული 66 მარტოობის დაძლევის გზა საქართველო დემოკრატიის ესთეტიკასა 70 და დემოკრატიის პოლიტიკას შორის ფოტოკონკურსი: 76 საქართველოს ევროპული გზა

04

Georgia’s European Way November 2014


Content 06

Address

In Preparation for the European Future

08 The eastern partnership in 2014 and beyond 10 Implementation of EU-Georgia Visa

Liberalisation Action Plan

12 Interview 

"123 YES, 0 against"

16

Forum

We need a European perspective

18 Conference 

International Conference – "Georgia's European Way"

20 Business and Economy 

Georgian Qvevri Wine is Successfully Sold in Europe

26 Georgian Blueberries on sale in the UK 28 British-Georgian Chamber of

Commerce

31 Georgian authorities receive tailored

assistance in improving migration management standards

36

Winter Tourism in Georgia

40 Analysis and Opinion

The Aim is Clearly the Membership

44 EU Changes: Implications for Georgia

and Neighbourhood Policy

50 The Margins of European Union-Georgia

Political Association

56 D  emocratic and Open Governance in

Georgia – Challenges on the path to Euro Integration

60 Education 

TSU Institute for European Studies 63 Culture  Georgian culture in the Europe 66 A Historically Defined Way to Overcome

Loneliness

70 Georgia between the Aesthetics and the Politics of

Democracy

76 Photo competition: “Georgia’s European Way”

ნოემბერი 2014 საქართველოს ევროპული გზა

05


Address | მიმართვა

დავით უსუფაშვილი, საქართველოს პარლამენტის თავმჯდომარე

David Usupashvili – The Speaker of the Parliament of Georgia

მზადება ევროპული მომავლისთვის In Preparation for the European Future

06

Georgia’s European Way November 2014

2014 wlis 18 ivlisi, rogorc saqarTvelos parlamentis, ise Cveni qveynis istoriaSi, gansakuTrebul TariRad iqca. am dRes, saqarTvelo-evrokavSiris TanamSromlobis axal etaps daedo safuZveli. asocirebis xelSekrulebis ratificirebiT kidev ufro davuaxlovdiT im evropul civilizacias, romelTanac qarTveli xalxi, istoriuli warsulis garda, mWidro kulturul da sulier faseulobebs iziarebs. momdevno wlebis ganmavlobaSi saqarTvelos xelisuflebas marTebs adamianuri da inteleqtualuri resursis sruli mobilizeba, raTa dasaxul miznebs _ maT Soris, demokratiuli institutebis ganmtkicebas, qveynis ekonomikis gaZlierebasa da kvalificiuri saxelmwifo seqtoris uzrunvelyofas _ droulad miaRwios. am miznebisken swrafva saqarTvelos martos ar mouwevs. Cvens qveyanas gverdSi udgas mravali erTguli da gamocdili partniori, romelTa aqtiuri mxardaWerac realurs xdis aRniSnuli miznebis umokles vadebSi miRwevas. sanacvlod, saqarTvelos saxiT, Cvens megobrebs hyavT saimedo da stabiluri dasayrdeni samxreT kavkasiis regionSi. saqarTvelos evropul da evroatlantikur struqturebSi integraciis idea qarTveli xalxis absoluturi umravlesobis mtkice mxardaWeriT sargeblobs. samoqalaqo CarTuloba gadamwyveti iqneba qveynis sagareo Tu saSinao politikis ZiriTadi mimarTulebebis gansaxorcieleblad. Sesabamisad, aucilebelia Cvens qveyanas gaaCndes Zlieri samoqalaqo sazogadoeba. aRmosavleT partniorobis farglebSi ukve Seiqmna `samoqalaqo sazogadoebis forumis saqarTvelos erovnuli platforma~, romelic saqarTvelosa da mis partnior qveynebSi moRvawe aTeulobiT arasamTavrobo organizacias aerTianebs. programis gancxadebul miznebs Sorisaa demokratiisa da adamianis uflebaTa dacvis gaZliereba, evrokavSirTan ufro mWidro ekonomikuri integraciis xelSewyoba da xalxTaSorisi kavSirebis waxaliseba. aqtiur da efeqtian samoqalaqo sazogadoebas Seswevs Zala, gamoavlinos mniSvnelovani socio-ekonomikuri saWiroebani da isini pasuxismgebeli pirebis yuradRebis qveS moaqcios. 18 ivliss yvelam erTad movaxdineT erovnuli ideis materializeba. mjera, rom Cvens qveyanas kidev araerTi warmateba elis evropasTan integraciis procesSi. amisaTvis saWiroa, saqarTvelos xelisuflebam, samoqalaqo sazogadoebasa da saerTaSoriso TanamegobrobasTan koordinirebuli moqmedebebiT, qarTveli xalxis dakveTa srulfasovnad, Rirseulad da warmatebiT Seasrulos.


Address | მიმართვა

18 July 2014 has become a special date in the history of the Parliament of Georgia, as well as our country. On this day, a new phase of Georgia-EU cooperation has begun. The ratification of the Association Agreement has brought us closer to the European civilzation with which, in addition to the close cultural and spiritual values, Georgian people share historical past. In the coming years, the Government of Georgia will fully mobilize its human and intellectual resources to its core goals, including strengthening democratic instutitions, bolstering the country’s economy, and building a skilled public sector. Moreover, in pursuit of these goals, Georgia will not tread alone. Our country is reinforced by many loyal and experienced partners, whose active support makes it possible to achieve these goals in the shortest possible time. In return, Georgia represents a reliable and stable friend in the South Caucasus region for our allies. Georgia’s European and Euroatlantic integration is supported by the ovewhelming majority of Georgian people. Public involvement is crucial to the country’s foreign and domestic policy implementation. Consequently, it is necessary to have a strong civil society in our country. The EU’s Eastern Partnership program established "Civil Society Forum – Georgian National Platform," which unifies dozens of non-governmental organizations working in Georgia and partner countries. Among other things, the goal of the program is to strengthen democracy and human rights, promote closer economic integration and expand people-to-people contacts. Active and effective civil society has the power to identify important socio-economic issues for the Government and ensure they are being addressed by responsible persons. On July 18, we managed to materialize the national idea together. I believe that our country will garner many more successes on the way to European integration. For that to happen, the government, civil society and the international community need to coordinate actions and honorably and successfully execute the Georgian people’s will.

saredaqcio sabWo mariam raqviaSvili evropul da evroatlantikur struqturebSi integraciis sakiTxebSi saqarTvelos saxelmwifo ministris moadgile Tamar beruCaSvili saqarTvelos sagareo saqmeTa ministris pirveli moadgilis movaleobis Semsrulebeli zurab qarumiZe politikis analizis, strategiuli dagegmvisa da koordinaciis departamentis, sagareo urTierTobaTa samsaxuris pirveli mrCeveli, saqarTvelos mTavrobis kancelaria laSa tuRuSi aRmosavleT partniorobis samoqalaqo sazogadoebis saqarTvelos erovnuli platformis Tavmjdomare ivane CxikvaZe evrointegraciis mimarTulebis menejeri, fondi `Ria sazogadoeba _ saqarTvelo~ elene gocaZe sainformacio centris nato-sa da evrokavSiris Sesaxeb direqtori xaTuna saRinaZe evropul da evroatlantikur struqturebSi integraciis sakiTxebSi saqarTvelos saxelmwifo ministris aparatis sazogadoebasTan urTierTobis departamentis ufrosi Tornike nozaZe evropul da evroatlantikur struqturebSi integraciis sakiTxebSi saqarTvelos saxelmwifo ministris aparatis evrointegraciis sakiTxTa koordinaciis departamentis ufrosis moadgile gansakuTrebuli madloba: Tamar miqaZe saqarTveloSi evrokavSiris warmomadgenlobis politikisa da presis ganyofilebis TanamSromeli daibeWda S.p.s. `sezanSi~ Editorial Board Mariam Rakviashvili Deputy State Minister of Georgia on European and Euro-Atlantic Integration Tamar Beruchashvili Acting First Deputy Foreign Minister of Georgia Zurab Karumidze First Advisor, Foreign Relations Unit, Department of Political Analysis, Strategic Planning and Coordination the Chancellery of the Government of Georgia Lasha Tugushi Head of Georgian Civil Society National Platform for the Eastern Partnership Ivane Chkhikvadze EU Integration Field Manager Open Society Georgia Foundation Elene Gotsadze Director of the Information Center on NATO and EU Khatuna Saginadze Head of Public Relations Department of the Office of the State Minister of Georgia on European and Euro-Atlantic Integration Tornike Nozadze Deputy Head of European Integration Coordination Department of the Office of the State Minister of Georgia on European and Euro-Atlantic Integration Special thanks to: Tamar Mikadze Press and Information Officer at the Political and Press Section of the Delegation of the European Union to Georgia Printed by "Cezanne Ltd." ISSN: 1987-8486

ნოემბერი 2014 საქართველოს ევროპული გზა

07


Address | მიმართვა

ელჩი იანოშ ჰერმანი, საქართველოში ევროკავშირის წარმომადგენლობის ხელმძღვანელი

Ambassador Janos Herman, Head of the European Union Delegation to Georgia

აღმოსავლეთ პარტნიორობა 2014 წელს და მომავალში

THE EASTERN PARTNERSHIP IN 2014 AND BEYOND 2014 weli dasasruls uaxlovdeba da is unda SevafasoT, rogorc mniSvnelovani winsvlis weli evrokavSirisTvis saqarTvelosTan da mTlianad aRmosavleT partniorobis (EaP) regionTan TanamSromlobaSi. noembris dasawyisSi evrokavSiris institutebis didi nawilis xelmZRvaneloba Seicvala, Tumca, male gamoCndeba, rom aRmosavleT partniorobis programa prioritetad rCeba Cveni yvela axali liderisTvis. yirimis aneqsiam da ruseTis qmedebebis mier aRmosavleT ukrainis destabilizaciam Soki gamoiwvia rogorc am regionSi, aseve mis miRma. cxadia, uaxloes momavalSi ukraina kvlav Cveni yuradRebisa da qmedebebis centrSi iqneba. amasTan, evrokavSiri gaagrZelebs im konfliqtebis mSvidobiani

08

Georgia’s European Way November 2014

As we approach its end, 2014 emerges as a year of momentous developments in the EU's cooperation both with Georgia and the Eastern Partnership region as a whole. The changes at the helm of most of the European Union's institutions have taken place at the beginning of this month. You'll experience very quickly, that the Eastern Partnership remains a matter of primary attention for all of our new leaders. The illegal annexation of the Crimea and Russian actions to destabilize eastern Ukraine sent shockwaves throughout the region and beyond. No doubt, Ukraine will remain in the centre of our attention and actions in the coming period. At the same time, the European Union will continue its efforts


Address | მიმართვა gziT mogvarebis mcdelobas, romlebic Cvens sxva partniorebs exebaT aRmosavleTSi. imis miuxedavad, rom gasul wels moxda movlenebi, romlebmac mRelvareba da gaurkvevloba gamoiwvia, Cven mainc SevZeliT politikuri CarTulobis maRal doneze SenarCuneba da partniorobis ganviTareba. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom es momavlis imeds gvaZlevs. saqarTvelo amis kargi magaliTia. asocirebis xelSekrulebis xelmowera da misi ganxorcielebis dawyeba win gadadgmuli nabijia. amis Semdeg, ZiriTadad am xelSekrulebis meSveobiT moxdeba politikuri asocirebisa da ekonomikuri integraciisken ganviTareba saqarTvelosa da evrokavSirs Soris. asocirebuli partnioris statusiT, da ukve sakmaod soliduri progresis gaTvaliswinebiT, saqarTvelos kidev ufro mkacrad daakvirdebian, gansakuTrebiT iseT sferoebSi, rogoricaa demokratia, kanonis uzenaesoba da mmarTvelobis xarisxi. evrokavSiri gaZlierebul finansur mxardaWeras gauwevs saqarTvelos reformebisa da ganviTarebis gansaxorcieleblad. am grZel da rTul gzaze drois dakargva ar SegviZlia. minda davamato, rom ramdenime kviris win, evrokomisiis daskvnis Tanaxmad, saqarTvelom vizebis liberalizaciis samoqmedo gegmis pirveli stadiis winapirobebi daakmayofila. es mniSvnelovani nabijia saqarTvelosTvis evrokavSirTan savizo reJimis moxsnisken. rigis samitis moaxloebis da im yvelafris gaTvaliswinebiT, rac 2014 welma mogvitana, aucilebelia aRmosavleT partniorobis momavalze msjeloba. SemiZlia xazgasmiT vTqva, rom momavalSic umniSvnelovanesi iqneba partniorobis Rirebulebebisa da principebis dacva ormxrivi urTierTobisas. aRmosavleT partniorebTan asocirebis xelSekrulebebis gaformeba Cveni momavali saqmianobis mimarTulebaze imoqmedebs. maT Soris, moxdeba stimulebis diferencireba da, Sesabamisad, maTi diversificireba. ar aris gasakviri, rom partniorebs gaumarTlebeli gare zewolis dapirispirebis Sesaxeb saubari surT. aseve mniSvnelovani iqneboda mravalmxrivi TanamSromlobis ganviTareba iseT sferoebSi, rogoricaa transporti da energetika. cnobilia, rom evrokavSirma gasul wlebSi bevri gaakeTa xelsayreli pirobebis SesanarCuneblad demokratiuli sivrcisa da samoqalaqo sazogadoebisTvis. am ukanasknelis sirTulis miuxedavad, mas pirvelxarisxovani adgili ukavia rogorc evrokavSirSi, aseve mis gareT. Cven myarad da ucvlelad gvjera, rom samoqalaqo sazogadoebis ganviTareba sakvanZo faqtoria aRmosavleT partniorobis miznebis misaRwevad. siamovnebiT vixseneb, rom 2009 wels me EaP-is samoqalaqo sazogadoebis pirveli forumis erT-erTi organizatori viyavi, romelic praRis samitis farglebSi Sedga. mas Semdeg, samoqalaqo sazogadoebis forumma didi gza gaiara da institucionalizebul politikur forumad gardaiqmna, sadac EaP-is eqvsive qveynidan partniorebma Tavi moiyares mniSvnelovani diskusiebis Casatareblad. moxaruli var, rom davbrundi, da darwmunebuli var, rom rigiT mexuTe yovelwliuri Sexvedra, romelic baTumSi Catardeba, kidev erTi win gadadgmuli nabiji gaxdeba samoqalaqo sazogadoebis formirebis procesSi.

to help the peaceful resolution of the conflicts affecting other Eastern partners. Although in the last year we had to face events which generated considerable commotion and uncertainty, we proved able to maintain high level political engagement and advance our partnership further. The least we can say is that this is promising, as we look to the future. Georgia provides a good example. The signing and the start of the provisional application of our Association Agreement is a major step forward. The Agreement is now the main vehicle for moving towards political association and economic integration between Georgia and the European Union. It opens a more rewarding and at the same time more demanding phase. As an associated partner, in view of its considerable progress so far, Georgia will be under even closer scrutiny, in particular in the areas of democracy, rule of law and the quality of governance. The EU provides increasing financial support to underpin Georgian reforms and development. There is no time to waste, as we embark on this long and challenging journey. Let me add, as a good example, that only some weeks ago the European Commission concluded that Georgia had met the requirements of the first phase of the Visa Liberalisation Action Plan. This is a significant achievement on Georgia's way to visa-free regime with the EU. Approaching the Riga Summit, having vividly in mind all what 2014 has brought, we need furthering our reflection concerning the future of the Eastern Partnership. Already at this early stage, let me stress that continued adherence to the values and principles of our partnership should remain at the heart of each bilateral relationship and also of the multilateral framework. The adoption of Association Agreements with Eastern partners will to a large extent influence the orientation of our future work, including further differentiation and the consequent diversification of incentives. No wonder, partners would be willing to discuss how to counter undue external pressure. It would also be important to develop further multilateral cooperation, notably in areas such as transport and energy. It is well known how much the EU has done over the years to create and maintain the democratic space and favourable conditions for civil society – in its full complexity. This has been a primary consideration for us both inside and outside the European Union. We are fully and invariably convinced that the development and involvement of civil society is a key factor for any progress towards achieving the objectives of the Eastern Partnership. I am proud to recall that in 2009 I was one of the organizers of the first EaP Civil Society Forum, which took place during the Prague Summit. Since then, the Civil Society Forum has come a long way, transforming itself into an institutionalized policy forum, bringing together partners from all six EaP countries for useful discussions. I am happy to be back, being sure that the 5th Annual Meeting, taking place in Batumi, will become another milestone in the CSF process.

ნოემბერი 2014 საქართველოს ევროპული გზა

09


Address | მიმართვა

თამარ ბერუჩაშვილი, საქართველოს საგარეო საქმეთა მინისტრის პირველი მოადგილის მოვალეობის შემსრულებელი

Tamar Beruchashvili, Acting First Deputy Foreign Minister of Georgia

საქართველო-ევროკავშირის სავიზო რეჟიმის ლიბერალიზაციის სამოქმედო გეგმის იმპლემენტაცია Implementation of EU-Georgia Visa Liberalisation Action Plan saqarTvelos mTavroba aqtiurad muSaobs evrokavSirTan savizo reJimis liberalizaciis amocanebis droulad da efeqtianad ganxorcielebis mimarTulebiT. 2014 wlis 29 oqtombers evrokomisiam gamoaqveyna meore angariSi saqarTvelos mier savizo reJimis liberalizaciis samoqmedo gegmis implementaciis Sesaxeb.

10

Georgia’s European Way November 2014

Government of Georgia is actively working on timely and effective implementation of EU-Georgia Visa Liberalisation Action Plan (VLAP). On 29 October 2014 the EU Commission adopted its second progress report on the implementation by Georgia of the VLAP.


Address | მიმართვა angariSSi naTqvamia, rom saqarTvelom Seasrula savizo dialogis pirveli (sakanonmdeblo) fazis moTxovnebi da, Sesabamisad, komisias SeuZlia Seudges samoqmedo gegmis meore faziT gaTvaliswinebuli valdebulebebis Sesrulebis Sefasebas. saSinao saqmeTa evrokomisarma sesilia malmstromma dadebiTad Seafasa saqarTvelos Sesabamisi struqturebis mier gaweuli Zalisxmeva aucilebeli sakanonmdeblo cvlilebebis ganxorcielebis kuTxiT. „es mniSvnelovani miRweva da win gadadgmuli nabijia am procesSi, romelic saqarTvelos daaaxloebs Tavis mizanTan, SemoiRos evrokavSirTan uvizo mimosvlis reJimi“, _ ganacxada evrokomisarma. proceduris mixedviT, saqarTvelos mier miRweul progress Seafaseben evrokavSiris wevri qveynebi, rac SesaZlebels gaxdis daiwyos samoqmedo gegmis meore fazis implementaciis Sefaseba. evrokavSirTan savizo reJimis liberalizaciis perspeqtivam da konkretulad samoqmedo gegmam reformebis ganxorcielebis qmediTi instrumentis funqcia Seasrula da mniSvnelovani wvlili Seitana evrokavSirisa da saerTaSoriso standartebis Sesabamisi sakanonmdeblo da institucionaluri CarCos CamoyalibebaSi. samoqmedo gegmis pirveli fazis implementaciis procesSi am dromde ganxorcielebuli reformebidan gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania: personalur monacemTa dacvis Sesaxeb kanonis miReba da inspeqtoris institutis SemoReba; migraciis sakiTxTa samTavrobo komisiis Seqmna da migraciis strategiisa da samoqmedo gegmis damtkiceba; diskriminaciis yvela formis aRmofxvris Sesaxeb kanonis miReba; adamianis uflebaTa strategiisa da samoqmedo gegmis damtkiceba. saerTo jamSi, samoqmedo gegmis pirveli fazis moTxovnebis Sesabamisad saqarTvelom miiRo daaxloebiT 45 sakanonmdeblo cvlileba da 30-mde kanonqvemdebare aqti, 8 strategia da moaxdina 7 saerTaSoriso konvenciis ratificireba. amavdroulad, Cven ukve SevudeqiT meore faziT gansazRvruli valdebulebebis ganxorcielebas, rac gulisxmobs miRebuli kanonmdeblobis efeqtur amoqmedebas. am mimarTulebiT ukve mniSvnelovan progress mivaxwieT. samoqmedo gegmis meore fazis farglebSi ganxorcielebuli RonisZiebebis Sesaxeb pirveli angariSi gadaegzavna evrokomisias 2014 wlis seqtemberSi. amavdroulad, saqarTvelos mxarem gamoxata mzadyofna umaspinZlos evrokavSiris eqspertTa misias meore faziT gansazRvruli valdebulebebis implementaciis Sesafaseblad mimdinare wlis bolomde. saqarTvelos mTavrobis mizania 2015 wlis maisis aRmosavleT partniorobis rigis samitisaTvis samoqmedo gegmis implementaciis teqnikuri procesis mTlianad dasruleba. Sesabamisad, xorcieldeba aucilebeli reformebi yvela dadgenili kriteriumis dasakmayofileblad da saboloo miznis misaRwevad _ evrokavSirTan uvizo mimosvlis reJimis SemosaRebad.

It concludes that Georgia meets the first-phase requirements of the VLAP and evaluation of the second phase benchmarks can therefore be launched. EU Commissioner for Home Affairs Cecilia Malmström praised the Georgian authorities for their efforts in putting in place the required legislative changes. “This is a significant achievement, an important step in the process that will bring Georgia closer to its goal of visa free regime with the EU", said Commissioner. According to the procedures, positive conclusion of the EU Member States will give the green light to start assessment of the VLAP 2nd phase implementation. The Visa Liberalisation Action Plan has proved to be an important tool for advancing reforms and contributed to establishment of the legislative, policy and institutional framework in compliance with European and international standards. At the current stage, the main requirements of the 1st phase of the VLAP related to the establishment of the legislative, policy and institutional framework have been met. The main achievements in the fields covered by the1st phase of the VLAP are: adoption of the Personal Data Protection law and appointment of the Personal Data Protection Inspector; establishment of the Governmental Commission on Migration issues; adoption of the Migration Strategy and Action Plan; adoption of the Anti-discrimination Law; adoption of Human Rights Strategy and Action Plan. In total, according to the benchmarks of the VLAP 1st phase, about 45 laws and legislative amendments, 30 supplementary laws and 8 Strategy documents with accompanying Action Plans have been adopted and 7 International Conventions ratified. In parallel with the fulfillment of the benchmarks envisaged by the first phase of the Action Plan, Georgia has already started implementation of the second phase requirements of the VLAP and has already achieved significant progress in this direction. The first progress report reflecting the information on steps undertaken by Georgia towards the implementation of the VLAP 2nd phase has been submitted to the Commission in September 2014. At the same time, we have expressed our readiness to host the EU Expert mission assessing the implementation of the 2nd phase benchmarks by the end of this year. Georgia intends to fully implement all VLAP benchmarks by the EaP Riga Summit in 2015. We are ready to meet all established criteria required for successful finalization of the process and continue the path of necessary reforms to achieve the end goal –Visa free regime with the EU.

ნოემბერი 2014 საქართველოს ევროპული გზა

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Interview | ინტერვიუ

„123 მომხრე, არცერთი წინააღმდეგი“ ინტერვიუ ვიქტორ დოლიძესთან საქართველოს პარლამენტის ევროპასთან ინტეგრაციის კომიტეტის თავმჯდომარე

"123 YES, 0 against" Interview with Victor Dolidze Chairman of the Committee on European Integration of the Parliament of Georgia

saqarTvelos parlamentma 18 ivliss kenWi uyara evrokavSirTan saqarTvelos asocirebis Sesaxeb SeTanxmebis ratificirebas. „123 momxre, arcerTi winaaRmdegi, xelSekruleba ratificirebulia“, _ am sityvebis Semdeg, saqarTvelos parlamentis Tavmjdomarem daviT usufaSvilma xeli moawera parlamentis dadgenilebas saqarTvelosa da evrokavSirs Soris asocirebis SeTanxmebis ratificirebis Taobaze. daiwyo axali epoqa saqarTvelos istoriaSi da qveyana evrokavSirTan TanamSromlobis axal etapze gadavida. On July 18, the Parliament of Georgia voted unanimously to ratify the EU-Georgia Association Agreement (AA): "123 For and 0 against, the agreement is ratified", - after these words Davit Usupashvili, the Speaker of the Parliament of Georgia, signed the document, marking the beginning of a new era in Georgian history and taking cooperation with the EU to a new level.

ra molodinia saqarTvelos parlamentSi asocirebis Sesaxeb SeTanxmebis ratificirebis Semdeg? aRsaniSnavia, rom saqarTvelos parlamentSi gansxvavebuli politikuri Sexedulebebis miuxedavad, mxareebi Tanxmdebian qveynisTvis iseT mniSvnelovan sakiTxebze, rogoricaa sagareo politikis evropuli da evroatlantikuri veqtori, usafrTxoebis sakiTxebi da sxva. vfiqrob, es politikuri kulturis gaumjobesebaze metyvelebs.

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Georgia’s European Way November 2014

What are the expectations of the Parliament of Georgia regarding ratification of the AA? It is worth mentioning that. despite their different political views, parties in the Parliament of Georgia have full agreement on important issues such as the European and Euro-Atlantic vector of foreign policy, security policies etc. In my opinion, it vividly demonstrates an improvement in political culture.


Interview | ინტერვიუ aqedan gamomdinare, is faqti, rom asocirebis Sesaxeb SeTanxmebis ratificireba moxda 123 xmiT 0 xmis winaaRmdeg, qarTuli saxelmwifos swori mimarTulebiT gzaze svlas niSnavs. Cveni evropuli da evroatlantikuri miswrafebebi aris ucvleli prioriteti da amaze yvela vTanxmdebiT. SesaZlebelia, rom mxareebis taqtika da midgomebi sxvadasxva procesis ganviTarebis mimarT gansxvavebulia, Tumca amaSi tragikuli araferia. rac Seexeba molodins, saqarTvelos parlamentis mier SeTanxmebis ratificirebis Semdeg, Cven pirvel rigSi vmuSaobT imaze, rom evrokavSiris wevrma yvela qveyanam, iseve rogorc evroparlamentma, droulad daasrulos es procesi. dReisaTvis, SeTanxmebis ratificireba moaxdines litvam, latviam, rumineTma, bulgareTma, maltam da slovakeTma. zogadad, es aris erTgvari politikuri gzavnili, rogorc saqarTvelos, aseve saerTaSoriso Tanamegobrobis mimarT. es niSnavs, rom evropuli ojaxi mzadaa, saqarTvelom moaxdinos masTan maqsimaluri politikuri asocireba da ekonomikuri integracia. magaliTad, qarTul produqcias eqneba saSualeba, Sevides 500-milionian evrokavSiris bazarze satarifo regulaciebisa Tu sabaJo gadasaxadebis gareSe. garda amisa, albaT dameTanxmebiT, rom sazogadoebrivi cnobierebisa da samoqalaqo TviTSegnebis dones dRes ganviTareba sWirdeba. nebismieri saxelmwifos Camoyalibeba swored sazogadoebazea damyarebuli. parlamenti da mTavroba sazogadoebis nawilia da mis ganviTarebasTan erTad, bunebrivia, qveyanac win midis. amitom, asocirebis Sesaxeb SeTanxmeba ara mxolod seqtorul reformebze da am gziT qveynis ganviTarebazea orientirebuli, aramed xangrZlivi perspeqtivis TvalsazrisiT, mas sazogadoebrivi azrovnebis dadebiTisken transformacia SeuZlia.

Therefore, the fact that the AA was ratified with 123 votes for and zero against means that the country is on the right track. Our European and Euro-Atlantic aspirations remain as an irreversible priority and we all agree on it.

ra iqneba saqarTvelos parlamentisTvis mTavari gamowveva asocirebis Sesaxeb SeTanxmebis implementaciisas, sakanonmdeblo harmonizaciis procesSi? is, rom sajaro samsaxurSi kvalificiuri kadrebis problemaa, vfiqrob, axali ar aris. arseboben profesionalebi, romlebic maRal anazRaurebas iReben kerZo seqtorSi da es bunebrivia. rac Seexeba saxelmwifo seqtors, saWiroa donor organizaciebTan muSaobis gaZlierebiT arsebuli kadrebis gadamzadeba an maRali rangis profesionalebis mozidva, radgan mozRvavebuli sakanonmdeblo cvlilebebisa da axladmisaRebi kanonebis fonze, adamianuri resursi erT-erTi umTavresi gamowveva iqneba. amave dros, mniSvnelovani komponentia saparlamento zedamxedveloba. kanonebis mxolod miReba ar aris sakmarisi, saWiroa maTi implementacia da Cveni, parlamentis valdebulebaa am procesis monitoringi. esec aranakleb mniSvnelovani gamowvevaa, radgan efeqtiani koordinacia xelisuflebis aRmasrulebel da sakanonmdeblo Stoebs Soris, samwuxarod, memkvidreobiT ar migviRia. Tumca, dRes arsebuli absoluturad gamWvirvale urTierTqmedeba sakanonmdeblo da aRmasrulebel Stoebs Soris ma-

The fact that we lack qualified human resources in the governmental sector is not a novelty. The private sector pays quite high salaries to qualified professionals and it is natural. As for the governmental sector, it is important to cooperate with donor organisations in order to train existing personnel or attract qualified staff, since the ongoing legislative amendments and new laws that need to be adopted make the human resource factor one of the main overarching challenges of the entire process.

The political tactics of parties on a variety of the issues may be different; however, there is nothing unusual in this. As for the expectations, after ratifying the Agreement the Parliament of Georgia focused its attention on the member states and the European Parliament as they are expected to conclude this process. Already, several EU member states have ratified the Agreement including Lithuania, Latvia, Romania, Bulgaria, Malta and Slovakia. In general, ratification of the AA by the EU member states and the European Parliament can be considered as a political message for Georgia and the international community, implying that the European family is ready for political association as well as economic integration. For example, Georgian products will gain access to the EU market without tariff regulations or tax payments. Moreover, civil consciousness needs to advance further. Formation of any state relies on the society. The parliament and the government are parts of the society. Therefore, the Association Agreement should not be considered only in the scope of sectorial reforms; it should also be examined from a long-term perspective as an instrument for transforming the civil consciousness positively. What will be the main challenges for the Parliament of Georgia in the process of the implementation of the Agreement and adhering to the EU acquis?

At the same time, parliamentary supervision is an important component. It is not enough to pass laws; it also requires implementation and it is our obligation to monitor this process. This is another important challenge, since we did not inherit effective cooperation between the legislative and executive branches of the government from our predecessors; however the existing transparent cooperation between the branches makes me confident that coordination obstacles can be easily overcome. On what level will cooperation with the European Parliament and the member states’ parliaments be enhanced within the framework of the Association Agreement?

ნოემბერი 2014 საქართველოს ევროპული გზა

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Interview | ინტერვიუ Zlevs imis myar safuZvels, rom mTavrobasTan erTad Cven koordinaciis gamowvevasac advilad davZlevT. asocirebis SeTanxmebis farglebSi ramdenad gaaqtiurdeba TanamSromloba evroparlamentTan da evrokavSiris wevri qveynebis erovnul parlamentebTan? TanamSromloba ukve gaaqtiurebulia. es procesi Cven daviwyeT gacilebiT adre, vidre moxdeboda asocirebis Sesaxeb SeTanxmebis ratificireba. Cven manamdec vxvdebodiT da vawarmoebdiT molaparakebebs evroparlamentis da evrokavSiris wevri qveynebis parlamentebis warmomadgenlebTan. konkretulad, Cven vTanamSromlobT rogorc evroparlamentSi warmodgenil politikur jgufebTan, aseve viSegradis, skandinaviis, baltiis saxelmwifoebTan. parlamentis Tavmjdomaris umaRlesi donis vizitebi imarTeba evropis iseT saxelmwifoebSi, romlebTanac manamde aqtiuri TanamSromloba ar gvqonia. aseve, vmaspinZlobT saparlamento delegaciebs saqarTveloSi. asocirebis Sesaxeb SeTanxmeba gulisxmobs arsebuli TanamSromlobis meqanizmebis gaZlierebas. saqarTvelos, moldovasa da ukrainis mier xelmoweril asocirebis SeTanxmebebSi gaTvaliswinebulia evrokavSiris individualuri midgomebis gaZliereba am saxelmwifoTa mimarT. asocirebis dRis wesrigi, romelic samive qveyanas aqvs, gvaZlevs imis saSualebas, rom struqturirebulad davaxlovdeT evropul institutebTan. konkretulad saqarTvelos parlamenti, SeTanxmebidan gamomdinare, valdebulia, Seqmnas saparlamento asocirebis komiteti, romelic asocirebis procesis ZiriTadi sazedamxedvelo organo iqneba. evroparlamentTan SeTanxmebiT aRniSnuli komitetis Seqmna Zalian male moxdeba, mimdinareobs msjeloba kompoziciaze, reglamentze, warmomadgenlobiT doneebze. asocirebis Sesaxeb SeTanxmebis xelmoweris Semdeg, aRmosavleT partniorobis iniciativis wevri qveynebidan saqarTvelom, moldovam da ukrainam evrokavSirTan daaxloebis axal etapze gadainacvles. igegmeba Tu ara sami qveynis saparlamento TanamSromlobis formatebis SemuSaveba? saqarTvelos parlamentis evropasTan integraciis komitets am mimarTulebiT muSaoba ukve mesame welia dawyebuli aqvs. seqtemberSi saqarTveloSi imyofebodnen moldovis da ukrainis parlamentebis warmomadgenlebi da Cven erTad vmsjelobdiT TanamSromlobis SesaZlo formatebze. gasuli ori weli kolegebs vmaspinZlobdiT somxeTidan da azerbaijanidan, wels ki, swored evrokavSirTan mimarTebiT axal etapze gadasvlis gamo, saparlamento TanamSromlobis formats moldova da ukrainac daemata. moldovasTan da ukrainasTan erTad, Cven mogviwevs asocirebis dRis wesrigisa da samoqmedo gegmis erToblivad Sejereba, radgan Cven, aRmosavleT partniorobis sxva qveynebTan SedarebiT, ra Tqma unda, ufro intensiurad unda viTanamSromloT, maT Soris, vizis liberalizaciis

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Georgia’s European Way November 2014

The process of enhancing cooperation has already begun. We started this process long before the AA was ratified. We hold regular meetings with representatives of the European Parliament and member states` parliaments. More precisely, we cooperate with political groups represented in the European Parliament, as well as with Visegrad, Baltic and Scandinavian countries. The Head of the Parliament of Georgia holds permanent, high level meetings in the EU member states’ parliaments, with an emphasis on those countries with whom we did not have active cooperation before. At the same time, we host parliamentary delegations in Georgia. The AA implies the enhancement of existing cooperation mechanisms. The Agreement signed by Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine foresees enhancement of the EU’s individual approach towards these countries. Each of them has the Association Agenda, which facilitates structural approximation with EU institutions. More precisely, according to the Agreement, the Parliament of Georgia is obliged to create the Association Committee within Parliament, which will be the main supervisory body of the association process. The Committee will be created in the nearest future. Currently, talks are ongoing with the European Parliament about composition, time limits and the representative level of the Committee. After the signing of the Association Agreement, the three EaP countries, namely, Georgia, Moldova, and Ukraine, have stepped into a new level of approximation with the EU. Are there any plans for establishing parliamentary cooperation mechanisms between the three countries? The Committee of European Integration of the Parliament of Georgia has already been working in this direction for three years. Representatives of the Moldovan and Ukrainian Parliaments visited Georgia in September this year and we discussed the possibilities of

ევროპული ოჯახი მზადაა, საქართველომ მოახდინოს მასთან მაქსიმალური პოლიტიკური ასოცირება და ეკონომიკური ინტეგრაცია.

the European family is ready for political association, as well as economic integration with georgia


Interview | ინტერვიუ samoqmedo gegmis Sesrulebis da misi zedamxedvelobis sakiTxebze, ekonomikur integraciaze da seqtorul reformebze. minda aRvniSno, rom Cven msgavsi gamowvevebi da miswrafebebi gvaqvs, Sesabamisad, ufro meti TanamSromloba iqneba saWiro. me darwmunebuli var, rom asocirebis SeTanxmebis ganxorcielebis process Cven erTad warmatebiT gavarTmevT Tavs. aucileblad unda vaxseno ukrainaSi mimdinare movlenebi. Cven, albaT rogorc aravis, ukeT gvesmis, ramdenad rTuli procesi mimdinareobs megobar saxelmwifoSi. is, rasac saqarTvelos mTavroba akeTebs ukrainisTvis, iqneba es daxmareba samedicino Tu nebismier sxva sferoSi, Zalian mniSvnelovania. cnobilia, rom saqarTvelos parlamentma ukrainis mxardamWeri sami rezolucia miiRo. Tumca, me vfiqrob, rom Cveni, deputatebis valia, am viTarebaSi ufro intensiurad viTanamSromloT ukrainel kolegebTan, gansakuTrebiT, oqtomberSi gamarTuli radas arCevnebis Semdeg. gamowvevad rCeba sazogadoebis sworad informireba asocirebis Sesaxeb SeTanxmebiTa da Rrma da yovlismomcveli Tavisufali savaWro sivrciT gaTvaliswinebuli sikeTeebis da valdebulebebis Sesaxeb. ra gegmebi aqvs am mxriv saqarTvelos parlaments? am mxriv Zalian mniSvnelovani dokumentia saqarTvelos mTavrobis mier 2013 wels miRebuli strategia evrointegraciis sakiTxTa komunikaciisa da informaciis Sesaxeb, romlis samoqmedo gegmac, vfiqrob, faravs Zalian bevr miznobriv jgufs informaciis droulad da xarisxianad miwodebis TvalsazrisiT. aseve unda aRiniSnos saqarTvelos parlamentis evropasTan integraciis komitetis mier momzadebuli da parlamentis mier damtkicebuli sakanonmdeblo iniciativa „mauwyeblis Sesaxeb“ saqarTvelos kanonSi cvlilebis Setanis Taobaze. Cveni komiteti Zalian bevrs akeTebs evrokavSiris Sesaxeb cnobadobis amaRlebis kuTxiT. mediaproduqtebi, romlebic saxelwodebis _ `evropis droiT~ _ qveS erTiandeba, 2009 wlidan moyolebuli moicavs beWdur biuletenebs universitetebisa da im sajaro samsaxurebisTvis, visac evrokavSiris Temaze uwevs muSaoba, aseve, eleqtronul daijests, romelic yovelkvireulia da egzavneba parlamentis TanamSromlebsa da deputacias, radiogadacemas `evropis droiT~ `radio erTis~ eTerSi da axla ukve teleCanarTs sazogadoebrivi mauwyeblis gadacemaSi „Cveni dila“. Tumca, dRevandeli gadmosaxedidan SemiZlia vTqva, rom is, rasac vakeTebT, ar aris sakmarisi, radgan evrokavSiris, iseve rogorc nato-s Sesaxeb cnobadoba Zalian dabalia, gansakuTrebiT _ regionebSi. Sesabamisad, Cven unda gavaaqtiuroT regionebSi gasvlebi, gansakuTrebiT, erovnuli umciresobebiT kompaqturad dasaxlebul raionebSi, raTa martiv enaze avuxsnaT mosaxleobas evrointegraciisa da nato-Si gawevrianebis molodinebi, valdebulebebi da sikeTeebi. Sesabamisad, me vgegmav, adgilobriv TviTmmarTvelobebTan erTad gavagrZelo muSaoba am mimarTulebiT.

closer cooperation. During the last two years, we have been hosting our colleagues from Armenia and Azerbaijan. However, due to the new level of cooperation with the EU, we are intensifying cooperation with the Parliaments of Ukraine and Moldova. Of course, we need to work closely with Ukraine and Moldova in the process of implementing the Association Agreement Action Plan and the Visa Liberalisation Action Plan, economic integration and sectorial reforms. I am confident that the implementation process will be managed successfully together with our colleagues. On a separate note, I have to underscore that we, better than anyone, understand the complexity of the ongoing processes in Ukraine. It is of major importance that the Government of Georgia supports Ukraine, whether it is in the medical sphere or any other field. The Parliament of Georgia has adopted three resolutions supporting Ukraine. However, in the current circumstances, it is very important to intensify cooperation with our Ukrainian colleagues, especially after the Rada election. Informing society clearly and objectively on the benefits and obligations of the AA and DCFTA still remains a challenge. What are the plans of the Parliament of Georgia regarding this issue? The “Communication and Information Strategy of the Government of Georgia”, which was adopted by the Government of Georgia in 2013 is an important document in this regard. It is an effective instrument for spreading information throughout targeted groups. Another document to be noted in this regard is the legislative initiative of the European Integration Committee of the Parliament of Georgia on amendments in the “Law on Broadcasting.” Our committee has done a considerable amount of work to raise the awareness of the public on EU integration. Media products under the brand name ’’European Time’’ has consisted of multiple activities which, since 2009, has included booklets for universities and public institutions on the EU question, a weekly electronic digest, which is disseminated among members and staff of the Parliament of Georgia, a radio programme entitled “European Time” and a TV programme called “Our Morning”, broadcasted on Radio One and the Public Broadcaster, respectively. However, from the current perspective, I can say that it is not enough, since awareness on the EU, as well as on NATO, is rather low, especially in the regions. Consequently, we should intensify our visits to the regions, especially in the areas densely populated by ethnic minorities in order to raise awareness of expectations, obligations, and benefits regarding the EU and NATO integration. Therefore, in cooperation with the local government bodies, I am planning to continue the work already done in this particular direction.

ნოემბერი 2014 საქართველოს ევროპული გზა

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Forum | ფორუმი

ჩვენ გვჭირდება ევროპული პერსპექტივა

We need a European perspective

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niversitetSi leqcia rom davasrule, studentma mkiTxa, evrointegracia TqvenTvis rogori procesiao? ukeTesi saxelmZRvaneloebi rom geqnebaT, ukeTesi auditoriebi, ukeTesi leqtorebi, dasaqmebis ukeTesi perspeqtiva, meti kvlevebi, aseve evropaSi wasasvlelad vizebi rom ar dagWirdebaT-meTqi. am dros gamaxsenda erovnuli platformidan Cemi kolegis wina dRiT naTqvami _ roca ukrainelebs uWirT, ukrainis saelCos win ukrainis himni vimRereT qarTvelebma, ai, es aris evropuli saqarTveloo. saqarTvelos civilizaciuri arCevani _ dasavleTi, aRmosavleTi Tu CrdiloeTi _ didi xania gakeTebuli aqvs, Tumca mis dasacavad saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi uwevda egzistenciuri xasiaTis brZola, romelic dakavSirebuli iyo teritoriebTan, religiasTan, kulturasTan, mSobliur enasTan. msgavsi problemebi Cven winaSe dResac dgas. pirvel rigSi, dakavSirebuli ruseTis mxridan qveynis nawilis okupaciasTan. Cven vimyofebiT regionSi, romelic mzardi religiuri eqstremizmis geografiul sazRvarzea. deklaraciulad Cven varT navSi, romelzec frialebs evroatlantikuri orientaciis amsaxveli droSa, Tumca navs Stormian amindSi niCbebis mosma sWirdeba, vinaidan permanentulad Zlieri qartexilebis epicentrSi varT. am viTarebaSi, evropuli swrafva aris qveynis modernizacia, risi kargi SesaZleblobaa evrokavSirTan asocirebis xelSekrulebis implementacia. Cven vfiqrobT, rom am sqeltaniani dokumentis ganxorcieleba mogvcems saSualebas, saqarTveloSi evropa nabij-nabij avaSenoT _ kanonis uzenaesobiT, arCevanis Tavisuflebis pativiscemiT, adamianis uflebebis dacviT, Tavisufali bazriT da a.S. Tumca, gamowvevebi Zalian seriozulia. im xarisxis reformebis gatareba, rac asaxulia asocirebis xelSekrulebaSi, SesaZlebelia mxolod Zlieri samoqalaqo CarTulobiTa da mxardaWeriT. gulwrfelad vityvi, es azri ufro deklarirebulia, vidre realurad aRiqmeba rogorc saxelisuflo kabinetebSi mokalaTebuli Zveli Tu axali biurokratebis mier, aseve samoqalaqo sazogadoebis mniSvnelovan nawilSic.

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Georgia’s European Way November 2014

ლაშა ტუღუში „აღმოსავლეთ პარტნიორობის სამოქალაქო საზოგადოების ფორუმის საქართველოს ეროვნული პლატფორმის“ თავმჯდომარე

Lasha Tughushi

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Chairman, Eastern Partnership Civil Society Forum – Georgian National Platform

s I finished giving my last lecture at university, a student asked what Georgia’s European integration meant for me. Better manuals, better classrooms, better professors, better employment perspectives, more studies, and, overall, visa-free travel to Europe was my answer. At that time I remembered what my colleague from the National Platform had said a day earlier: When it was a difficult time for Ukrainians, Georgians sang the national anthem of Ukraine at the Ukrainian embassy in Tbilisi – that was the European Georgia. Georgia made its historic choice a long time ago and identified the West as its spiritual and cultural home; however, it has had to undergo a centuries-long existential struggle to defend its choice. This was an epic struggle to preserve its identity through defending the homeland, religion, culture and language. Today we are still facing the same problems, which are largely expressed by Russia's occupation of two Georgian territories. Besides, the region borders a hub of growing religious extremism, whether to the north or to the south. We see ourselves sitting in a boat, which flies the flag of Euro-Atlantic orientation, but the boat needs rowing through stormy weather, since we are permanently at the epicenter of strong turbulence. Under the current circumstances, Georgia’s European aspiration implies European modernization, and the implementation of the Association Agreement with Europe is a good start to realize this historic mission. We think that the implementation of this formidable document will allow us ‘to build Europe in Georgia’ – step-by-step, by rule of law, respect for


Forum | ფორუმი freedom, human rights, a free market economy and social equality. Howamitomac, winsvla iqneba mxolod orive mxridan mrever, the challenges are serious as well. gvali magidis principiT TanamSromlobis SemTxvevaSi. mniSvnelovania konsolidacia Tavad samoqalaqo saQuality implementation of the reforms reflected in the Association zogadoebis SigniT. konsolidaciis meti resursia iq, Agreement will be carried out only by having strong civic involvement sadac es xdeba konkretuli faseulobebis, ideebis Tu and support. The readiness to implement the AA is more declared than gegmebis irgvliv. es Cveni erovnuli platformisTvis is actually assumed by the old and new bureaucrats residing in most aseve seriozuli gamowvevaa. Cven sakmaod daJinebiT vagovernmental offices, as well as by a large segment of civil society. pirebT, gavxdeT evrointegraciis procesis Rirseuli monawile, maT Soris asocirebis xelSekrulebiT gansaTherefore, things will only move forward by the authorities and civil socizRvrul farglebSi. ety if they cooperate on the Round Table principles. amJamad platforma aerTianebs 130 organizacias. Cven mier ganxorcielda araerTi aqtivoba, SemuSavda ramdeIt is also important to consolidate within civil society. There are more nime aTeuli politikuri dokumenti, romelTa nawili resources for consolidation wherever it occurs over specific values, xelisuflebam gaiTvaliswina, SemuSavda kanonproeqteideas or plans. We can move in this direction within the framework of bi, romlebic zogierT SemTxvevaSi iqca kanonebad. Tumthe Association Agreement, which is also a serious challenge to the Naca, zogjer Cven dagvWirda mZafri kampaniebis warmoeba, tional Platform: We are going to insist becoming a well-deserved parraTa dagverwmunebina sazogadoeba da zemoqmedeba moticipant in the European integration gvexdina xelisuflebis gaprocess. dawyvetilebebze. platformam miiRo araCurrently, the Platform brings togetherTi gancxadeba, romelic er 130 organisations. We performed a mimarTulia rogorc saqarnumber of activities, developed sevTvelos SigniT, aseve aRmosaeral dozen policy documents, and vleT partniorobis qveynebdraft laws. Some of them have been Si mimdinare procesebisaken. adopted by the Parliament and have evrointegraciis sakiTxebრისი კარგი შესაძლებლობაა been taken into account by the Govze nayofieri TanamSromloernment. Sometimes we had to resort bis uzrunvelyofis mizniT, ევროკავშირთან ასოცირების to active campaigning to convince the Cven vapirebT gavaformoT ხელშეკრულების იმპლემენტაცია. public in order to make an impact on memorandumi rogorc aRmasgovernmental decision. rulebel xelisuflebasTan, aseve parlamentTan. mniSvneThe Platform has issued number of lovania, rom asocirebis xelstatements addressing ongoing develSekrulebiT gansazRvruli opments in Georgia and in the Eastformatebis gamoyenebiT saand the implementation of the ern Partnership countries. moqalaqo sazogadoeba gaxdes xelisuflebis partniori ara Association Agreement with Europe In order to ensure better cooperation mxolod monitoringis prois a good start to realize this in the context of European integracesSi, aramed xelisuflebis historic mission. tion, we are going to sign a memomxridan samoqmedo gegmebis randum with the government and SemuSavebis stadiazec. the parliament. It is important for am formiT TanamSromloba civil society to become the government’s partner not only for monitoring evrointegraciis process metad konstruqciuls gaxdibut also in the process of working out an action plan via formats outlined da. amasTan erTad, sagulisxmoa, rom asocirebis xelin the Association Agreement. Sekrulebis implementaciis pirveli weliwadia. aseve, pirvelad unda SevqmnaT qarTul-evropuli samoqalaSuch a mode of cooperation would render the process of the European qo sazogadoebis platforma. saqarTveloSi, baTumSi integration more constructive. There is the first year of implementation of pirvelad tardeba samoqalaqo forumi, romelSic mothe Association Agreement; we have to create a Georgian-European Civil nawileobas miiRebs mravali cnobili samoqalaqo Tu Society Platform – the first time the Civic Forum would be held in Georgia, politikuri lideri aRmosavleT partniorobis qveynein Batumi -, which will get together many prominent civic and political bidan. vfiqrob, yvelas gasagonad pirvelad SegveZleba leaders of the Eastern Partnership countries. I think we can proudly state erTad vTqvaT, rom wels asocirebis xelSekrulebis gathat we have passed one historical landmark by signing the Association formebiT gadavSaleT istoriis axali furceli da axla Agreement and now we need to reach another, which is called a European gvWirdeba sxva furclis gadaSla, rasac evropul ojaxperspective – full membership of the European family. Si saqarTvelos wevrobis perspeqtiva hqvia.

ევროპული სწრაფვა არის ქვეყნის მოდერნიზაცია,

Georgia’s European aspiration implies European modernization,

ნოემბერი 2014 საქართველოს ევროპული გზა

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Conference | კონფერენცია

საერთაშორისო კონფერენცია „საქართველოს ევროპული გზა“

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imdinare wlis 10-11 ivliss, q. baTumSi, gaimarTa rigiT me-11 saerTaSoriso konferencia. konferencia mieZRvna saqarTvelo-evrokavSiris asocirebis SeTanxmebisa da misi komponentis, Rrma da yovlismomcveli Tavisufali savaWro sivrcis formirebasTan dakavSirebul sakiTxebs, aseve, aRmosavleT partniorobis rigis samitisTvis saqarTvelo-evrokavSiris TanamSromlobis dRis wesrigs. garda zemoaRniSnuli sakiTxebisa, konferenciaze, aseve, ganixiles aRmosavleT evropaSi usafrTxoebisa da stabilurobis kuTxiT arsebuli gamowvevebi, aRmosavleT partniorobis farglebSi TanamSromlobis perspeqtivebi da saqarTvelos evrokavSirSi integraciis komunikaciisa da informaciis strategiis ganxorcielebis sakiTxebi. konferenciaSi monawileoba miiRes evrokavSirisa da aRmosavleT partniorobis qveynebis, evrokavSiris institutebisa da saqarTvelos aRmasrulebeli da sakanonmdeblo xelisuflebis maRali rangis Tanamdebobis

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Georgia’s European Way November 2014

pirebma, aseve, arasamTavrobo da biznesseqtoris warmomadgenlebma. RonisZieba moicavda 4 Tematur sesias: I sesia _ aRmosavleT partniorobis rigis samitisken; II sesia _ saxalxo diplomatia da aRmosavleT partnioroba; III sesia _ usafrTxoeba da stabiluroba aRmosavleT evropaSi; IV sesia _ erTiani da Tavisufali evropa: dasrulebulia Tu ara misia? konferenciaze gamosvlisas, saqarTvelos premierministrma, batonma irakli RaribaSvilma aRniSna, rom „asocirebis SeTanxmebaze molaparakebebis warmatebiT dasruleba da misi xelmowera axal horizonts Slis saqarTvelo-evrokavSiris urTierTobebSi. es aris ara procesis dasasruli, aramed piriqiT, Zalian mniSvnelovani procesis dasawyisi. asocirebis SeTanxmebis xelmoweriT, romelic moicavs Rrma da yovlismomcveli Tavisufali savaWro sivrcis komponents, saqarTvelom uaRresad mniSvnelovani nabiji gadadga da


Conference | კონფერენცია

International Conference – "Georgia's European Way"

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he 11th International Conference held in Batumi on July 10-11, 2014, was dedicated to issues related to implementation of the Association Agreement, including the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area, and the EU-Georgia cooperation agenda ahead of the EaP 2015 Riga Summit. Participants also discussed existing security and stability challenges in the Eastern Europe, as well as future prospects of cooperation within the Eastern Partnership format and implementation of “Georgia's EU Integration Communication and Information Strategy”. The Conference brought together high level officials from Georgia, the EU, the EaP Member States and the EU Institutions, as well as representatives from non-governmental and business sectors.

კონფერენციის გახსნის ცერემონია Opening ceremony of the conference

qveynis evrointegracia sagareo politikuri prioritetidan Sida politikis prioritetad transformirda. evrokavSirTan politikuri asocireba da Tanmimdevruli ekonomikuri integracia Seuqcevads xdis qveynis evropeizaciis process... es Cveni mosaxleobis istoriuli arCevania... saqarTvelos mTavroba mzadaa, daaCqaros evrointegraciis dRis wesrigiT gaTvaliswinebuli reformebi“. poloneTis senatis marSalis bogdan boruseviCis mosazrebiT, evrokavSiris kari Ria unda iyos saqarTvelosTvis da yvela im qveynisTvis, romlebic akmayofileben Sesabamis kriteriumebs. konferenciaze, saqarTvelos warmomadgenlebma warmoadgines amomwuravi informacia qveyanaSi calkeuli mimarTulebebiT gatarebuli reformebisa da ganxorcielebuli sakanonmdeblo cvlilebebis Taobaze. gamomsvlelebma aseve yuradReba gaamaxviles aRmosavleT partniorobis momavali, rigis samitis mniSvnelobaze, romelzec moxdeba asocirebis SeTanxmebis ganxorcielebis procesis Sefaseba. amasTan erTad, xazgasmiT aRiniSna saqarTvelos ekonomikur ganviTarebis procesze saqarTvelo-evrokavSirs Soris Rrma da yovlismomcveli Tavisufali savaWro sivrcis formirebis pozitiuri zegavlenis Taobaze.

The 4 thematic sessions had covered following issues: session I – Towards the Riga Eastern Partnership Summit; session II – Public Diplomacy and the EaP; session III – Security and Stability in Eastern Europe; session IV – Europe whole and free: is the mission completed? The Prime Minister of Georgia Irakli Garibashvili noted that “the Association Agreement brings a new horizon in the EU-Georgia relations. This is not an end in itself; rather, it is just a beginning of very important process. By signing the AA and DCFTA, Georgia crossed an important point taking the EU integration from the realm of foreign to domestic policy. The reforms envisage a political alignment and gradual economic integration with the EU that will make process of Europeanization of our country irreversible… This is our people’s historic choice. The Government of Georgia is committed to further accelerating reforms across the EU Integration Agenda”. As Marshal of the Senate of the Republic of Poland, Bogdan Borusewicz stated – “door to the European Union should be open for Georgia and for any country that satisfies the relevant criteria”. Representatives of Georgian state institutions presented comprehensive information on reforms undertaken in the specific spheres and legislative amendments. The speakers also emphasized a significance of the upcoming Riga Eastern Partnership Summit, where implementation process of the Association Agreement will be assessed.

ნოემბერი 2014 საქართველოს ევროპული გზა

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Business and Economy | ბიზნესი და ეკონომიკა

ქართული ქვევრის ღვინო ევროპაში წარმატებით იყიდება მანანა ვარდიაშვილი

Georgian Qvevri Wine is Successfully Sold in Europe Manana Vardiashvili

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Georgia’s European Way November 2014


ნოემბერი 2014 საქართველოს ევროპული გზა

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Business and Economy | ბიზნესი და ეკონომიკა „evrokavSiris bazars Zalian didi upiratesoba aqvs. pirvel rigSi, es aris stabiluroba. evropis bazari Camoyalibebuli bazaria, daxvewili da dadgenili TamaSis wesebiT. aseTi dadgenili wesebi ruseTSi ar arsebobs, rac arsebobs, isic Zalian xSirad icvleba da, rac mTavaria, icvleba mimwodeblis sazianod“. „Rvinis pirveli partia daniaSi 2006 wels gavitaneT. Semdeg danias inglisi, safrangeTi, italia da SvedeTi daemata. „iagos Rvino“ evropis garda aSS-sa da iaponiaSic iyideba. erTi boTli Rvino Cems maranSi 8-10 dolari Rirs, evropisa da amerikis maRaziebSi ki gacilebiT meti. „iagos Rvino“ ar iyideba did supermarketebSi, iyideba specializebul maRaziebSi da naturaluri Rvinis barebSi. safrangeTis da italiis specializebul maRaziebSi is 21-22 evro Rirs, restornebsa da barebSi ki 2-jer meti“, _ ambobs iago bitariSvili. mas mcxeTis raionis sofel CardaxSi 2 heqtarze gaSenebuli venaxi aqvs. Rvinos ki tradiciuli qarTuli wesiT, qvevrSi, WaWaze ayenebs. iagos Rvinis 2014 wlis mosavali, praqtikulad, ukve gayidulia.

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rTi heqtari venaxi Cemi winaprebis gaSenebulia, 1 ha kidev arendiT maqvs aRebuli. yurZens ar vyidulob, mxolod sakuTars viyeneb. ar maqvs garantia, rom nayidi iseTive xarisxis iqneba, rogoric Cems venaxSi mokrefili yurZeni. venaxSi qimiur sasuqebs da Sxamqimikatebs ar viyeneb. es biomeurneobaa. mosavali cotaa, magram xarisxiani. 1 heqtar venaxSi CemTan maqsimum 5 tona yurZeni ikrifeba. weliwadSi 3000 boTl Rvinos vasxam. visac biomeurneoba ar aqvs, is 1 ha-ze 10-15 tona mosavals iRebs da Rvinoc meti aqvs. ratom gadawyviteT qvevris Rvinis warmoeba? gakeTda raime kvleva, rom am saxis Rvinoze moTxovna iqneboda, Tu es iyo eqsperimenti, romelmac gaamarTla? ver vityvi, rom me raRac axali gavakeTe. Rvinos yvela qarTul ojaxSi ayeneben. bioRvinis dayeneba imitom gadavwyvite, rom vifiqre, es Cveni bazrisTvis siaxle iqneboda. Tavidan arc mifiqria imaze, rom Cemi Rvino safrangeTsa da italiaSi gaiyideboda. mere gairkva, rom Turme qarTul Rvinos imaze meti SeuZlia, vidre warmomedgina. qvevris teqnologiam da bioRvinis mimarTulebam Tavisi saqme gaakeTa. verc imas vityvi, rom warmateba TavisiT movida. yvelaferi Sromis Sedegia. bioRvinoze didi moTxovna iyo. myidveli ar miZebnia. ar mqonda imis saSualeba, rom sxvadasxva qveyanaSi mevlo da myidveli meZebna. 2006 wels saqarTveloSi italiuri kompania „velieris“ xelmZRvaneli, luka gargano Camovida, romelmac Tan cnobili somelie Camoiyvana. isini naturalur Rvinos mTeli saqarTvelos masStabiT eZebdnen. italiaSi wasaRebad sul sami Rvino SearCies. aqedan erTi Cemi iyo. naturaluri Rvinis bazari didi ar aris. am bazarze yvela yvelas icnobs. garganos Semdeg Cveni qvevris RviniT ingliseli da frangi myidvelebi dainteresdnen.

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Georgia’s European Way November 2014

"The EU market has a huge advantage. First and foremost it is stable. The European market is a developed market with profound and well-established rules. The Russian market, on the other hand, lacks this kind of cohesion. Few rules that exist there are often subject to change. Most importantly, this kind of instability is damaging for the producers.” "The first batch of wine was exported to Denmark in 2006, which was later followed by exports to England, France, Italy and Sweden. Furthermore, Iago’s Wine is sold in the United States and Japan as well. The price of one bottle of wine in my cellar is US$8-10; however, the cost is higher in European and American stores. “Iago’s Wine is not sold in supermarkets and it can only be found at specialised shops and wine bars. In France and Italy specialised stores offer it for 21-22 EUR and the price is twice as much as in restaurants and bars" - says Iago Bitarishvili. Iago owns two hectares of vineyard in the village Chardakhi and produces wine according to the Georgian traditions in the Qvevri with Chacha. Iago’s wine harvest for 2014 has been already sold out.

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y ancestors cultivated 1 ha of vineyard, while I have taken an additional 1 ha on lease. I do not buy grapes, as I only use grapes from my vineyard because I do not have a guarantee that the quality of grape will be the same as of those from my vineyard. Furthermore, I do not use chemical fertilisers in the vineyard. Hence this is an organic agriculture. The harvest is not much but of a high quality – up to 5 tons are harvested from 1 ha vineyard. We produce 3000 bottles of wine each year, whereas those who do not use organic farming produce 10-15 tons of grapes per 1 ha and, accordingly, relatively more wine. Why did you decide to produce wine? Did you do some research regarding the demand for this type of wine, or was it just a successful experiment? I cannot say that I did something new. Wine making is practiced by many Georgian families. As for the decision to produce organic wine, I thought it would be a novelty on our market. At first I did not expect that my wine would be sold in France and Italy. Then I found out that there is more to Georgian wine than I had previously thought. Qvevri technology and organic wines served their purpose. However, I cannot say that the success came easy, as it was the result of hard work. Organic wine was in demand but I did not look for customers, as I did not have the means to travel. In 2006, the representative of the Italian company ‘Velier’, Luca Gargano, arrived in Georgia together with a renowned sommelier. They were looking for organic wines and selected a total of three wines to take back to Italy, and one of them was mine. The organic wine market is not very large; everybody knows one another. Thus, after Mr. Gargano’s visit, English and French customers became interested as well. For the products to enter the EU market, it is necessary for them to comply with very strict standards. Are you bottling wine yourself? How did you meet the requirements of the EU market?


Business and Economy | ბიზნესი და ეკონომიკა

ღვინო და, მით უმეტეს, ბიოღვინო

ევროკავშირის ბაზარზე რომ გავიდეს, ძალიან ბევრი მოთხოვნა უნდა დააკმაყოფილოს. evrokavSiris bazarze rom produqcia gavides, amisTvis saWiroa Zalian mkacri pirobebis dakmayofileba. garda imisa, rom Rvinos ayenebT, Tqvenve asxamT? rogor daakmayofileT evrokavSiris bazris moTxovnebi? Rvino da, miT umetes, bioRvino evrokavSiris bazarze rom gavides, Zalian bevri moTxovna unda daakmayofilos. amerikasac mkacri standartebi aqvs da iaponiasac. arcerTi qveynis bazarze Sesvla ar aris ioli. roca saqmes siyvaruliT udgebi da ara imitom, rom mxolod Semosavali miiRo, yvelafers maRali standartiT akeTeb. yvela, vinc qarTuli qvevris RviniT dainteresda, aq Camovida, adgilze naxa Cemi venaxi, marani da ase daviwyeT urTierToba. bioRvinos klienti marto gasinjviT ar yidulobs. unda icodes, Tu rogor uvlis meRvine venaxs, ayenebs Rvinos, yvela detali da niuansi ainteresebs. es ar aris didi sawarmos Rvino, rom misi yidva mxolod gasinjviT gadawyvito.

A lot of requirements must be met for wine, and especially organic wine, to enter the

EU market.

A lot of requirements must be met for wine, and especially organic wine, to enter the EU market, with America and Japan having strict standards as well. It is not easy to gain access to another country’s market but when you do the work with love, and not only just for the commercial purposes, you get high quality results in everything you do. Everyone who was interested in the Georgian Qvevri wine personally visited me; saw my vineyard and wine cellar and consequently, business relationships were forged. The client will not buy organic wine only after tasting. He should know how the winemaker looks after the vineyard, the process of making wine and is always interested in every detail. Do Georgian wine producers have the potential to enter the organic wine segment? What can they offer to the wine market and wine connoisseurs? Entering the global wine market is a very difficult task; even big companies find it hard to enter this market because competition is high. In

ნოემბერი 2014 საქართველოს ევროპული გზა

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Business and Economy | ბიზნესი და ეკონომიკა bioRvinis segmentze Sesvlis ra potenciali aqvT qarTvel meRvineebs? gansxvavebuli ra unda SesTavazon maT Rvinis bazars da Rvinis gurmanebs? Rvinis msoflio bazarze Sesvla Zalian rTulia. am bazarze Sesvla did sawarmoebsac ki uWirT. Zalian didi konkurenciaa. faqtobrivad, Rvinis Warbwarmoebaa. miuxedavad amisa, es bazari Zalian erTgvarovania. meRvineebi ZiriTadad erTsa da imave teqnologias iyeneben da arc Rvinis warmoebaSi gamoyenebuli jiSebia mravalferovani. imisTvis, rom Rvino gayido, ar aris sakmarisi, rom marto kargi Rvino gqondes. Rvinos marto Rvino ki ara, misi istoriac hyidis. karg Rvinos unda davurToT istoria. myidvels unda vuTxraT, rom Cven Rvinis warmoebis 8000-wlovani uwyveti istoria gvaqvs da araerTi sirTulis miuxedavad, qarTvel kacs arasodes Seuwyvetia Rvinis warmoeba. es Zalian mniSvnelovania. qvevris Rvino popularuli gaxda saqarTveloSi da sul ufro meti adamiani ayenebs Rvinos am meTodiT kaxeTSic, qarTlSic da saqarTvelos sxva kuTxeebSic. me roca Rvinis warmoeba daviwye, meqvevreebma ar icodnen qvevri sad waeRoT _ myidveli ar iyo. axla qvevris Sovna rTulia da Tu iSoviT, masSi astronomiuli Tanxa unda gadaixadoT. qvevrSi Rvinis dayeneba popularuli gaxda ara marto saqarTveloSi _ Cemma frangma megobarma, romelic Zalian cnobili meRvinea, ori qvevri waiRo da axla Rvinos qarTuli wesiT ayenebs. araCveulebrivi Rvino aqvs. Cven gvaqvs aborigenuli qarTuli jiSebi, romlebic sxva qveynebSi arsebuli jiSebisgan Zalian gansxvavebulia. ar vambob, rom yvelaze kargia. ara, sxva jiSebsac Zalian did pativs vcem, magram vazis Cveni jiSebi sxva qveynis jiSebisgan Zalian gansxvavdeba. swored es gansxvavebuloba aris is, rac am vazis yurZnisgan dayenebuli Rvinis gasinjvis interess iwvevs. bolo dros mcire marnebma am jiSebis gamoyeneba daiwyes da swored es aris Cveni potenciali. aborigenuli qarTuli jiSi da Rvinis qvevrSi dayeneba _ es erToblioba kargi winapirobaa imisTvis, rom bioRvinis bazarze fexi kargad movikidoT. Cven ar varT didi qveyana da ar unda viocneboT imaze, rom iafi da bevri Rvinis warmoebaSi avstralias an Ciles gavuwevT konkurencias. Cven unda gavakeToT arCevani da gadavwyvitoT ra gvinda: SevideT msoflio bazarze da iaffasiani Rvinis warmoebis segmentSi movikidoT fexi, Tu ufro cota, magram xarisxiani da ZviradRirebuli Rvinis warmoeba daviwyoT. ganviTarebul qveynebSi sul ufro popularuli xdeba naturaluri produqti. Zalian bevri momxmarebeli Tvlis, rom yvelaferi bunebrivi jobia. aseTi Rvino iyideba naturaluri Rvinis barebSi. bioRvinoze moTxovna stabilurad izrdeba da arc fass kargavs. aSS-Si 1 boTli qarxnuli Rvino maRaziis Taroze 2-3 evro Rirs. Cveni Rvinis saeqsporto fasi ki 10 dolaria.

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Georgia’s European Way November 2014

ჩვენ ღვინის წარმოების

8000-წლოვანი უწყვეტი ისტორია გვაქვს და არაერთი სირთულის მიუხედავად, ქართველ კაცს არასოდეს შეუწყვეტია ღვინის წარმოება. Georgians have an 8000–

year-old history of winemaking, and despite

many hardships, it has never hindered. fact, there is excessive wine production. Nevertheless, this market is very homogeneous. Winemakers basically apply the same technology. Furthermore, there is not a big variety of species used in the production of wine. In order to have good sales, it is not enough to just have good wine. Wine is sold not only for its quality, but for its history as well. A good wine should be accompanied by a story. It is important to let customers know that Georgians have an 8000–year-old history of winemaking, and despite many hardships it has never hindered.


Business and Economy | ბიზნესი და ეკონომიკა Qvevri wine is becoming more popular in Georgia as more and more people in Kakheti and Kartli regions and other parts of Georgia are making wine using this method. When I started producing wine, people did not use Qvevri, as there were no customers. As of now, it is hard to find Qvevri and if you do get it, it costs a fortune. Qvevri winemaking became popular not only in Georgia – my French friend, who is a famous winemaker, took two Qvevris, and currently makes wine according to the Georgian customs. He produces remarkable wine. We have indigenous Georgian wines that are different from other countries. I do not claim that they are the best, but they are very diverse. This diversity creates an interest in wine degustation. Lately, small wine makers have started to use these diverse sorts of wine, which reflects our potential. Indigenous sorts of wine and the use of Qvevri is a good precondition for consolidating our positions on the organic wine market. We are a small country; therefore, we cannot compete with large wine producers like Australia or Chile when it comes to making large quantities of cheap wine. We should decide which market segment we want to occupy, produce large quantities of cheap wine or produce less but more expensive wine.

marTalia, rom wlevandeli mosavali ukve gayideT? saerTod, mcire raodenobis Rvino maqvs. roca saqeifod mivdivarT, Cemi megobrebi xumroben, amas Rvinoze araferi hkiTxoT, mainc ityvis, Rvino sada maqvso. wlevandeli mosavali, faqtobrivad, gayidulia. ukve miviRe tradiciuli partniorebisgan SekveTebi. Zalian cota Rvino mrCeba. minda, rom Cemi Rvino saqarTvelos bazarzec iyidebodes da cotas qarTuli maRaziebisTvisac davitoveb.

Bio products are becoming more and more popular in developed countries. Many customers consider that natural products are more beneficial. This kind of organic wine is sold in the bars that give preference to natural products. The demand for organic wine is steadily rising without dropping in price. In the USA, one bottle of factory wine costs US$2-3 in the shop, whereas the export price of our wine is US$10. Is it true that this year’s harvest has already been sold? In general, I have small quantities of wine. When we go to celebrate with my friends, they joke that I never have wine for them. This year’s harvest is practically sold out. I have already received orders from my established customers, so there is very little wine left. I want to sell my wine in Georgia as well; therefore, I will also leave some of it for the local shops.

„iagos Rvino“ ruseTSi gadis? ara, roca Cven Rvinis warmoeba daviwyeT, es bazari ukve daketili iyo. axla ramdenime kompaniam gamoTqva Cemi Rvinis SeZenis interesi, magram imis gamo, rom ruseTis bazari Zalian rTulia, ruseTSi Sesvlas jerjerobiT ar vapireb.

Is “Iago Wine” sold in Russia?

ratom irCevT evropas? evrokavSiris bazars Zalian didi upiratesoba aqvs. upirvelesad, es aris stabiluroba. evrokavSirSi Camoyalibebuli bazaria, daxvewili da dadgenili TamaSis wesebiT. aseTi dadgenili wesebi ruseTSi ar arsebobs da rac arsebobs, isic Zalian xSirad icvleba. rac mTavaria, icvleba mimwodeblis sazianod. me 8 welia evropul kompaniebTan vTanamSromlob da es urTierToba ukve isea awyobili, rom damatebiTi piroba an xelaxali gadamowmeba arasodes mouTxoviaT. vici, ra undaT da maTac ician Cemi interesi, stabiluri urTierToba gvaqvs. biznesmenisTvis es Zalian bevrs niSnavs.

Why do you choose Europe as an export destination for your wine?

No, when we started to produce our wine, the Russian market was closed for Georgian exports. Several companies have expressed their interest in our wine but due to the fact that the Russian market is very complicated, we are not planning to sell our wine in Russia for now.

The EU market has many advantages. First and foremost, it has stability. The European market is a developed market with profound and well-established rules. The Russian market on the other hand lacks this kind of cohesion. The few rules that exist there are often subject to change. Most importantly, this kind of instability is damaging for producers. I have been working with my EU partners for the last eight years and during this period I have never seen instances when they imposed additional conditions or demanded new inspections. We share a mutual interest in having a stable relationship because it is very important for business.

ნოემბერი 2014 საქართველოს ევროპული გზა

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Business and Economy | ბიზნესი და ეკონომიკა

ქართული ლურჯი მოცვი დიდ ბრიტანეთში იყიდება "Vanrik Agro Group"-ი ლურჯი მოცვის პლანტაციას აფართოებს მანანა ვარდიაშვილი

Georgian Blueberries on sale in the UK Vanrik Agro Group expands blueberry plantation Manana Vardiashvili

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merikuli lurji mocvi, romelic guriisa da aWaris maRalmTianeTis klimatur pirobebs kargad Seegua, unikaluri Tvisebebis gamo msoflio bazarze didi moTxovniT sargeblobs. saqarTveloSi moyvanili 12 tona lurji mocvi didi britaneTis bazarze wels pirvelad Sevida. amJamad misi eqsporti ruseTSic xorcieldeba. kompania `Vanrik Agro Group~-ma lurji mocvis gaSeneba ozurgeTis raionis sofel laiTurSi 2012 wlis bolos daiwyo. proeqtSi 5 mln dolaris investicia Caido. lurji mocvis plantacia amJamad 50 heqtarzea gaSenebuli. kompaniis menejmenti uaxloes momavalSi meurneobis 400 ha-mde gafarToebas apirebs. qarTveli fermerebi lurji mocvis moyvaniT USAID -is kvlevis gacnobis Semdeg dainteresdnen. `am kvlevaSi ewera, rom dasavleT saqarTveloSi kargi potencialia lurji mocvis mosayvanad. mocvs mJave niadagi sWirdeba, guriaSi ki swored aseTi niadagia. pirvel etapze 147 000 nergi davrgeT. 16 jiSis mocvi gvaqvs gaSenebuli da mosavals 15 agvistomde vkrefT. yvela jiSi sxvadasxva dros iZleva nayofs, _ ambobs `Vanrik Agro Group~-is finansuri menejeri arCil paiWaZe, _ wels pirveli mosavali aviReT. mosavlis sacdeli partia _ 12 tona lurji mocvi didi britaneTis bazarzec SevitaneT. saqarTveloSi moyvanili lurji mocvi gansakuTrebuli gemoTi

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Georgia’s European Way November 2014

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he American blueberry, which adapted well to the climactic conditions of the Guria and Adjara highlands, is in high demand on the global market because of its unique properties. This year, 12 tons of blueberries grown in Georgia were delivered for sale on the British market for the first time. In addition, they are also being exported to Russia. Vanrik Agro Group started cultivating blueberries in the village of Laituri, in the municipality of Ozurgeti, at the end of 2012. In total, US$5 million was invested in the project. The Group’s blueberry plantation covers 50 ha but the company’s management is set to expand the farm to 400 ha. Georgian farmers became interested in cultivating blueberries after USAID released a research report, as Vanrik Agro Group financial manager Archil Paichadze explains: “The research mentioned western Georgia as having high potential for growing blueberries. They need acidic soil, and in Guria there is exactly this kind of soil. In the first stage we planted 147,000 seeds. In total, 16 types of species of blueberries are being cultivated and they are harvested before the 15th of August. Every species is ripe for picking at different times.” Going into further detail, Paichadze added: “This year we harvested for the first time. A sample of 12 tons of blueberries was exported to the UK market. The blueberries grown in Georgia are distinguished by their taste and are appreciated on the EU market. The majority of


Business and Economy | ბიზნესი და ეკონომიკა gamoirCeva da evrokavSiris bazarzec didi mowonebiT sargeblobs. mosavlis ufro didi partia _ 25 tona ruseTSi gavitaneT. Cveni mTavari mizani evrokavSiris da aSS-is bazarze gasvlaa. evrokavSirs ruseTTan SedarebiT ufro mkacri moTxovnebi aqvs~. `Vanrik Agro Group~-i lurji mocvis gadamamuSavebeli sawarmos aSenebasac gegmavs. gadamamuSavebeli xazis mowyoba ukve dawyebulia. rogorc arCil paiWaZe acxadebs, msoflioSi lurj mocvze moTxovna yovelwliurad izrdeba da misi moyvana mogebiania. „Vanrik Agro Group“-i momaval wels daaxloebiT 50 tonamde mosavals elodeba. produqcia eqsportze ZiriTadad evrokavSirSi gava. am mizniT, polonur kompaniasTan memorandumi ukve gaformda _ saqarTveloSi moyvanili lurji mocvis evrokavSiris qveynebSi Setanaze swored es polonuri kompania izrunebs. „am kenkris plantaciis gaSeneba iafi saqme ar aris. lurji mocvis 1 ha-ze gaSenebas daaxloebiT 17 000 lari sWirdeba. morwyvisTvis aucilebelia wveTovani sistemis gakeTeba, rac damatebiTi finansuri investiciis ganxorcielebas moiTxovs. samagierod, saqmianobis sworad dagegmvisa da kargi menejmentis pirobebSi, lurji mocvis plantacia Zalian mogebiania da mas mciremiwiani fermerebisTvis seriozuli ekonomikuri efeqtis motanac SeuZlia“. gaeros ganviTarebis fondis xelSewyobiT, lurji mocvi aWaris sam sademonstracio nakveTze mohyavT: SuaxevSi, qedasa da xuloSi. „Cven didxans vswavlobdiT am sakiTxs. gvindoda, mogveZebna soflis meurneobis iseTi kultura, romelic tradiciul, magram dabalSemosavlian kulturebTan SedarebiT, mciremiwian fermerebs seriozul ekonomikur efeqts moutanda. mocvi swored aseTi mcenarea, _ ambobs gaeros ganviTarebis fondis warmomadgeneli aWaraSi laSa komaxiZe, _ misi warmoebis Rirebulebis jaWvi, moyvanidan dawyebuli produqciis realizaciiT damTavrebuli, amis saSualebas iZleva. aWarel fermers SeuZlia, rom cudi geografiuli mdebareobiT gamorCeul da mZime teqnikisTvis miudgomel 2000-2200 kv.m miwis nakveTze (swored aseTi farTobis nakveTebi aqvs aWarel fermerTa 90%-s), sagrZnobi ekonomikuri efeqti naxos da iq, sadac adre 200 laris Rirebulebis simindis mosavals iRebda, minimum 7 000 laris Rirebulebis lurji mocvis produqcia moiyvanos. bazarze mis realizacias problema ar eqmneba. amJamad lurji mocvis miwodeba moTxovnas ver akmayofilebs. masze maRali moTxovnaa adgilobriv bazarzec“. „evropel myidvels sWirdeba produqciis didi raodenobebi. 2-3 fermers ar aqvs mosavlis is raodenoba, romelsac evropuli marketebi iTxoven. Cvens sademonstracio nakveTSi 5 tona mocvi modis. es Zalian mcire raodenobaa. imisTvis, rom qarTulma lurjma mocvma evrokavSiris bazarze adgili daimkvidros, fermerebma aucileblad unda gazardon mocvis plantaciebis farTobi, an mosavlis gasayidi partiebis moculoba~, _ ambobs laSa komaxiZe.

the harvest (25 tons) will be exported to Russia. Our main goal is to access the US and the EU markets. The EU has stricter regulations than Russia.” Vanrik Agro Group is also planning to build a blueberry-processing factory for which the setting up of the processing line has already started. According to Paichadze, worldwide demand for blueberries is increasing every year and, accordingly, production is also on the rise. Next year, Vanrik Agro Group is expecting approximately 50 tons from its harvest, most of which will be exported to the EU. Indeed, a memorandum with a Polish company has already been signed, making provisions for the export of blueberries grown in Georgia to the EU. Although there is significant foreign demand for the product, its production requires significant financial input, as Paichadze outlined: “Starting up a blueberry plantation is not a cheap business. Approximately 17,000 GEL is needed to cultivate blueberries for every one ha. It is necessary to install drip systems for irrigation, which requires extra investment. However, proper planning and good management makes a blueberry plantation highly profitable and can provide significant economic effect for small land farmers.” With the support of the UNDP, blueberries are cultivated in three demonstration plots in Adjara region, on the sites of Shuakhevi, Keda and Khulo. UNDP representative in Adjara, Lasha Komakhidze said: “We were studying this issue for a long time. Our goal was to find an agricultural product, which would provide small land farmers with a significant economic effect, unlike the traditional, but at the same time low income, agricultural products. The blueberry is exactly such kind of plant.”- Giving an extensive picture of the blueberry business, Komakhidze continued: “The cost chain of its production gives such an economic effect, starting from its cultivation and ending up with the product sales. Typically, the farmers in Adjara have land which cannot be worked on by heavy machinery. However, now the Adjarian farmer can produce blueberries that value at least 7000 GEL on 2000-2200 square meters of land, which previously brought in 200 GEL worth of corn. Market realization is not difficult, since the demand for the blueberry is higher than the supply on the local market.” Komakhidze finished by noting the currently advantageous market conditions for blueberries grown in Georgia: “European consumers need large quantities of the product, therefore 2-3 farmers cannot provide the amount of the harvest, which is demanded by European markets. On our demonstration plot only five tons of blueberries are being harvested. This is a very low amount. In order to establish Georgian blueberries on the EU market, the farmers should increase the capacity of the blueberry plantations, or increase the volume of the sales.”

ნოემბერი 2014 საქართველოს ევროპული გზა

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Business and Economy | ბიზნესი და ეკონომიკა

ბრიტანულ-ქართული სავაჭრო პალატა მაკო აბაშიძე

British-Georgian Chamber of Commerce Mako Abashidze

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ritanul-qarTuli savaWro palata (BGCC) 2007 wlis martSi, londonSi daarsda, rogorc arapolitikuri, savaWro organizacia, romlis mizania biznesis ganviTarebisa da kontaqtebis gaRrmavebis xelSewyoba britaneTsa da saqarTvelos Soris umaRles doneze. britanul-qarTuli savaWro palata dafuZnebulia wevrobis struqturaze da gaaCnia wevrobis sxvadasxva kategoria. sabWos damfuZneblebi, romlebic msxvil kompaniebs warmoadgenen, avtomaturad Sedian britanul-qarTuli savaWro palatis mrCevelTa sabWos SemadgenlobaSi. arsebobs wevrTa ori _ A da B kategoria, rasac kompaniis sidide gansazRvravs. garda amisa, arsebobs asocirebuli da individualuri wevroba, romlebic britaneTSi didi popularobiT sargeblobs studentebsa da damoukidebel Tarjimnebs Soris da iTvaliswinebs monacemTa bazaze wvdomas, rac Cveni erT -erTi yvelaze didi upiratesobaa. bolo Svidi wlis ganmavlobaSi, Cven SevZeliT sakmaod mimzidveli, moqnili da sasargeblo monacemTa bazis Seqmna, romelic mniSvnelovan instruments warmoadgens rogorc biznesis, aseve kulturuli proeqtebis ganxorcielebisaTvis. 2014 weli Zalian mniSvnelovania Cveni organizaciisTvis. 2014 wlis pirvel aprils, britanul-qarTulma savaWro palatam da saqarTvelos savaWro-samrewvelo palatam xeli moaweres TanamSromlobis memorandums palatebs Soris TanamSromlobis damyarebis, aseve, saqarTvelos sainvesticio potencialis popularizaciisa da gaerTianebuli samefos standartebis Sesabamisad profesiuli ganaTlebis SesaZleblobebis gaZlierebisa da gazrdis mizniT. xelmoweris ceremonials eswrebodnen sapatio stumrebi didi britaneTidan _ evropul saqmeTa saxelmwifo ministri, devid lidingtoni, misi aRmatebuleba, elCi aleqsandra hol holi da britanul-qarTuli savaWro palatis damfuZnebeli wevrebis _ BP saqarTvelos, Sps KMA jgufis da Tibisi bankis warmomadgenlebi. „msurs, davarwmuno britanuli kompaniebi, daiwyon sa-

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Georgia’s European Way November 2014

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he British-Georgian Chamber of Commerce (BGCC) was founded in London in March 2007 as a non-political trade body to facilitate business growth and contacts at a senior level between the United Kingdom and Georgia.

The BGCC is based on a membership structure, in which we have different levels of membership. Founder members, which are big companies, automatically join the advisory council of the British-Georgian Chamber of Commerce. Then we have two types of business membership: category A and category B depending on the size of the company. Furthermore, there is associated and individual membership, which is very popular among students and freelance translators in the UK in order to access our database, which is one of our biggest assets. During the last seven years we have managed to build an attractive, flexible and useful database, which is a great tool for both business and cultural projects. The year of 2014 has been very important for our organization. On 1 April, the British-Georgian Chamber of Commerce and the Georgian Chamber of Commerce and Industry (GCCI) signed a memorandum of cooperation with the aim to establish cooperation between the two Chambers in order to contribute to the promotion of Georgia as a country with investment opportunities, and to strengthen and expand professional UK-standard educational prospects in the country.


Business and Economy | ბიზნესი და ეკონომიკა qmianoba saqarTveloSi, aseve, davarwmuno saqarTvelo, rom gaerTianebuli samefo vaWrobisa da investiciebisTvis mimzidveli qveyanaa“, _ ganacxada didi britaneTis evropul saqmeTa saxelmwifo ministrma devid lidingtonma. aseve, man aRniSna, rom qarTuli Rvino did britaneTSi kargad cnobili ar aris da saWiroa cnobadobis gazrda. „meore mxriv, kargia, rom qarTuli bankebi londonis safondo birJis CamonaTvalSi arian da aseve isic, rom saqarTveloSi moqmedeben mniSvnelovani britanuli kompaniebi“. londonsa da TbilisSi arsebuli ofisebiT, BGCC pirveli ormxrivi savaWro palataa saqarTvelosaTvis. misi aRmatebulebis elCma saqarTveloSi, aleqsandra hol holma, oficialur gancxadebaSi aRniSna: „Cemi saelCo aqtiurad muSaobda BGCC-sa da sxva mniSvnelovan organizaciebTan, raTa saqarTveloSi ufro metad yofiliyo didi britaneTi warmodgenili da moxaruli var, rom droTa ganmavlobaSi, BGCC-m moipova kargi reputacia rogorc biznesseqtorSi, aseve orive qveynis samTavrobo wreebSi. imedi maqvs, rom axladSeqmnili BGCC-is warmomadgenlobiTi ofisi TbilisSi momavalSic xels Seuwyobs gaerTianebul samefosa da saqarTvelos Soris bizneskavSirebis gaRrmavebas. CemTvis didi pativia viyo BGCC-is sapatio wevri~. BGCC Tbilisis ofisis erT-erT prioritetul mimarTulebas warmoadgens saganmanaTleblo kursi, romelsac vTavazobT maRali rangis profesionalebsa da topmenejerebs. didi britaneTis wamyvani saganmanaTleblo dawesebulebebis partniorobiT, romlebsac didi gamocdileba gaaCniaT moklevadiani kursebis ganxorcielebis kuTxiT, qarTvel specialistebs vTavazobT moklevadian daCqarebul kursebs Semdeg sferoebSi: • inovacia da mewarmeoba; • finansuri dagegmva da analizi; • wylis resursebis marTva; • RonisZiebebis marTva; • proeqtebis marTva da menejmentis sakiTxebSi konsultacia; • strategiuli lideroba da cvlilebis marTva; • cifruli marketingi da socialuri media; • Serwyma da STanTqma da kerZo kapitali; • strategiuli marTva navTobisa da gazis sferoSi; • brendis strategiuli marTva. saswavlo kursi morgebulia TiToeuli specialistis individualur saWiroebebze, aseve idealuria im specialistebisTvis, romlebic karieris axali gamowvevebis winaSe arian, axali funqciis Sesruleba uwevT an arsebuli profesiuli SesaZleblobebis gaumjobeseba surT. evropul standartebTan daaxloebis erT-erTi gza aris profesionalizmi da Cven moxarulni varT uzrunvelvyoT es SesaZlebloba Cveni axalgazrdebisTvis. es zafxuli Zalian mniSvnelovania saqarTvelos istoriaSi _ 2014 wlis 27 ivniss premierministrma devid kameronma, sxva evropel liderebTan erTad, xeli moawera

At the signing ceremony we had an honorary guest from the UK, the Minister of State for Europe, Rt Hon David Lidington, as well as and founder members of the BGCC including representatives of BP Georgia, KMA Group Ltd and TBC Bank. The honorary guest Lidington said: “I am really keen to encourage more British companies to engage in Georgia and to encourage Georgia to look at the UK as a place for Georgian trade and investment,”. The UK Minister of State for Europe continued: “Georgian wine is not well known in Britain and I would like to see it more. But it’s good that Georgian banks are now listing on the London Stock Exchange and we have important companies active in Georgia.” With offices now in both London and Tbilisi, BGCC is the first bilateral chamber of commerce for Georgia. UK Ambassador Hall Hall, in her official statement highlighted: “My Embassy has worked with the BGCC and other key organisations in delivering the UK’s Prosperity Agenda in Georgia and I am pleased that over the years BGCC has gained a good reputation among the business sector and governments of both countries. I truly hope that the newly established BGCC representative office in Tbilisi will further develop business ties between the UK and Georgia. It is my pleasure to be an Honorary Member of the BGCC.” One of the priority fields of activity for the BGCC Tbilisi office is an educational course, which we offer to high-level professionals and top-level management. In partnership with leading UK educational institutions with extensive experience in the provision of short-term courses, we offer Georgian professionals short-term extensive courses in the UK in the following fields: • Innovation and Entrepreneurship • Financial Planning and Analysis • Water Resources Management • Event Management • Project Management & Management Consulting • Strategic Leadership and Change Management • Digital Marketing and Social Media • Mergers & Acquisitions and Private Equity • Strategic Management in Oil & Gas • Strategic Brand Management Courses will be targeted to the individual needs of each professional and will be ideal for those facing new challenges in their careers, whether seeking a new role or wanting to enhance existing professional capabilities. One step toward meeting European standards is professionalism and we are happy to provide this opportunity to our young employees.

ნოემბერი 2014 საქართველოს ევროპული გზა

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Business and Economy | ბიზნესი და ეკონომიკა asocirebis Sesaxeb SeTanxmebas evropuli sabWos Sexvedraze briuselSi, romelmac safuZveli Cauyara evrokavSirisa da saqarTvelos urTierTobebis axal eras. evrokavSirsa da saqarTvelos Soris asocirebis Sesaxeb SeTanxmeba aseve moicavs Rrma da yovlismomcveli Tavisufali savaWro sivrcis (DCFTA) nawils. es, biznesis warmomadgenlebsa da investorebs, romlebic evrokavSiris standartebs daakmayofileben, aZlevs evrokavSirTan Tavisufali vaWrobis SesaZleblobas. mas Semdeg, rac asocirebis Sesaxeb SeTanxmebidan gamomdinare reformebi ganxorcieldeba, saqarTveloSi mosalodnelia wliuri 4.3% ekonomikuri zrda (292 milioni evros moculobis erovnuli Semosavali). didi britaneTis sagareo saqmeTa ministrma, uiliam heigma asocirebis Sesaxeb SeTanxmebis xelmoweris komentirebisas ganacxada: „didi britaneTi mtkiced uWers mxars im suverenuli da damoukidebeli qveynebis keTildReobas, romlebic miiswrafian evropasTan ufro mWidro politikuri da ekonomikuri kavSirebis Camoyalibebisken. mouTmenlad veli mWidro urTierTobebis damyarebas, romlebic gaaumjobesebs mosaxleobis cxovrebis dones da keTildReobas Sematebs mTel regions“. BP-s aqvs warmatebuli istoria da mniSvnelovani wvlili Seaqvs qarTul ekonomikaSi. sxva britanuli brendebi aseve warmatebulad moRvaweoben saqarTveloSi. amJamad, TbilisSi gaxsnilia ramdenime cnobili britanuli sacalo maRazia, maT Soris: Debenhams, Accessorize, River Island, Topshop, Miss Selfridge, Burberry, Mothercare, Next and New Look. garda amisa, axlo momavalSi Tesco gegmavs tansacmlis maRaziis gaxsnas TbilisSi, romlis samSeneblo samuSaoebi ukve mimdinareobs. migvaCnia, rom samomavlod, SesaZloa, britaneli eqsportiorebisTvis xelsayreli pirobebi warmoiqmnas iseT sferoebSi, rogoricaa sasoflo-sameurneo manqanebi, sursaTis gadamamuSavebeli da Sesanaxi danadgarebi, qimiuri an farmacevtuli produqcia, satransporto gemebi. aseve, qarTul bazarze warmatebiT isargeblebs aveji, eleqtro da sayofacxovrebo produqcia. mimdinare movlenebidan gamomdinare, Cven mtkiced gvjera, rom savaWro organizaciebi, saerTaSoriso da ormxrivi savaWro palatebi aucilebel instrumentebad iqcevian gardamaval da saqarTvelosTvis mniSvnelovan periodSi. britanul-qarTuli savaWro palata, rogorc Cvens qveynebs Soris vaWrobis xelSemwyobi da mxardamWeri organizacia, ganagrZobs saqmianobas ormxrivi urTierTobebis Semdgomi ganviTarebisaTvis. qveynis popularizaciis strategiis farglebSi, britanul-qarTuli savaWro palatis mier, momaval wels, londonSi dagegmilia sainformacio da sareklamo RonisZiebebi _ „Georgia Update“ sxvadasxva seqtorisaTvis. britanul-qarTuli savaWro palata ganagrZobs saqmianobas did britaneTSi saqarTvelos popularizaciisTvis. Cven gavagrZelebT ormxrivi kavSirebis damyarebas ormxrivi warmatebebisaTvis!

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Georgia’s European Way November 2014

This summer was very significant in the history of Georgia. On 27 June, British Prime Minister David Cameron together with other European leaders signed the Association Agreement at the European Council’s meeting in Brussels, heralding a new era in EU-Georgia relations. The EU-Georgia Association Agreement also includes provisions on a Deep and Comprehensive access to Free Trade Area (DCFTA). This will allow businesses and investors who meet EU standards to trade freely within the EU market. When the reforms deriving from the Association Agreement are completed, Georgia is expected to see 4.3% economic growth each year (an additional €292 million in national income). Commenting on the signing of the Association Agreements, British Foreign Secretary William Hague said: “The UK is firmly committed to the prosperity of these sovereign and independent countries, which are signalling their determination to forge closer political and economic links with Europe. I look forward to ever-closer relationships that will better the lives of their people and contribute to prosperity across the region.” BP is a success story and significant contributor to the Georgian economy, while British retail brands are flourishing in Georgia. Currently there are a number of famous British retail stores in Tbilisi, including Debenhams, Accessorize, River Island, Topshop, Miss Selfridge, Burberry, Mothercare, Next and New Look. Furthermore, Tesco is planning to open a clothes store in Tbilisi in the near future, with construction work already underway. For British exporters, we think future opportunities may emerge to compete in the Georgian market in areas such as agricultural machinery, equipment for processing and food storage, chemical products or pharmaceuticals, transport vessels, electrical and home appliances, and furniture. We strongly believe that the International and Bilateral Chambers of Commerce will be instrumental in this transitional and crucial period for Georgia. The British Georgian Chamber of Commerce, as an organisation promoting and supporting trade between our countries, will continue its work to further develop bilateral ties. As a part of its country promotion strategy, the BGCC has planned a series of informational/promotional events in London for next year entitled “Georgia-Update” for different sectors. The BGCC will continue its activities and keep promoting Georgia in the UK, thus nurturing bilateral connections for bilateral success!


Business and Economy | ბიზნესი და ეკონომიკა

საქართველოს მთავრობის ხელშეწყობა მიგრაციის მართვის სტანდარტების გაუმჯობესების მიმართულებით Georgian authorities receive tailored assistance in improving migration management standards

2

014 wlis ianvarSi evrokavSiris aRmosavleT partniorobis integraciisa da TanamSromlobis 2012 wlis programis dafinansebiT daiwyo proeqti `saqarTvelos mTavrobis SesaZleblobebis gaZliereba sazRvris da migraciis marTvis mimarTulebiT~ (midgoma xSirad moxseniebulia, rogorc `meti metisaTvis~/`More for More~), romelsac migraciis saerTaSoriso organizacia (IOM) axorcielebs. proeqtis xangrZlivobaa 42 Tve da misi mizania, xeli Seuwyos saqarTvelos xelisuflebas savizo reJimis liberalizaciis samoqmedo gegmis meore da mesame nawilebSi gawerili kriteriumebis miRwevaSi. proeqtis msvlelobisas migraciis saerTaSoriso organizacia ganaxorcielebs kompleqsur, integrirebul da SesaZleblobebis ganviTarebaze morgebul saqmianobas, raTa daexmaros saqarTvelos mTavrobas sazRvris da migraciis marTvis politikis gaZlierebasa da evrokavSiris standartebis Sesabamisi instituciuri midgomebis CamoyalibebaSi. am mizniT, proeqtis farglebSi gamoyenebuli iqneba evrokavSiris wevri qveynebis gamocdileba. proeqtis samiznea Semdegi oTxi Tematuri sfero: • integrirebuli sazRvris marTva; • ukanono migraciasTan brZola; • sareintegracio daxmareba dabrunebuli migrantebisaTvis; • migraciis monacemTa marTvis sistemis ganviTareba.

L

aunched in January 2014 and managed by the International Organization for Migration (IOM), the project “Reinforcing the Capacities of the Government of Georgia in Border and Migration Management” (commonly referred to as the “More for More” initiative) is funded by the European Union's Eastern Partnership Integration and Cooperation Programme for 2012 and will be implemented over a 42-month period. This project has been designed to assist the Georgian authorities in meeting the benchmarks identified in Blocks 2 and 3 of the Visa Liberalisation Action Plan (VLAP). During the project, the IOM will implement a complex and integrated set of tailored capacity-building activities to help the Georgian authorities in enhancing border and migration management policies and institutional approaches in line with EU standards and using expertise available in the EU member states. The project activities target the following four main thematic areas: • Integrated border management • Combating irregular migration • Reintegration assistance to returned migrants • Migration data management system development The project’s initial implementation phase in 2014 has coincided with notable changes in policy in managing borders and migration. On September 1, the Law on the Legal Status of Aliens and Stateless Persons came into force. The law has wide-ranging

ნოემბერი 2014 საქართველოს ევროპული გზა

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Business and Economy | ბიზნესი და ეკონომიკა proeqtis pirveli faza daemTxva 2014 wels sazRvrebis da migraciis marTvis politikis sferoSi mniSvnelovani cvlilebebis periods. 1 seqtembers ZalaSi Sevida kanoni ucxoelTa da moqalaqeobis armqone pirTa samarTlebrivi mdgomareobis Sesaxeb. kanonma cvlilebebi Seitana saqarTvelos savizo reJimSi, is aregulirebs qveyanaSi ucxoelTa yofnis dasaSveb xangrZlivobas da binadrobis wesebs. aRniSnuli cvlilebebis sapasuxod, sxvadasxva saministroebma, maT Soris _ iusticiis saministrom, sagareo saqmeTa saministrom da Sinagan saqmeTa saministrom, SemoiRes savizo ganacxadis Cabarebis axali procedurebi ucxoelebisaTvis, romlebsac qveyanaSi Semosvla da darCena surT. ucxoelTa da moqalaqeobis armqone pirTa samarTlebrivi mdgomareobis Sesaxeb kanonis ZalaSi Sesvlamde, migraciis saerTaSoriso organizaciam saqarTvelos mTavrobas gauwia konsultacia axal kanonze da mis wesdebaze. amas garda, migraciis saerTaSoriso organizaciam saqarTvelos mTavrobas misca rekomendaciebi iseT mniSvnelovan sakiTxebTan dakavSirebiT, rogoric aris gamkacrebuli savizo moTxovnebi da migrantTa dakavebis centrebi. midgomis `meti metisaTvis~ farglebSi ukve Catarda treningebi da moxda saWiro aparaturis Sesyidva, aseve, Sedga samuSao vizitebi evrokavSiris wevr qveynebSi. yovelive es xels Seuwyobs saqarTvelos mTavrobis SesaZleblobebis ganviTarebas. aq warmodgenilia `meti metisaTvis~ iniciativaSi migraciis saerTaSoriso organizaciis CarTulobis ori mniSvnelovani sfero:

1. integrirebuli sazRvris marTva

riskis analizi integrirebuli sazRvris marTvis sferoSi muSaobis gaumjobesebis mimarTulebiT savizo reJimis liberalizaciis samoqmedo gegmaSi saubaria riskis analizze da operatiuli informaciis gamoyenebaze migraciis da sazRvris marTvis Camoyalibebisa da ganxorcielebis xelSewyobis mizniT. am kuTxiT, migraciis saerTaSoriso organizacia mWidrod TanamSromlobs saqarTvelos Sinagan saqmeTa saministros Semosavlebis samsaxurTan maTi arsebuli riskis analizis instrumentis metad gaZlierebisTvis. proeqtis farglebSi sazRvris marTvis riskebis efeqtiani Sefasebis xelSewyobisTvis Camoyalibda TanamSromloba saqarTvelos saxelmwifo struqturebsa da maT polonel kolegebs Soris. saqarTvelos xelisuflebis riskis analizis sistema am etapze adgilobriv/ad-hok reJimSi muSaobs. riskis analizis koordinaciis sferoSi poloneTis gamocdilebis gaziarebis Semdeg, proeqti xels Seuwyobs konkretulad saqarTvelosTvis Sesaferisi meqanizmis ganviTarebas, romlis saSualebiTac moxdeba saWiro informaciis Segroveba, gacvla, Camoyalibdeba sazRvarTan dakavSirebuli riskebis marTvis sistema.

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Georgia’s European Way November 2014

significance in effecting change to inter alia Georgia’s visa regulations, the duration for which foreigners are permitted to stay in the country and residency regulations. These changes have required different government ministries, including the Ministry of Justice (MoJ), the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA) and the Ministry of Internal Affairs (MIA), to introduce new procedures for processing applications of foreigners to enter and remain in the country. Prior to its coming into force, the IOM advised the Government of Georgia on the new law and its by-laws. In addition, the IOM has been offering guidance on important matters such as expanding visa requirements and migrant holding centres. The “More for More” project offers an extensive set of training courses, complemented by the procurement of equipment and, where useful, by study visits to EU member states, which will assist a comprehensive number of Georgian government officials in enhancing their capacities and skills. This article presents highlights from two key areas of the IOM’s involvement in the framework of the “More for More” approach.

1. Integrated Border Management

Risk Analysis Regarding the improving performance in the area of Integrated Border Management (IBM), the VLAP specifically mentions the use of risk analysis and the use of intelligence in designing and implementing migration and border management policies. To this end, the IOM is working closely with both the MIA and the Revenue Service (RS) of Georgia to further enhance their current risk analysis apparatus. Ties with their Polish counterparts have been established to expose these Georgian state bodies to effective practices in assessing and managing risks in the context of the border control. The risk analysis capacities of the Georgian authorities currently operate on a local/ad hoc basis. Beginning with learning about the Polish approach to coordinated risk analysis, the project will move on to assist with the development of Georgia-specific mechanisms for collection and exchange of relevant data to establish a border-related risk management system.

Georgia’s New 2014 Visa Regulations In August, the IOM continued with its support of the Georgian MFA in preparation for the revised visa regulations that took effect on September 1. Building on assistance with the software solution for visa applications, the IOM’s visa expert delivered a briefing session for visa/consular officers serving in Georgia’s embassies overseas. The guidance focused on the need for risk analysis, the development of document fraud training as well as assessing the credibility of visa applicants.

Detecting Fraudulent Travel Documents The RS of Georgia has responsibility for checking the passports of those entering Georgia when travelling in large and medium-sized


Business and Economy | ბიზნესი და ეკონომიკა

ტრენინგი ყალბი სამგზავრო დოკუმენტების გამოვლენასთან დაკავშირებით

Training in the detection of fraudulent travel documents

saqarTvelos axali savizo reJimi mimdinare wlis agvistoSi migraciis saerTaSoriso organizaciam saqarTvelos sagareo saqmeTa saministrosTan erTad moamzada savizo reJimis axali regulaciebi, romlebic ZalaSi 1 seqtembers Sevida. savizo ganacxadebis Cabarebis programul uzrunvelyofaze dayrdnobiT migraciis saerTaSoriso organizaciis eqspertma Caatara brifingi savizo ganacxadebis centrebis/sakonsuloebis TanamSromlebisaTvis, romlebic sazRvargareT saqarTvelos saelCoebSi muSaoben. informaciuli Sexvedris mizani iyo riskis analizis saWiroebebis ganxilva, gayalbebuli dokumentebis amocnobis treningebi da savizo ganacxadebis sandoobis Sefaseba.

yalbi samgzavro dokumentebis gamovlena saqarTvelos Semosavlebis samsaxuris pasuxismgeblobaa qveyanaSi Semosuli didi da saSualo zomis komerciuli satransporto saSualebebis mZRolebis da mgzavrebis pasportebis Semowmeba. aRniSnul pirebs ar aqvT Sexeba sapatrulo policiasTan (romelic amowmebs pasportebs saqarTveloSi) da, Sesabamisad, mniSvnelovania, Semosavlebis samsaxuris TanamSromlebs SeeZloT yalbi, ukanonod miRebuli dokumentebis da TaRliTebis gamovlena. mimdinare wlis seqtembersa da oqtomberSi proeqtis farglebSi Catarda dokumentebis Sedgenis, personalizaciis safuZvlebisa da sanimuSo dokumentebis detaluri ganxilvis treningebi Semosavlebis samsaxuris 55 TanamSromlisTvis, aseve,

ტრენინგების ძირითადი მიმართულება იყო დოკუმენტების

უსაფრთხოების უზრუნველყოფა. document examination training courses focused on modern techniques for securing

travel documents.

commercial vehicles. Such persons do not encounter the patrol police (responsible for passport checks in Georgia) and as such it is imperative that the RS officers are trained to detect forged, counterfeit and improperly obtained travel documents as well as identifying impostors. In this regard, the project conducted training in September and October for 55 officers from the RS, patrol police and the Forensic Main Division of the MIA in the fundamentals of document construction and personalisation before examining specimen documents in more detail. These document examination training courses focused on modern techniques for securing travel documents and the wide array of newly available devices designed to make counterfeiting much more challenging, such as barcodes in watermarks and 3D secondary images.

ნოემბერი 2014 საქართველოს ევროპული გზა

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Business and Economy | ბიზნესი და ეკონომიკა

პროექტის ერთ-ერთი ბენეფიციარი

One of the project beneficiaries

sapatrulo policiisa da Sinagan saqmeTa saministros saeqsperto-kriminalisturi sammarTvelosTvis. treningebis ZiriTadi mimarTuleba iyo dokumentebis usafrTxoebis uzrunvelyofis Tanamedrove teqnika da gayalbebis xelSemSleli uaxlesi meqanizmebi, rogoric aris Strix-kodebi da 3D meorexarisxovani gamosaxulebebi.

sareintegracio daxmareba dabrunebuli migrantebisaTvis `meti metisaTvis~ proeqtis farglebSi migraciis saerTaSoriso organizacia xels uwyobs saqarTvelos okupirebuli teritoriebidan iZulebiT gadaadgilebul pirTa, gansaxlebisa da ltolvilTa saministros SesaZleblobebis gaZlierebas saqarTveloSi, xSirad xangrZlivi emigraciis Semdeg dabrunebuli migrantebis reintegraciis kuTxiT. am mimarTulebiT migraciis saerTaSoriso organizacia da aRniSnuli saministro saerTo ZalisxmeviT uZRvebian mobilurobis centrebis saqmianobas (TbilisSi, quTaisSi, Telavsa da baTumSi). centrebi dabrunebul migrantebs sazogadoebaSi reintegraciis mizniT mravalferovan daxmarebas sTavazoben, rac moicavs samedicino daxmarebas, samuSaos moZiebas da unarebis ganviTarebas. maT Soris yvelaze moTxov-

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Georgia’s European Way November 2014

ხანგრძლივი ემიგრაციის შემდეგ დაბრუნებული მიგრანტების რეინტეგრაციის ხელშეწყობა. assistance to returned migrants, who are facing challenges in rebuilding their lives. Reintegration Assistance to Returned Migrants Another key area of involvement for the IOM in the “More for More” project entails capacity building to the Ministry of Internally Displaced Persons from the Occupied Territories, Accommodation and Refugees in order to manage the challenging area of developing sustainable opportunities to help with the reintegration of migrants who have returned to their native Georgia, often after having resided abroad for many years.


Business and Economy | ბიზნესი და ეკონომიკა nadia mcire biznesis ganviTarebis xelSewyobisTvis xelmisawvdomi dafinanseba. proeqtis erT-erTi beneficiari daviTi 20 wlis iyo, rodesac saqarTvelodan TurqeTis gavliT saberZneTSi aralegalurad gaemgzavra. wasvlis mizani dasaqmeba da ojaxis saqarTveloSi darCenili wevrebis (bebia, deda da mcirewlovani Zma) ekonomikuri daxmareba iyo. saberZneTSi Casuls qarTveli emigrantebi daexmarnen samuSaos moZiebasa da dasaqmebaSi. daviTma aTenSi mdebare erT-erT avtosaxelosnoSi xelosnis damxmared daiwyo muSaoba. ramdenime TveSi avtomanqanis savali nawilisa da Zravis SekeTebis xeloba kargad aiTvisa. saberZneTSi yofnisas man gaicno qarTveli emigranti gogona da 2013 wels masTan ojaxic Seqmna. saberZneTSi ganviTarebuli ekonomikuri krizisis gamo meuRlem samuSao dakarga, Tanac axalgazrda mSoblebi ukve bavSvsac elodnen da saberZneTSi aralegalad myofebs bevri sirTule elodaT. amis gamo daviTi iZulebuli gaxda, orsul meuRlesTan erTad saqarTveloSi dabrunebuliyo. samSobloSi dabrunebulma daviTma da misma meuRlem aeroportSi darigebuli flaerebis saSualebiT Seityves evrokavSiris proeqtis farglebSi saqarTveloSi dabrunebuli migrantebisTvis xelmisawvdomi sareintegracio daxmarebis Sesaxeb da informaciis dasazusteblad Tbilisis mobilurobis centrs mimarTes. „centrSi misvlamde daxmarebis didi imedi ar gvqonda. magram centris konsultantebma detaluri informacia mogvawodes daxmarebis SesaZleblobebis Sesaxeb da erToblivad ganvsazRvreT Cveni reintegraciisaTvis saWiro yvelaze efeqturi gza. kerZod, Cemi profesiuli codnisa da gamocdilebis gaTvaliswinebiT, gadavwyvite avtosaxelosnos biznesis wamowyeba. miRebuli grantiT SeviZine avtomanqanis savali nawilisa da Zravis SekeTebisaTvis saWiro mowyobilobebi~. daviTi asistentTan erTad rusTavSi mdebare avtosaxelosnoSi muSaobs. `centris daxmareba rom ara, aseT mokle droSi gamiWirdeboda reintegracia da SesaZloa, isev mefiqra saqarTvelodan wasvlaze~. axla daviTs sakuTari biznesi aqvs da bednieria imiT, rom misi Svili saqarTveloSi gaizrdeba. am mcire teqstSi rTulia srulad ganvixiloT iniciativis `meti metisaTvis~ farglebSi migraciis saerTaSoriso organizaciisa da saqarTvelos mTavrobis erToblivi miRwevebi da evrokavSiris wevri qveynebis eqspertebis mier gaziarebuli gamocdileba. migraciis saerTaSoriso organizacia darwmunebulia, rom momdevno sami wlis ganmavlobaSi saqarTvelos mTavroba mniSvnelovan progress miaRwevs sazRvris da migraciis marTvis mimarTulebiT da miuaxlovdeba evrokavSiris standartebs usafrTxoebis da samarTlianobis sferoSi. Zalian mniSvnelovania am procesis adamianuri mxare; migrantebma unda miiRon saWiro daxmareba da aRniSnuli progresis miRweva maTi uflebebis sruli dacviT moxdes.

In this context, the IOM and the Ministry of Internally Displaced Persons from the Occupied Territories, Accommodation and Refugees of Georgia jointly operate four Mobility Centres (situated in Tbilisi, Kutaisi, Telavi and Batumi) that offer assistance to returned migrants, who are facing challenges in rebuilding their lives. The services available for them are diverse, ranging from medical assistance to job counselling and skills development, with the ultimate objective to facilitate sustainable reintegration of these individuals in Georgian society. Funds are also made available for small business development, which is a popular feature of the project as illustrated below: One of the project beneficiaries, David, was 20 years old when he left Georgia in 2008. He traveled to Greece in search of employment to support his family members who stayed in Georgia (his grandmother, mother and younger brother). Once he arrived in Athens, with some help from fellow Georgian immigrants, David found a job as an assistant in a car repair workshop where he quickly mastered auto parts and engine repair skills. In 2013, David met a Georgian woman and they decided to marry. As a result of the financial crisis that hit Greece, David’s wife lost her job. When the young couple found out that they were going to be having a baby, they realised that it would be much more difficult to remain in Greece illegally. Therefore, they decided to return to Georgia. Upon their return, David was handed a flyer in Tbilisi International Airport through which he found out about reintegration assistance available to Georgian returnees through the EU-funded initiative. He recalled: “I did not have much hope that I would get any real support until I actually visited the Mobility Centre. There I received detailed information on the options that were available to me and together with the centre counselors we drafted a business plan. I wanted to use the car repair skills that I had gained in Greece, so my idea was to start a car repair workshop. With the funding that I received through the project I managed to purchase all necessary equipment for auto engine repair works.” David works together with an assistant in a workshop in Rustavi and remains very grateful to the “More for More” initiative: “Without the support that I received I would not be able to go back to my normal life so soon. Moreover, without it maybe I would even think of leaving Georgia again.” David now has his own business and is happy that his child will be able to grow up in Georgia. Within the limited space available in this article, we have not been able to present all of the complexities of the project that the IOM is implementing together with the state authorities of Georgia and aided by the vast expertise of EU member states. The IOM is confident that over the coming three years, the Georgian authorities will be able to make substantial progress in raising the standards of border and migration management to higher levels, which is expected of the country in its quest toward meeting EU standards in the area of security and justice. At the same time, it is of paramount importance to emphasise the human dimension of this process and to ensure that migrants in need continue to receive the treatment that they require, thereby fully respecting migrants’ rights.

ნოემბერი 2014 საქართველოს ევროპული გზა

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About Georgia | საქართველოს შესახებ

ზამთრის ტურიზმი საქართველოში ზამთარში საქართველო ტურისტებს სთავაზობს რამდენიმე სამთო-სათხილამურო კურორტს – გუდაურს, ბაკურიანსა და მესტიას.

Winter Tourism in Georgia Georgia boasts several winter resorts such as Gudauri, Bakuriani and Mestia.

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gudauri, romelic mdebareobs kavkasiis mTebis SuagulSi da garSemortymulia maRali mwvervalebiT, yvela sezonze elis turistebs. gudauri gTavazobT uprecedento saTxilamuro rbolis SesaZleblobebs, maT Soris, `heliskings“. vertmfrenebs gadahyavT moTxilamureebi mwvervalebze gaukvalav TovlSi dasaSvebad.

bakuriani, Tormetamde alpuri ferdobiTa da saTxilamuro rbolisTvis gamiznuli bilikebiT, evropaSi erT-erTi yvelaze saukeTeso da lamazi kurortia.

Located in the very heart of the Caucasus Mountains and surrounded by dramatic peaks, Gudauri is a resort for all seasons. Gudauri offers exceptional cross-country skiing including “Heli-skiing”. Helicopters transport skiers to remote peaks for some of the most challenging skiing in the world.

Bakuriani, home to dozens of alpine slopes and cross-country trails, offers some of the most spectacular skiing and snowboarding in Europe.

Georgia’s European Way November 2014


About Georgia | საქართველოს შესახებ

mestia, mdebareobs saqarTvelos dedaqalaq Tbilisidan 456 km-Si da zRvis donidan 1,500 metrze. axali saTxilamuro kurorti mestiaSi damsveneblebs saSualebas miscems, TxilamurebiT da snoubordiT isrialon rogorc zamTarSi, aseve zafxulSic. Mestia is situated 456 km from Georgia’s capital city Tbilisi and is 1,500 metres above sea level. The new ski resort in Mestia makes it possible to ski or snowboard even in the height of summer.

ნოემბერი 2014 საქართველოს ევროპული გზა

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About Georgia | საქართველოს შესახებ

Rvinis akvani saqarTvelo Rvinis samSobloa. yurZnis wipwa, romelic napovni iqna kavkasiis samarxebSi, Rvinis Tixis WurWelTan erTad TariRdeba 8,000 wliT. Tavad sityva `Rvino~-s Sesatyvisi aRebulia qarTuli `Rvino~-sgan. Cradle of Wine Georgia is the birthplace of wine. Grape seeds along with wine implements such as clay vessels found in Caucasian tombs date back 8000 years. The word "wine" is traced back to the Georgian word "ghvino".

yvelaze maRali dasaxleba evropaSi uSguli mdebareobs zRvis donidan 2,300 metrze, svaneTSi da evropaSi yvelaze maRali dasaxlebaa.

Europe`s Highest Settlement Svaneti region, which is situated at an altitude of 2,300 meters, is the highest settlement in Europe.

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Georgia’s European Way November 2014


About Georgia | საქართველოს შესახებ

qarTuli anbani msoflioSi mxolod 14 damoukidebeli anbania da qarTuli erT-erTi maTgania. Georgian Alphabet The Georgian alphabet is among the world’s 14 most actively used independent alphabets.

ნოემბერი 2014 საქართველოს ევროპული გზა

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Analysis and Opinion | ანალიზი და მოსაზრება

ნატო-ს სამიტი უელსში, 2014 The NATO 2014 Summit in Wales

საბოლოო მიზანი არის გაწევრიანება

The Aim is Clearly the Membership ალექსი პეტრიაშვილი

გენერალური მდივანი, პოლიტიკური პარტია „თავისუფალი დემოკრატები“, ევროპულ და ევროატლანტიკურ სტრუქტურებში ინტეგრაციის საკითხებში საქართველოს ყოფილი სახელმწიფო მინისტრი

Alex Petriashvili Secretary General, Political Party "Free Democrats" Former State Minister of Georgia on European and Euroatlantic Integration

u

safrTxoebis garemo, romelSic nato amJamad imyofeba, SesaZloa iyos yvelaze gamomwvevi aliansis 65-wliani arsebobis ganmavlobaSi. uelsis samitma daadastura, rom dRes aliansis arseboba, rogorc arasdros, aris saWiro. amis uaryofa gansakuTrebiT rTulia Tanamedrove usafrTxoebis gamowvevebis fonze. ocdameerTe saukunis usafrTxoebis koncefcia mniSvnelovnad gansxvavdeba wina saukunis usafrTxoebis arqiteqturisgan. dRevandeli safrTxeebi gacilebiT mravalricxovani da mravalferovania. Cven mowmeni varT saxelmwifoebis mier terorizmis waxalisebis, revizionistuli politikis gatarebis, arsebuli usafrTxoebis sistemis axali, bundovani usafrTxoebis arqiteqturiT Canacvlebis mcdelobisa, rac civi omis droindeli azrovnebis anarekls warmoadgens. yovelive amas emateba wina saukunisTvis naklebad damaxasiaTebeli an sruliad axali komponentebi _ kiberTavdasxmebi, „mwvane kacunebi“, hibriduli omebi, SantaJi energoresursebiT da farTomasStabiani ekonomikuri dapirispireba. arsebuli geopolitikuri klimatisa da axali gamowvevebis gaTvaliswinebiT, uelsis samitze ganisazRvra konkretuli qmedebebi, romelsac aliansi ganaxorcielebs, raTa gaumklavdes rogorc Cveulebriv, aseve asimetriul riskebs da safrTxeebs. axal gamowvevebze myisieri reagirebisa da partniorebTan

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Georgia’s European Way November 2014

T

he security environment in which NATO finds itself today is perhaps the most challenging throughout its 65-year history. The Wales Summit demonstrated that NATO is as needed today as it ever was, or maybe even more. This is undeniable against the background of the new security challenges of modern era. The security concept in the 21st century is quite different from what it used to be. The current threats are different and they have multiplied. We witness state-sponsored terrorism, revisionist politics, attempts to supplant existing security institutions with new, ambiguous architectures reflecting Cold War thinking rather than willingness to make world securer and safer; not to forget the added components – cyber-attacks, little green men, hybrid wars, energy black-mail, full-scale economic clash of a type that was essentially absent half a century ago. In view of the existing geopolitical climate and novel challenges, the Wales Summit defined the clear-cut actions, which the Alliance will undertake to cope with security risks both of conventional and asymmetric nature. In Wales, the Allies adopted a Readiness Action Plan to make NATO's forces more responsive and its partnerships more flexible, reiterated their commitment to fundamental principles and values laid out in the Washington Treaty, as well as demonstrated the shared


Analysis and Opinion | ანალიზი და მოსაზრება ufro moqnili urTierTobebis Camoyalibebis mizniT, uelsSi aliansma daamtkica „mzadyofnis samoqmedo gegma“. amasTan, nato-m kvlav daadastura Crdiloatlantikuri xelSekrulebis principebisa da faseulobebis, koleqtiuri Tavdacvisa da Ria karis politikis mimarT erTguleba. gafarToebisTvis araxelsayreli strategiuli konteqstis gaTvaliswinebiT, saqarTvelom miiRo imis maqsimumi, risi SeTavazebac nato-s SeeZlo uelsis samitze. uelsSi damtkicebuli nato-saqarTvelos arsebiTi RonisZiebebis paketi warmoadgens saqarTvelos demokratiuli ganviTarebis aRiarebisa da mxardaWeris mkafio gzavnils da, imavdroulad, ruseTisadmi signals, rom misi destruqciuli politika ver CamoaSorebs saqarTvelos evropuli da evroatlantikuri integraciis gzidan. nato-saqarTvelos arsebiTi RonisZiebebis paketi miznad isaxavs saqarTvelos Tavdacvisunarianobis amaRlebas da winsvlas gawevrianebis gzaze. sxva sakiTxebTan erTad, paketi moicavs nato-s Tavdacvisunarianobis gaZlierebis jgufis Camoyalibebas, nato-s sawvrTneli centris daarsebasa da saqarTveloSi nato-s wvrTnebis Catarebas, rac kidev ufro gaaZlierebs saqarTvelos Tavsebadobas aliansTan da xels Seuwyobs Cveni qveynis evroatlantikuri integraciis process. arsebiTi RonisZiebebis paketis implementaciis mizniT ukve gadaidga aqtiuri nabijebi. saqarTveloSi gaimarTa nato-s warmomadgenlebis maRali donis vizitebi paketis konkretuli detalebis gansaxilvelad. saqarTvelos Tavdacvis saministrom SeimuSava implementaciis koncefcia, romelic ukve ganxilul iqna briuselSi. mokavSireebma moiwones aRniSnuli koncefcia da gamoxates sruli mzadyofna, CaerTon paketis drouli da efeqtiani implementaciis procesSi. Cven mzad varT gavagrZeloT miRweuli progresi da maqsimalurad gamoviyenoT paketiT gaTvaliswinebuli SesaZleblobebi. Sedegad ki miviRebT „met nato-s saqarTveloSi“ da „met saqarTvelos nato-Si“. uelsSi Cveni qveynis kidev erTi mniSvnelovani miRweva _ Tavsebadobis platformis farglebSi, SvedeTTan, avstraliasTan da iordaniasTan erTad gaZlierebuli SesaZleblobebis partniorobis jgufSi gawevrianebaa. aRniSnuli formatis farglebSi saqarTvelos miecema SesaZlebloba, miiRos monawileoba nato-s strategiuli mniSvnelobis diskusiebSi, gacvalos informacia nato-sTan da mokavSireebTan usafrTxoebis sakiTxebze, monawileoba miiRos wvrTnebSi, maT Soris, wvrTnebis sawyisi fazis dagegmvaSi da hyavdes meti warmomadgeneli nato-s struqturebSi. yovelive es, warmoadgens saqarTvelos mier saerTaSoriso usafrTxoebis ganmtkicebaSi Setanili wvlilisa da nato-s egidiT warmoebul operaciebSi monawile qarTveli samxedroebis momzadebis aRiarebasa da dafasebas. saqarTvelos SeiaraRebuli Zalebis mier samagaliTod gaweuli samsaxuri araerTxel iqna aRniSnuli nato-s maRali Tanamdebobis pirebis mier. Cven vamayobT amiT da Tavsebadobis platformis farglebSi TanamSromlobas mniSvnelovan miRwevad miviCnevT, rac Tavis mxriv xels uwyobs nato-sTan dialogis gaRrmavebasa da aliansTan saqarTvelos Tavsebadobis gaZlierebas. aRsaniSnavia, rom saqarTvelo aseve CaerTo Tavdacvisa da usafrTxoebis SesaZleblobebis zrdis iniciativaSi, romlis mizania gaaZlieros nato-s urTierTobebi partnior qveyne-

commitment to the principle of collective defence and the open door policy. Considering the current unfavorable strategic context for the enlargement, Georgia got maximum of what NATO could give at Wales. The adoption of the Substantial NATO-Georgia Package was an unequivocal and strong message of recognition and support of Georgia’s democracy and a signal to Russia that its destructive policy will not derail our country from its course of European and Euro-Atlantic integration. According to the text, the Alliance endorsed a Substantial Package to strengthen our country’s defence capabilities and to advance Georgia on its track to eventual membership. The Package include inter alia establishment of the NATO Defence Capacity Building Management Team, launching of NATO training center in Georgia, as well as holding of NATO exercises in Georgia, which will further enhance Georgia’s interoperability with the Alliance and foster the country’s Euro-Atlantic integration process. In the pursuit to translate the content of the Package into the real working process, dynamic steps have already been undertaken. Several high-level visits from the NATO HQ were conducted in order to discuss the areas set out in the Substantial Package. The Ministry of Defense has drafted Implementation Concept of the Package, which was already discussed in Brussels. The Allies appreciated the Concept and expressed full readiness to engage in a timely and effective implementation of the Package. We are committed to continue building upon the progress achieved and to utilize to the maximum the opportunities provided by the Package. Consequently, we will have “more NATO in Georgia” and more “Georgia in NATO”. Another important achievement for our country is that in Wales, Georgia alongside with Sweden, Finland, Australia and Jordan was invited into the group of enhanced opportunities partners in the framework of the Interoperability Platform. Within this format Georgia will have the opportunity to participate in strategic level discussions, enhanced security arrangements and communications/information sharing with NATO and Allies; participate in exercises including early phase planning as well as get more representation for Georgian staff officers in NATO’s structures. Overall, it is an evident recognition of Georgia’s input to international security and of a high level preparedness of our soldiers serving shoulder to shoulder with their partners in NATO-led operations. Georgian Armed Forces perform an exemplary service, which has on multiple occasions been praised by the NATO officials. We are proud of this fact and we consider our cooperation in the framework of the Interoperability Platform as a significant development, which contributes to further deepening dialogue and reinforcing Georgia’s interoperability with NATO. It is also worth mentioning that the Defence and Related Security Capacity Building Initiative has also been extended to Georgia, which aims at reinforcing NATO’s “commitment to partner nations” and to help the Alliance “to project stability without deploying large combat forces.”

ნოემბერი 2014 საქართველოს ევროპული გზა

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Analysis and Opinion | ანალიზი და მოსაზრება

ნატო-ს სამიტი უელსში, 2014 The NATO 2014 Summit in Wales

bTan da daexmaros alianss stabilurobis uzrunvelyofaSi mravalricxovani sabrZolo danayofebis gamoyenebis gareSe. simboluria, rom 2014 wels 15 weli Sesrulda, rac saqarTvelo monawileobas iRebs nato-s egidiT warmoebul operaciebSi. 1999 wels Cven gavagzavneT pirveli samxedro qvedanayofi kosovoSi; amas mohyva avRaneTis operaciaSi monawileoba. ganvlili wlebis manZilze Cvenma qveyanam daadastura, rom aliansis Rirebuli da saimedo partnioria. farTodaa aRiarebuli is progresi, romelsac saqarTvelom miaRwia demokratiuli reformebis gatarebis, SeiaraRebuli Zalebisa da Tavdacvis institutebis modernizaciis kuTxiT, da aseve saerTaSoriso usafrTxoebis ganmtkicebaSi Setanili wvliliT. avRaneTis operaciaSi saqarTvelos kontribucia aris imis naTeli dasturi, rom Cven gvsurs saerTaSoriso stabilurobisa da usafrTxoebis uzrunvelyofa. garda amisa, avRaneTis operaciaSi monawileobiT Cveni SeiaraRebuli Zalebi iZenen mniSvnelovan gamocdilebas, romelsac sakuTari qveynis sakeTildReod gamoiyeneben. imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom dRevandeli gamowvevebi saWiroebs Zalisxmevas, romelic scdeba erTi qveynis sazRvrebs, Cven gavagrZelebT 2014 wlis bolomde avRaneTis operaciaSi monawileobas da CaverTvebiT ukve axal, `gadamwyveti mxardaWeris“ misiaSi. garda amisa, saqarTvelo monawileobas miiRebs nato-s SekavSirebuli Zalebis iniciativaSi da wargzavnis aseuls nato-s reagirebis ZalebSi. aRsaniSnavia, rom uelsis samitis deklaraciaSi aliansi kidev erTxel miesalma avRaneTis operaciaSi saqarTvelos mniSvnelovan wvlils da Cvens SeTavazebas, 2015 wlidan monawileoba miviRoT nato-s reagirebis ZalebSi. saqarTvelo erT-erTia im oTxi saxelmwifodan, romlebic iswrafvian nato-Si gawevrianebisaTvis. uelsis samitze nato-s sagareo saqmeTa ministrebma Sexvedra gamarTes rogorc saqarTvelos, aseve Cveni partniori qveynebis, bosnia da hercegovinis, montenegrosa da makedoniis sagareo saqmeTa ministrebTan. Sexvedris farglebSi farTo ganxilvis sagans warmoadgenda am saxelmwifoebis, kerZod ki, saqarTvelos progresi evro-

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Georgia’s European Way November 2014

In this light, it is symbolic, that 2014 marks 15th anniversary of Georgia’s cooperation with NATO in promoting security through involvement in the NATO-led operations. In 1999 we have dispatched our first unit to Kosovo. This was followed by Georgia’s participation in ISAF operation. Throughout these years, our country has proven to be a reliable and capable partner of the Alliance. The progress achieved by Georgia with regard to implementation of democratic reforms, modernization of armed forces and defence institutions as well as Georgia’s contribution to international security has been widely recognized. Georgia's significant contribution to ISAF is a proof of our determination to the enhancement of international stability and security. Importantly, through this participation our Armed Forces acquire essential experience, which they utilize to better serve and protect their country. Acknowledging, that today’s challenges demand allied solidarity and shared responsibility demonstrated beyond the national frontiers, we are staying committed to the ISAF operation till the end of this year and will make our contribution to the post ISAF Resolute Support mission. Georgia has also committed to the NATO Connected Forces Initiative and has declared a light infantry company in the NATO Response Force for 2015 and 2016. It is noteworthy, that in Wales Summit Declaration, the Allies reiterated appreciation for our country’s “sizeable contribution” to the Afghan operation as well as Georgia’s offer to participate in the NATO Response Force (NRF) starting from 2015. Georgia is one of the four nations that aspire for membership. In Wales NATO foreign ministers met their counterparts from Georgia and our partners – Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro and Macedonia – those four countries aspiring to join the Alliance. The progress made by these countries and Georgia,


Analysis and Opinion | ანალიზი და მოსაზრება atlantikuri integraciis gzaze. saqarTvelom aCvena SesaniSnavi Sedegi aliansSi gawevrianebisaTvis ori mTavari kriteriumis dakmayofilebis kuTxiT: demokratiuli ganviTarebisa da saerTaSoriso usafrTxoebis ganmtkicebaSi Setanili wvliliT. uelsSi mokavSireebma kidev erTxel daadastures, rom saqarTvelo gaxdeba nato-s wevri, riTac kvlav gaesva xazi buqarestis 2008 wlis samitis gadawyvetilebas. amasTanave, nato-s komunikeSi Caiwera, rom saqarTvelos aqvs instrumentebi, romlebic saWiroa gawevrianebis gzaze qveynis Semdgomi winsvlisaTvis. es instrumentebia _ nato-saqarTvelos komisia, wliuri erovnuli programa da nato-saqarTvelos arsebiTi RonisZiebebis paketi. amasTan, unda iTqvas, rom am miRwevebs safrTxe emuqreba im dramatuli movlenebis gamo, rac Cvens regionSi viTardeba. Tu vinmes koleqtiuri Tavdacvis koncefcia warsulis gadmonaSTad miaCnda, ruseTma daanaxa sapirispiro da axla cdis aliansis simtkices. saqarTveloSi SemoWris da Cveni teritoriis 20%-is okupaciis eqvsi wlis Tavze, ruseTma sxva mezoblis, ukrainis teritoriis aneqsia moaxdina, agrZelebs ukrainis samxreT-aRmosavleT nawilis destabilizacias da, didi albaTobiT, ar apirebs miRweuliT dakmayofilebas. ruseTi ganagrZobs saerTaSoriso samarTlis normebis ignorirebas, riTac Zirs uTxris im fuZemdeblur principebs, razec damyarebulia Tanamedrove usafrTxoebis arqiteqtura. saqarTvelos teritoriebis okupaciiT, yirimis aneqsiiT da danarCeni ukrainis agresiuli destabilizaciiT, ruseTma, am mxriv, kidev ufro daamZima viTareba. suverenuli saxelmwifoebis teritoriebis ukanono mitacebiT, erTiani, Tavisufali da mSvidobiani evropisTvis safrTxis SeqmniT, ruseTi agrZelebs saxifaTo politikis gatarebas da safrTxes uqmnis evroatlantikuri sivrcis fundamentur principebs. amJamad ruseTi agrZelebs Tavis kampanias saqarTvelos mimarTulebiT da cdilobs ganaxorcielos afxazeTis de iure aneqsia. amis gaTvaliswinebiT, saerTaSoriso sazogadoebis solidaroba da saqarTvelos suverenitetisa da teritoriuli mTlianobisadmi uryevi mxardaWera, romelic kidev erTxel dafiqsirda uelsis samitis deklaraciaSi, gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania Cveni qveynisTvis. aRsaniSnavia, rom mokavSireebma mouwodes ruseTs, uari Tqvas okupirebuli teritoriebis _ afxazeTisa da cxinvalis regionis „damoukidebel saxelmwifoebad“ aRiarebaze da gaiyvanos saqarTvelodan samxedro Zalebi. ruseTisgan momavali safrTxeebisa da zewolis miuxedavad, saqarTvelos erovnuli usafrTxoebisa da demokratiuli ganviTarebisaTvis evropul da evroatlantikur struqturebSi integracias alternativa ar gaaCnia. mokavSireebis mimarT Cveni gzavnilia, rom nato-s Ria karis politika darCes ucvleli im evropuli saxelmwifoebisTvis, romlebic pativs scemen Crdiloatlantikuri organizaciis principebs da surT aliansSi gawevrianeba. rogorc istoria gviCvenebs, nato-s gafarToebam evroatlantikur sivrcesa da aliansis wevr qveynebs moutana mSvidoba, usafrTxoeba, stabiluroba da keTildReoba. saqarTvelos xelisufleba mowodebulia gaagrZelos integraciis procesebi iqamde, sanam ar iqneba miRweuli saboloo mizani. es mizani ki, eWvgareSe _ nato-Si gawevrianebaa.

in particular, on the path to the membership, was extensively discussed. We have demonstrated excellent record as regards two decisive criteria according to which a country qualifies for the membership: the democratic credentials and the contribution to the international security. In Wales Allies reaffirmed that Georgia will become member of NATO, thus confirming the historic decision taken in Bucharest. Along with that decision, the final Communique stated that Georgia’s relationship with NATO contains the tools necessary to continue moving Georgia towards eventual membership. These tools are NATO-Georgia Commission, Annual National Programme and newly adopted Substantial NATO-Georgia Package. However, it has to be underscored, that our country’s achievements are presently in a serious danger, as dramatic and dangerous developments are happening in our part of the world. When it was thought that the concept of collective defense is a relic of the past, Russia has given the most convincing reality check to the entire Europe, testing Alliance’s resolve. Six years after invading Georgia and subsequently occupying 20% of our territory, Russia has annexed the territory of another neighbor, Ukraine, meddles in Ukraine’ south east and is not likely to stop there. Russia continues to neglect the international law and international legal norms eroding the very principles the modern security architecture is built upon. It has upped the ante with its occupation of Georgian regions, illegal annexation of Crimea and aggressive destabilization of the rest of Ukraine. By illegitimately grabbing bits of land from sovereign countries, endangering Europe “whole, free and at peace” Russia continues creating alarmingly dangerous developments and threatens the fundamental principles of Euro-Atlantic area. At the very moment, Moscow steps up its campaign on our front as well – trying to “de-jure” annex Abkhazia. That is why, the solidarity and unwavering support of the international community towards Georgia’s sovereignty and territorial integrity, which were once again reiterated in the Wales Summit Declaration, are of particular importance for our country. It is essential, that the Allies called on Russia to reverse its recognition of both occupied territories – Abkhazia and Tskhinvali Region – as “independent states” and to withdraw its forces from Georgia. Regardless the current security threats and increasing external pressure it is clear that European and Euro-Atlantic integration has no alternative in Georgia’s quest for national security and democratic development. Our message to the Allies is that NATO’s door should remain open for those European states, which are willing and capable of respecting principles of the North Atlantic Treaty. NATO enlargement, as history has shown has brought peace, security, stability and prosperity to the Euro-Atlantic area and Member States. Georgia’s Government is committed to move the process further till we reach the final aim. And this aim is clearly the membership.

ნოემბერი 2014 საქართველოს ევროპული გზა

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Analysis and Opinion | ანალიზი და მოსაზრება

ცვლილებები ევროკავშირში: მათი გავლენა საქართველოზე და სამეზობლო პოლიტიკაზე EU Changes: Implications for Georgia and Neighbourhood Policy

ამანდა პოლი

ევროპული პოლიტიკის ცენტრი

Amanda Paul European Policy Centre

axali gundi

The New Team

evrokavSiris axali xelmZRvaneloba, savaraudod, mniSvnelovan cvlilebebs Seitans kavSiris gafarToebisa da samezoblo politikaSi. kavSiris luqsemburgelma prezidentma, Jan-klod iunkerma (evropis saxalxo partia), gafarToebis procesSi xuTwliani pauzis Sesaxeb isaubra da am gancxadebas arcerTi wevri qveyana ar SewinaaRmdegebia. evropuli sabWos axali prezidenti, poloneli donald tuski (evropis saxalxo partia) aseT gancxadebas Tavad ar gaakeTebda, Tumca, is faqti, rom evrokavSiris wevrTa Soris gafarToebisgan daRliloba igrZnoba, misTvisac cnobilia. sagareo saqmeTa da uSiSroebis sakiTxebSi umaR-

The new EU leadership is likely to make some significant changes to the Union’s enlargement and neighbourhood policies. President of the European Commission, Jean-Claude Juncker (EPP) from Luxembourg has talked of enacting a five-year pause on enlargement, a statement that brought little counter-reaction from any of the member states. The new President of the European Council, Poland’s Donald Tusk (EPP), would not have made such a remark but he is also aware of the widespread ‘enlargement fatigue’ among the Union’s membership. The new High Representative for Foreign and Security Policy, Italy’s Federica Mogherini (S&D), has never been regarded as a proponent of enlargement and Rome traditionally looks south when neighbourhood issues are being discussed. Mogherini is also

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Georgia’s European Way November 2014


Analysis and Opinion | ანალიზი და მოსაზრება lesi warmomadgeneli, italieli federika mogerini (socialistebisa da demokratebis progresuli aliansi) gafarToebis momxred arasdros iTvleboda. aseve cnobilia, rom samezoblo sakiTxebze saubrisas romi tradiciulad samxreTisken iyureba. mogerini sakmaod gamoucdelic aris. mas mxolod eqvsi Tve hqonda ministris poziciaze gatarebuli, rodesac italiis premier-ministrma evrokavSiris erT-erT umniSvnelovanes postze waradgina. iqidan gamomdinare, rom darCenil or umniSvnelovanes Tanamdebobas memarjvene mamakacebi ikavebdnen, memarcxene qalis nominireba aucilebeli gaxda. swored ase Seiqmna xuTi wlis win barosos, van rompuisa da eStonis gundic. gafarToebisa da samezoblo politikis sakiTxebSi axali evrokomisari iqneba avstrieli iohanes hani (evropis saxalxo partia), romelic aqamde regionul sakiTxebs marTavda. imis miuxedavad, rom mas, sakuTari gancxadebiT, diplomatiur sakiTxebSi gamocdileba aklda, evropis parlamentSi seqtembris mosmenisas politikuri sakiTxebis maRal doneze codna gamoavlina. misive gancxadebiT, ukraina misTvis umaRles prioritets warmoadgens. `xarisxi da ara _ siCqare~ aris misi devizi im qveynebis mimarT, romlebic axla misi saqmianobis sferoSi Sedian. misive ganmartebiT, es niSnavs yuradRebis gamaxvilebas Semdeg or aspeqtze: aplikaciisa da asocirebis xelSekrulebaTa ekonomikuri sargeblis ukeT gamomJRavneba, agreTve saSinao davalebis Sesruleba reformebis ganxorcielebis kuTxiT. evroparlamentis zogierTma deputatma azri gamoTqva, rom hani, misi avstriuli warmoSobidan gamomdinare, rbilad SeiZleba moepyros ruseTs. Tumca, hanma ganacxada, rom iseT ZiriTad sakiTxebSi, rogoricaa ukrainis teritoriuli mTlianoba, kompromisis gza warmoudgenelia. momavalSi gamoCndeba, Tu rogor moaxerxeben hani da sagareo sakiTxebis aspeqtebiT dakavebuli sxva komisrebi TanamSromlobas mogerinisTan, romelsac iunkerma saerTo koordinatoris roli mianiWa. moxdeba samezoblo politikis gadaxedva, romelic, SesaZloa, hanis regionul politikaSi miRebul gamocdilebebze dayrdnobil rekomendaciebs Seicavdes. hanma `tvinebis mimoqcevaze“ isaubra, rac savaraudod imaze miuTiTebs, rom mas surs, saswavlo gacvliTi programebis gafarToebasa da savizo reJimis liberalizacias Seuwyos xeli.

axali komisiis prioritetebi iunkerma xuTi prioriteti Camoayaliba axali komisiisTvis. esenia: _ ekonomikuri zrda da dasaqmeba, raSic mniSvnelovani roli ukavia erTiani eleqtronuli bazris Seqmnas. _ energokavSiris Camoyalibeba, romelic gazrdis resursebis Tavmoyras, gaaerTianebs infrastruqturebs, xels Seuwyobs energiis momaragebis diversifikacias da gazrdis ganaxlebadi energiis wils.

ევროკავშირის ახალი ხელმძღვანელობა, სავარაუდოდ,

მნიშვნელოვან ცვლილებებს შეიტანს კავშირის გაფართოებისა და სამეზობლო პოლიტიკაში. The new EU leadership is likely to make some

significant changes to

the Union’s enlargement and neighbourhood policies. very inexperienced, having only been a minister for six months before her nomination by Italy’s prime minister, Mateo Renzi to one of the top three EU positions. Given that the other two nominees were centre-right males, it was necessarythe prime minister deemed it necessary to choose a centre-left female. These are exactly the same political circumstances that led to the formation of the Barroso, van Rompuy and Ashton team five years ago. The new Commissioner for the Enlargement and European Neighbourhood Policy is the centre-right Austrian, Johannes Hahn (EPP), who covered regional affairs in the previous formation of the Commission. Although he claimed to lack diplomatic experience, he showed a good command of policy issues during his September hearing in the European Parliament. Ukraine, he said, would be his top priority. His catchphrase for countries in his area of concern was ‘quality before speed’ which he later said would mean focusing on two things: making the economic benefits of applicant and association agreements more visible and ensuring that these countries also did their homework i when implementing reforms. Some MEPs sought to suggest that, with his Austrian background, Hahn might be soft on Russia. But Hahn replied that on key issues such as the territorial integrity of Ukraine there could be no middle ground. It remains to be seen how Hahn and other commissioners dealing with aspects of external affairs will work with Mogherini who has been given an overall coordination role by Juncker. There will be a review of neighbourhood policy and it might well contain recommendations drawn from Hahn’s experience on regional policy. He has spoken of ‘brain circulation’ which suggests he will be keen on promoting greater educational exchanges and visa liberalisation.

Priorities of the new Commission Juncker has set himself five priorities for the new Commission. These are:

ნოემბერი 2014 საქართველოს ევროპული გზა

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Analysis and Opinion | ანალიზი და მოსაზრება _ dabalansebuli savaWro xelSekruleba amerikis SeerTebul StatebTan: transatlantikurma savaWro da sainvesticio xelSekrulebam (TTIP) unda gaauqmos sabaJo gadasaxadebi. xelmomwerebma unda aRiaron erTmaneTis standartebi, an unda Camoayalibon regulirebis erTiani standartebi. Tumca, sursaTis uvneblobisa da piradi monacemebis dacvis sistema ar unda dasustdes. _ evrozonis reformebi: politikosebma ufro TvalsaCino roli unda Seasrulon savaluto kavSiris marTvis procesSi. momavalSi sesxebis gacemis dros maT meti yuradReba unda miaqcion socialur faqtorebs. agreTve unda gamyardes evrozonis warmomadgenloba saerTaSoriso savaluto fondSi (IMF). _ britaneTis sakiTxis mogvareba: evrokavSiri unda Seeguos im faqts, rom didi britaneTi evrozonasa da Sengenis xelSekrulebas ar SeuerTdeba. amasTanave, ar unda daiSvas erTiani bazris dasusteba londonTan molaparakebebis Sedegad.

momxdari cvlilebebis gavlena saqarTveloze da aRmosavleT partniorobaze axalma gundma ganacxada, rom is gadaxedavs aRmosavleT partniorobis programas (EaP). isini daeyrdnobian gafarToebisa da asocirebis kandidati qveynebis Sesaxeb yovelwliur mimoxilvas, romelic komisarma fulem 8 oqtombers waradgina. amave dros, EaP-Si Sesatani cvlilebebis Taobaze diskusiaSi sxvebmac Seitanes TavianTi wvlili. programis erT-erTi yvelaze aqtiuri mxardamWeria evroparlamentis poloneli deputati iacek sariuS-volski. misi gancxadebiT, EaP-is Canafiqri swori iyo, Tumca evrokavSirma saTanadod ver Seafasa, Tu ramdenad did safrTxed aRiqvamda ruseTi dasavluri Rirebulebebis mis sazRvrebamde gavrcelebas. EaP-is gadaxedvis dros unda gaTvaliswindes is faqti, rom ruseTi udides safrTxes warmoadgens, razec mis mier yirimis aneqsia da aRmosavleT ukrainaSi arastabilurobis gavrceleba metyvelebs. mas agreTve gaaCnia EaP -is sxva qveynebis saqmianobaSi Carevis SesaZleblobebi. ganaxlebulma EaP-ma meti yuradReba unda gaamaxvilos sazogadoebriv wvlilze, radgan mxolod teqnikuri midgoma am sakiTxisadmi Sedegs ver moitans. saqarTvelos yofilma elCma evrokavSirSi, salome samadaSvilma mouwoda evrokavSirs samoqalaqo sazogadoebis ufro aqtiuri mxardaWerisken, meti maRali rangis vizitis ganxorcielebisken, savizo reJimis liberalizaciisken da saqarTvelosa da ukrainis gawevrianebis perspeqtivebis Taobaze signalis gacemisken rigis samitze. 6 oqtombers, evroparlamentSi damtkicebis mosmenaze, mogerinim ganacxada, rom `saWiroa aRmosavleTis mimarT yuradRebis gamaxvileba sxvadasxva formiT. pirvel rigSi, mxari unda davuWiroT ukrainas uSiSroebis, instituciuri reformebis Catarebis, politikuri procesebis, ekonomikuri da energetikuli gamowvevebis sakiTxebSi. Cven mxari unda davuWiroT moldovasa da sa-

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Georgia’s European Way November 2014

a. Growth and Jobs – with the creation of a digital single market as a key ingredient. b. An Energy Union – with more pooling of resources, combining infrastructures, diversifying energy supplies and increasing the share of renewables in the energy mix. c. A Balanced Trade Agreement with the United States – TTIP should abolish customs duties, recognise each other’s standards or agree on common regulatory standards but food safety and personal data should not be weakened. d. Reform of the Eurozone – with politicians playing a more prominent role in managing the monetary union; with more attention paid to social aspects when future loans are made; and with a strengthened Eurozone representation in the IMF. e. Handling the British Question – accepting that the UK will not join the Eurozone or Schengen but not allowing any weakening of the single market in response to any request for negotiations from London.

Impact of the changes on Georgia and the Eastern Partnership The new team has promised a review of the Eastern Partnership (EaP). They will also build upon the annual review of the enlargement and association countries that was presented on 8 October by Commissioner Füle. Meanwhile, there have been many other contributions to the debate on changes to the EaP. One of the strongest supporters of the EaP is the Polish MEP, Jacek Saryusz-Wolski. He has said that while the design of the EaP was correct the assumption was wrong – namely the EU under-estimated how Russia would view the threat of the spread of Western values to its borders. Any revised EaP would have to take into account the fact that Russia was the main threat as evidenced by its annexation of Crimea and its promotion of instability in Eastern Ukraine. It also had the tools to interfere in other EaP countries. A revised EaP should put more emphasis on the societal input as a purely technical approach would be bound to fail. The former Georgian ambassador to the EU, Salome Samadashvili, has also called for more support for civil society, more high-level visits from the EU, visa liberalisation and a signal that the EU understands the accession perspective of Georgia and Ukraine at the Riga summit. During a confirmation hearing in the European Parliament on 6 October, Mogherini stated “we need a greater attention in different forms to the East – starting from support to Ukraine in terms of security, institutional reforms, political process, economic challenges and energy challenges. We will need to support Moldova and Georgia… We will need to work with Armenia, Azerbaijan and Belarus on our way forward.” This seems to demonstrate that Mogherini has understood there is a need for a different approach. As it currently stands, the EaP has run its course. There is little to be gained from placing those countries that have membership aspirations and are serious about carrying out deep reform in the same basket as those who want a different sort of relationship with the EU. Greater focus needs to be placed on the bilateral rather than multilateral dimensions because, as a policy focused on creating regional stability and security, the EaP has failed. The EaP requires a tailor-made approach, linked to each partner’s achievements and wishes.


Analysis and Opinion | ანალიზი და მოსაზრება qarTvelos... agreTve, unda viTanamSromloT somxeTTan, azerbaijansa da belarusTan Cvens winsvlaze“. rogorc Cans, mogerinis esmis, rom saWiroa diferencirebuli midgoma. am wuTas SeiZleba iTqvas, rom EaP dasasruls miuaxlovda. azri ar aqvs im qveynebis, romlebsac gawevrianebis ambiciebi da reformebis ganxorcielebisadmi seriozuli midgoma gaaCniaT, imave kalaTSi Cayras im qveynebTan erTad, romlebsac evrokavSirTan sxvanairi urTierToba surT. aqcenti unda gakeTdes ormxriv ganzomilebaze, da ara mravalmxrivze, rameTu EaP-ma, rogorc regionuli stabilurobisa da usafrTxoebis Semqmnelma proeqtma, Tavis mizans ver miaRwia. saWiroa iseTi midgoma, romelic yoveli partnioris miRwevebsa da survilebzea morgebuli. ruseT-ukrainis krizisma evrokavSiri ukrainis mimarT ufro aqtiuri CarTvisken aiZula, da amas dadebiTi efeqti mohyva moldovisa da saqarTvelosTvisac politikuri mxardaWeris mxriv. ukrainas uaxloes momavalSi soliduri ekonomikuri da politikuri daxmareba dasWirdeba, sxva SemTxvevaSi Cndeba evropis zRvarze arSemdgari saxelmwifos Camoyalibebis riski. man aseve Seqmna solidarobis ufro didi SegrZneba energetikuli usafrTxoebis gaZlierebasTan dakavSirebiT da evrokavSirisTvis gaRviZebis zari gaxda ruseTTan urTierTobis kuTxiT. moldovasTan urTierTobis CamoyalibebaSi did rols iTamaSebs 30 noembris saparlamento arCevnebi. amJamad misi Sedegebis prognozireba SeuZlebelia. moldovis sazogadoeba polarizebulia evropuli integraciis sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT da mosaxleobis naxevari ruseTTan ufro mWidro urTierTobas uWers mxars. im SemTxvevaSi, Tu mmarTveli, evrokavSiris momxre koalicia arCevnebSi damarcxdeba, evrokavSirTan urTierToba da reformebis procesi, savaraudod, Seyovndeba. imis miuxedavad, rom saqarTvelom ukrainasa da moldovaze ufro gvian Camoayaliba urTierToba evrokavSirTan, Tbilisi am ukanasknelisTvis erTguli partniori gamodga. aRmosavleT partniorobis programisadmi saqarTvelos midgomis gamarTleba ramdenime faqtorma ganapiroba: qveyanaSi arsebobs politikuri konsensusi evroatlantikuri integraciis sakiTxze; am midgomas farTo mxardaWera aqvs sazogadoebis yvela nawilSi; arsebobs demokratiuli gardaqmnebis _ kanonis uzenaesobisa da samoqalaqo Tavisuflebebis gamyarebis, korufciis aRmofxvris _ WeSmariti survili; agreTve, arsebobs azri, rom saqarTvelos damoukideblobisa da xangrZlivi usafrTxoebis garantias mxolod evroatlantikur organizaciebSi gawevrianeba iZleva. metad arastabilur regionSi ganTavsebul, arademokratiuli qveynebiTa da rogorc cxeli, ise gayinuli konfliqtebiT garSemortymul saqarTvelos SeuZlia mTeli regionisTvis magaliTi gaxdes. saqarTvelo evrokavSirs saSualebas aZlevs, aCvenos, Tu rogor SeiZleba reformebisa da Rirebulebebis meSveobiT mosaxleobis cxovrebis xarisxis amaRleba. asocirebis xelSekrulebisa

ქვეყანაში არსებობს

პოლიტიკური კონსენსუსი ევროატლანტიკური ინტეგრაციის საკითხზე. there is a political consensus on Euro-Atlantic integration in georgia. The Russia-Ukraine crisis has forced the EU to boost its engagement with Ukraine which has had a positive knock-on effect on Moldova and Georgia in terms of political support. Ukraine will require significant economic and political support for the foreseeable future, otherwise Europe risks having a failed state on its doorstep. The crisis has also created greater solidarity in terms of steps taken to strengthen energy security, and been a wake-up call to the EU in terms of its relationship with Russia. Future relations with Moldova will be shaped in the aftermath of its forthcoming parliamentary elections on 30 November, which are presently too close to call. Moldovan society is divided over European integration with almost half of the country favouring closer ties with Russia. If the ruling pro-EU coalition fails to get reelected, relations with the EU and the reform process are both likely to decelerate. While, compared with Ukraine or Moldova, Georgia’s relationship with the EU began later. Tbilisi has proven to be a committed and consistent partner. The Georgian approach to the EaP has been successful for a number of reasons: political consensus for Euro-Atlantic integration; broad public support from all parts of society; a genuine desire for democratic change to strengthen the rule of law, civil liberties and freedoms and an endeavour to rid the country of corrupt practices; a shared belief that, given its geopolitical situation, membership of the Euro-Atlantic institutions is the only way to guarantee Georgia’s independence and long-term security. Located in a particularly volatile region, surrounded by undemocratic states and hot and frozen conflicts, Georgia can be a role model for the region. Georgia represents an opportunity for the EU to demonstrate how adopting key reforms and values can improve the quality of life for a country’s population. Maintaining the current level of support will not be easy as Georgia begins to implement the AA and DCFTA. In fact, if Moldova’s process is derailed, Georgia will be the only state implanting these agreements. The EU now needs to accelerate the steps towards a visa-free regime, allow Georgian goods maximum entry to the EU market, increase efforts to explain EU structures and aims and engage with the influential Georgian Orthodox church. Meanwhile Belarus, Azerbaijan and Armenia are all set to have very different relationships with the EU. As a future member of the Eurasian Economic Union, there are limits to how far the EU can go with Armenia. Nonetheless, Yerevan is keen to negotiate a new agreement with

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Analysis and Opinion | ანალიზი და მოსაზრება

2015 წლის მაისის

აღმოსავლეთ პარტნიორობის სამიტი რიგაში, სავარაუდოდ, გადამწყვეტ მომენტად იქცევა. The May 2015 Riga EaP Summit seems set to be a watershed moment.

(AA) da Rrma da yovlismomcveli Tavisufali vaWrobis xelSekrulebis (DCFTA) pirobebis ganxorcielebis Semdeg saqarTvelos gauWirdeba arsebuli mxardaWeris donis SenarCuneba. metic, Tu moldovaSi msgavsi procesi CaiSleba, maSin saqarTvelo erTaderTi qveyana darCeba, romelic am xelSekrulebebis implementacias moaxdens. Tavis mxriv, evrokavSirma unda daaCqaros savizo reJimis moxsnis procesi, evrokavSiris bazari maqsimalurad xelmisawvdomi gaxados qarTuli saqonlisTvis, ukeTesad ganmartos kavSiris struqturebi da miznebi da awarmoos dialogi avtoritetul marTlmadideblur eklesiasTan. amave dros, azerbaijans, belarussa da somxeTs sxvanairi urTierTobebi eqnebaT evrokavSirTan. evraziis ekonomikur kavSirSi gawevrianeba garkveul SezRudvebs daawesebs somxeTis urTierTobaSi evrokavSiris mimarT. erevans kvlavac surs evrokavSirTan axali xelSekrulebis gaformeba, Tumca jer ar aris cxadi, Tu ra saxis xelSekruleba iqneba es. azerbaijans, romelic evrokavSiris mniSvnelovani partnioria energetikaSi, saerTo interesebsa da miznebze dayrdnobili strategiuli urTierToba surs. is ar aris asocirebis xelSekrulebis xelmoweriTa da evrokavSiris `meti metis sanacvlod“ midgomiT dainteresebuli. belarussac evrokavSirTan axali dialogi surs da es varianti unda ganixilos, miuxedavad adamianTa uflebebis darRvevebTan dakavSirebuli mimdinare problemebisa. 2015 wlis maisis aRmosavleT partniorobis samiti rigaSi, savaraudod, gadamwyvet momentad iqceva, radganac ukraina, moldova da saqarTvelo ufro mkafio, xangrZliv perspeqtivebs iTxoven. es samiti asocirebis xelSekrulebebis ganxorcielebis winaswari Sedegebis Sefasebis SesaZleblobas iZleva, Tumca evrokavSirs saswrafod esaWiroeba samomavlo xedvis wardgena, romelic imaze mets warmoadgens, vidre is, rac amJamad gvaqvs. amis miuxedavad, evrokavSir-

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Georgia’s European Way November 2014

the EU although it is not yet clear what shape this will take. Azerbaijan, an important EU energy partner, is looking for a strategic relationship based on mutual interests and objectives and is not interested in signing an Association Agreement or being a party to the EU’s “More for More” approach. Belarus is also looking to open up a new dialogue with the EU and this should be explored, despite ongoing concerns related to the country’s human rights situation. The May 2015 Riga EaP Summit seems set to be a watershed moment as Ukraine, Moldova and Georgia are demanding a clearer, longer term perspective. While the Summit will be an opportunity to assess the provisional results of the implementation of association agreements, there is an urgent need for the EU to present a vision for the future that goes beyond what is currently on the table. But given the lack of political will in the EU, hopes that the Ukraine crisis would push EU leaders to take significant steps to add substance to their policy towards the East, including offering a clear membership perspective, seems unlikely. There is a lack of consensus and vision amongst EU member states over how far and how deep the policy should go and it will be very difficult to bridge the gaps despite admirable efforts by the incoming Latvian Presidency.

EU-Russia Relations EU-Russia relations are at their worst state since the end of the Cold War. The bilateral negotiations on a new agreement as well as most other dialogues have become frozen. But the EU cannot ignore Russia as it needs not only its energy for the foreseeable future but its cooperation in international security issues such as Afghanistan, Syria and Iran. However, regarding the EaP countries, there can be no compromise. The EU must continue its sanctions policy as long as Russia refuses to de-escalate the situation in Eastern Ukraine despite the economic pain this is causing some member states. Steps to appease Russia or to strike a grand bargain should be avoided as Moscow will perceive this as the EU allowing Russia a power of veto on the EaP.

Conclusion It is important to recall that it is difficult to implement a foreign policy for 28 member states at the best of times. The current state of the Union is very fragile due to poor economic growth and the rise of populism. This makes it all the more difficult to pursue normative values in external relations. The promotion of democracy and human rights are often diminished when economic survival is at stake. At the same time, the three association agreements have only just entered into force and progress on these cannot yet be assessed. The Eurasian Union also starts in early 2015 and the new EU leadership has expressed the need to work with this new body as well as Russia. As far as Georgia is concerned, it needs to understand the new realities in the EU and ensure that its reform efforts are maintained and intensified. This should help convince the 28 member states that its position as the best pupil in the class deserves a reward in due course.


Analysis and Opinion | ანალიზი და მოსაზრება Si politikuri nebis nakleboba imis imeds ar iZleva, rom ukrainis krizisi kavSiris liderebs aRmosavleTis politikis gaZlierebisa da gawevrianebis mkafio perspeqtivebis SeTavazebisken ubiZgebs. evrokavSiris wevr qveynebs Soris ar moipoveba xedva da konsensusi imis Sesaxeb, Tu ramdenad Sors da Rrmad unda ganxorcieldes es politika. momavali latviuri Tavmjdomareobis SesaniSnavi Zalisxmevis miuxedavad, am dabrkolebebis gadalaxva metad rTuli iqneba.

evrokavSirsa da ruseTs Soris urTierTobebi evrokavSirsa da ruseTs Soris urTierTobebi civi omis damTavrebis Semdeg ar yofila ise gamwvavebuli, rogorc axla. ormxrivi molaparakebebi axal xelSekrulebasTan dakavSirebiT SeCerebulia, iseve, rogorc sxva molaparakebebis umravlesoba. amis miuxedavad, evrokavSirisTvis ruseTis ignorireba SeuZlebelia. kavSirs ara mxolod misi energoresursebi esaWiroeba, aramed misi TanamSromlobac saerTaSoriso uSiSroebis sakiTxebSi, rogoricaa avRaneTi, siria da irani. Tumca, EaP-sTan dakavSirebiT kompromisi SeuZlebelia. evrokavSirma unda gaagrZelos sanqciebis daweseba, sanam ruseTi aRmosavleT ukrainaSi Seqmnil situacias ar ganmuxtavs, ramdenad ekonomikurad mtkivneulic unda iyos es procesi zogierTi wevri qveynisTvis. ruseTis damSvidebis, an masTan didi garigebis ganxorcielebis mcdelobas adgili ar unda hqondes, rameTu moskovi aseT nabijs ise ganmartavs, rom mas EaP-ze sakuTari vetos dadebis SesaZlebloba gaaCnia.

daskvna aucilebelia, gavixsenoT, rom 28 wevri qveynisTvis saerTo sagareo politikis ganxorcieleba yovelTvis rTulia. evrokavSiri amJamad sakmaod dasustebulia dabali ekonomikuri zrdisa da gaZlierebuli populizmis fonze. aseT situaciaSi normatiuli Rirebulebebis dawinaureba sagareo urTierTobebSi kidev ufro Znelia. demokratiisa da adamianis uflebebis upiratesobis sakiTxis daqveiTeba xSirad xdeba maSin, rodesac ekonomikur gadarCenazea saubari. amasTan erTad, sami asocirebis xelSekruleba mxolod axlaxan Sevida ZalaSi da progresis Sesafaseblad garkveuli dro iqneba saWiro. evraziis kavSiric 2015 wlis dasawyisSi udgeba muSaobas da evrokavSiris axalma xelmZRvanelobam ukve gamoTqva Tavisi azri am organizaciasa da ruseTTan TanamSromlobis aucileblobis Taobaze. rac Seexeba saqarTvelos, man evrokavSirSi Seqmnili axali realoba unda gaiazros, sakuTari reformebis ganxorcielebis procesi gaagrZelos da kidev ufro intensiurad miudges am saqmes. amiT is 28 wevr qveyanas daarwmunebs, rom misi statusi, rogorc klasis saukeTeso moswavlisa, saTanado dros saTanadod unda dajildovdes.

amanda poli geopolitikisa da sagareo politikis analitikosi, Jurnalisti da blogeria. misi saeqsperto sferoebia TurqeTis sagareo politika, ukraina, samxreTi kavkasia, aRmosavleT partnioroba da evropis samezoblo politika, ruseTi, konfliqtebis mogvareba (kviprosi da yofili sabWoTa sivrce), agreTve geopolitikuri sakiTxebi kaspiis regionSi. amJamad muSaobs evropuli politikis centrSi politikur analitikosad da programebis aRmasruleblad. is TurqeTTan evrokavSiris aRmosavleT samezoblosa da evraziis regionTan dakavSirebul proeqtebs marTavs. amanda poli agreTve ufrosi mkvlevaria saerTaSoriso politikuri kvlevebis centrSi kievSi. amanda poli gamocdili Jurnalistia, da kviraSi orjer wers TurqeTis wamyvan inglisurenovan gazeT `Today’s Zaman~-Si TurqeTTan, ruseTis sagareo politikasa da evraziis regionTan dakavSirebul sakiTxebze. amandas didi gamocdileba aqvs mediaSi da is regularulad muSaobs masmediasa da akademiur JurnalebSi. amas garda, is xSirad figurirebs konsultantad/eqspertad evraziis regionTan dakavSirebul sakiTxebSi, romelic moicavs azerbaijans, ukrainasa da TurqeTs. evropuli politikis centrSi muSaobis dawyebamde amanda muSaobda evropuli politikuri kvlevebis centrSi, agreTve `Turk henkelSi~ stambolSi. Amanda Paul is a geopolitical and foreign policy analyst, journalist and blogger. Her main areas of expertise include Turkish foreign policy, Ukraine, the South Caucasus, Eastern Partnership and European Neighbourhood Policy, Russia, conflict resolution (Cyprus and the post-Soviet space) and geopolitical issues in the Caspian region. Presently employed as a Policy Analyst and Programme Executive at the EPC, she is responsible for managing EPC projects related to Turkey, the EU’s Eastern Neighbourhood and the Eurasia region. She is also Associate Senior Research Fellow at the International Centre for Policy Studies in Kyiv, Ukraine. Amanda is an experienced journalist and writes a column twice a week for “Today’s Zaman” – Turkey’s leading English language newspaper – on issues related to Turkey, Russian foreign policy and the Eurasia region. Amanda has vast broadcast experience and is a regular contributor to mass media, academic journals and other publications. She is also regularly engaged as an advisor/expert on issues related to the Eurasia region including Azerbaijan, Ukraine and Turkey. Prior to working at the EPC, Amanda worked at the Centre for European Policy Studies (CEPS) and Türk Henkel in Istanbul, Turkey.

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Analysis and Opinion | ანალიზი და მოსაზრება

ევროკავშირ-საქართველოს პოლიტიკური ასოცირების საზღვრები The Margins of European Union-Georgia Political Association კახა გოგოლაშვილი

უფროსი მკვლევარი, ევროპული კვლევების ცენტრის დირექტორი, საქართველოს სტრატეგიისა და საერთაშორისო ურთიერთობების კვლევის ფონდი

Kakha Gogolashvili Senior Fellow, Director of EU Studies at Georgian Foundation for Strategic and International Studies

s

aqarTvelosTvis SeTavazebuli politikuri asocirebis modeli mxareebs Soris TanamSromlobis or, formaluri TvalsazrisiT gansxvavebul, mimarTulebas moicavs; kerZod, demokratiuli politikuri institutebis gamyarebis process da sagareo politikis, usafrTxoebis da Tavdacvis sferoebSi TanamSromlobas. realurad,

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Georgia’s European Way November 2014

T

he political association model offered to Georgia by the European Union (EU) covers two directions of cooperation between the parties; namely, establishing democratic political institutions and cooperation in the fields of foreign policy, security and defence. In reality, the EU has never made a clear distinction between supporting democratic development (internally and region-wide), stability and security. Any framework agreement


Analysis and Opinion | ანალიზი და მოსაზრება evrokavSirs mkafiod arasdros gaumijnavs erTmaneTisgan, erTi mxriv, demokratiuli ganviTarebis mxardaWera (adgilobriv da regionul doneze) da, meore mxriv, stabiluroba da usafrTxoeba. nebismieri CarCoxelSekruleba, romelic evrokavSirs mesame qveynebTan gauformebia, am midgomas asaxavs, rac aris ara SemTxveviToba, aramed evrokavSiris fundamenturi misiis gamoxatuleba. „SeTanxmeba evropis kavSiris Seqmnis Sesaxeb“ (TEU) evrokavSiris sagareo politikas im saxelmZRvanelo principebis mixedviT gansazRvravs, „romlebmac stimuli misces Tavad mis Seqmnas, ganviTarebas da gafarToebas da romelTa gavrcelebasac is mTel msoflioSi cdilobs: demokratia, kanonis uzenaesoba, adamianis uflebebisa da fundamenturi Tavisuflebebis sayovelTaoba da ganuyofloba, adamianis Rirsebis, Tanasworobisa da solidarobis principebis pativiscema da gaerTianebuli erebis qartiis da saerTaSoriso samarTlis principebis dacva“. am xelSekrulebis Tanaxmad, evrokavSiri ecdeba, daamyaros urTierTobebi da ganaviTaros partnioroba mesame qveynebTan da saerTaSoriso, regionul an globalur organizaciebTan, romlebic zemoT miTiTebul principebs „iziareben“. TEU gzas uxsnis mesame qveynebTan iseTi maRali donis TanamSromlobas, romelic miznad isaxavs Rirebulebebis, fundamenturi interesebis, usafrTxoebis, damoukideblobisa da erTianobis dacvas. evrokavSiris sagareo politika eswrafvis demokratiis, kanonis uzenaesobis, adamianis uflebebisa da saerTaSoriso samarTlis principebis konsolidirebasa da mxardaWeras da, amave dros, xels uwyobs mSvidobis SenarCunebas, axdens konfliqtebis prevencias da aZlierebs saerTaSoriso usafrTxoebas. yvela am miswrafebaSi evrokavSiri moqmedebs arsebuli saerTaSoriso konvenciebis, qartiebisa da saTanadod aRiarebuli valdebulebebis Sesabamisad. Cven ar SevexebiT saerTaSoriso TanamSromlobis sxva amocanebs, romlebic evrokavSiris fuZemdeblur xelSekrulebebSia gansazRvruli da ganvagrZobT imis mtkicebas, rom saerTaSoriso politikis ori gamokveTili mimarTuleba, romelTa miTiTebiTac Cveni msjeloba daviwyeT, mWidrod ukavSirdeba evropuli integraciis logikasa da suliskveTebas. evrokavSiris fuZemdebluri xelSekrulebebidan naTeli xdeba Tu ratom moicavs sagareo TanamSromlobis Sesaxeb mesame qveynebTan (an saerTaSoriso organizaciebTan) dadebuli SeTanxmebebi rig debulebebs, ise TiTqos es erga omnes valdebulebebs warmoadgendes. evrokavSiris xelmowerili nebismieri saerTaSoriso CarCoxelSekrulebis es saerTo debulebebi politikuri dialogis damyarebas niSnavs da demokratiuli Rirebulebebis, mSvidobisa da usafrTxoebis pativiscemis da gaZlierebis mizans emsaxureba. am mxriv evrokavSirisTvis mniSvneloba ara aqvs, ra tipis TanamSromlobis xelSekruleba form-

signed with third countries reflects this attitude and is not an accident but rather an expression of the EU’s fundamental mission. The Treaty on the European Union (TEU) establishes EU’s external action plan regarding its guiding principles “which have inspired its own creation, development and enlargement and which it seeks to advance in the wider world: democracy, the rule of law, the universality and indivisibility of human rights and fundamental freedoms, respect for human dignity, the principles of equality and solidarity, and respect for the principles of the United Nations Charter and international law.” (TEU) According to the Treaty, the Union will seek to develop relations and build partnerships with third countries and international, regional or global organisations which share the principles as referred to above. The TEU promotes a high degree of cooperation in international relations with third states aimed at safeguarding values, fundamental

ევროკავშირის საგარეო პოლიტიკა ესწრაფვის დემოკრატიის, კანონის უზენაესობის, ადამიანის უფლებებისა და საერთაშორისო სამართლის პრინციპების კონსოლიდირებასა და მხარდაჭერას.

The EU’s foreign policy pursues the consolidation and support of democracy, the rule of law, human rights and the principles of international law.

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Analysis and Opinion | ანალიზი და მოსაზრება deba, magaliTad, partniorobisa da TanamSromlobis Sesaxeb SeTanxmeba (romelic yofil sabWoTa respublikebTan aris xelmowerili), evrokavSir-xmelTaSua zRvis auzis saxelmwifoebTan asocirebis SeTanxmeba, stabilizebisa da asocirebis SeTanxmeba (dasavleT balkaneTis saxelmwifoebisTvis) Tu „evropis SeTanxmeba“. 2000 da 2002 wlebSi meqsikasa da CilesTan gaformebuli xelSekrulebebic ki imave debulebebs moicavs, romlebic analogiur principebze dayrdnobiT politikuri dialogis safuZvels qmnian. vnaxoT, arsebobs Tu ara raime gansxvaveba xelSekrulebebis zemoT naxseneb formebs Soris politikuri TanamSromlobis siRrmisa da mxareTa mier nakisri valdebulebebis TvalsazrisiT. zogjer SeiZleba SecdomaSi Segviyvanos xelSekrulebis saxelwodebam. termini „asocirebis Sesaxeb SeTanxmeba“, romelsac evrokavSiri sxvadasxva gaformebuli saerTaSoriso SeTanxmebis dasaxelebad iyenebs, SesaZloa ar gamoxatavdes daaxloebis Tanabar xarisxs yvela sferoSi. evrokavSir-xmelTaSua zRvis auzis saxelmwifoebTan asocirebis SeTanxmebebi, romlebic maRribis da maSriyis arabul saxelmwifoebTan 1995 wlidan daido, partniorebs Soris Tavisufali vaWrobis reJimebs amyarebs, riTac es SeTanxmebebi Seesabameba stabilizebisa da asocirebis SeTanxmebebsa Tu evropis xelSekrulebebs. marTlac, am SeTanxmebis mixedviT, politikuri dialogi zemoaRniSnul qveynebTan nakleb mniSvnelovani Cans partniorobisa da TanamSromlobis Sesaxeb SeTanxmebebTan SedarebiTac ki, romlebic TiTqmis imave periodSi, im qveynebTan daido, romlebic sabWoTa kavSiris daSlis Semdeg aRmocendnen. imisaTvis, rom sxvadasxva xelSekrulebaSi TanamSromlobis miswrafebis xarisxi Segvefasebina, SevadareT im valdebulebis formulirebas, romelic saerTaSoriso sakiTxebze poziciebis daaxloebas exeba. daviwyoT „evropis kavSiris Seqmnis Sesaxeb xelSekrulebiT“, romelSic wevr saxelmwifoebs Soris sagareo politikis koordinirebis amocana Semdegnairad aris gansazRvruli: „sagareo politikis principebisa da amocanebis farglebSi evrokavSirma unda awarmoos, gansazRvros da ganaxorcielos sagareo da usafrTxoebis saerTo politika; es politika unda emyarebodes wevr saxelmwifoebs Soris politikuri solidarobis Camoyalibebas, zogadi interesis sakiTxebis identificirebas da wevri saxelmwifoebis qmedebis mudmivad mzardi xarisxiT daaxloebis miRwevas“. mudmivad mzardi daaxloeba warmoadgens wevr saxelmwifoebs Soris politikuri TanamSromlobis erT-erT mTavar maxasiaTebels. politikuri solidarobis miRwevac sakmaod Zlieri orientiria, magram sagareo da usafrTxoebis politikaSi TanamSromlobis ambiciis maqsimaluri done ar Seesabameba im dones, romelsac evrokavSiri sxva sferoebSi gamoxatavs, upirvelesad, vaWrobisa da ekonomikuri

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interests, security, independence and integrity. The EU’s foreign policy pursues the consolidation and support of democracy, the rule of law, human rights and the principles of international law and, at the same time, the preservation of peace, the prevention of conflicts and the strengthening of international security. In all of these areas, the EU acts in accordance with existing international conventions, charters and duly acknowledged obligations. At this point, we will not refer to other objectives of international cooperation laid down in the founding treaties but will instead resume with the affirmation that two distinct directions of international action, mentioned at the beginning of this article, are strongly interrelated in the logic and spirit of European integration. Looking at the EU’s founding treaties, it becomes obvious why external cooperation agreements with third countries (or international organizations) always contain provisions on the establishment of a political dialogue aimed at respect and the promotion of democratic values, peace and security. It makes no difference what kind of cooperation agreement one verifies such as, for example, the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement (PCA, signed with former Soviet republics), Euro-Mediterranean Association Agreement, Stabilisation and Association Agreement (SAA, for the Western Balkans) or the Europe Agreement. Even the agreements signed in 2000 and 2002 with Chile and Mexico respectively contain same provisions laying down the foundations for political dialogue based upon the same principles. The title of the agreement can sometimes be misleading. The term “association agreement,” used for different international accords concluded by the EU, may not precisely mark the level of rapprochement in all areas. The Euro-Mediterranean Association Agreements (1995) sets out

ტერმინი „ასოცირების

შესახებ შეთანხმება“, რომელსაც ევროკავშირი სხვადასხვა გაფორმებული საერთაშორისო შეთანხმების დასახელებად იყენებს, შესაძლოა არ გამოხატავდეს დაახლოების თანაბარ ხარისხს ყველა სფეროში. The term “association agreement,” used for different international accords concluded by the EU, may not precisely mark the level of rapprochement in all areas.


Analysis and Opinion | ანალიზი და მოსაზრება TanamSromlobis sferoSi, romelSic „evropis kavSiris Seqmnis Sesaxeb xelSekruleba“ eqskluziur kompetencias gansazRvravs da romelic zesaxelmwifoebrivi simaRleebidan imarTeba. amitom, aravin unda elodos saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebaSi am Sinaarsis debulebebis gamoyenebas ufro maRali, an msgavsi xarisxiTac ki. zemoT naxseneb formatebs Soris gansxvavebebis gaanalizebisTvis karg magaliTebs marokosTan, Cilesa da serbeTTan dadebuli sami sxvadasxva tipis asocirebis SeTanxmeba warmoadgens. marokosTan xelmowerili SeTanxmebis Tanaxmad, „mxareebs Soris daaxloebis xelSewyoba saerTo interesis saerTaSoriso sakiTxebis ukeT gaazrebisa da regularuli koordinirebis gziT unda moxdes; TiToeulma mxarem unda gaiTvaliswinos meore mxaris pozicia da interesebi; sakuTari wvlili Seitanos xmelTaSua zRvis regionis da, gansakuTrebiT, maRribis regionis usafrTxoebisa da stabilurobis gamyarebaSi“. CilesTan gaformebul xelSekrulebaSi weria, rom: „mxareebma SeZlebisdagvarad unda moaxdinon TavianTi poziciebis koordinireba, Seasrulon erToblivi iniciativebi Sesabamis saerTaSoriso arenaze da iTanamSromlon sagareo da usafrTxoebis politikis sferoSi... iTanamSromlon terorizmis winaaRmdeg brZolaSi saerTaSoriso konvenciebisa da sakuTari kanonebisa da regulaciebis Sesabamisad“. am ori xelSekrulebidan met-naklebad Tanabari xarisxis valdebulebebs vxedavT usafrTxoebis sakiTxebze TanamSromlobis sferoSi. amasTan, es TanamSromloba miznad SedarebiT viwro amocanebis miRwevas isaxavs, kerZod: a) TanamSromlobas regionul sakiTxebSi (maroko) da b) terorizmis winaaRmdeg brZolas (Cile). poziciebis daaxloeba naxsenebi ar aris, magram mxareebma an unda „gaiTvaliswinon“ (maroko), an „SeZlebisdagvarad unda moaxdinon poziciebis koordinireba“. aSkarad ufro Rrma TanamSromlobaa SeTavazebuli serbeTisTvis, romelTanac gaformebuli SeTanxmeba moiTxovs: „...saerTo xedvebs evropaSi usafrTxoebasa da stabilurobaze, maT Soris, TanamSromlobas im sferoebSi, romlebsac evrokavSiris sagareo da usafrTxoebis saerTo politika iTvaliswinebs“. pirvel rigSi, zemoT naxsenebi „saerTo xedvebi“ „saerTo poziciis“ cnebas hgavs, romelic „evropis kavSiris funqcionirebis Sesaxeb xelSekrulebis“ 25-e muxlSia gansazRvruli. es SeTanxmeba (igulisxmeba serbeTTan stabilizebisa da asocirebis Sesaxeb SeTanxmeba) udavod met sivrces iTvaliswinebs usafrTxoebis sakiTxebze TanamSromlobisTvis, vidre wina ori xelSekruleba. igive debulebebi evrokavSirsa da saqarTvelos Soris partniorobisa da TanamSromlobis Sesaxeb SeTanxmebidan (romelic 1999 wlidan aris ZalaSi) iTvaliswinebs: „...ormxrivad saintereso saerTaSoriso sakiTxebis Sesaxeb poziciebis mzard daaxloebas, rac gaaZlierebs uSiSroebasa da stabilurobas region-

free trade areas among partners much like the Stabilisation and Association Agreements or Europe Agreements. Indeed, the political dialogue according to this agreement seems even less ambitious than under the Partnership and Cooperation Agreements concluded nearly at the same time as countries emerged after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. It is important to note that in order to judge the extent of cooperation ambition for the different agreements we have to compare the wording concerning the obligation to converge the positions on international issues. We start from the TEU, which defines the task of coordination in external policies among member states as follows: “Within the framework of the principles and objectives of its external action, the Union shall conduct, define and implement a common foreign and security policy, based on the development of mutual political solidarity among Member States, the identification of questions of general interest and the achievement of an over-increasing degree of convergence of Member States’ action.” Cooperation in areas of Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) between EU member states intends to reach an ever increasing degree of convergence and mutual political solidarity. This, in general terms, does not match the level of ambition demonstrated by the EU in other areas such as trade and economic cooperation, where the TEU establishes an exclusive competence and is ruled from a supranational level. Therefore, no one should expect an extension of similar provisions to an international agreement at a higher or even a similar level. Three different types of association agreements signed with Morocco, Chile and Serbia can serve as good examples of the differentiation among the aforementioned formats. In its wording, the agreement with Morocco states its aim to: “...facilitate rapprochement between the Parties through the development of better mutual understanding and regular coordination on international issues of common interest; enable each Party to consider the position and interests of the other; contribute to consolidating security and stability in the Mediterranean region and in the Maghreb in particular.” With Chile, the agreement states that: “…Parties shall, as far as possible, coordinate their positions and undertake joint initiatives in the appropriate international fora, and cooperate in the field of foreign and security policy… to cooperate in the fight against terrorism in accordance with international conventions and with their respective laws and regulations.” From these two agreements, we observe a more or less equal level of commitment covering cooperation in security issues. The cooperation, however, pursues relatively narrow objectives, namely cooperation in regional matters (Morocco) and the fight against terrorism (Chile). There is no mentioning of the convergence of positions but parties “enabling to consider” (Morocco) or, “as far as possible, coordination of the positions”. Elsewhere, a deeper cooperation approach is offered to Serbia calling for: “...common views on security and stability in Europe, including cooperation in the areas covered by the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) of the European Union.” First of all, the mention of “common views” echoes the idea of the “common position” referred to in Article 25 of the Treaty of the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). Unquestionably, this agreement provides for a much wider space in security cooperation matters than the previous two examples of Morocco and Chile. The same provisions from the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement (PCA) between the EU and Georgia (in force since 1999) cover: “…increasing convergence of positions on international issues of mutual concern thus increasing security and stability in the

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Analysis and Opinion | ანალიზი და მოსაზრება Si... gaaZlierebs stabilurobasa da usafrTxoebas evropaSi“. aSkaraa, rom partniorobisa da TanamSromlobis Sesaxeb SeTanxmebac ki, romelic bevrad Camouvardeba zemoaRniSnul asocirebis SeTanxmebebs vaWrobis liberalizaciis TvalsazrisiT (mxolod upiratesi xelSewyobis reJims sTavazobs), politikuri daaxloebis Tanabar, zog SemTxvevaSi nakleb (serbeTi), Tumca zogjer ufro maRal xarisxs aCvenebs, rodesac saqme usafrTxoebis sakiTxebSi TanamSromlobas exeba. logikuria, rom 2007 wels saqarTvelos SesTavazes, SeerTeboda evrokavSiris „saerTo poziciis“ gancxadebebs, ramac saqarTvelos evrokavSirTan politikuri TanamSromlobis formati praqtikulad imave rangSi aiyvana, rogoric evrokavSirs aqvs dasavleT balkaneTis qveynebTan stabilizebisa da asocirebis SeTanxmebis safuZvelze. Tu SeviswavliT evrokavSirsa da saqarTvelos Soris asocirebis Sesaxeb SeTanxmebas (romelic ukrainasa da moldovasTan evrokavSiris asocirebis SeTanxmebebis analogiuria), davinaxavT seriozul mcdelobas, rom evrokavSir-saqarTvelos politikuri TanamSromloba ayvanil iqnes rac SeiZleba maRal doneze, rogorc TanamSromlobis siRrmis, ise moqmedebis sferoTa dafarvis TvalsazrisiT. SeTanxmeba miznad isaxavs, rom politikuri dialogi „...gazrdis politikuri TanamSromlobis efeqtianobas da xels Seuwyobs sagareo da usafrTxoebis politikis sakiTxebSi daaxloebas, urTierTobebis gamyarebas ambiciuri da inovaciuri gziT“. politikuri TanamSromlobis gaRrmaveba danaxulia politikuri da usafrTxoebis politikis mzardi daaxloebis prizmaSi. asocirebis SeTanxmeba iseT sakiTxebs exeba, rogorebicaa: saerTaSoriso stabilurobisa da usafrTxoebis xelSewyoba mravalmxrivi TanamSromlobis efeqtianad ganxorcielebis safuZvelze; masobrivi ganadgurebis iaraRis gavrcelebis winaaRmdeg brZola; saerTaSoriso usafrTxoeba da krizisis marTva; globalur da regionul gamowvevebsa da mTavar safrTxeebze reagireba; teritoriuli mTlianobis, saerTaSoriso doneze aRiarebuli sazRvrebis urRveobis, suverenitetisa da damoukideblobis principebis xelSewyoba; evropis kontinentze mSvidobis, usafrTxoebisa da stabilurobis xelSewyoba; usafrTxoebis da Tavdacvis sfero da regionuli TanamSromloba. TiTqosda evrokavSiris fuZemdebluri dokumentis („xelSekruleba evropis kavSiris funqcionirebis Sesaxeb“) 1-li Tavis 21-e muxlis (evrokavSiris sagareo saqmianobis zogadi debulebebi) iribi miTiTebiT, saqarTvelosTan asocirebis SeTanxmeba mniSvnelovania im nawilSi, romelic sagareo da usafrTxoebis saerTo politikis sferoSi TanamSromlobas exeba, vinaidan erT-erTi amocana Semdegnairad aris gansazRvruli: „...gaaZlieros demokratiuli principebis, kanonis uzenaesobisa da kargi mmarTvelobis, adamia-

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region… strengthening of stability and security in Europe.” The degree of political rapproachment concerning cooperation in security matters in the PCA does not mirror that of the agreement with Serbia. It is logical that Georgia was offered the opportunity to join the EU’s “common position” statements in 2007 which practically put Georgia’s political cooperation with the EU on the same level as that established with the Western Balkans upon the basis of the SAA. Exploring the Association Agreement between the European Union and Georgia further (and for Ukraine and Moldova), we can detect a strong attempt to bring the political cooperation between the EU and Georgia to the highest possible level in both depth and scope. The Agreement purports to: “…increase the effectiveness of political cooperation and promote convergence on foreign and security matters, strengthening relations in an ambitious and innovative way.” The deepening of political cooperation is viewed in the light of increased political and security policy convergence. The application of the Association Agreement extends to areas such as the promotion of international stability and security based upon effective multilateralism, the fight against the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, international security and crisis management, addressing global and regional challenges and key threats, the promotion of the principles of territorial integrity, inviolability of internationally recognized borders, sovereignty and independence,


Analysis and Opinion | ანალიზი და მოსაზრება

თუ შევისწავლით ევროკავშირსა და საქართველოს შორის ასოცირების შესახებ შეთანხმებას, დავინახავთ სერიოზულ მცდელობას, რომ ევროკავშირ

-საქართველოს პოლიტიკური თანამშრომლობა აყვანილ იქნეს რაც შეიძლება მაღალ დონეზე. Exploring the Association Agreement between the European Union and Georgia further, we can detect a strong attempt to bring the political

cooperation between the EU and Georgia to the

highest possible level. nis uflebebisa da ZiriTadi Tavisuflebebis, maT Soris, mediis Tavisuflebisa da im pirebis uflebebis pativiscema, romlebic miekuTvnebian umciresobebs, aseve wvlili Seitanos Sida politikuri reformebis konsolidaciaSi“. calke debuleba daeTmo TanamSromlobas konfliqtis prevenciis, konfliqtis mSvidobiani gziT mogvarebis da krizisis marTvis, regionuli stabilurobis, ganiaraRebis, iaraRis gauvrceleblobis, iaraRis da eqsportis kontrolis sakiTxebSi. konfliqtis prevenciasa da krizisis marTvaSi TanamSromloba moicavs realurad proaqtiul amocanas _ saqarTvelos SesaZlo monawileobas evrokavSiris egidiT ganxorcielebul samoqalaqo da samxedro krizisebis marTvis operaciebSi. arcerTi sxva SeTanxmeba, romelic evrokavSirs mesame qveynebTan (nato-s qveynebis gamoklebiT) gauformebia, ar aris ase detalurad gawerili da ambiciuri politikuri TanamSromlobis da usafrTxoebis sferoSi valdebulebebis TvalsazrisiT. aSkaraa, rom dasavleT balkaneTis qveynebTan dadebul xelSekrulebebSic ki evrokavSirs aseTi detalebi ar daukonkretebia da sakmao sivrce dautova politikur formats, gansazRvros partniorebs Soris interaqciis areali.

peace, security and stability on the European continent, the field of security and defence, and regional cooperation. Seemingly, as a tacit reference to Article 21 of Chapter 1 (General Provisions of the Union’s External Action) of the Union’s founding treaty (TFEU), the Association Agreement with Georgia, which lists cooperation in CFSP matters as one of the objectives, sets out to: “…strengthen respect for democratic principles, the rule of law and good governance, human rights and fundamental freedoms, including media freedom and the rights of persons belonging to minorities, and to contribute to consolidating domestic political reforms.” A special provision form the AA concerns cooperation on issues of conflict prevention, peaceful conflict resolution and crisis management, regional stability, disarmament, non-proliferation, arms control and export control. Cooperation in conflict prevention and crisis management embodies a truly pro-active objective of Georgia’s possible participation in EU-led civilian and military crisis management operations. No other agreement signed by the EU with third countries (excluding NATO allies) is as precise and ambitious in committing to initiatives in the field of political cooperation and security. Indeed, even in its agreements with the Western Balkans the EU did not go into such details and left ambiguity concerning the scope of interaction between partners.

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Analysis and Opinion | ანალიზი და მოსაზრება

ღია და დემოკრატიული მმართველობა საქართველოში - გამოწვევები ევროინტეგრაციის გზაზე Democratic and Open Governance in Georgia – Challenges on the path to Euro Integration ლევან ავალიშვილი

„ინფორმაციის თავისუფლების განვითარების ინსტიტუტის“ დამფუძნებელი და გამგეობის თავმჯდომარე

Levan Avalishvili Co-founder and Chairman of the Board at the Institute for Development of Freedom of Information

s

aqarTvelosa da evrokavSirs Soris asocirebis Sesaxeb SeTanxmebis gaformebam kidev erTxel daadastura, rom dRes saqarTvelo Seuqcevadad dgas evrointegraciis gzaze. es gza qveyanam sakmaod rTuli politikuri da socialur-ekonomikuri problemebis fonze ganvlo. saqarTvelos mTavrobebma gaatares mravali mniSvnelovani reforma, moaxdines finansuri institutebisa da sajaro samsaxuris modernizeba, kanonmdeblobis nawilis harmonizacia evrokavSiris regulaciebTan da Seitanes gardatexa korufciasTan brZolaSi. Tumca, aucilebelia aRiniSnos, rom yvela am cvlilebas Tu reformas safuZvlad edo qarTveli xalxis mtkice neba da swrafva demokratiuli mmarTvelobis damkvidrebisaken saqarTveloSi. evrokavSirTan asocirebis SeTanxmebis xelmoweriT saqarTvelom kidev erTxel gamoxata mtkice erTguleba demokratiuli qveynebis iseTi saerTo Rirebulebebisadmi, rogoric aris kargi mmarTveloba, kanonis uzenaesoba, adamianis uflebaTa da ZiriTad TavisuflebaTa dacva da aiRo valdebuleba, gaagrZelos maTi mtkiced damkvidreba. demokratiuli saxelmwifo SeuZlebelia informaciis Tavisuflebis gareSe, radgan informaciis Tavisufleba, upirveles yovlisa, gulisxmobs sazogadoebis winaSe xelisuflebis angariSvaldebulebas, sajaro informaciis xelmisawvdomobis uzrunvelyofas, mTavrobis saqmianobis gamWvirvalobas, sabiujeto saxsrebis gankargvisa da sajaro politikis ganxorcielebis Riaobas da am procesSi moqalaqeTa CarTulobis xelSewyobas. informaciis miRebis uflebas ukve 250-wliani istoria aqvs. msoflioSi informaciis Tavisuflebis pirveli kanoni jer kidev 1766 wels, SvedeTis samefoSi miiRes. finuri warmoSobis cnobili sazogado moRvawis anders hideniusis iniciativiT, SvedeTis parlamentma gansazRvra oficialur

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he signature of the Association Agreement between Georgia and the EU has once again highlighted the irreversible aim of Georgian society towards Euro integration. The reforms aim to bring relations with the EU and Georgia closer together during a period of tough socioeconomic conditions. Different governments in office have implemented a considerable number of reforms and modernised financial institutions and the civil service sector, thereby harmonising Georgian legislation with EU regulations in number of fields and making breakthrough steps in the process of the fight against corruption. At the same time, it should be emphasised that all the reforms were strengthened by the will of Georgian people and their aspiration towards the establishment of democratic governance in their country. The signature of the Association Agreement has one more time highlighted that Georgia is devoted to the common values of democratic counties, such as good governance, rule of law, the protection of basic human rights and freedoms and that Georgia will endevour to continue down the path of further developing these values. To date it is impossible to imagine democratic governance without freedom of information. Freedom of information first and foremost emphasises the importance of accountability before society, ensuring access to information, government and budget transparency, open process of implementing public policy and the involvement of society throughout the process. The right to access public information has a 250-year history. The first Freedom of Information Act was adopted in 1766 by the Kingdom of Sweden. The Parliament of Sweden adopted the right on the access to official documents by the initiative of Anders Hidenius, a public figure of Finnish nationality. Since then transparency and the control of the government by its citizens has


Analysis and Opinion | ანალიზი და მოსაზრება dokumentebze xelmisawvdomobis ufleba, ris Sedegadac sajarooba da moqalaqeebis mxridan xelisuflebis kontroli gaxda erT-erTi ZiriTadi principi evropuli qveynebisTvis da demokratiuli sazogadoebisTvis. dRes, am TariRidan ori saukunis Semdeg, informaciis miRebis ufleba saerTaSoriso sazogadoebis mier adamianis fundamentur uflebad aris aRiarebuli da igi sasicocxlod mniSvnelovania sazogadoebrivi azris Camoyalibebis, TiToeuli adamianis pirovnuli Tu profesiuli ganviTarebisa da, zogadad, Zlieri samoqalaqo sazogadoebis arsebobisaTvis. idea, rom sajaro dawesebulebebSi daculi informacia sazogadoebrivi sikeTea, dResdReobiT mraval saerTaSoriso dokumentsa da calkeuli qveynis erovnul kanonmdeblobaSia ganmtkicebuli. im qveyanaTa ricxvi, sadac informaciis xelmisawvdomobis uzrunvelmyofi samarTlebrivi aqtebi moqmedebs, dReisaTvis 100-s aWarbebs. es mniSvnelovani progresia, Tuki gaviTvaliswinebT, rom sul raRac 20 wlis win, gasuli saukunis 90-iani wlebis dasawyisSi, aseTi kanonmdebloba mxolod 13 qveyanas gaaCnda. Tumca, am sayovelTao aRiarebamde, calkeul saxelmwifoebs, maT Soris saqarTvelos, mravali rTuli da winaaRmdegobrivi etapis gavla dasWirdaT. evropuli qveynebisgan gansxvavebiT, demokratiul institutebs saqarTveloSi arsebobis arcTu ise xangrZlivi istoria da tradiciebi aqvT. 1921 wels, saqarTvelos pirveli demokratiuli respublikis bolSevikebis mier damxobas mohyva 70-wliani totalitaruli mmarTveloba, ramac safuZvelSive CaaxSo demokratiuli ganviTarebis SesaZlebloba Cvens qveyanaSi. mTeli sabWoTa periodis

become one of the main values of European countries and of democratic societies as a whole. Nowadays, two centuries later, access to information is recognised as one of the most fundamental human rights and is crucial for the formation of public opinion, professional development of each person and the existence of a country’s strong civil society. The idea that information held by state institutions is a public good is enshrined in various international legal acts, as well as national legislations. The number of states, which have adopted legislative acts aimed towards the protection of the freedom of information, has reached more than 100. This progress is considerable, taking into consideration that only 20 years ago, i.e. in the 1990s, there were only 13 instances of countries adopting such legislation. Nevertheless, a number of countries – among them Georgia – had to overcome various controversial political stages before the widespread recognition of freedom of information. In contrast with European states, democratic institutions in Georgia do not possess a long history and tradition of existence. In 1921, the overthrow of the first democratic government in Georgia by the Bolsheviks resulted in 70 years of totalitarian rule in the country, which stopped the possibility of Georgia’s democratic development at its vey roots. The repressions taking place during the Soviet reign aimed at eliminating democratic, liberal and pro-Western oriented elites of society. In the 1990s the process of obtaining independence occurred at the same time as tough socio-economic crises, civil conflicts and bloodshed. Regardless of these difficulties, Georgian society was oriented towards implementing truly democratic governance in the country. The will was strengthened by the adoption of the Constitu-

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Analysis and Opinion | ანალიზი და მოსაზრება ganmavlobaSi saxelmwifo represiebi specialurad mimarTuli iyo demokratiuli, liberaluri da prodasavluri azrovnebis mqone elitis gasanadgureblad. 90-ian wlebSi, damoukideblobis xelmeored mopovebas daemTxva mZafri socialur-ekonomikuri krizisi, samoqalaqo dapirispireba da sisxliani konfliqtebi. miuxedavad aseTi problemuri viTarebisa, qarTuli sazogadoeba Seuqcevadad iyo orientirebuli qveyanaSi demokratiuli mmarTvelobis damkvidrebisken, rac gamyarebuli iqna 1995 wels miRebuli konstituciiT. mniSvnelovania aRiniSnos, rom konstituciis miRebamde, 1994 wlis 3 maiss, saqarTvelom moaxdina gaeros samoqalaqo da politikuri uflebebis Sesaxeb saerTaSoriso paqtis ratificireba da aiRo aRniSnuli paqtiT gaTvaliswinebuli valdebulebebi, maT Soris, sajaro dawesebulebaSi daculi informaciis xelmisawvdomobis uzrunvelyofis valdebuleba, rac Semdgom aisaxa kidevac saqarTvelos konstituciaSi. 1999 wels, saqarTvelos zogadi administraciuli kodeqsis miRebiT, informaciis xelmisawvdomobis maregulirebeli normebi kidev ufro ganivrco, radgan kodeqsis mesame Tavi swored informaciis Tavisuflebis sakiTxs eZRvneba. am droidan iwyeba saqarTveloSi sajaro informaciis xelmisawvdomobis uflebis istoria, romelic Tavdapirvelad bevr praqtikul problemas waawyda instituciuri damkvidrebis gzaze. am problemebidan umTavresi mainc iyo is garemoeba, rom 70-wliani erTpartiuli mmarTvelobis Semdgom saqarTvelos sazogadoeba ver aRmoCnda mzad demokratiuli kontrolis aseTi berketis efeqtiani gamoyenebisaTvis. erTi mxriv, moqalaqeebi ar icnobdnen da ver iyenebdnen kanoniT maTze miniWebul am uflebas da, meore mxriv, biurokratia ver an ar asrulebda kanoniT maTze dakisrebul valdebulebas. miuxedavad arsebuli problemebisa, zogadi administraciuli kodeqsis informaciis Tavisuflebis Tavma Zalian mniSvnelovani da pozitiuri roli iTamaSa qveyanaSi demokratiuli mmarTvelobis damkvidrebaSi. saerTaSoriso Tanamegobrobis daxmarebiT, sajaro seqtorSi ganxorcielebulma treningebma xeli Seuwyo sajaro informaciis gacemaze pasuxismgebel pirTa kvalifikaciis amaRlebas, mediisa da arasamTavrobo organizaciebis aqtiurobam Seqmna saTanado sazogadoebrivi wnexi biurokratiaze, sasamarTlo praqtikam xeli Seuwyo sajaro informaciis xelmisawvdomobis uflebis instituciur gamyarebas. Sedegad, 2012 wels avtoritetuli saerTaSoriso arasamTavrobo organizaciebis mier (Centre for Law and Democracy, Access Info Europe, International Budget Partnership) Catarebulma kvlevam, romelmac mTeli msoflios masStabiT 80 sxvadasxva qveyana moicva, aCvena, rom saqarTvelo aRmoCnda im qveynebis rigSi, sadac sajaro informaciis kanoni efeqtianad muSaobs (me-2 adgili axali zelandiis Semdeg). amave dros, saqarTvelom mniSvnelovnad gauswro iseT qveynebs, rogorcaa safrangeTi, norvegia an Tundac amerikis SeerTebuli Statebi. miuxedavad aseTi Sedegisa, aucilebelia aRiniSnos, rom am saerTaSoriso kvlevis Sedegi ver asaxavs saqarTvelo-

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tion in 1995. It should be emphasised that before the adoption of the Constitution, on May 3rd 1995 the Government of Georgia ratified the Covenant of the United Nations on Civil and Political Rights and undertook a number of responsibilities enshrined in the document, inter alia the responsibility to ensure access to information held in public institutions. The principle was later included in the Constitution of Georgia. In 1999 after the adoption of the General Administrative Code of Georgia the rules regulating the issues of freedom of information were extended, as all of Chapter 3 of the Code governed issues regarding access to information. This is the point in history when freedom of information was introduced in Georgia. The principle met a number of challenges at the very outset of its institutional development. One of the most important concerns was the failure of Georgian society to effectively exercise this important leverage after single-party governance for 70 years. Thus on the one hand, citizens lacked awareness of the importance of freedom of information while on the other the existing bureaucracy failed to duly exercise its responsibilities. Despite the existing problems the chapter concerning freedom of information in the General Administrative Code played an important role for the establishment of democratic governance in the country. The trainings implemented within the public service, with the support of international society, have resulted in the improved professional skills of officials responsible for the provision of public information. The activities undertaken by media and non-governmental organisations have resulted in control of the government by society and case law developed by the judicial branch, which has materialised in the institutional strengthening of freedom of information. As a result, in 2012, based on the research conducted by respected international organisations (Centre for Law and Democracy, Access Info Europe, International Budget Partnership) spanning 80 countries worldwide, it was highlighted that Georgia was listed among a group of states with the most effective implemented measures of freedom of information (second place after New Zealand). At the same time, Georgia stands considerably higher in the ratings than developed countries such as France, Norway and the USA. Regardless of the abovementioned, it should be emphasised that the results of the international analysis do not duly reflect the existing reality in Georgia. The five years experience of our organisation (Institute for the Development of Freedom of Information – IDFI) makes clear that there are still plenty of problems with regard freedom of information in Georgia. For instance, from the 11886 FOI requests sent during 2010-2013 we received 306 refusals and 1426 incomplete responses, while 2748 requests were ignored. In our opinion, this is the result of a cumulative effect of gaps in the legislation and a lack of political will. In Georgia, as in any other country, freedom of information is always confronted by governmental interests to restrict the leverages of public control. Nowadays, democratic countries have started to undertake new reforms aimed at the establishment of higher standards of trans-


Analysis and Opinion | ანალიზი და მოსაზრება Si arsebul realobas. Cveni organizaciis, `informaciis Tavisuflebis ganviTarebis institutis (IDFI)~, 5-wliani praqtika aCvenebs, rom saqarTveloSi kvlav rCeba realuri problemebi informaciis xelmisawvdomobasTan dakavSirebiT. kerZod, Cven mier 2010-2013 wlebSi gagzavnili 11886 sajaro informaciis moTxovnidan 2748 darCa upasuxod, 1426 pasuxi iyo arasrulyofili, 306 SemTxvevaSi Cven miviReT uari informaciis mowodebaze. amis gamomwvevi mizezi, Cveni azriT, kanonmdeblobis xarvezebisa da politikuri nebis TanxvedraSi unda veZioT, radgan saqarTveloSi, iseve rogorc sxva qveynebSi, sajaro interesi upirispirdeba xelisuflebis interess SezRudos sazogadoebrivi kontrolis meqanizmebi. dRes msoflios demokratiulma qveynebma gamWvirvalobisa da Riaobis mimarTulebiT daiwyes reformebis axali talRis ganxorcieleba. 2011 wels daiwyo saerTaSoriso iniciativa „partnioroba Ria mmarTvelobisaTvis“ (Open Government Partnership – OGP). misma damfuZnebelma saxelmwifoebma (aSS, brazilia, indonezia, meqsika, norvegia, filipinebi, samxreTi afrika, gaerTianebuli samefo) xeli moaweres Ria mmarTvelobis deklaracias da SeimuSaves individualuri samoqmedo gegmebi Ria da demokratiuli mmarTvelobis ganviTarebis mizniT. partniorobis monawile qveynebi valdebulebas iReben, rom moaxdenen gamWvirvalobis popularizacias, moqalaqeebs miscemen gadawyvetilebebis miRebis procesSi monawileobis SesaZleblobas, SeebrZolebian korufciasa da ukeTesi mmarTvelobis misaRwevad gamoiyeneben uaxles teqnologiebs. OGP-is monawileTa mier aRebuli erT-erTi mTavari valdebulebaa saxelmwifos saqmianobasTan dakavSirebuli informaciis xelmisawvdomobis gazrda, maT Soris, saxelmwifo saxsrebis xarjvisa da sajaro funqciebis ganxorcielebasTan dakavSirebuli informaciis proaqtiuli gamoqveynebis gziT. saqarTvelo aqtiurad CaerTo partniorobis saqmianobaSi da gaatara rigi mniSvnelovani reformebi. 2013 wels aRebuli valdebulebebis farglebSi, saqarTveloSi damkvidrda sajaro informaciis proaqtiulad gamoqveynebisa da informaciis eleqtronulad moTxovnis standarti. saqarTvelos xelisuflebas agreTve aRebuli aqvs valdebuleba, rom 2015 wels warmoadgens sajaro informaciis kanonis axal proeqts, romelic aRmofxvris im praqtikul problemebs, rac arsebobs saqarTveloSi da uzrunvelyofs axali normebis efeqtian implementacias. rogorc unda warimarTos gamWvirvalobis es axali reforma saqarTveloSi, SegviZlia ganvacxadoT, rom demokratiuli mmarTvelobis ganviTarebis saqmeSi xelisuflebas eqneba samoqalaqo sazogadoebis sruli mxardaWera. darwmunebulebi varT, rom informaciis Tavisuflebis reforma mniSvnelovnad Seuwyobs xels evrostruqturebSi saqarTvelos srulfasovani integraciis process, radgan gamWvirvaloba, xelisuflebis angariSvaldebuleba da moqalaqeTa CarTuloba evrokavSiris wevr saxelmwifoTa erT-erT ZiriTad princips warmoadgens da garantirebulia evrokavSiris xelSekrulebis pirveli muxliT.

ინფორმაციის თავისუფლების რეფორმა მნიშვნელოვნად შეუწყობს ხელს ევროსტრუქტურებში საქართველოს სრულფასოვანი ინტეგრაციის პროცესს.

freedom of information reforms will facilitate the process of Georgia’s Euro integration.

parency and democracy; e.g., in 2011 the international initiative Open Government Partnership was launched. Its founding countries (the USA, Brazil, Indonesia, Mexico, Norway, the Philippines, South Africa and the UK) signed the Declaration on Open Governance and developed individual action plans for the development of transparent and democratic governance. The member states of the partnership made an undertaking to promote the principle of transparency, ensure the involvement of citizens in the process of decision making, fight against corruption and aim at better governance by means of implementing the newest technological developments. One of the most important responsibilities, undertaken by the member countries of OGP, is to ensure access to information by means of proactive publication of information regarding state budget spending and the implementation of public functions. The Government of Georgia is actively involved in the activities of the partnership and has implemented a number of important reforms. Within the responsibilities undertaken in 2013 the standard proactive publication and electronic request of public information was implemented in Georgia. The country has also taken on the responsibility to present a new law – the Law on Freedom of Information – by 2015. The law should aim at eliminating the existing problems, which will result in an effective implementation of the current legislation in force. Regardless of the path on which reform will further be developed, it can be stated without hesitation that the government has the full support from civil society in the process of developing democratic governance in the country. We are further confident that FOI reforms will facilitate the process of Georgia’s Euro integration, because transparency, government accountability and greater levels of citizens’ involvement in decision making are the main principles of the EU member states and is guaranteed by Article 1 of the Association Agreement.

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Education | განათლება

თსუ ევროპული კვლევების ინსტიტუტი TSU Institute for European Studies თსუ ევროპული კვლევების ინსტიტუტის კურსდამთავრებულები

Graduates of the TSU Institute for European Studies

2

014 wlis 27 oqtombers urTierTTanamSromlobis memorandums xeli moaweres evropul da evroatlantikur struqturebSi integraciis sakiTxebSi saqarTvelos saxelmwifo ministrma, batonma aleqsi petriaSvilma da ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis reqtorma, akademikosma profesorma vladimer papavam. imedia, saxelmwifo ministris aparatidan wamosuli unikaluri SemoTavazeba institutTan urTierTTanamSromlobis memorandumis gaformebis Taobaze, momavali miRwevebis qvakuTxedad iqceva. aRsaniSnavia, rom saswavlo da kvleviT komponentebSi aqtiur TanamSromlobasTan erTad, memorandumis farglebSi, studentTa profesiuli zrdisa da ganviTarebis xelSewyobis mizniT, Tsu evropuli kvlevebis institutis studentebs pirvelad miecemaT SesaZlebloba, praqtika gaiaron saxelmwifo ministris aparatSi da, Sesabamisad, uSualod CaerTon

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A

memorandum of mutual understanding has been signed on 27 October 2014 by the State Minister of Georgia on European and Euro-Atlantic Integration, Mr. Alex Petriashvili, and by the Rector of the Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, Professor Vladimer Papava. Hopefully, the unique offer regarding the signing of the memorandum, which came from the office of the minister, will become a cornerstone of future achievements. It is remarkable that, for the purposes supporting the students’ professional development and growth, in addition to the cooperation on academic and research aspects, the memorandum will, for the first time, provide the students of the TSU Institute for European Studies with the opportunity to obtain practice within the office of the minister. Accordingly, they will be able to become directly involved in the working process related to the EU-Georgian relations.

The Institute for European Studies of the Tbilisi State University was founded in 2007 as part of the European Union’s TACIS program, with the EU’s financial support, and the backing of the EU’s Representation in Georgia.


Education | განათლება saqarTvelo-evrokavSiris urTierTobasTan dakavSirebul sakiTxebze muSaobis procesSi. Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis evropuli kvlevebis instituti daarsda 2007 wels, evrokavSiris TACIS-is programis farglebSi, evrokavSiris finansuri mxardaWeriT da saqarTveloSi evrokavSiris warmomadgenlobis TanadgomiT. imave wels, partniori evropuli universitetebis profesorebisa da eqspertebis monawileobiT, kerZod, grenoblis pier mendesis safrangeTis universitetis, aseve aTenis socialur da politikur mecnierebaTa berZnuli universitetisa da avstriuli insbrukis sajaro reformebis centrisgan Semdgari konsorciumis CarTulobiT, SemuSavda samxreT kavkasiaSi pirveli interdisciplinuri inglisurenovani samagistro programa evropismcodneobaSi. programis SemuSavebis dros gaTvaliswinebuli iqna rogorc aRniSnul sferoSi evropis mowinave universitetebis saukeTeso gamocdileba, aseve boloniis procesis standartebi da miRwevebi. inglisurenovani magistratura evropismcodneobaSi unikaluria, radgan interdisciplinuri programaa da konceptualurad efuZneba Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis oTx _ ekonomikisa da biznesis, iuridiul, socialur da politikur mecnierebaTa da humanitarul _ fakultets, raTa studentebma SeZlon evrokavSiris Sesaxeb saTanado ganaTlebis miReba. institutma, daarsebisTanave, 2007 wels miiRo magistrantebis pirveli nakadi. evrokavSiris Zalisxmevam, inglisurenovani programis unikalurma struqturam da Sinaarsma, mowveul profesorTa profesionalizmma, iseve rogorc kursdamTavrebulTa kvalifikaciis maRalma donem da maTi dasaqmebis Sedegebma didad gansazRvra Tsu evropuli kvlevebis institutis, rogorc sauniversiteto mniSvnelobis saganmanaTleblo-samecniero struqturuli erTeulis warmatebis xarisxi. amasTan, institutma danerga sajaro Sexvedrebis praqtika da amiT SesaZlebloba gauxsna ara mxolod axalgazrdebs, aramed farTo sazogadoebas imisaTvis, rom evrointegraciis procesSi uSualod CarTul pirebTan, maT Soris, politikosebTan, saqarTveloSi akreditebul diplomatiuri korpusis warmomadgenlebTan da ucxouri akademiuri wreebis gamoCenil moRvaweebTan erTad _ sajaro sivrceSi ganexilaT aqtualuri Teoriuli Tu praqtikuli sakiTxebi, daesvaT maTTvis saintereso yvela kiTxva da moesminaT pasuxebi. Tsu evropuli kvlevebis institutma aqtiuri saqmianobis Sedegad uamravi strategiuli partniori SeiZina sazRvargareT da maTTan erTad akademiuri TvalsazrisiT Rirebuli samecniero da saganmanaTleblo proeqtebi ganaxorciela. swored am gamocdilebis da eqspertuli codnis sajaro sivrceSi gaziarebis idea warmoiSva saqarTvelos parlamentis

That same year saw the establishment of the first interdisciplinary English-language Masters programme in European Studies in the South Caucasus, with the involvement of professors and experts from European partner universities – namely, the Pierre Mendes-France University of Grenoble, the Panteion University of Social and Political Sciences of Athens, and the Innsbruck Centre of Public Reform. When designing the programme, due consideration was given to the best experiences of the leading European universities in this field, as well as to the standards and achievements of the Bologna Process. The English-language Masters programme in European Studies is unique, since it is an interdisciplinary programme that is conceptually based upon the Tbilisi State University’s four faculties of economy and business, law, social and political sciences, and humanitarian studies, to allow students to obtain appropriate education about the European Union. The institute accepted its first batch of students right after its establishment in 2007. The efforts of the EU, the unique structure and content of the English-language programme, as well as the graduates’ high level of qualification and employment results, have determined the level of success of the TSU Institute for European Studies as an educational and research structural unit of a higher educational significance. Furthermore, the institute has implemented the practice of holding public meetings, thereby providing not only the young people, but also the wider public, with the opportunity to meet individuals directly involved in the European integration process – politicians, representatives of the diplomatic corps with Georgian accreditation, and notable figures from the academic circles – discuss the current theoretical and practical issues with them, ask them questions, and listen to their responses. As a result of its activities, the TSU Institute for European Studies has acquired numerous strategic partners abroad, and has carried out academically valuable scientific and educational projects with them. Sharing these experiences and expert knowledge in public domain was precisely the idea that was established as part of the cooperation with the Georgian Parliament’s European Integration Committee, culminating in the signing of the memorandum between the institute and the committee on 1 February 2011. Foremost of all, it meant that, on the one hand, experts from the institute would help the committee manage

ურთიერთთანამშრომლობის მემორანდუმის ხელმოწერის ცერემონია

Signing ceremony of a Memorandum of mutual understanding

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Education | განათლება evropasTan integraciis komitetTan TanamSromlobis farglebSi, rac dagvirgvinda 2011 wlis 1 Tebervals institutsa da komitets Soris urTierTTanamSromlobis memorandumis gaformebiT. es upirveles yovlisa gulisxmobda imas, rom, erTi mxriv, institutis eqspertebi gaaZlierebdnen komitets saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobis evrokavSiris kanonmdeblobasTan harmonizaciis procesis warmarTvaSi, xolo, Tavis mxriv, komiteti institutis akademiur wreebs praqtikul gamocdilebas gauziarebda am mimarTulebiT. unda aRiniSnos, rom es udavod win gadadgmuli nabiji iyo saqarTvelos demokratizaciis procesSi, სერტიფიკატების გადაცემის ცერემონია rac ase warmatebulad ver warimarTeboda fridrix Certificate award ceremony ebertis fondis samxreT kavkasiis regionuli ofisis aqtiuri CarTulobis gareSe. 2012 wels, kvlavac evrokavSiris finansuri mxarthe process of harmonising the Georgian legislation with that of the daWeriT, evropuli samezoblo politikis instruEuropean Union. On their part, the committee would share its practimentis (ENPI) farglebSi aqtiurad daiwyo evrocal experience in this regard with the institute. It has to be noted that pismcodneobis sadoqtoro programaze muSaoba. this was undoubtedly a step forward in Georgia’s democratisation produblinis TriniTis kocess, and its success would not have lejis, budapeStis cenbeen possible without the involvetraluri evropis uniment of the Friedrich Ebert Fund’s versitetis, avstriis regional office in South Caucasus. gracis universitetisa da sloveniis universiteWork began in 2012 on the doctis profesorebis uSutoral programme in European თსუ ევროპული კვლევების alo monawileobiTa da Studies as part of the European ინსტიტუტის სტუდენტებს eqspertuli mxardaWeriT Neighbourhood Policy InstruSemuSavda pirveli ingliment (ENPI) – once again, with პირველად მიეცემათ surenovani, interdiscithe European Union’s financial შესაძლებლობა, plinuri, struqturirebusupport. With direct involvement li sadoqtoro programa, and expert backing from the prosadac Caricxuli stufessors of the Trinity College in dentebis pirveli nakadis Dublin, the Central European maRalma donem molodins University in Budapest, the Unithe memorandum will, for the gadaaWarba. pirveli seversity of Graz in Austria, and the mestris daxurvis Semdeg University of Ljubljana in Slovefirst time, provide the students doqtorantebi kvleviTi nia, the first English-language, of the TSU Institute for European mivlinebiT imyofebodnen interdisciplinary, structured docTsu evropuli kvlevebis toral programme was established, Studies with the opportunity institutis partnior uniand the high quality of first batch to versitetebSi, rogoricaa of admitted students exceeded briuselis Tavisufali all expectations. Upon concluduniversiteti belgiaSi, ing the first semester of studies, poloneTis iageloniis the postgraduates conducted reuniversiteti krakovSi, search trips to some of the parttartus universiteti esner universities of the TSU InstitoneTSi, dublinis TriniTis koleji irlandiaSi da tute for European Studies, such as the Brussels Open University in sxva. Belgium, the Jagiellonian University in Krakow, the University of evropul da evroatlantikur struqturebSi inTartu in Estonia, the Trinity College in Dublin, and others. tegraciis sakiTxebSi saqarTvelos saxelmwifo ministris aparatis es mniSvnelovani gadawyvetileba, The decision by the office of the State Minister of Georgia on European romelic keTil nebas efuZneba, udavo warmatebaa and Euro-Atlantic Integration, which was based on goodwill, has been umaRlesi ganaTlebis meSveobiT evrointegraciis an undisputed success in the process of supporting European integration xelSewyobis procesSi. through higher education.

პრაქტიკა გაიარონ სახელმწიფო მინისტრის აპარატში.

obtain practice within the office of the minister.

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Culture | კულტურა

ქართული კულტურა ევროპაში GEORGIAN CULTURE IN THE EUROPE დავით კაკაბაძე დაბრუნება პარიზში

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aqarTvelosa da evrokavSiris kulturuli daaxloebis programis farglebSi, saqarTvelos kulturisa da ZeglTa dacvis saministrosa da kompania „silqnetis“ mxardaWeriT, 2014 wlis 16 seqtembers, parizSi maiolis muzeumSi (Musée Maillol) daviT kakabaZis namuSevrebis gamofena gaixsna, romelic 2015 wlis 15 Tebervlamde gagrZeldeba. maiolis muzeumSi daviT kakabaZis 40 namuSevaria gamofenili, maT Soris, konstruqciul-dekoratiuli kolaJebi da sxvadasxva periodis grafika, zeTis da akvarelis namuSevrebi. gamofenaze aseve warmodgenilia namuSevrebi kakabaZeebis ojaxis kerZo koleqciidan.

David Kakabadze – Back to Paris

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n September 16, 2014, with support of the Ministry of Culture and Monument Protection of Georgia and Company Silknet an exhibition of David Kakabadze’s art works was opened in the Musée Maillol in Paris and will last till February 15, 2015. Forty paintings by David Kakabade, including decorative collages, graphical works of various periods and paintings in oil and watercolor as well as some artworks from the private collection of Kakabadze’s family are presented at the Museum.

ეკატერინე სირაძე-დელონე, საქართველოს საგანგებო და სრულუფლებიანი ელჩი საფრანგეთის რესპუბლიკაში

Ekaterine Siradze – Delone, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of Georgia to France

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Culture | კულტურა

ქართული კულტურის დღეები ბერლინში

days of GEORGIAN CULTURE IN BERLIN

saqarTvelos kulturisa da ZeglTa dacvisa da germaniis federaciul respublikaSi saqarTvelos saelCos organizebiT, ama wlis 31 ivlisidan 30 agvistos CaTvliT, berlinSi, evropuli kulturebis muzeumSi qarTuli kulturis dReebi gaimarTa. kulturis dReebis gamarTvis mTavar mizans warmoadgenda qarTuli xelovnebis, rogorc evropuli kulturis nawilis warmoCena, misi popularizacia da, amavdroulad, unikalurobisa da gansakuTrebulobis xazgasma. kulturis dReebis farglebSi gaimarTa mravali RonisZieba, maT Soris: qarTuli Rvinis saRamo, erovnuli muzeumis vercxlisa da keramikuli nakeTobebis, dimitri ermakovis fotoebis gamofenebi, afxazuri kulturis saRamo, aseve, sajaro diskusia „axalgazrdebi da istoria samxreT kavkasiaSi“ da filmis „grZeli naTeli dReebi“ Cveneba. garda amisa, warmatebiT gaimarTa jguf „Sin“-is, Tbilisis saxelmwifo kameruli orkestris _ Georgian Sinfonietta-s, qarTveli pianistisa da saelCos pirveli mdivnis dudana mazmaniSvilis, aseve ansambl „sulikos“ koncertebi. amasTan erTad, cnobilma germanelma profesorebma gaakeTes moxsenebebi germania-saqarTvelos urTierTobebisa da svanuri xatweris Sesaxeb. damswre sazogadoebas mieca saSualeba ukeT gacnoboda saqarTvelo-germaniis kulturul urTierTobebs, aseve svaneTis regionisTvis damaxasiaTebel xatebsa da maTi warmoSobis istorias. Rvinis saRamoze warmodgenili iyo sxvadasxva tipis 12 saukeTeso qarTuli Rvino, romlebmac didi mowoneba daimsaxures. xazgasasmelia, rom berlinSi, qarTuli kulturis msgavsi masStabis, mravalferovani RonisZieba pirvelad gaimarTa. evropuli kulturebis muzeumis warmomadgenelTa SefasebiT, qarTuli kulturis dReebi erT-erT yvelaze STambeWdav da warmatebul RonisZiebaTa cikls warmoadgenda.

Days of Georgian Culture were held at the Museum of European Cultures from 31 July to 30 August this year in Berlin, organized by the Ministry of Culture and Monument Protection of Georgia and an embassy of Georgia in Federal Republic of Germany.

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Aim of the event was to present Georgian art as a part of the European culture, as well as to promote and to underscore its exclusiveness and uniqueness. Various events held in the framework of Days of Georgian Culture included: evening dedicated to Georgian wine, exhibition of silver and ceramic items of the National Museum, photo exhibition of Dimitri Ermakov, evening dedicated to Abkhazian Culture, presentation of the film – “In Bloom” as well as panel discussion on “Youth and History in the Caucasus Region”. During the Days, there were concerts held by the folk musical bands “The Shin”, “Suliko”, Tbilisi State Chamber Orchestra “Georgian Sinfonietta” and Georgian pianist and first secretary of the embassy Dudana Mazmanishvili. In addition, well known German Professors presented reports about Georgia-Germany cultural relations, as well as characteristics and history of iconography of the Svaneti region. Twelve best brands of Georgian wines were presented at the Evening dedicated to the Georgian wine. It has to be underlined, that it was the first time Georgian culture was presented with such comprehensive scope and diversity in Berlin. As representatives of the Museum of European Cultures had later noted Days of Georgian Culture were one of the most impressive and memorable events hosted by the Museums for last several years.


Culture | კულტურა

საქართველო დუბლინის გემების ფესტივალზე

Georgia at Dublin Port River Fest

2014 wlis 29 maisidan 2 ivnisis CaTvliT, saqarTvelo maspinZeli qveynis statusiT iyo wardgenili dublinSi, evropis erT-erT yvelaze prestiJul da xalxmraval „gemebis saerTaSoriso festivalze“. festivalze saqarTvelom evropas tradiciuli adaT-wesebi, Tanamedrove xelovneba da kinematografiaSi miRweuli warmatebebi gaacno. kulturuli programis farglebSi gaimarTa ansamblebis `suxiSvilebisa~ da `rusTavis~ koncertebi, `Savfarosnebis~ erovnuli sabrZolo xelovnebisadmi miZRvnili warmodgena da xelovnebis sasaxlis koleqciebis gamofenebi. aseve, moewyo tradiciuli xalxuri rewvis gamofena, romlis farglebSic warmodgenili iyo tradiciuli qarTuli xalxuri kulturis sxvadasxva mimarTuleba: keramika, naqargoba, Weduroba, tradiciuli qarTuli lurji sufra da sxva. gemebis festivalis egidiT moewyo qarTuli Rvinis degustacia da yvelis tradiciuli warmoebis demonstrireba. portis centrSi qarTul mxares daeTmo mecxramete saukunis fregati, romelic qarTuli heraldikis nimuSebiT iyo gaformebuli.

From May 29 to June 2, 2014, Georgia participated as a host country at Dublin Port River Fest – one of the most prestigious and most visited international festivals in the Europe. It was an opportunity for Georgia to present traditions, customs, contemporary art and achievements in cinematography. A cultural program included concerts of Georgian National Ballet – "Sukhishvili" and Georgian State Academic Folk Song and Dance Ensemble "Rustavi", a performance of "Shavparosnebi” (Black Shields) dedicated to Georgian national martial art, exhibition of art collections from the Palace of Art of Georgia, exhibition of traditional crafts presenting various items of traditional Georgian folk culture such as ceramics, embroidery, smithery, traditional Georgian blue tablecloth, Georgian wine tasting and demonstration of traditional method of cheese-making. Georgia was presented at nineteenth-century frigate, which was decorated with various items of Georgian heraldry.

საქართველო ფრანკფურტის წიგნის ბაზრობაზე 2014 wels, berlinSi xeli moewera xelSekrulebas saqarTvelos kulturisa da ZeglTa dacvis saministrosa da frankfurtis wignis bazrobas Soris. xelSekrulebis Tanaxmad, 2018 wels, frankfurtis wignis saerTaSoriso bazrobaze saqarTvelo warmodgenili iqneba sapatio stumari qveynis statusiT. msoflios udides wignis bazrobaze am statusiT saqarTvelos monawileoba yuradRebis centrSi moaqcevs ara marto qveynis literaturasa da sagamomcemlo industrias, aramed mTel qarTul kulturas.

Georgia at the Frankfurt Book Fair In 2014, an agreement was signed between the Ministry of Culture and Monument Protection and Frankfurt Book Fair in Berlin, Germany. According to the Agreement, in 2018 Georgia will appear at the Frankfurt Book Fair as a Guest of Honor. Participation with such significant status at the world's biggest book fair will popularize not only Georgia’s literature and publishing industry, but also country’s culture as a whole.

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Culture | კულტურა

ისტორიულად განსაზღვრული მარტოობის დაძლევის გზა ლანა ღოღობერიძე

A Historically Defined Way to Overcome Loneliness Lana Ghoghoberidze

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s iyo gazafxulis erTi qariani, mziani dRe, 1999 wlis 27 aprili, rodesac strasburgSi, evropis sabWos fasadis win, evropuli erTobis wevri qveynebis droSebs Soris, nela da TiTqos SeferxebebiTac, adioda zemoT Sindisferi, TeTr da Savzolebiani qarTuli droSa. am, erTi SexedviT, banalur, magram CvenTvis simbolur process sunTqvaSekrulni vadevnebdiT Tvals saqarTvelos delegaciis wevrebi da saqarTvelos imJamindeli prezidenti. droSa nel-nela miiwevda ze-

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t was a windy and sunny day in spring, on 27 April 1999, when the dark red, white and black striped flag of Georgia was rising slowly, as if reluctantly, in amongst the flags of the member states of the Council of Europe, in front of the Council building in Strasbourg. What may seem like a banal process, was a symbolic one for us. Members of the Georgian delegation, and the then President of Georgia, were following it with their breath held. The flag was gradually moving upwards, and during those few minutes, the genetic memory in


Culture | კულტურა moT da im ramdenime wuTis ganmavlobaSi Cvens cnobierebaSi amuSavda genetikuri mexsiereba, romelmac uecrad kinokadrebad gamoanaTa Cveni qveynis istoriis umniSvnelovanesi suraTebi. da me davinaxe, rogor damkvidrda dmanisSi sami aTaswleulis win Cveni winapari _ pirveli evropeli, rogor gamocxadda _ me-4 saukuneSi qristianoba saxelmwifo religiad; davinaxe, rogor daubara _ me-5 saukuneSi _ anderZad vaxtang gorgasalma Tavis xalxs berZenTa, anu evropelTa siyvaruli („siyvaruls berZenTasa nu dautevebT“ _ dawera man); Tvalwin damidga me-12 saukunis didi, Zlieri, maRali kulturis qveynis oqros xana da Tamar mefis dekreti sikvdiliT dasjis gauqmebis Sesaxeb... da mere _ monRolebis damangreveli Semoseva da misi momdevno _ gauTavebeli darbevebi, Semosevebi, Tbilisis mravaljer dangreva da kvlav aRdgena mkvdreTiT, ruseTis _ jer caristuli, mere ki sabWoTa _ imperiis mier qveynis aneqsia. mTeli Cveni sisxliani istoriis ganmavlobaSi Cven yovelTvis viyaviT marto, patara, euli da unaTesavo eri, garSemortymulni didi da Zlieri qveynebiT. isini gvipyrobdnen, gvaCanagebdnen, magram qveyana ibrZoda da am brZolaSi gadarCa. da ai, dRes, rogorc saukuneTa ganmavlobaSi damoukideblobisTvis brZolis dagvirgvineba _ evropis sabWos win, safrangeTisa da germaniis droSebs Soris aRmarTuli saqarTvelos droSa. es iyo evropis karis frTxili SeReba, radgan, sayovelTao aRiarebiT, evropis sabWo _ evrokavSiris karibWea, romelTanac dRes ukve asocirebis xelSekruleba gvaqvs gaformebuli. da mainc, es iyo umniSvnelovanesi politikuri aqti da, amave dros _ mZafri piradi gancda: saqarTvelo realurad gaxda yvelaze civilizebuli, yvelaze kulturuli erTobis Tanasworuflebiani wevri. Cemi interpretaciiT, im dRes dasrulda patara qristianuli eris istoriulad da geopolitikurad determinirebuli martooba da daiwyo saqarTvelos didi evropuli Tavgadasavali. dRes Cven gvaqvs SesaZlebloba, realurad gavxdeT dasavluri samyaros mniSvnelovani nawili, amis sawindari Cveni ZvelTaZveli da Taviseburi kulturaa. kultura yvelaze farTo gagebiT, romelSic moiazreba ganaTleba, literatura da xelovneba misi yvela dargianad, adamianTa yofiTi Cvevebi da tradiciebi. vfiqrob, rom saqarTvelos mravalsaukunovani swrafva evropisaken swored am umniSvnelovanesi faqtoriT aris ganpirobebuli: Cveni kultura evropuli tipis qristianuli kulturaa, sakuTari anbaniT, TxuTmetsaukunovani literaturiT, jer kidev Sua saukuneebSi Camoyalibebuli renesansuli ideebiT (magaliTad, `lekvi lomisa sworia, Zu iyos Tunda xvadiac~ kmara), rusTavelisa da vaJas poeziiT, jvriTa Tu sveticxovliT, yinwvisis angeloziTa Tu firosmaniT, UuZvelesi mravalxmianobiTa da galobebiT... da xasiaTiT,

our minds was projecting the most important scenes from our country’s history. I saw our ancestor – the first European, as he has been described – settling in Dmanisi three thousand years ago; Christianity being announced as the state religion in the 4th century; king Vakhtang Gorgasali, in his will, telling his people to love the Greeks, ie. the Europeans; the 12th century Golden Age of a large, powerful and culturally rich state, and Queen Tamar’s decree abolishing the death penalty... and then, the devastating Mongol invasion, and endless subsequent raids; the many occasions when Tbilisi was destroyed, and subsequently rebuilt; and the country being annexed first by Tsarist, and then by Soviet Russia. Throughout our bloody history, we have always been lonely and small; a nation without relatives, surrounded by large and powerful countries. They conquered and destroyed us, but the country fought on, and survived in this struggle. And then came the crowning moment of that struggle for independence, as the Georgian flag was raised in front of the European Council building, in-between those of France and Germany. The door into Europe was cautiously pushed open – it is widely accepted that the European Council is the gate towards the European Union, with whom we have now ratified an association agreement. Still, this was a highly significant political act, and at the same time, a strong personal feeling: Georgia had become an equal member of the truly most civilised and cultural community. In my view, the small Christian nation’s historically and geopolitically conditioned loneliness ended that day, and Georgia’s great European adventure began. Today we have a chance to really become an important part of the western world, and our prerequisite for this is our ancient and unique culture – a culture in the broadest sense of the word, that incorporates education, literature, all fields of art, people’s living habits, and traditions. I believe that our centuries-held European aspirations have been determined by the following vital factor: ours is a Christian culture of the European type, with its own alphabet, a fifteen-centuries old body of literature, renaissance ideas from the Middle Ages (the phrase “the lion’s whelps are equal, be they male or female” would suffice as an example), poetry by Rustaveli and Vazha-Pshavela, the Jvari and Svetitskhoveli monasteries, the angel of Kintsvisi and Pirosmani’s paintings, ancient polyphony and chanting... and a character that is mainly defined by openness, hospitality, vivaciousness and happiness... this is what makes up our originality and uniqueness, this is how we may be attractive for Europe, and the world in general. Throughout centuries, the Georgian nation has identified itself through its language and culture. We have a duty to follow our country’s fundamental tendency of sharing its culture as a phenomenon which has a vital significance for the national identity and unity of the Georgian state. It is also worth considering that the mythological way of thinking that was attached to the Soviet order is still alive in our minds.

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Culture | კულტურა romlis mTavari maxasiaTebeli gaxsniloba, stumarTmoyvareoba da sicocxlisa da sixarulis talantia... yvelaferi es erTad ki Seadgens Cvens TviTmyofadobas, Taviseburebas da swored amiT SeiZleba viyoT mimzidveli evropisTvis da, zogadad, samyarosTvis. saukuneTa ganmavlobaSi qarTveli eri sakuTari Tavis identifikacias enasa da kulturaSi axdenda. Cven valdebuli varT, daveyrdnoT qveynis ZiriTad tendencias da gaviazroT kultura, rogorc fenomeni, romelsac erovnuli identobis da qarTuli saxelmwifos erTianobisaTvis gadamwyveti mniSvneloba aqvs. gasaTvaliswinebelia isic, rom Cvens cnobierebaSi jer kidev cocxalia sabWoTa weswyobilebidan gamoyolili miTologiuri azrovneba. is gvkarnaxobs azrs, TiTqos evropa Tavs mogvaxvevs Rirebulebebs, romlebic Cvens tradiciebs ewinaaRmdegeba. realoba ki sapirispiroa: evropa ufrTxildeba Tavisi wevrebis kulturul TviTmyofadobas, afasebs da pativs scems gansxvavebulobas, Taviseburebas. amave dros, evropeloba bevr konkretul ramesac gulisxmobs da upirveles yovlisa _ yoveli moqalaqis pirad pasuxismgeblobas sazogadoebisa da qveynis winaSe. sul ubralo magaliTebiT rom vTqvaT, evropeli ar dayris cariel boTlebs, saWmlis narCenebs, celofnis parkebs qalaqis quCebSi, zRvis Tu tbis sanapiroze, tyesa Tu parkSi; gaufrTxildeba Tavis sadarbazos iseve, rogorc sakuTar binas; evropeli mZRoli gzas ar gadauWris fexiT mosiarules, gansakuTrebiT moxucs, ar daasignalebs, Tu amis ukiduresi saWiroeba ar aris, ar daayenebs manqanas ise, rom sxvas SeuSalos xeli. magram garda aucilebeli yofiTi Cvevebisa, evropeloba pirovnebis ufro did uflebebsa da pasuxismgeblobasac gulisxmobs: es aris moqalaqis aqtiuri da qmediTi CarTva qveynis marTvis procesSi. Cven, sabWoTa uuflebobis warsulis mqone sazogadoebas, am mxrivac didi gza gvaqvs gasavleli. sabWoTa gamocdilebas damoukideblobis mopovebis Semdgomi kataklizmebic emateba. bolo aTwleulebis mudmivma politikurma Sejaxebebma sabediswerod gaxliCa sazogadoeba, danerga Cveni tradiciebis sawinaaRmdego Seuwynarebloba, agresiuloba, siZulvili sxvagvarad moazrovneTa mimarT. vfiqrob, am TvalsazrisiTac sasargebloa gaazreba imisa, rom sulis amgvari dabneleba droebiTi movlenaa, rom Cveni tradiciuli Rirebulebebi Zalian axlosaa evropulTan, amitom ar unda gagviWirdes evropeizaciis gzaze Sedgoma, evropuli, Tanamedrove, humanuri msoflmxedvelobis gaTaviseba, rac, pirvel rigSi, gansxvavebulis aRiarebas da pativiscemas gulisxmobs. dRes naTeli gaxda: globalizaciis winaaRmdegobriv procesSi gadarCebian da ganviTardebian mxolod is mcirericxovani erebi, romelTac saukuneTa siRrmeSi aqvT gadgmuli fesvebi TavianTi enisa da kulturis saxiT. am mxriv saqarTvelo rCeulTa ricxvSia. eTnosTa, religiaTa, enaTa simravle saqarTvelos

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It tells us to believe that Europe will impose on us values that go against our traditions. The reality is different: Europe takes care of its members’ cultural identities, values and respects diversity and uniqueness. At the same time, being European has numerous specific meanings as well, and foremost of all – every citizen’s own responsibility towards his or her country and society. To give but a few simple examples, a European will not litter city streets, beaches, woods and parks with empty bottles, food leftovers, or plastic bags; will take care of the entrance hallway as if it was his own flat; will not drive through when pedestrians – and the elderly, in particular – are crossing the road; will not sound his horn, unless there is a real need for it; and will not park his car in a way that hinders other people’s vehicles. However, aside from vital personal habits, being European also means carrying higher responsibilities and rights, such as a citizen’s active involvement in his country’s governing process. In the aftermath of our Soviet past, we still have a long way to go in this regard, too. In addition to the Soviet experiences, numerous cataclysms followed our independence. The endless political struggles of the past decades caused a fatal split in the society, and planted elements that go against our traditions: intolerance, aggressiveness, and hatred towards those who think differently. I believe that in this regard, too, we ought to realise that such a darkening of the mind is a temporary occurrence. Our traditional values are very close to the European ones. Therefore, it should not be difficult for us to walk the road towards Europeanization, and to adopt a modern, European, and humanitarian world view as our own, which means, foremost of all, accepting and respecting that which is different. Today, it is clear that in the anti-globalisation process, only those few nations whose language and culture has its roots going back for many centuries will survive and develop. In this regard, Georgia is part of a select group. The multitude of ethnicities, religions and languages in Georgia has imposed special responsibilities onto the country. Conducting politics in an inappropriate manner can lead to such diversity turning into an Achilles heel for the nation, and has done so on several occasions in the past. On the other hand, an approach based on modern humanitarian principles will lead to the country blossoming and increasing its attractiveness. Tolerance towards diversity has always been a feature of Georgian culture. Acknowledging the contribution made by the Abkhaz and the Ossetians towards shaping the Georgian culture is one of the prerequisites for achieving national unity. However, for the nation’s ancient culture to develop and prosper in the modern world, a suitable environment is needed. By now, mankind has experienced the catastrophic consequences of dictatorship and autocratic rule, and it has become very clear that the only environment that is suitable for cultural development is democracy – the opportunity for free individuals to realise their creative possibilities.


Culture | კულტურა gansakuTrebul valdebulebebs akisrebs. araswori politikis SemTxvevaSi es mravalferovneba mis aqilevsis quslad SeiZleba iqces (da araerTxel qceula kidec), xolo Tanamedrove humanizmis principebze damyarebuli midgomis Sedegad _ gafurCqvnisa da mimzidvelobis wyarod; gansxvavebulis mimarT tolerantoba odiTganve qarTuli kulturis niSani iyo. dResac, afxazebisa da osebis wvlilis aRiareba qarTuli kulturis SenebaSi, qveynis gaerTianebis erT-erT sawindars Seqmnis. magram imisaTvis, rom Tanamedrove samyaroSi eris mravalsaukunovani kultura ganviTardes da gaRrmavdes, mas Sesaferisi garemo sWirdeba. dRevandel dRes, anu ocdameerTe saukuneSi, rodesac kacobriobam sakuTar Tavze iwvnia yvelanairi Seferilobis diqtaturis Tu erTpirovnuli mmarTvelobis katastrofuli Sedegebi, naTeli xdeba, rom kulturis ganviTarebisaTvis erTaderTi da aucilebeli garemo demokratiaa, anu Tavisufal pirovnebaTa SemoqmedebiTi Zalebis Tavisufali realizaciis SesaZlebloba. Cveni mizania, ar gavuSvaT xelidan, albaT, es ukanaskneli istoriuli Sansi, romelic gvaqvs dRes. amisaTvis unda ganvixiloT saqarTvelo, rogorc: saukuneTa ganmavlobaSi sxvadasxva imperiis mier dapyrobili da, Sedegad, saxelmwifoebriobadakarguli, mwiri bunebrivi resursebis mqone patara qveyana, romelmac _ ukve meoce saukuneSi _ ver gauZlo damoukideblobis gzaze kanonzomierad aRmocenebul xifaTebs da cdunebebs da sxvadasxva xafangSi gayo Tavi, ramac samoqalaqo omi, teritoriebis dakargva da sazogadoebis sabediswero gaxleCa gamoiwvia. magram am istoriulad gansazRvrul tragizms upirispirdeboda da upirispirdeba qarTvelTa mier qristianobis gariJraJze aRiarebuli `pirvelqmnili, saxarebiseuli qristianoba, romelSic mZlavrad JRerda Tavisuflebis motivi~ (merab mamardaSvili), saintereso geopolitikuri mdebareoba _ evropisa da aziis gzisgasayari, mimzidveli da mravalferovani landSafti da, rac mTavaria: unikaluri samiaTaswlovani kultura, maRali da yofiTi (niSandoblivia, rom xorblis msoflioSi cnobili 8 jiSidan 4 qarTulia, rom vazis, anu civilizaciis safuZvlis akvani _ saqarTveloa), da kidev, eris Tvisebebi _ Tavisuflebisadmi dauokebeli swrafva, sicocxlis da sixarulis ubadlo niWi, kreatiuloba da artistizmi, Semwynarebloba, anu yvelaferi is, ramac gadagvarCina da mogviyvana dRevandel dRemde, rogorc civilizebuli samyarosTvis mimzidveli sulieri erToba. amitom aucileblad migvaCnia: sazogadoebam da xelisuflebam gaiazros demokratia da kultura, rogorc erTmaneTTan Serwymuli da erTmaneTis gamamdidrebeli movlenebi da maTi erTdrouli ganviTareba qveynis gamTlianebis, Senebis da msoflio civilizaciaSi Rirseuli adgilis damkvidrebis gzaze moqmedebis strategiul prioritetad gamoacxados.

Our aim is not to allow this possibly final historic opportunity to slip away. Therefore, we must view Georgia as a nation that was conquered by various empires throughout its history, and, as a result, lost its statehood, and became a small country with few natural resources, which could not withstand the various dangers and temptations that arose on the road towards independence in the 20th century, and got caught in traps on numerous occasions. This led to civil war, loss of territory, and a fatal split in the society. However, other forces stood against this historic tragedy, and still stand against it to this day. These include “the original evangelical Christianity, which strongly voiced the message of freedom” (according to Merab Mamardashvili); a geopolitically interesting location at the crossroads of Europe and Asia; an attractive and diverse landscape; and most importantly, a unique three thousand year-old culture. It is striking that out of the 8 known varieties of wheat in the world, 4 are Georgian, and that Georgia is home to the vine – the root of civilisation. Then, there are the national attributes, such as the indomitable striving towards independence, vivaciousness and happiness, creativity and artistry, as well as tolerance – everything that has saved us and brought us to where we are today, as a spiritual unit that is attractive to the civilised world. Therefore, we are certain: the society and the state ought to view democracy and culture as mutually complimentary and enriching factors whose simultaneous development ought to be declared a strategic priority on the road towards national unity, rebuilding, and establishing a worthy place for the country within the global civilisation.

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Culture | კულტურა

კირილე ზდანევიჩი

Kirile Zdanevich

საქართველო დემოკრატიის ესთეტიკასა და დემოკრატიის პოლიტიკას შორის ზურაბ ქარუმიძე

Georgia between the Aesthetics and the Politics of Democracy Zurab Karumidze

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elovneba dafuZnebulia adamianis TamaSis unarze _ inteleqtisa da intuiciis Tavisufal TamaSze (rogorc kantma ganmarta Tavis naSromSi `msjelobis unaris kritika~); TamaSis safuZveli Tavisuflebaa da, Sesabamisad, xelovneba, rogorc Tavisufali TamaSi, arsebiTad demokratiulia. miuxedavad imisa, rom istoriis ganmavlobaSi xelovneba gamoiyeneboda totalitaruli da avtoritaruli _ religiuri Tu sekularuli struqturebis gaZlierebis instrumentad _ xelovnebis politizebisa da politikis esTetizaciisTvis (valter beniamini), warmosaxvis Tavisufleba angrevda ideologiur kliSeebsa da stereotipebs. dasavleTevropul xelovnebas, misi ZvelberZnuli sawyisidan (satiruli drama), gaaCnda liberalizmis mamoZravebeli Zala, romelic Tavs iCenda karnavalis, parodiisa da sicilis kulturaSi premodernul, modernul da postmodernul periodebSi. rasac me „demokratiul esTetikas“ vuwodebdi, esaa

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rt is based on the human ability of playing - the free play of intellect and intuition (as Kant defined it in his “Ability of Judgment”); freedom is at the core of playing, and therefore art as free play is essentially democratic. Although throughout history art has been used as a very strong tool to boost totalitarian and authoritarian structures, religious or secular, to politicise arts and aestheticise politics (Walter Benjamin), freedom of imagination was disruptive for ideological clichés and stereotypes. Western European art, from its ancient Greek origins (satirical drama), had this liberalising drive, which materialised in the culture of carnival, parody and laughter throughout the pre-modern, modern and post-modern ages. What I suggest calling “democratic aesthetics”, is the art of parody and laughter; the art which disrupted the established ideological values and moral norms, the carnavalesque travesty and grotesque, individualism and physiologism,


Culture | კულტურა parodiisa da sicilis xelovneba, romelic angrevda damkvidrebul ideologiur Rirebulebebs, moralur normebs, da karnavaluri travestirebiTa da groteskiT, individualizmiTa da fiziologizmiT, klasikuri teqstebis ironiul-TamaSiseuli gadakiTxviTa da gadaweriT, kritikuli daeWvebiTa da SemoqmedebiTi azris TavisuflebiT dasabami daudo evropuli msoflmxedvelobis formirebas. amavdroulad, uzrunvelyo liberalizmisa da demokratiis erT-erTi yvelaze adreuli da mniSvnelovani gamocdileba, rac ki evropul azrovnebas gauvlia. avtorebi, rogorebic arian rable, servantesi, me-18 saukunis ingliseli romanistebi, Commedia dell’Arte-s italieli dramaturgebi da sxvebi, iseve uwyobdnen xels evropuli liberalizmis Camoyalibebas, rogorc politikuri moazrovneebi da filosofosebi ganmanaTleblobis epoqidan. premodernistulma evropulma xelovnebam uzrunvelyo esTetikuri foni da esTetikuri safuZveli Cauyara Semdgomi periodebis politikur demokratias. qarTuli xelovneba da literatura Sua saukuneebis religiuri xelovnebidan da mwerlobidan warmoiSva (bizantiuris zegavleniT) da gadaizarda „oqros xanis“ sekularul xelovnebaSi (XI-XIII saukuneebi). SemdgomSi ki daRmavlobas ganicdis _ me-18 saukunis bolomde _ da me-19 saukunis dasawyisidan, ruseTis aneqsiis Sedegad, evropuli zegavlenis qveS eqceva. premodernul qarTul xelovnebas da literaturas arsebiTad aklda `demokratiuli esTetika~. didwilad is SezRuduli da RvTismosavi iyo, Tu ar CavTvliT fSav-xevsurul xalxur poezias, an parodiul poemas „ZaRlistyaosani“, romelic daikarga. demokratia, esTetikuri ginda Tu politikuri, Tavisufal evropul qalaqebSi warmoiSva, maSin, roca qalaqis kultura saqarTveloSi naklebad ganviTarebuli iyo. es aris erT-erTi mizezi, ris gamoc qarTuli literatura metwilad poeziis kuTxiT ganviTarda, xolo proza da mxatvruli literatura me-19 saukunis bolomde naklebad ganviTarebuli iyo; klasikuri qarTuli proza metwilad religiuri teqstebis (wamebulTa da wmindanTa cxovreba), istoriografiis (qronikebi, mefeTa cxovreba da a.S), aseve samarTlisa da samedicino sferos teqstebisgan Sedgeboda. miuxedavad yvelafrisa, Cven SegviZlia visaubroT „demokratiuli esTetikis“ ramdenime epizodze saqarTvelos xelovnebis istoriaSi. qarTuli saxviTi xelovneba ZiriTadad sasuliero iyo: xatwera da freskebi. me ara var saxviTi xelovnebis istorikosi, Tumca winaaRmdegoba, romelic arsebobs damkvidrebul normebsa, erTi mxriv, da perspeqtivasa da individualizms Soris, meore mxriv, TvalsaCinoa. premodernulma qarTulma saxviTma xelovnebam ar icis perspeqtiva da arc individualizmiT gamoirCeva. Tumca demokratiuli esTetikis saukeTeso magaliTia qarTuli folkloruli musika, romelic erTobliv improvizacias efuZneba. rac Seexeba literaturas: premodernuli epoqis da ara mxolod am epoqis mTavari nawarmoebia qarTuli erovnuli epikuri poema _ SoTa rusTavelis „vefxistyaosani“ (me-13 saukunis dasawyisi) _ Suasaukunovani saraindo romanis unikaluri nimuSi, platonizmisa da sufizmis metwilad sekularuli Serwyma SesaniSnavi leqsTwyobiT. sxvaTa Soris, sufizmi, rogorc erT-erTi yve-

playful rereading and rewriting of established texts, critical questioning and creative freedom of thought, which paved the way for the making of the European mindset. It provided one of the earliest and most significant experiences of liberalism and democracy that the European mind has experienced. Authors like Rabelais, Cervantes, eighteenth century English novelists, Italian dramatists of Commedia dell’Arte and others were as instrumental in forging European liberalism as the political thinkers and philosophers of the Enlightenment and the Age of Reason. Pre-modern European art provided the aesthetical background, and laid the aesthetical foundation for political democracy of later periods. Georgian art and literature emerged from the religious art and writings of the early Middle Ages (influenced by Byzantine art), developing into the secular art of the Golden Age (11th-13th centuries), then declining until the late 18th century, and from the early 19th century falling under European influence through the Russian conquest. Pre-modern Georgian art and literature substantially lacked “democratic aesthetics.” To a great extent it was parochial and pious, except for the folk poetry of Georgian highlanders, and the parodic poem “The Knight in the Dog’s Skin”, which has been lost. Democracy, be it aesthetical or political, emerged in the free European cities, when city culture in Georgia was rather underdeveloped. This is one of the reasons why Georgian literature developed mostly as poetry, while prose and fiction remained very poor until the end of the nineteenth century. Classical Georgian prose is mostly made up of religious texts (lives of martyrs and saints), historiography (chronicles, biography of kings, etc.), and some legal and medical texts. However, we can talk about some episodes of “democratic aesthetics” in the artistic history of Georgia. Georgian visual art was mostly clerical: iconography and frescos. I am not a historian of visual arts, but one could trace the tension between the established norms and the emergence of perspective and individualism. The most obvious example of “democratic aesthetics” is Georgian folk music, which is based on collective improvisation. As for the literature, the major text of the pre-modern age, and not only of that age, is the Georgian national epic – Shota Rustaveli’s The Knight in the Panther’s Skin (early 13th c.), a unique example of medieval romance, a largely secular mixture of Platonism and Sufism, with superb versification. Incidentally, Sufism, as one of the most “democratic” religious teachings, was appreciated by the Georgian elite of that period. It took nearly five centuries to beget David Guramishvili, a poet of rather wide scope, spanning religious mysticism and secularism, especially with regard to his humorous-erotic pastoral poem “The Shepherd.” Next comes Romanticism (early nineteenth c.), in the poetry of Nikoloz Baratashvili, who was highly individualistic, self-searching, intimate, fanciful, passionate and agitated. The second half of the nineteenth century featured Ilia Chavchavadze, the leader of the new Georgian public intellectuals, who

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Culture | კულტურა laze `demokratiuli~ religiuri swavleba, sakmaod dafasebuli iyo im periodis qarTuli elitis mier. xuTi saukunis Semdeg daibada daviT guramiSvili, sakmaod farTo Tvalsawieris mqone poeti, romelic aerTianebda religiur misticizmsa da sekularizms; aseTi sekularizmiTaa gajerebuli misi iumoristul-erotikuli pastoraluri poema `qacvia mwyemsi~. Semdeg modis romantizmi (me-19 saukunis dasawyisi), romelic srulyofilad vlindeba nikoloz baraTaSvilis poeziaSi: uaRresad individualistur, TviTrefleqsiur, piradul, warmosaxviseul, mgznebare poeziaSi. me-19 saukunis meore naxevarSi gamoCnda ilia WavWavaZe, axal qarTvel sajaro inteleqtualTa winamZRoli, romelmac win wamoswia erovnuloba. Tumca, saamisod mas mouwia moZvelebuli tradiciuli kliSeebisa da modelebis dangreva, saganmanaTleblo da socialur-politikuri reformebis evropuli modelebis SeTavazeba da kulturuli, socialur-politikuri kritikis aucileblobis warmoCena. mis eseebs, poemebsa da moTxrobebs Soris (romelic SeiZleba miCneul iqnas, rogorc „fuZemdebluri“ axali qarTuli erovnuli identobisa), gamovyofdi rables stilSi daweril moTxrobas _ `kacia -adamiani?!~ _ qarTveli Tavadaznaurobis dacemis Sesaxeb. evropuli literaturuli realizmis msgavsi nawarmoebebi qarTul literaturaSi gamoCnda aleqsandre yazbegis romanebiT. qarTuli literaturis istoriaSi `demokratiuli esTetikis“ kidev erTi unikaluri da aRsaniSnavi gamovlineba gvxvdeba vaJa-fSavelas nawarmoebebis saxiT, romlis poemebi fokusirebulia individualur Tavisuflebasa da koleqtiur moralur normebs Soris konfliqtze. vaJas poetur filosofias aseve Sevadarebdi amerikel transcendentalistebs _ bunebis fenomenis, rogorc umaRlesi WeSmaritebis intuiciuri aRqmis TvalsazrisiT; `Samanuri transcendentalizmi~ _ asec SeiZleba ganimartos vaJa-fSavelas poeturi msoflmxedveloba. saqarTvelos xelovnebisa da literaturis istoriis umdidres periods, romlis drosac „demokratiuli esTetikis“ materializacia moxda _ ufro metic, igi politikur demokratias daemTxva _ qarTuli modernizmis epoqa (1910-ianebis bolo da 1920-iani wlebi) warmoadgenda. es periodi aerTianebs sam dramatul istoriul movlenas: ruseTis imperiis daSlas (1914-1917), saqarTvelos demokratiul respublikas (1918-1921) da saqarTvelos gasabWoebas (gviani 1921-dan, 1920-iani wlebi). rogorc zogierTi politikuri istorikosi aRniSnavs (stiven jonsi, roland suni), egreT wodebuli pirveli respublika (saqarTvelos demokratiuli respublika) socialuri demokratiis sakmaod warmatebul eqsperiments warmoadgenda. qarTuli modernizmi mxatvruli Tavisuflebisa da mravalferovnebis namdvili afeTqeba iyo saxviT xelovnebaSi, Teatrsa da literaturaSi. niko firosmanis, daviT kakabaZis, lado gudiaSvilis, Salva qiqoZis, elene axvledianisa da sxvaTa ferwera, kote marjaniSvilisa da sandro axmetelis speqtaklebi, `cisferyanweli“ simbolistebisa da futuristebis nawarmoebebi da literaturuli disputebi gamoxatvis axali formebis, axali saxelovnebo enis formirebis mcdelobas warmoadgendnen; maT Seqmnes `demokratiuli esTetikis~ sicocxliT aRsavse magaliTebi.

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promoted nationalism. However, in order to do so he had to deconstruct obsolete traditionalist clichés and patterns, which suggested following European models of social-political organisation and educational reform, and promoting the need for cultural, political and social criticism. Among his essays, poems and long stories (which can be described as “foundational” for the new Georgian nation), I would distinguish his almost Rabelaisian story “Is he a Man?!”, which is about a Georgian nobleman in decline. European-type literary Realism in Georgian fiction was introduced by the novels of Alexandre Kazbegi. Another unique and remarkable manifestation of “democratic aesthetics” in the history of Georgian literature comes in the writings of Vazha-Pshavela, whose narrative poems focus on the conflict between individual freedom and traditional collective mores. I would also compare his poetic philosophy with that of American Transcendentalists in terms of the intuitive openness to natural phenomena, as representing higher truth; “shamanic transcendentalism” could be another definition of Vazha-Pshavela’s poetic weltanschauung. The richest episode in the history of Georgian art and literature, during which “democratic aesthetics” materialised and, moreover, coincided with political democracy, is the age of Georgian Modernism (1910s-late 1920s). It spanned three dramatic historical periods: the collapse of the Russian Empire (1914-17), the Georgian

კირილე ზდანევიჩი

Kirile Zdanevich


Culture | კულტურა maT SeuTavses qarTuli folklori da miTologia fridrix nicSes filosofias, franguli da rusuli simbolizmi vaJa-fSavelas poeziasa da Commedia dell’Arte-s. edgar alan po warmoadgenda maT demons, mTavar dramatul niRabs, romelic izidavda qarTvel poetebs (Tumca, ara rogorc amerikuli, aramed rogorc franguli simbolizmis fuZemdebeli). evropuli modernizmis periferiaze mdebare Tbiliss an tifliss, „fantastikur qalaqs“ uwodebdnen (tatiana nikolskaia). igi izidavda im drois mwerlebsa da xelovanebs daSlis piras myofi ruseTis imperiidan, romlebic aq eZebdnen SemoqmedebiT da politikur Tavisuflebas, karg sakvebsa da Rvinos. „demokratiuli esTetikis“ aseT energias SeeZlo xeli Seewyo saqarTveloSi politikuri demokratiis damkvidrebisa da Semdgomi ganviTarebisTvis, Tumca qveynis gasabWoebam da bolSevikebis gabatonebam es procesi SeaCera: SemoqmedebiTi elitis nawili ganadgurda bolSevikuri represiebis Sedegad, zogs qveynis datoveba mouwia, zogic iZulebuli iyo SeumCneveli darCeniliyo da Tavisi inteleqtualuri kvlevebi TavisTvis Seenaxa. „xruSCovis daTbobis“ („ottepelis“) xanis dadgomasTan erTad, 1950-iani wlebis bolos, „demokratiuli esTetikis“ garkveuli gamococxleba mainc moxda, roca amerikulma kulturam da xelovnebam SeaRwia sabWoTa realobaSi _ nawilobriv oficialuri, magram umetesad araoficialuri (Savi bazris) gzebiT. amerikuli literatura ar iyo akrZaluli sabWoTa kavSirSi _ mark tvenis, Teodor draizeris, jek londonis nawarmoebebi da sxva. Tumca, namdvili siaxle iyo 1960-ian wlebSi hemingueis da 1970-ianebSi uiliam folkneris Txzulebebi; maT moajadoves qarTvel mweralTa nawili. gansakuTrebiT hemingueim, romelic lamis kerpad iqca bevri qarTvelisaTvis, jon kenedisTan da amerikuli popkulturis, metwilad popmusikis cnobil saxeebTan erTad. amerika aRiqmeboda, rogorc yvela saxis Tavisuflebis qveyana, seqsualuri Tavisuflebis CaTvliT, SeuzRudavi SesaZleblobebiTa da simdidriT. yvelaze didi STabeWdileba moaxdina jazma. cota qarTveli Tu asrulebda jazs, Tumca bevrs moswonda es musikaluri forma da usmenda kontrabandul Canawerebs, uilis konoveris „jazis saaTs“ radio „amerikis xmaze“, uyurebda iseT filmebs, rogoricaa „mziani velis serenada“, romelic Zalian popularuli iyo im dros, an „SesaniSnav Svideuls“, romelmac moajadova qarTveli „maCoebi“ kovboebis baTqabuTqis dinamikiTa da „veluri dasavleTis“ raindobiT. adamianebi, romlebic afasebdnen jazs, amerikul literaturas da Sesabamisi cxovrebis wess, gadaiqcnen „esTetikuri disidentebis“ kastad da ganudgnen sabWoTa esTetikasa da ideologias. 1960-1970 wlebSi, saqarTveloSi „demokratiuli esTetika“ ZiriTadad warmodgenili iyo kinosa da TeatrSi. amoucnobi mizezebis gamo, saqarTvelos sabWoTa socialistur respublikaSi ufro meti ram iyo nebadarTuli, vidre sxvagan sabWoTa kavSirSi. oTar ioselianis, gia danelias, eldar Sengelaias filmebi, aseve mixeil TumaniSvilisa da robert sturuas speqtaklebi axdendnen ara marto socialisturi ideologiis dekonstruirebas, aramed qarTuli tradicionalisturi kliSeebisac. es miiRweoda cocxali karnavaluri da parodiuli artistuli eniT. sabWoTa komunisturi reJimis

Democratic Republic (1918-21) and the Sovietisation of Georgia (1921-late 1920s). As several political historians suggest (Stephen Jones, Roland Suny), the so-called “First Republic” (Georgian Democratic Republic) proved to be a reasonably successful experiment in social democracy. As for Georgian Modernism, this was a genuine explosion of artistic freedom, liberty and diversity in Georgian visual arts, theatre and literature. This included paintings by Niko Pirosmani, David Kakabadze, Lado Gudiashvili, Shalva Kikodze, Elene Akhvlediani, et al. as well as the theatre productions by Kote Marjanishvili and Sandro Akhmeteli; the writings and literary disputes of the “Blue Horn” symbolists and Futurists who tried to come up with new forms of expression, a new idiom, creating vibrant examples of “democratic aesthetics”, that combined Georgian folklore and myth with the philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche, French and Russian symbolism with the poetry of Vazha-Pshavela and Commedia dell’Arte; Edgar Allan Poe was the demon, the major persona haunting Georgian poets (not as an American, though, but as the father of French symbolism). Though located on the periphery of European Modernism, Tbilisi (or Tiflis as it was called at that time), was the “Fantastic City” (Tatyana Nikolskaya), to which artist and writers from the collapsing Russian Empire were attracted, seeking creative and political freedom, good food and wine. Such energy of “democratic aesthetics” could have boosted the further development and establishment of political democracy in Georgia, but the Sovietisation of the nation and the advent of Bolshevik rule killed the process. Part of the creative elite was destroyed during the Bolshevik purges, some had to flee the country and some had to keep a low profile; for example, by restricting intellectual explorations into the privacy of their homes. With the advent of the “Khruschev Thaw” in the late 1950s there was a revival of sorts of “democratic aesthetics” in Georgia. This was when American culture and the arts penetrated the Soviet realm partly through official, but mostly unofficial (black-market), channels. American literature was permitted in the Soviet Union including the writings of Mark Twain, Theodore Dreiser, Jack London, et al. However, the true novelty was the coming of the works of Hemingway in the 1960s and William Faulkner in the 1970s, which captured the minds of some Georgian writers. Specifically, Hemingway became a sort of icon for many Georgians, together with JFK and other idols of American pop-culture, particularly, pop-music. America was perceived as the land of all kinds of freedoms, including sexual freedom, of unlimited possibilities and wealth. The strongest impression came from jazz music. There were few Georgians who performed jazz, but many appreciated it, listening to smuggled records, to the Willies Connover Jazz Hour programme on Voice of America, watching movies such as “Sun Valley Serenade,” which became a true fad at that time, or “The Magnificent Seven,” which fascinated Georgian “Machos” with the dynamics of cowboy shootouts and Wild West chivalry. People who appreciated jazz, American literature and the associated way of life turned into a cast of “aesthetic dissidents,” marginalising themselves from the official Soviet aesthetics and ideology.

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Culture | კულტურა pirobebSi muSaobis miuxedavad, maT Seqmnes srulfasovani postmodernistuli xelovneba. gardaqmnis periodisa („perestroikis“) da Semdgom, saqarTvelos damoukideblobis dros, qarTul literaturaSi ganxorcielda mniSvnelovani cvlilebebi, romlebic „demokratiul esTetikas“ emyareba. jer kidev umciresobaSi myofma, axalgazrda inteleqtualebma win wamoswies kulturuli kritikis idea, erovnuli istoriis xelaxla gaazrebis, erovnuli klasikuri nawarmoebebis „xelaxali wakiTxvisa“ da „gadaweris“, qarTuli kulturis globalizaciis xelis Sewyobis saWiroeba. axalgazrda mwerlebma Secvales qarTuli mxatvruli proza, axali enis (quCis slengis) da axali toposebis (Tanamedrove qalaquri realoba, sqesi, umciresoba, garyvnileba) SemotaniT, isini CauRrmavdnen parodiul interteqstualur TamaSs. aqedan gamomdinare, 1990-iani wlebis dasawyisSi, postmodernizmi axali Taobis qarTveli xelovanebisa da mwerlebis azrovnebaSi radikaluri cvlilebebis gamomwvevi aRmoCnda. „demokratiuli esTetikis“ ganviTarebis yoveli zemoT aRniSnuli epizodi mxolod calkeuli kunZulia saqarTvelos istoriis dinebaSi. arcerTi maTgani aRmoCnda sakmarisi imisaTvis, rom Camoeyalibebina politikuri demokratiisaTvis saWiro mgrZnobeloba da azrovneba; erTi gamonaklisis garda _ 1918-1921 wlebis demokratiuli respublika. garkveulwilad, iseTi patara qveynisTvis, rogoric saqarTveloa, „esTetikuri demokratiis“ msgavsi gamocdileba sakmarisi unda yofiliyo imisaTvis, rom igi politikur demokratiasa da liberalizmSi asaxuliyo. amis miuxedavad, saqarTvelom gamotova „demokratizmis“ formirebis saukuneebi, romelic evropam gvian Sua saukuneebSi gaiara da romelmac popularuli gaxada Tavisufali qalaqebis „karnavaluri kultura“, socialuri da ekonomikuri modernizacia. elita, romelmac 1918-1921 wlebSi saqarTvelos demokratiul respublikaSi Seqmna mxatvruli da politikuri demokratia _ ganadgurda, ganidevna an izolirebul iqna totalitaruli mmarTvelobis mier da, Sedegad, dairRva memkvidreobiToba. sabWoTa periodma ar datova politikuri demokratizaciis adgili. rac Seexeba postsabWoTa periods, amasTan dakavSirebiT arsebobs ramdenime ganmarteba, Tu ratom ver gaxda saqarTvelo ganviTarebuli demokratiis qveyana. a) socialuri, ekonomikuri da teritoriuli problemebis gamo moxda mosaxleobis didi nawilis marginalizacia da amis Sedegad maT mimarTes religiur nacionalizms, rogorc problemis gadaWris gzas: b) mmarTveli elitis Zalauflebis wyurvilma xeli SeuSala decentralizacias da TviTmmarTvelobas, gamWvirvalobas, angariSvaldebulebas da Seaferxa Camoyalibebis procesSi myofi sakuTrebisa da adamianis uflebebis dacva. SevardnaZis mmarTvelobis droindeli sporaduli liberalizmisagan gansxvavebiT, vardebis revoluciis Semdgom wlebSi mkveTrad daeca demokratiuli ganviTareba: aSkara gaxda xelisuflebis Stoebs Soris kontrolisa da balansis meqanizmis ugulebelyofa, politizebuli sasamarTlo da policia, kerZo sakuTrebis uflebebis darRveva da federaluri telearxebis sruli kontroli. istoriuli da amJamindeli dabrkolebebis gamo, qarTvelebi darCnen demokratiis „esTetikur“ doneze. demokratia,

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“Democratic aesthetics” in the 1960s and 70s in Georgia was mostly represented in the cinema and the theatre. For mysterious reasons, some things were more permitted in the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia than elsewhere in the Soviet Union. Movies by Otar Ioseliani, Gia Danelia, Eldar Shengelaia, as well as theatre productions by Mikhail Tumanishvili and Robert Sturua questioned and deconstructed not only socialist ideological clichés, but also those of the Georgian traditionalists, which was achieved by a vibrant carnivalesque and parodic artistic idiom. Despite working under the Soviet-Communist regime, they were able to accomplish what can be called a “pluperfect Postmodernism.” With the advent of Perestroika and subsequent Georgian independence, significant changes suggesting “democratic aesthetics” emerged throughout Georgian literature. Still for the minority, a group of young intellectuals promoted the idea of cultural criticism, of rethinking national history, rereading and rewriting the national classics, encouraging globalisation processes in Georgian culture. Young authors modified Georgian fiction, introducing new language (e.g. city slang) and new topoi (modern urban realities, gender, minority, perversions), and delved into parodic intertextual play. Thus, beginning in the early 1990s, Postmodernism became a fad sweeping the minds of a new generation of Georgian artists and writers. All of the above-mentioned episodes of the emergence of “democratic aesthetics” are just islands in the stream of Georgia’s history. None of this was ever enough to forge and temper the sensibility and the mindset needed to embrace political democracy, with the exception of one case – the Democratic Republic of 1918-21. To an extent, for a small nation like Georgia, such an experience with “aesthetic democracy” should have been enough to translate it into political democracy and liberalism. However, Georgia had missed the formative centuries of “democratizm," which Europe had been through in the late Middle Ages, featuring a "carnival culture" of free cities, and social and economic modernisation. The elites, who created the artistic and political democracy of the Georgian Democratic Republic of 1918-21, were destroyed, banished or marginalised by the totalitarian rule and thus the succession was disrupted. The Soviet period left no space for political democratisation, and as for the post-Soviet period, there are several explanations why Georgia failed to become a decent democracy: a) social, economic and territorial problems disenfranchised the vast majority of the nation, and people embraced religious nationalism instead as a solution; b) the power lust of the ruling elites, which impeded decentralisation and self-governance, transparency and accountability, and jeopardised fledgling property and human rights. In contrast to the sporadic liberalism of the Shevardnadze period, the post-Rose Revolution years have shown a dramatic backslide of democracy with a lack of checks and balances, politicised judiciary and police, violation of property rights and total state control of national TV. Due to historical and present day hurdles, Georgians are stuck on the “aesthetic” level of democracy. Democracy as an idea


Culture | კულტურა

კირილე ზდანევიჩი

Kirile Zdanevich

rogorc idea da rogorc Rirebuleba, aris raRaca amorfuli da ekleqturi qarTuli azrovnebisaTvis _ is ufro raRac metaforaa, simbolo. gamokiTxvebi gviCvenebs, rom demokratia, iseve rogorc marTlmadidebloba, qarTuli erovnuli identobis mniSvnelovani Semadgeneli nawili gaxda. es ki imaze migvaniSnebs, rom dRevandel qarTul mentalobaSi cnebebis aRreva moxda. qvecnobierad, demokratia, iseve rogorc evropeloba da qristianoba, qarTvelebSi aRiqmeba rogorc rCeulobis ganmsazRvreli _ rac mniSvnelovania erisaTvis, romelic istoriulad garemoculi iyo islamuri saxelmwifoebiT. meore mxriv, qristianoba aRiqmeba rogorc erovnuli identobis maCvenebeli da ara rogorc mxolod religia. aseTi amorfuli ekleqturobis mizezi qarTul mentalitetSia. am mentalitetis lakonuri da yovlismomcveli aRwerisTvis moviSvelieb osip mandelStamis sityvebs: „qarTul kulturas me mivakuTvnebdi ornamentuli tipis kulturebs. isini gars ertymian ucxo kulturis uzarmazar da srulad Camoyalibebul teritorias, magram iTviseben mxolod garegan formebs, xolo mZlavri mezoblebis mtrul arss gaafTrebul Sinagan winaaRmdegobas uweven“. miuxedavad amisa, bolo politikuri movlenebi cxadyofs saqarTvelos aqtiur demokratiul zrdas. evrokavSirTan asocirebisa da Rrma da yovlismomcveli savaWro sivrcis Sesaxeb SeTanxmebebis xelmoweriT saqarTvelo iZens myar safuZvels Semdgomi demokratiuli ganviTarebisTvis.

and a value is something amorphous and eclectic to the Georgian mindset – it is more like a metaphor, a symbol. Opinion polls show that democracy, alongside religious orthodoxy, has become a significant element of the Georgian national identity, thus suggesting a form of conflation of notions in the current national mentality. Democracy is subliminally perceived as an index of chosenness, Europeanness and Christianity, all of which are important for a nation historically surrounded by Muslim states. On the other hand, Christianity is also perceived as an index of national identity, not as a purely religious value. The core of such an amorphous eclecticism is in the Georgian cultural mindset. For a concise and comprehensive description of such a mindset I refer to Osip Mandelshtam, who wrote: “I would consider Georgian culture a type of ornamental culture. Tracing the outlines of the vast and fully developed territory of the foreign (culture), they [the Georgians] mainly absorb only its outer design, while at the same time fiercely resisting the internally hostile essence of the powerful neighboring territories.” However, recent political developments suggest a boost for Georgia’s democratic growth. Georgia’s rapprochement, highlighted by the signing of the Association Agreement and DCFTA with the EU, provides a solid foundation for the nation’s further democratic development.

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Culture | კულტურა

ფოტოკონკურსი: საქართველოს ევროპული გზა

გიგა ჭეშმარიტაშვილი

ირაკლი დათუკიშვილი

ანა სოსელია

სოფიო ძანძავა

Giga Cheshmaritashvili

Ana Soselia

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Georgia’s European Way November 2014

Irakli Datukishvili

Sophio Dzandzava


Culture | კულტურა

Photo competition: Georgia’s European Way

ირინე ორაგველიძე

ნინი ფაილოძე

მარიამ აქუაშვილი

ირინე ორაგველიძე

Irine Oragvelidze

Mariam Akuashvili

Nini Failodze

Irine Oragvelidze

ნოემბერი 2014 საქართველოს ევროპული გზა

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Georgia's European Way (Third edition)  

GEORGIA’S EUROPEAN WAY № 3 / 11 / 2014

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