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# 11 / 04 / 2017

ISSN 1987-8486


საქართველოს ევროპული გზა Georgia’s European Way

saqarTvelos saxelmwifo ministris aparati evropul da evroatlantikur struqturebSi integraciis sakiTxebSi Officeof the State Minister of Georgia on European and Euro-Atlantic Integration


სარჩევი mimarTva viqtor doliZe evropul da evroatlantikur struqturebSi integraciis sakiTxebSi saqarTvelos saxelmwifo ministri lorans merediti evropuli samezoblo politikisa da gafarToebis molaparakebebis generaluri direqtoratis „aRmosavleT partniorobis” qveynebTan TanamSromlobis direqtori

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saqarTvelo da evrokavSiri axalqalaqis kooperativis _ „xulgumos“ istoria

kooperativis „Terjolis Rvino“ istoria

mimdinareobs sasmeli wyliT moqalaqeTa wyalmomaragebaze aRdgeniTi samuSaoebi

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analitika

sainformacio omis winaaRmdeg

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turizmi

samegrelos turistuli potenciali

32

biznesi da ekonomika

„anka fear Treidi“ _ pirveli qarTuli kompania, romelic bio-Txils awarmoebs da eqsportze gaitans

qarTuli kompania vardis furclebs germaniaSi eqsportze gaitans

qarTuli bio-Cai eqsportze evropaSi gavida

42 44 46

saqarTvelo da evrokavSiri Erasmus+ saqarTveloSi _ warmatebis istoria

48

konferencia

konferencia _ „saqarTvelo-evrokavSiris asocirebis amocanebi”

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saqarTvelos Sesaxeb

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fotokolaJi

ganaTleba da kultura

qarTuli samarTali da evropuli tradicia

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Georgia’s European Way | April 2017

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Content Address

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Victor Dolidze The State Minister of Georgia on European and Euro-Atlantic Integration

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Lawrence Meredith

Director “Neighbourhood East“ of the Directorate-General for Neighbourhood and Enlargement Negotiations (DG NEAR)

Georgia and EU

10 Story About Cooperative Khulgumo 12 Story of Cooperative “Terjola Wine” 16 Working to Achieve Clean Water Supply for All Analytics

20 Countering Information War Tourism

32 Samegrelo Tourism Potential

Business and Economy

Producing Organic Hazelnut Due to Export

42 Anka Fair Trade - the First Georgian Company 44 The Georgian Company will Export Rose Petals

to Germany

46 Georgian Organic Tea has Been Exported to Europe

Georgia and EU

48 Erasmus+ in Georgia – A Success Story Conference

52 Conference “Georgia-EU: Association Objectives”

About Georgia

Education and Culture

56 Photo Collage

62 Georgian Law and European Tradition aprili 2017 | saqarTvelos evropuli gza

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Address | mimarTva

სარედაქციო საბჭო მარიამ რაქვიაშვილი ევროპულ და ევროატლანტიკურ სტრუქტურებში ინტეგრაციის საკითხებში საქართველოს სახელმწიფო მინისტრის მოადგილე ზურაბ ქარუმიძე პოლიტიკის ანალიზის, სტრატეგიული დაგეგმვისა და კოორდინაციის დეპარტამენტის, საგარეო ურთიერთობათა სამსახურის პირველი მრჩეველი, საქართველოს მთავრობის ადმინისტრაცია ლაშა ტუღუში აღმოსავლეთ პარტნიორობის სამოქალაქო საზოგადოების საქართველოს ეროვნული პლატფორმის თავმჯდომარე ივანე ჩხიკვაძე ევროინტეგრაციის მიმართულების მენეჯერი ფონდი ღია საზოგადოება საქართველო თორნიკე ნოზაძე ევროპულ და ევროატლანტიკურ სტრუქტურებში ინტეგრაციის საკითხებში საქართველოს სახელმწიფო მინისტრის აპარატის სტრატეგიული კომუნიკაციის დეპარტამენტის უფროსი ანა ჩიხრაძე ევროპულ და ევროატლანტიკურ სტრუქტურებში ინტეგრაციის საკითხებში საქართველოს სახელმწიფო მინისტრის აპარატის სტრატეგიული კომუნიკაციის დეპარტამენტის მთავარი სპეციალისტი

Editorial Board Mariam Rakviashvili Deputy State Minister of Georgia on European and Euro-Atlantic Integration Zurab Karumidze First Advisor, Foreign Relations Unit, Department of Political Analysis, Strategic Planning and Coordination the Administration of the Government of Georgia Lasha Tugushi Head of Georgian Civil Society National Platform for the Eastern Partnership Ivane Chkhikvadze EU Integration Field Manager Open Society Georgia Foundation Tornike Nozadze Head of Strategic Communication Department of the Office of the State Minister of Georgia on European and Euro-Atlantic Integration Ana Chikhradze Chief Specialist of Strategic Communication Department of the Office of the State Minister of Georgia on European and Euro-Atlantic Integration Special thanks to:

განსაკუთრებული მადლობა: თამარ მიქაძე საქართველოში ევროკავშირის წარმომადგენლობის პოლიტიკისა და პრესის განყოფილების თანამშრომელი

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Georgia’s European Way | April 2017

Tamar Mikadze Press and Information Officer at the Political and Press Section of the Delegation of the European Union to Georgia


Address | mimarTva

ვიქტორ დოლიძე

Victor Dolidze

ევროპულ და ევროატლანტიკურ სტრუქტურებში ინტეგრაციის საკითხებში საქართველოს სახელმწიფო მინისტრი

The State Minister of Georgia on European and Euro-Atlantic Integration

warmogidgenT Jurnalis „saqarTvelos evropuli gza“ rigiT me-11 gamocemas, romelic saqarTvelos evropuli da evroatlantikuri integraciis mniSvnelovan sakiTxebs exeba. 2017 weli erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi welia saqarTvelos evropuli integraciis kuTxiT. 28 marts saqarTvelosa da evrokavSirs Soris uvizo reJimi amoqmedda. uvizo mimosvla xels Seuwyobs saqarTvelosa da evrokavSirs Soris ekonomikuri, kulturuli da socialuri kavSirebis gaaqtiurebas, turizmis ganviTarebas, bizneskavSirebis gamyarebas. amasTan, es aris evrokavSiris mxridan mniSvnelovani politikuri aRiareba, rom qveyana warmatebiT axorcielebs kompleqsur reformebs, xels uwyobs demokratiuli institutebis ganviTarebasa da ekonomikur mdgradobas. winamdebare JurnalSi warmodgenilia maga­ liTebi, Tu rogor exmareba evrokavSiri saqar­ Tvelos sxvadasxva sferos ganviTarebaSi, maT Soris soflis meurneobasa da ekonomikaSi. Tqven, aseve ixilavT saintereso statiebs qar­ Tuli da evropul samarTlis, evrokavSiris programa „Erasmus+”-is da saqarTvelos tu­ristuli potencialis Sesaxeb.

I would like to present to you 11th edition of the periodical “Georgia’s European Way” which reflects developments of Georgia’s European and Euro-Atlantic integration issues. 2017 constitutes one of the landmark years for Georgia’s European integration. On 28 March, visa free regime between Georgia and the EU came into force. The Visa free regime will contribute to enhancement of economic, cultural and social ties between the EU and Georgia, as well as facilitate tourism development and strengthen business contacts. Furthermore, this is a significant political recognition from the EU that Georgia successfully implements complex reforms, ensures development of democratic institutions and sustainability of country’s economy. This issue demonstrates examples of the EU assistance to Georgia in development of various fields, such as agricultural and economy. The reader will also find interesting articles regarding Georgian and European law, Erasmus+ and Georgia’s tourism potential.

aprili 2017 | saqarTvelos evropuli gza

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Address | mimarTva

ლორენს მერედიტი ევროპული სამეზობლო პოლიტიკისა და გაფართოების მოლაპარაკებების გენერალური დირექტორატის „აღმოსავლეთ პარტნიორობის” ქვეყნებთან თანამშრომლობის დირექტორი Lawrence Meredith Director “Neighbourhood East“ of the Directorate-General for Neighbourhood and Enlargement Negotiations (DG NEAR)

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els, evrokavSiri romis xelSekrulebis gaformebidan 60-wlisTavs aRniSnavs. es RirsSesaniSnavi TariRi aris SesaZlebloba kidev erTxel davadasturoT Cveni erTguleba im Rirebulebebisa da miznebis mimarT, romlebzec dafuZnda evropuli proeqti 60 wlis win. es, aseve, gvaZlevs saSualebas, gavaRrmavoT TanamSromloba Cvens partniorebTan. saqarTvelo aris erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi par­ tniori CvenTvis aRmosavleT samezobloSi. rodesac, me vstumrobdi saqarTvelos ramdenime Tvis win da vxvdebodi qarTvel oficialur pirebsa da samoqalaqo sazogadoebis warmomadgenlebs, davinaxe, rom Cven kvlav saerTo xedva gvaqvs, rac aucilebelia TanamSromlobisTvis. oficialur pirebTan muSaobis dros, Cven ganvsazRvreT is prioritetebi, romlebzec SemdgomSi iqneba dafuZnebuli saqarTvelosTan TanamSromloba: ekonomikuri ganviTareba da sabazro SesaZleblobebi (maT Soris ekonomikuri zrda da biznes seqtoris mxardaWera), institutebis gaZliereba da kargi mmarTveloba, kavSirebi, energoefeqturoba, garemos dacva da klimatis cvlileba, mobiloba da xalxTa Soris kavSirebi (maT Soris programa Erasmus+).

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Georgia’s European Way | April 2017

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his year the European Union celebrates the 60th anniversary of the Treaties of Rome. The anniversary is the opportunity to reaffirm our commitment to the values and objectives on which the European project was founded 60 years ago. It is also an opportunity to take steps forward in our cooperation with our partners. Georgia is one of our key partners in the Eastern Neighbourhood. When visiting Georgia over a month ago and meeting with the Georgian authorities as well as the civil society, I was able to see that we continue to have a common vision. This is essential for cooperation. In close collaboration with the authorities we have identified the priorities on which our cooperation with Georgia will be based: economic development and market opportunities (including economic growth and support to the business sector); strengthening institutions and good governance; connectivity, energy efficiency, environment and climate change; mobility and people-to-people contacts (including Erasmus+).


Address | mimarTva Rrma da yovlismomcveli savaWro sivrcis komponentis farglebSi, saqarTvelom ukve warmoadgina 7 000-ze meti evropuli standarti jandacvis, kvebis usafrTxoebisa da garemos dacvis sakiTxebSi. am standartebis danergviT miRebuli ekonomikuri sargebeli aSkaraa. saqarTvelo cdilobs miaRwios ekonomikur mdgradobas fundamenturi reformebis gatarebiTa da Seqmnas axali SesaZleblobebi mcire da saSualo biznesisTvis. dRevandeli mdgomareobiT, evrokavSiri saqarTvelos mniSvnelovani savaWro partnioria 30%-iani tvirTbrunviT. iseT produqtebTan erTad, rogorebicaa kivi, Txili, mocvi da Rvino, romlebic SegiZliaT ixiloT evropis bazrebze, Zalian male saqarTvelos eqneba SesaZlebloba daiwyos Taflis eqsportic. aseve, bambas aqvs Zalian kargi saeqsporto potenciali da darwmunebuli var, am produqtebis sia momavalSic gaizrdeba. evrokavSiri mxars uWers mTavrobis modernizaciisken mimarTul Zalisxmevas, risi saukeTeso magaliTia aRmosavleT-dasavleTis avtomagistrali da samxreTis gazsadeni, sadac evrokavSirma mniSvnelovani wvlili Seitana. 2017 weli Zalian mniSvnelovania saqarTvelos moqalaqeebisTvis, vinaidan amieridan maT SeuZliaT uvizod imogzauron Sengenis qveynebSi. vulocav saqarTvelos mTavrobas am mniSvnelovan miRwevas. evrokomisiam dadebiTad Seafasa aRniSnuli Zalisxmeva jer kidev gasuli wlis bolos, rodesac man misca neba wevr qveynebs mieRoT politikuri gadawyvetileba. Cven vacnobierebT, rom es ar iyo martivi procesi da moiTxovda siRrmiseuli reformebis gatarebas bevr sferoSi, sadac saqarTvelom mniSvnelovani progresi aCvena. mjera, rom uvizo mimosvla gazrdis mobilobas, rac Tavis mxriv xels Seuwyobs evrokavSiris Zalisxmevas, ganaviTaros saTanado unar-Cvevebis mqone, kvalificiuri samuSao Zala, romelic qveynis momaval modernizaciasa da ekonomikur zrdaSi miiRebs mona­ wileobas. Cveni mizania, es Sedegi rigiTi moqalaqeebis cxovrebazec aisaxos.

In the context of DCFTA Georgia has already introduced over 7 000 European standards in the areas of health, food safety and environment. The economic benefits of implementing these standards are obvious. Georgia is trying to build its economic sustainability through imple­ menting key economic reforms opening new opportunities for small and medium businesses. Today the EU is Georgia’s key trading partner with a share of over 30% in the overall trade. In addition to kiwis, nuts, blueberries and wine which may be found in the European super­m arkets, Georgia will soon be able to export honey. Wool also has a good export potential and I believe the list of products will increase. The EU also supports the government in its modernisation efforts the best examples of which are the East-West highway and the Southern Gas pipeline where the EU has made a signifi­ cant contribution. 2017 is a very special year for citizens of Georgia as they are able to travel to the Schengen area without visas. I congratulate the Government of Georgia with this very important achievement. The European Commission gave a positive assessment of these efforts already at the end of last year allowing for the political decision to be taken by the Member States. We are well aware that this process was not easy and required in-depth reforms in many areas, where Georgia showed remarkable progress. I believe that the visa free travel will increase mobility, supporting the EU’s efforts to develop well trained and qualified labour force contributing to the country’s further modernization and economic growth. Our aim is to make tangible impact on the lives of ordinary citizens.

aprili 2017 | saqarTvelos evropuli gza

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Georgia and EU | saqarTvelo da evrokavSiri

ახალქალაქის კოოპერატივის „ხულგუმოს“ ისტორია Story about cooperative Khulgumo

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xalqalaqSi ENPARD-is gadamRebi jgufi diliT adre CavediT. Tumca is ojaxi, sadac kooperativis „xulgumo 2014“ xelmZRvaneli cxovrobs, Sin ar dagvxvda. yvelani velze iyvnen gasulebi da axalqalaqis 2016 wlis kartofilis mosavals agrovebdnen. kooperativi „xulgumo 2014“ 2 wlis win daarsda da masSi 20 eTnikurad somexi wevria gaerTianebuli. Cvenda gasakvirad, raodenobrivi genderuli balansi yvelaze ukeT swored am kooperativSi aRmoCnda daculi _ 20 wevridan 16 qalia. Tumca es erTaderTi pozitiuri movlena ar aRmoCnda. sasiamovnod gagvaoca xulgumos wevrebis gaazrebulma damokidebulebam kooperaciisadmi da maTma xedvebma biznesis ganviTarebis kuTxiT. apetnak zandariani „xulgumos“ Tavmjdomarea. wlebis win sauniversiteto saqmianoba miatova, profesoris xarisxi gverdiT gadado da soflis meurneobis praqtikul saqmianobas mihyo xeli.

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Georgia’s European Way | April 2017

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NPARD crew arrived in Akhalkalaki early in the morning but we could not find the family of the head of the cooperative “Khulgumo 2014” at home. They were already in the field and the process of Akhalkalaki potato harvesting for the year of 2016 was on. The cooperative “Khulgumo 2014” was founded 2 years ago and it unites 20 members from the Armenian ethnic minority group. We were surprised to find out that the cooperative was the most quantitatively balanced one in terms of gender as out of 20 members, 16 were women. But this did not turn up to be the only positive characteristic of the cooperative. We were also very pleased to observe the cooperative members’ sensible attitude with regard to cooperation and their visions in terms of business development. Apetnak Zandaryan is the head of the “Khulgumo” cooperative. He left his career at the university several years ago and putting


Georgia and EU | saqarTvelo da evrokavSiri

ძალიან დიდი მადლობა ევროკავშირს, რომ ქვეყნის უკიდურეს სამხრეთით მდებარე ფერმერებს არ გვივიწყებს და გვეხმარება ქვეყნის განვითარების საქმეში ჩვენი წილი დოვლათი შევიტანოთ.

„amaze ufro sasargeblo saqmes ver gavakeTebdi verc Cemi soflis da verc qveynisTvis“, ambobs apetnaki. „kooperativSic iseTi adamianebi varT gaerTianebuli, visac esmis, rom mciremiwianobis pirobebSi, praqtikulad SeuZlebelia warmoebis gazrda, Tu ar gaerTiandebi da erTiani xedva ar geqneba. TiToeul Cven wevrs 1 heqtaramde miwa gvaqvs. saerTo jamSi 10 heqtaramde miwas vamuSavebT. 20-ive wevri Tanabrad vmuSaobT da erTiani standartiT vakeTebT xnulebs, viyenebT umaRlesi xarisxis sakartofile Tesls da mosavlis amoReba-dasawyobebac erTiani teqnologiiT xdeba. aseT midgomas ramdenime upiratesoba gaaCnia: meurneobis movla 4-jer ufro iafi gvijdeba, kartofilis xarisxi kidev ufro maRalia, vidre mcire meurneobis dros gvqonda da warmoebamac moculobaSi 100%-iT gaizarda“. „xulgumos“ kartofilis wliuri mosavlis raodenoba 50 tonas aWarbebs da samomavlo gaTvlebi kidev ufro imedismomcemia. 1 wlis win ENPARD-is finansuri daxmarebiTa da programis ganmaxorcielebeli partnioris Mercy Corps-is teqnikuri mxardaWeriT, kooperativs saxnav-saTesi teqnika gadaeca, ramac kidev ufro gaamartiva fermerebis muSaoba. Tanadafinansebis principiT, evrokavSiris grantis moculobam 35,000 lari Seadgina. „evrokavSiris mier gadmocemul traqtors kooperativis yvela wevri usasyidlod viyenebT, rac Cveni mosavlis TviTRirebulebaze aisaxeba da kartofilsac konkurentunarian fasSi vyidiT“, — ambobs apetnaki. „garda amisa, am teqnikas regionSi sxva fermerebze vaqiravebT da kooperativs damatebiTi Semosavlis wyaroc aqvs, rom sxva Tanamedrove teqnika SeiZinos da warmadoba gazardos“. „xulgumos“ kartofili sabiTumo fasSi 1 kilogrami 40 TeTrad iyideba. Tumca fermerebis problema warmoeba imdenad araa, aramed gasaRebis bazrebze xelmisawvdomoba. „samwuxarod, fermerebi momxmareblebs pirdapir ver vukavSirdebiT, radgan Zalian rTulia bazrebze adgilis mopoveba. amitom gviwevs mosavali gadamyidvelebs mivceT, Tumca maT bazrebze 2-3jer ufro Zvirad gaaqvT. amiT fermerebic vzaraldebiT da momxmareblebic. Tu saxelmwifo gverdSi dagvidgeba da bazrebze pirdapir wvdomas mogvcems, SegviZlia kartofili 50 -60 TeTrad gavyidoT, rac moqalaqeebis jibezec dadebiTad aisaxeba da fermerebisac“, ambobs apetnaki. kooperativis wevrebi saubrisas kidev erT mniSvnelovan sakiTxs exebian. axalqalaqis kartofili

I am extremely grateful to the European Union as it does not forget about the farmers in the far South and supports us in the process of contributing to the development of the country through increase in local production. aside professor’s qualifications he has embarked into the practical activities in the field of agriculture. “This is the most beneficial work I could have done for my village and my country”, says Apetnak. “The cooperative members are people who understand that it is impossible to increase production when owning a small land. We believe that joining the resources and common vision is absolutely a must. Each member of our cooperative owns up to 1 hectare of land. All in all we cultivate 10 hectares. All 20 members work equally and make furrows with the same standards, we use the highest quality potato seeds and uniform technology in the process of harvesting and crop storage. There are number of advantages with regards to this approach: costs of production are 4 times cheaper, potato quality is much better, in comparison with the small farming output and the volume of production has also increased by 100%.” Potato harvest of “Khulgumo” exceeds 50 tons annually and calculation for future is even more promising. 1 year ago with

aprili 2017 | saqarTvelos evropuli gza

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Georgia and EU | saqarTvelo da evrokavSiri

ukve brendia, radgan javaxeTis noyieri, Savi miwa pesticidebisgan Tavisufal, jansaR produqts iZleva da es momxmarebelma kargad icis. apetnaki ambobs, rom gadamyidvelebis xelSi produqciis moxvedras is riski axlavs, rom saqarTvelos momxmareblamde maTi kartofili ar moxvdes. „aris SemTxvevebi, roca Cveni kartofili mezobel qveynebSi gadis. CvenTan ki iranuli, Turquli an egvipturi uxarisxo kartofili Semodis da axalqalaquri kartofilis saxeliT saRdeba. apetnakma ramdenime xriki gvaswavla, Tu rogor unda ganvasxvavoT axalqalaqis kartofili importirebuli produqtisgan. „pirveladi daTvalierebisas kartofili ar unda iyos gaprialebuli. es imas niSnavs, rom axalqalaqis kartofils aucileblad etyoba Savi miwis narCenebi. es geografiuli maCveneblis pirveli maxasiaTebelia. Semdeg, momxmareblebs vurCevdiT, Suaze gaWran kartofili da daakvirdnen guls. Tu garSemo kartofils wiTeli zolebi dayveba, es imas niSnavs, rom kartofili dasaSvebze meti pesticidebiT aris moyvanili. kartofili datoveT mzeze 10-15 wuTi _ Tu gawiTlda, maSin is sakvebad uvargisia, xolo Tu gaSavda, es niSnavs, rom is Cveulebrivad mxolod saxamebels Seicavs da SegiZliaT guldamSvidebiT miirTvaT“.

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Georgia’s European Way | April 2017

the ENPARD’s financial assistance and the technical support of the implementing partner Mercy Corps, the cooperative has received tillage and seeding agricultural machinery, which has further simplified the work of farmers. With the principle of co-financing, the EU grant amounted to 35,000 GEL. “All members of the cooperative benefit from the tractor purchased by the EU for free; this affects the net cost of our production and we come up with a very competitive price on the market,” says Apetnaki. “At the same time we rent out the machinery onother farmers of the region, thus the cooperative has additional income source, which will be reinvested in purchasing modern machinery and increase of productivity.” “Khulgumo” wholesale price of 1 kilogram of potato is 40 Tetri. But the challenge is not the production, but an access to the key markets. “Unfortunately, consumers cannot directly connect with farmers, as it is very difficult to obtain a place on the markets. That is why we have to sell our harvest to resellers, but they enter the markets with the double and triple prices. The farmers as well as consumers are the victims of this situation. If state supports us with the direct access to the markets, we can offer a price


Georgia and EU | saqarTvelo da evrokavSiri „xulgumos“ kidev ufro Sors mimavali gegmebi aqvs, rac kooperativis gazrdas ukavSirdeba. maTi pirveladi gaTvlebiT, aseTi tempiT kooperativs 100 tonamde gaezrdeba warmoeba. „Zalian didi madloba evrokavSirs, rom qveynis ukidures samxreTiT mdebare fermerebs ar gviviwyebs da gvexmareba qveynis ganviTarebis saqmeSi Cveni wili dovlaTi SevitanoT. da Tu fermerebs bazrebze pirdapiri wvdomac gveqneba, pirobas viZleviT, rom qveynis ekonomikas bevrad ufro ukeTess gavxdiT, vidre axla gvaqvs“.

of 50-60 Tetri per kilogram of potato on the market, which will bring financial benefits to the citizens as well as farmers,” says Apetnaki. Cooperative members have brought up another important topic during the conversation. Akhalkalaki potato is already a brand, because Javakheti’s fertile, black soil is a source for pesticide-free, healthy products and consumers are well aware of this fact. According to Apetnaki resellers’ engagement in the issue is risky as Georgian consumers can be deprived of choice to buy Akhalkalaki potato. “There are cases when our potato is exported to neighboring countries and our market is flooded by Iranian, Turkish and Egyptian low quality potato which sold as an Akhalkalaki potato.” Apetnak has taught us several tricks to distinguish between the imported potatoes from the ones produced in Akhalkalaki. “At first sight potatoes should not look polished as Akhalkalaki potato always has some black soil left on it. This is number one geographical indicator. I would also recommend consumers to cut the potato in two halves and take a thorough look at the core of the potato. If there are any red circles this indicates high in pesticides in the potato. Leave potatoes on the sun for 10-15 minutes and in case they turn red they are not fit for human consumption and if they turn black it means that these potatoes contain starch which is normal and you can eat them without any fear.” “Khulgumo” has even more far-reaching plans, which is linked to the enlargement of the cooperative. According to their initial calculations, the volume of the cooperative production should exceed 100 tons. “I am extremely grateful to the European Union as it does not forget about the farmers in the far South and supports us in the process of contributing to the development of the country through increase in local production. We promise that under the condition of direct access to markets, we will strengthen the country’s economy.”

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Georgia and EU | saqarTvelo da evrokavSiri

კოოპერატივის „თერჯოლის ღვინო“ ისტორია Story of cooperative “Terjola Wine”

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idre Rvinis biznesSi warmatebas miaRwevdnen, gogita makariZes da mis Tanasoflel meRvineebs araerTi sirTulis gadalaxva mouxdaT. evrokavSiris soflisa da soflis meurneobis ganviTarebis samezoblo programis (ENPARD) daxmarebiT, maT SeZles daefuZnebinaT Tanamedrove kooperativi. Sedegad, wliuri warmoeba 500 litridan 8-9 tona umaRlesi xarisxis Rvinomde gaizarda. dRes Terjolis Rvino warmoadgens saqarTveloSi farTod gavrcelebul brends, romelic saerTaSoriso asparezzec warmatebiT sargeblobs. misi produqcia xelmisawvdomia amerikis, iaponiis, ruseTis, daniisa da avstraliis bazrebze.

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Georgia’s European Way | April 2017

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ogita Makaridze and other winemakers in his village had a challenging time in the wine business before they decided to join forces and achieved a breakthrough they could not even dream of before. Thanks to the support from EU cooperative development programme, they established themselves as a modern cooperative. As a result, their annual production jumped from 500 liters to 8-9 tons of high-quality wine. Today, the Terjola Wine is a brand that is widely distributed in Georgia and has growing international success, as you can now find their products in USA’s, Japan’s, Russia’s, Denmark’s and Australia’s markets. Winemaking cooperatives are a growing success story in Georgia with members pooling resources in both winemaking and marketing to achieve what small growers could never do alone.


Georgia and EU | saqarTvelo da evrokavSiri Rvinis mwarmoebeli kooperativebi sul ufro meti warmatebis istoriebs gviziareben saqarTvelos realobidan, romelTa wevrebi Rvinis warmoebisa da marketinguli unar-Cvevebis integrirebis gziT axerxeben mcire mwarmoebelTaTvis rTulad miRwevadi miznebis ganxorcielebas. gogita makariZe, kooperativis „Terjolis Rvino“ xelmZRvaneli, aqtiuri da motivirebuli axalgazrdaa. Rvinis warmoeba misi ojaxis mravalwliani tradiciaa. „mama da babua meRvineebi iyvnen da pataraobidanve am garemoSi vizrdebodi, mosavals viRebdi da Rvinosac maTTan erTad vwuravdi! Zalian mindoda meRvine gavmxdariyavi da gamimarTla, rom SevZeli Rvinis damzadebis ojaxuri tradiciis gagrZeleba. meamayeba, rom meRvineobaSi Cemi ojaxis mexuTe Taobas warmovadgen“, ambobs gogita. sabWoTa periodSi gogitas ojaxi warmatebiT eweoda Rvinis warmoebas da Rvinis eqsporti ojaxis Semosavlis ZiriTad wyaros warmoadgenda. „sabWoTa kavSiris dros mamaCemi saukeTeso qarTul Rvinoebs awarmoebda da sabWoTa respublikebSi eqsportze gaqonda. marTalia, mdidrebi ar viyaviT, magram meRvineobas Cveni ojaxisTvisTvis stabiluri Semosavali mohqonda”. 1990-ian wlebSi, sabWoTa kavSiris daSlis Semdeg, saqarTvelom politikurad da ekonomikurad rTuli periodi gamoiara, ramac Rvinis eqsportis arsebiTi vardna gamoiwvia. sabazro moTxovnis Semcirebis sapasuxod, gogitas ojaxic iZulebuli gaxda, Seemcirebina Rvinis warmoeba. gogitas mamisgan gansxvavebiT, bevrma qarTvelma fermerma srulad miatova sakuTari venaxi, radgan momavlis perspeqtiva bundovani Canda. gogita ambiciuri axalgazrdaa. 2012 wels sapensio asaks miRweuli mamisgan arasakmarisi kapitaliT, magram Sors mimavali miznebiT, man sakuTar Tavze aiRo saojaxo saqmianobis xelmZRvaneloba. misi ocneba ara mxolod adgilobriv bazarze, aramed saerTaSoriso doneze konkurentunariani brendis Seqmna iyo. es unda yofiloyo brendi, romelic msoflios warudgenda unikalur qarTul Rvinoebs _ ocxanur saferes, cicqas, colikaurs, aladastursa da kraxunas. miznisaken mimavali gza winaaRmdegobebis savse gamodga. „Tavdapirvelad uamrav problemas wavawydi. mivxvdi, rom saerTaSoriso brendis SeqmnisTvis damWirdeboda evropuli standartebis Sesabamisi, didiodenobis produqciis warmoeba. amisaTvis ki saWiro iyo uaxlesi aRWurviloba. mTavar problemas Tana-

Gogita Makaridze, the leader of the cooperative Terjola Wine is a very active and motivated young man. Winemaking is a long tradition in his family. “My father and grandfather were successful winemakers and I grew up in the winery with them. I harvested and crushed grapes at a young age. I really wanted to be a winemaker and was fortunate to be able to follow the family footsteps of winemaking and I am proud to be the fifth generation of my family to go into winemaking,” says Gogita. Gogita’s family was successful in wine business during the Soviet era. Wine export was the main income source for their family. “During the Soviet time, my father was producing and exporting some of the best Georgian wines to the Soviet republics. Our business was prospering. We were not wealthy but the winemaking business created a good, steady income that supported the family.” However, after the collapse of the Soviet Union, Georgia experienced during the 1990s political and economic turmoil that caused wine exports to decline dramatically. Gogita’s family was forced to reduce wine production as the market demand decreased significantly. Unlike Gogita’s father, many Georgian farmers totally abandoned their vineyards, as the future seemed uncertain. In 2012, with his father semi-retired, Gogita took over the responsibility for the family wine yards. Gogita is an ambitious young man. He assumed leadership responsibilities of his family’s business without much capital but with a big dream. His goal was to establish not just a locally competitive brand but a brand that would be recognized internationally. One that would introduce unique Georgian wines – Otskanuri Sapere, Tsitska, Tsolikauri, Aladasturi and Krakhuna, which have specific aromas and fresh harmonious taste peculiar to wines from Imereti region – to the world. There was a long way to go, though. “When I was starting, I faced a lot of problems. I realized that to have an international brand, I would need to produce large quantities to EU quality standards.  In order to do that, I needed modern equipment. Therefore, the biggest obstacle was the lack of financial resources needed to purchase modern winemaking equipment.  I am not the kind of person who raises the white flag in front of every obstacle, but the situation was not easy.  I looked for a solution in bank commercial loans but I was put off by excessively high-interest rates and I kept looking for other more affordable solutions,” says Gogita.

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Georgia and EU | saqarTvelo da evrokavSiri medrove danadgarebis SesaZenad finansuri resursebis nakleboba warmoadgenda. ar var adamiani, romelic winaaRmdegobas advilad nebdeba, Tumca mdgomareoba sakmaod rTuli iyo _ ar gamaCnda sakmarisi Tanxa saWiro aRWurvilobis SesaZenad. iZulebuli viyavi, gamosavali komerciuli bankebis sesxebSi meZebna, magram maRalma saprocento ganakveTma maiZula sxva, SedarebiT xelmisawvdomi gamosavali mepovna “. aRniSnavs gogita. axali impulsi evrokavSirisgan qarTuli Rvinis warmoebis asaRorZineblad! 2014 wels evrokavSiris mier dafinansebuli soflisa da soflis meurneobis ganviTarebis samezoblo programis (ENPARD) farglebSi, warmoebasa da marketingTan dakavSirebuli problemebis erToblivad gadaWris xelSewyobis mizniT, Cexurma arasamTavrobo organizaciam „adamiani gaWirvebaSi“ gamoacxada sagranto konkursi fermerTa mcire jgufebisTvis. „erTi wlis ganmavlobaSi vcdilobdi problemis gadaWras. 2014 wels mezoblisgan Sevityve, rom Cexuri organizacia “People in Need” (PIN), xalxs sasoflo-sameurneo kooperativebis ganviTarebis SesaZleblobas sTavazobda. Tavdapirvelad eWvis TvaliT Sevxede. Tumca daveswari PIN-is sainformacio Sexvedras TerjolaSi da swored es Sexvedra aRmoCnda Cveni warmatebis sawyisi“. gogitam, Tavisive TanasoflelebTan erTad, romlebic Rvinis mcire warmoebaSi iyvnen CarTulni, gadawyvita kooperativis Seqmna. maleve, maT monawileoba miiRes sagranto konkursSi da sxva kooperativebTan erTad, pirvelebma moipoves granti imereTSi.

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Georgia’s European Way | April 2017

New Impulse from EU to Revive Traditional Georgian Winemaking In 2014, under the EU-funded ENPARD (European Neighbourhood Programme for Agriculture and Rural Development) programme the Czech NGO People in Need announced a grant competition for groups of small farmers to help jointly tackle their problems in production and marketing. “I was looking for a solution for more than a year. In 2014, my neighbors told me that a Czech organization “People in Need” was offering people the opportunity to start developing agricultural cooperatives.  At first, I did not believe it.  However, I attended the information meeting in Terjola, and this meeting appeared to be the starting point that laid the foundation for our success.” Gogita, along with his fellow villagers who were also involved in small-scale wine businesses decided to establish a cooperative. Soon, they took part in the grant contest and were among the first cooperatives in Imereti to receive a grant.  ENPARD grant provided them with modern winemaking equipment they needed to create a first class winery and a wide range of trainings to improve the quality of production and their work as a cooperative. Since then, awards have flowed freely. In 2015, the Terjola Wine received the highest award on annual wine festival in Tbilisi for producing the best Tsitska and Otskhanuri Sapere in Georgia. Soon, international recognition followed: in 2016, People in Need sponsored their participation in renowned Salima Trade Fair in the Czech Republic, where they received a special prize in the nomination “Best Red Wine”. The same year Terjola Wine honored with a highest award golden cup (Золотой Кубок) in the international “Code de Vino”awards.


Georgia and EU | saqarTvelo da evrokavSiri ENPARD-is grantis saSualebiT,

maT SeiZines umaRlesi donis Rvinis qarxnisaTvis saWiro Tanamedrove aRWurviloba, gaiares treningebi produqciis xarisxisa da maTi, rogorc kooperativis, saqmianobis gasaumjobeseblad. aRiarebamac ar daayovna, 2015 wels, Rvinis yovelwliur festivalze TbilisSi, Terjolis Rvinom saqarTveloSi saukeTeso cicqas da ocxanuri saferes warmoebisTvis umaRlesi jildo moipova. aRniSnul jildos saerTaSoriso aRiareba mohyva: 2016 wels PIN-ma sponsoroba gauwia maT monawileobas cnobil „salima“-s Rvinis gamofenaze CexeTSi, sadac kooperativs specialuri jildo ergoT nominaciaSi „saukeTeso wiTeli Rvino“. imave wels, „Code de Vino“-s saerTaSoriso dajildoebaze, Terjolis Rvinos umaRlesi jildo _ oqros Tasi mieniWa. produqciis maRali xarisxis wyalobiT, kooperativma advilad daimkvidra Tavi adgilobriv bazarze da daiwyo sakuTari produqciis realizacia saqarTvelos did qalaqebSi. male is gascda adgilobriv masStabebs da 2016 wels msoflio bazrebis aTvisebas Seudga. dResdReobiT, kooperativis unikalur organul Rvinoebs waawydebiT amerikis, avstraliis, iaponiis, ruseTisa da daniis maRaziaTa daxlebze. dRes TerjolaSi sityva „warmateba“ Terjolis RvinosTan asocirdeba. kooperativis 5 heqtarze gadaSlili venaxi iZleva 8-9 tona Rvinis warmoebis saSualebas, rac 20-jer aRemateba kooperativis wevrebis mier damoukideblad nawarmoebi Rvinis odenobas. momaval wels warmoebis 15 tonamde gasazrdelad Terjolis Rvino gegmavs kooperativis gafarToebas da damatebiT 4 heqtaris SeZenas. magram es yvelaferi ar aris, rogorc gogita makariZem gviTxra, isini gegmaven agro-turizmis pionerobas Terjolis municipalitetSi, risTvisac aSeneben sastumros, romelic ukve zafxulidan SeZlebs adgilobrivi da ucxoeli stumrebis miRebas. warmateba socialuri pasuxismgeblobis sawindaria gogitas da mis megobrebs kooperativSi didi survili aqvT, mxari dauWiron mravalsaukunovani Rvinis tradiciis aRdgenas TerjolaSi. swored amitom, kooperativi gegmavs sanergis gaSenebas da municipalitetSi arsebuli yvela mcire meRvinis ufaso nergebiT uzrunvelyofas. „gvwams, rom warmatebas pasuxismgebloba mohyveba. Cven mzad varT da sakuTar Tavze viRebT Terjoleli meRvineebis mxardaWeras, romlebic imave problemebis winaSe dganan, rogorc Cven wlebis win. mjera, rom aT weliwadSi TerjolaSi iqneba ramdenime warmatebuli kooperativi da is msoflioSi Rvinis warmoebis erTerT yvelaze cnobil adgilad iqceva!” 5 heqtari venaxi koperativis aTi wevris saerTo mflobelobaSia. 2016 wlis mosalodneli 9 tona mosavlidan miiReben daaxloebiT 5,5 aTas litramde maRali xarisxis „ocxanaurs“ da „cicqas“.

მჯერა, რომ ათ წელიწადში თერჯოლაში იქნება რამდენიმე წარმატებული კოოპერატივი და ის მსოფლიოში ღვინის წარმოების ერთ-ერთ ყველაზე ცნობილ ადგილად იქცევა!” I believe that 10 years from now, Terjola will have a number of successful cooperatives and will be one of the best-known winemaking spots in the world!”

Thanks to its high-quality product the cooperative easily established itself in the local market and started selling its products in the largest cities of Georgia. In 2016, the cooperative found its deserved place under the sun in the world market and unique wines of the cooperative can be found on the store shelves in the USA, Australia, Japan, Russia and Denmark. Today in Terjola the word “success” is associated with “Terjola Wine”. The cooperative’s vineyard has 5 hectares and produces 8-9 tons of wine, which is 20 times more than cooperative members were producing individually. Future plans of Terjola Wine include adding more members and purchasing 4 more hectares of land to reach 15 tons of production next year. Though, that’s not the whole story.  As Gogita Makaridze told us, they intend to try their luck in agritourism. For this reason, they are building a hotel, which will be ready to welcome foreign and local guests already starting from the summer 2017. Success brings social responsibility Gogita and his friends in the cooperative have a great desire to support the revitalization of the centuries-old wine tradition in Terjola. For this reason, the cooperative plans to establish a nursery and provide free seedlings to all small-scale winemakers in the municipality. “We believe that with success comes responsibility.  We are ready and committed to supporting Terjola winemakers who are having the same kind of problems that we experienced in the past years.  I believe that 10 years from now, Terjola will have a number of successful cooperatives and will be one of the best-known winemaking spots in the world!” The cooperative’s 10 members have a combined 5 hectares of grapes. The projected 2016 harvest will produce around 8-9 thousand liters of quality Otskhanuri and Tsitska wine. Not a bad start for two years of effort.

aprili 2017 | saqarTvelos evropuli gza

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Georgia and EU | saqarTvelo da evrokavSiri

თამარ ხურცია, ჟურნალისტი Tamar Khurtsia, Journalist

მიმდინარეობს სასმელი წყლით მოქალაქეთა წყალმომარაგებაზე აღდგენითი სამუშაოები

Working to achieve clean water supply for all

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aqarTvelos regionebSi mcxovreb mosaxleobas xSirad sufTa wyali mxolod grafikiT miewodeba, zogierT SemTxvevaSi ki dabinZurebuli saxiT. irma bregaZe imereTis regionSi mdebare qalaq tyibulSi cxovrobs, romelic dedaqalaq Tbilisidan 235 kilometriTaa daSorebuli. tyibulSi mcxovrebi 12 aTasi adgilobrivis msgavsad, mis ojaxsac mudmivi da sufTa sasmeli wylis xelmisawvdomobis problema aqvs. tyibulSi mcxovreb ojaxebs sasmeli wyali dRis manZilze mxolod 4 saaTiT miewodebaT. amdenad, tyibulelebi wyaros da Wis wylebze arian damokidebulni. mTavari problema ki is aris, rom tyibulSi wylis miwodebis sistema moZvelebulia, infrastruqtura ki gaumarTavi, romelic wlebis manZilze ar ganaxlebula. mdgomareoba mxolod erT Tvis win gaumjobesda da bregaZis ojaxi da misi mezoblebi sasmel wyals dRis manZilze minimum 8 saaTis ganmavlobaSi iReben, rac wylis infrastruqturis modernizaciis meore proeqtis Sedegia. evrokavSirma am proeqtisTvis jamSi 48 milioni evro gamoyo, saidanac 8 milioni samezoblos sainvesticio meqanizmis grantia, xolo danarCeni 40 milioni evropis sainvesticio bankis mieraa gamoyofili. finansebi mTlianad moxmardeba municipalitetebSi wylis sistemebis gaumjobesebas da saremonto samuSaoebs. „onkanidan wyali Seferili modis da Jangis gemo aqvs, radgan milebi dazianebulia,“ ganacxada irma bre-

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Georgia’s European Way | April 2017

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upply of clean water in the regions of Georgia is frequently according to a specific schedule, while in some cases water is polluted. Irma Bregadze lives in Tkibuli, a town on the northern edge of the Imereti region, 235km north-west of Georgia’s capital, Tbilisi. Similar to Tkibuli’s other 12,000 residents, her family struggles to have a constant and safe access to supply of tap water — all families in Tkibuli receive tap water for 4 hours per day. Thus, residents of the town are dependent on spring water falls and wells. The key problem of Tkibuli’s is the out-dated and severely run damaged water supply infrastructure, suffering from underinvestment and inadequate maintenance. The situation only improved a month ago, when Ms. Bregadze’s family and her neighbours started to receive tap water for more than 8 hours per day, a result of the II project on Water Infrastructure Modernisation funded by the European Union, in particularly with a Neighbourhood Investment Facility (NIF) investment grant of 8 million EUR, and 40 million EUR allocated by the European Investment Bank (EIB), which will support the refurbishment and upgrading of municipal water facilities in Georgia. “Water running in the tap is coloured and bears the taste of rust, because water pipes are damaged,” noted Ms. Bregadze. “Rehabilitation work has been recently finished in our district and the supply schedule of tap water has improved. However,


Georgia and EU | saqarTvelo da evrokavSiri gaZem. „Cvens ubanSi sareabilitacio samuSaoebi axlaxans dasrulda da wylis miwodebis grafiki gaumjobesda, Tumca kvlav ar vendobiT wylis xarisxs da sasmeli wyali axlomdebare wyaroebidan mogvaqvs“. tyibulis sasmeli wylis reabilitaciisTvis 4.5 milioni laris Rirebulebis proeqti mimdinare wlis aprilSi daiwyo da 22 Tvis manZilze gagrZeldeba. tyibulis gamgebeli robizon gvenetaZe darwmunebulia, rom sareabilitacio samuSaoebis dasrulebis Semdeg tyibulis mosaxleobis 90%-s sasmeli wyali mudmivad miewodeba. garda amisa, proeqtis dasrulebis Semdeg srulad ifunqcionirebs wyalmomaragebisa da gamdinare wylebis sistema. „tyibuls sasmeli wyali Saoris wyalsacavidan miewodeba (Saoris wyalsacavi raWaSi mdebareobs) da male, proeqtis farglebSi, Cven SevZlebT wylis gafiltvris Tanamedrove teqnologiebi gamoviyenoT, rom mosaxleobas higienurad sufTa wyali mivawodoT“, — ganacxada tyibulis municipalitetis infrastruqturis samsaxuris ufrosma zaza zosiaSvilma. wylis infrastruqturis modernizaciis meore pro­eqti, romelic pirveli fazis gagrZelebaa, miznad isaxavs 2018 wlisTvis saqarTvelos 23 qalaqSi wyalmomaragebis gamarTvasa da wylis xarisxis gaumjobesebas. proeqts saqarTvelos municipaluri ganviTarebis fondi axorcielebs. proeqtis menejeri Tea RaribaSvilis gancxadebiT, ukve ganxorcielda 16 aRdgeniTi proeqti saqarTvelos 17 qalaqSi, xolo 6-ma qalaqma — gurjaani, oni, axalcixe, aspinZa, TeTriwyaro da ozurgeTi — uSualod miiRo sargebeli am proeqtidan.

we still do not trust the quality of the water and we bring it from nearby springs for drinking purposes,” she added. Rehabilitation works for the Tkibuli drinking water supply system worth 4.5 million GEL were launched this April and will take up 22 months to conclude. The Gamgebeli (local Governor) of Tkibuli, Robizon Gvenetadze, believes that once the rehabilitation works are complete, 90% of residents will have access to a constant supply of water. In addition, the project will deliver a fully functioning water supply and wastewater disposal system in the town. “Tkibuli receives the drinking water from Shaori water reservoir (located in Racha, a highland area in western Georgia) and soon in the framework of this project we will manage to implement the modern technologies of water filtration to supply hygienically sound water,” said Zaza Zosiashvili, the Head of the Infrastructure Unit at the Municipality of Tkibuli. The II project of Water Infrastructure Modernisation, which builds on the work of the previous phase of the project, aims to develop water supply system and improve water quality in 23 cities in Georgia by 2018. The project is implemented by the Municipal Development Fund of Georgia. Tea Garibashvili, a Project Manager ofthe Fund, said that currently 16 rehabilitation projects have been implemented in 17 cities across Georgia, while six cities have already benefitted from the project, including Gurjaani, Oni, Akhaltsikhe, Aspindza, Tetritskaro and Ozurgeti.

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Georgia and EU | saqarTvelo da evrokavSiri

უკვე განხორციელდა 16 აღდგენითი პროექტი საქართველოს 17 ქალაქში, ხოლო 6-მა ქალაქმა — გურჯაანი, ონი, ახალციხე, ასპინძა, თეთრიწყარო და ოზურგეთი — უშუალოდ მიიღო სარგებელი ამ პროექტიდან.

„Tumca, am etapze oni warmoadgens qalaqs, sadac mosaxleobis 100% iRebs sasmel wyals 24 saaTis manZilze. danarCen qalaqebSi sasmeli wyali mosaxleobas kvlav grafikiT miewodeba,“ — ganacxada RaribaSvilma. mayvala beriSvili onis mkvidria, romelic saojaxo sastumros uZRveba da CvenTan saubarSi adasturebs, rom dRes onelebi sufTa sasmel wyals uwyvet reJimSi iReben. „saojaxo sastumros vflob da iyo periodi, rodesac sasmel wyals mxolod dRis manZilze ramdenime saaTiT viRebdiT. sastumros biznesis ganviTarebisTvis, aucilebelia gqondes normaluri cxovrebis pirobebi stumrebis misaRebad. Tu Tqven ar gaqvT wyali da eleqtroenergia Tanamedrove epoqaSi, turisti ar mova Sens sastumroSi Ramis gasaTevad. sastumros biznesi Cemi ojaxis erTaderTi Semosavalia da rom ara es, Cemi ojaxis socialur-ekonomikuri mdgomareoba gauaresdeboda“, — ganacxada mayvala beroSvilma. Tea RaribaSvilma CvenTan saubarSi ganacxada, rom proeqti gaaumjobesebs qalaqad mcxovrebi mosaxleobis ekonomikur mdgomareobas. „Cven mivesalmebiT evrokavSiris Zalisxmevas, romelic sasicocxlod aucilebeli proeqtebis dafinansebiT cdilobs qveynis regionuli ganviTarebis xelSewyobas,“ — ganacxada RaribaSvilma. regionuli ganviTarebisa da infrastruqturis saministrom metad dabalansebuli da mdgradi socialur-ekonomikuri ganviTarebis programa SeimuSava, romlis pirveli faza 2011 wels, meore ki — 2014 wels daiwyo. programis ganxorcielebaSi evrokavSiri mniSvnelovan rols TamaSobs, rogorc aRniSnavs giorgi kezeraSvili, reformebisa da inovaciebis ganyofilebis ufrosi regionuli ganviTarebisa da infrastruqturis saministroSi. politikis ganxorcielebis erT-erTi mTavari instrumentia 2015-2017 wlebis regionuli ganviTarebis programa, romelic efuZneba da did wilad SesabamisobaSia evrokavSiris koheziis

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Georgia’s European Way | April 2017

currently 16 rehabilitation projects have been implemented in 17 cities across Georgia, while six cities have already benefitted from the project, including Gurjaani, Oni, Akhaltsikhe, Aspindza, Tetritskaro and Ozurgeti.

“At this stage, Oni is the only city where 100% of the population receives drinking water 24 hours per day. In other cities, daily schedule remain,” stated Garibashvili. Makvala Berishvili is Oni resident who runs a family hotel. She confirms that today Oni uninterruptedly receives clean water. “I run a family hotel in Oni and I recall periods when we would receive the tap water only for a few hours per day. For the development of a small hospitality business, it is essential to have normal living conditions for the guests. If you do not have water or electricity in the modern era, tourists will be attracted. This business is the only income for my family and in the absence thereof, our social and economic conditions would have been worse,” noted Makvala Berishvili. Tea Garibashvili said that the project would greatly contribute to the rural population’s social and economic development. “We welcome the efforts of the European Union to contribute to the regional development of the country by financing vital projects that aim to increase the living standards of the citizens of Georgia,” said Ms Garibashvili. More balanced and sustainable socio-economic development Giorgi Kezherashvili, the Head of Division of Reforms and Innovations at the Ministry of Regional Development and Infrastructure highlighted the EU’s role in Georgia’s regional development, in the framework of the Regional Development Programme - Phase I and II, which were launched in 2011 and 2014 respectively. One of the main instruments for implementing the policy is “2015-2017 Regional Development Programme”, which is based on, and largely in line with, the EU Cohesion Policy experience of recent decades, aimed at the reduction of disparities between regions. This policy was significantly strengthened in the 1990’s to provide assistance to


Georgia and EU | saqarTvelo da evrokavSiri

politikis (regionebs Soris uTanabrobis Semcireba) bolo aTwleulebis gamocdilebasTan, politika mniSvnelovnad ganmtkicda, pirvelad, 1990-ian wlebSi, raTa daxmareba gaewiaT SedarebiT nakleb ganviTarebuli wevri qveynebisTvis, mogvianebiT ki gamoeyenebinaT axali wevri qveynebis mimarT, maTi gawevrianebis Semdgom arsebuli saWiroebebis dasakmayofileblad. 2015-2017 wlebSi daaxloebiT 3.7 miliardi lari daixarjeba xuT mTavar prioritetul mimarTulebaze: infrastruqturis gaumjobeseba da garemos dacva; mcire da saSualo biznesis Tanadgoma da axali samuSao adgilebis Seqmna; soflis ganviTareba; turizmis ganviTareba; adamianuri kapitalis ganviTareba da profesiuli ganaTlebis instituciuri SesaZleblobebis ganviTareba erovnul da adgilobriv doneebze. angariSSi „regionuli uTanasworobis Sesaxeb saqarTveloSi“ aRniSnulia, rom qalaqebisa da soflebis an Tbilisisa da danarCeni regionebis Sedarebisas, didi uTanasworoba arsebobs. keJeraSvilis gancxadebiT, „2015-2017 wlebis regionuli ganviTarebis programa“ daexmareba saqarTvelos mTavrobas Seqmnas xelsayreli garemo qveynis socialur-ekonomikuri ganviTarebisTvis, raTa daiZlios regionuli uTanasworoba da mniSvnelovnad gaizardos maTi konkurentunarianoba.

weak member states and later was applied to meet the needs of new member states. In the years 2015-2017, around 3.7 billion GEL will be spent on 5 main priority objectives: 1) Infrastructural development and environment protection; 2) Support to small and medium enterprises and creation of new jobs; 3) Rural development; 4) Tourism development; 5) Development of human capital and development institutional capacity of vocational education at national and local levels. The latest report on Regional Disparities in Georgia finds that there is a huge degree of disparities between urban and rural areas, and between Tbilisi and the other regions. According to Mr. Kezherashvili, the “2015-2017 Regional Development Programme” will support the Government of Georgia to create a favourable environment for the socio-economic development of the country, to overcome regional disparities and to significantly increase their competitiveness.

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Analytics | analitika

საინფორმაციო ომის წინააღმდეგ Countering Information War „ruseTi awarmoebs yvelaze gansacvifrebel sainformacio blickrigs, rac ki odesme sainformacio omis istoriaSi gvinaxavs“. generali filip bridlovi, nato-s uelsis samiti, 2014 wlis seqtemberi

„Russia is waging the most amazing information warfare blitzkrieg we have ever seen in the history of information warfare.“ Gen. Philip Breedlove, NATO Wales summit, September 2014.

2013 wels gamoqveynda general valeri gerasimovis statia, romelic dRes „gerasimovis doqtrinis“ saxeliTaa cnobili. am statiis Tanaxmad, sainformacio omi ganisazRvra rogorc eleqtronuli omis, kiber omisa da fsiqologiuri operaciebis kombinacia, romelic erTiani da koordinirebuli samxedro Zalisxmevis saxes atarebs. Tumca, sainformacio omi axali fenomeni araa da sxvadasxva saxis fsiqologiuri operaciebi da propaganda ukve didi xania, rac omis Semadgenel elementebad ganixileba. axalia sainformacio sferoze sul ufro mzardi damokidebuleba Cveni cxovrebis yvela aspeqtSi, rac kidev ufro daucvels gvxdis amgvari taqtikis mimarT. ruseTi, romlis mizani regionSi Tavisi hegemoniis damyareba da evrokavSirisa da nato-s dasustebaa,

In 2013, General Valery Gerasimov published an article, now know famously as “Gerasimov’s Doctrine”, which defined information warfare as the combination of electronic warfare, cyberwarfare and psychological operations into a single, coordinated military effort. Information warfare, however, is not new and various forms of psychological operations and propaganda have been a part for warfare for ages. What is new is our increasing reliance on the information sphere in every aspect of our lives, which is making us even more susceptible to such tactics.

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Georgia’s European Way | April 2017

Russia, aiming to restore its regional supremacy and weaken the EU and NATO, has been successfully exploiting this weakness with a robust campaign of information warfare. Russia’s disinformation activities are in compliance with its


warmatebiT iyenebs am sisustes mZlavri sainformacio kampaniis warmoebis gziT. ruseTis dezinformaciuli kampania srul TanxvedraSia mis diplomatiur saqmianobasTan, energo da ekonomikur politikasTan, da rogorc ZiriTad, ise marginalur politikur ZalebTan, romlebic rusuli ritorikis mimarT keTilganwyobas gamoxataven. iseTi qveynebi, romlebic integrirebulni ar arian evro-atlantikur politikur da samxedro struqturebSi, magaliTad saqarTvelo, moldova an ukraina, amgvari ZirgamomTxreli saqmianobis zemoqmedebas ukve wlebia ganicdian. nato-s wevri qveynebic, rogoricaa CexeTis respublika, slovakeTi an ungreTi, am axali tipis omisTvis sruliad daucvelni da moumzadeblebi aRmoCndnen. 2008 wels, saqarTveloSi gaCaRebuli omi erTgvari gafrTxileba iyo momavalSi movlenebis ganviTarebis SesaZlo scenaris Sesaxeb. ukrainis krizisis Seqmnis dRidan ruseTi rogorc Tavis samezobloSi, ise nato-s bevr wevr da partnior qveyanaSi aqtiurad awarmoebs sainformacio oms, romelic hibriduli omis ganuyofeli nawilia. am omma sxvadasxva forma SeiZina, TiToeul qveyanaSi misi taqtika gansxvavebulia, Tumca moqmedebis saerTo strategia yvelgan igivea: daabnio, SecdomaSi Seiyvano, SeaSino, yuradReba gadaatanino da saboloo jamSi antagonisturad ganawyo mosaxleoba konkretuli qveynis evro-atlantikuri orientaciis mimarT. sainformacio omis daniSnulebaa ziani miayenos dasavleTis mTavar institutebs - nato-sa da evrokavSirs. am mizniT is sxvadasxva meTods mimarTavs, rogoricaa dezinformaciuli kampaniebi, politikuri da ekonomikuri SpionaJi, strategiulad gaTvlili korufcia, avtomatizebuli sistemebi da veb-robotebi, aseve tradiciuli media da socialuri qselebi. sainformacio omis operaciebi icvleba qveynis specifikuri politikuri landSaftis, adgilmdebareobis, istoriuli memkvidreobis, lingvisturi siaxlovisa da mowyvladobis faqtorebis gaTvaliswinebiT. warmatebuli sainformacio omis mniSvnelovani ele­mentia misi Sinaarsisa da ritorikis mosaxleobisaTvis mgrZnobiare TemebTan misadageba. Sesabamisad, rusuli sainformacio omisTvis damaxasiaTebel niSans warmoadgens ritorikis warmarTva ara romelime erTi mimarTulebiT, aramed ritorikuli xerxebis mTeli arsenalisa da adgilobrivi ndobiT aRWurvili pirebis gamoyeneba imisaTvis, rom gzavnilma samizne auditoriaSi saTanado gamoxmaureba povos. codnisa da gamocdilebis gaziarebisa da sainformacio omTan gasamklaveblad efeqtiani meTodebis gansazRvris mizniT, globsekis politikis institutma 2016 wlis 27-28 seqtembers TbilisSi, xolo 2016 wlis 28-29 noembers bratislavaSi maRali donis samecniero seminarebi gamarTa. orive seminari nato-s `mecniereba mSvidobisa da usafrTxoebisTvis~ programis mxardaWeriTa da TbilisSi nato-sa da evrokavSiris Sesaxeb sainformacio centrTan partniorobiT Catarda. seminarebs TxuTmeti qveynidan Camosuli asze meti monawile daeswro. SemuSavda mTeli rigi rekomendaciebi, romlebic sainformacio omis sxvadasxva aspeqtebs asaxavs.

Analytics | analitika

წარმატებული საინფორმაციო ომის მნიშვნელოვანი ელემენტია მისი შინაარსისა და რიტორიკის მოსახლეობისათვის მგრძნობიარე თემებთან მისადაგება. Important element of successful information warfare operations is the tailoring of the content and narrative to match the vulnerabilities of a given population.

diplomatic activities, energy and economic policies, and support for mainstream and fringe political forces who are sympathetic to the Russian narrative. Countries not integrated into the Euro-Atlantic political and military structures such as Georgia, Moldova or Ukraine, have been exposed to these subversive activities for years, while other NATO member countries, such as Czech Republic, Slovakia or Hungary, were caught unaware and unprepared for this new form of warfare. The 2008 war in Georgia was a warning of things to come. Since the outbreak of the Ukraine crisis, information war, as an integral part of hybrid warfare, has been employed by Russia in its neighbourhood as well as in many NATO member and partner countries. It took different forms, and the tactics varied in each country, but the overall pattern was always the same: to confuse, distort, dismay, distract, and ultimately antagonise population to the euro-Atlantic orientation of the given country. Information war`s ultimate goal is to inflict damage to the West`s core institutions – NATO and the EU. To that end, it employs various techniques such as disinformation campaigns, political and economic espionage, strategic corruption, automated systems and bots, and traditional and social media channels. Information warfare operations are modified according to the country`s specific political constellation, location, historic heritage, linguistic proximity and vulnerabilities. Important element of successful information warfare operations is the tailoring of the content and narrative to match the vulnerabilities of a given population. Therefore, Russian

aprili 2017 | saqarTvelos evropuli gza

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Analytics | analitika I. rekomendaciebi nato-s da mis institutebs 1.1 saerTo terminologiis Seqmna informaciuli omis pirobebSi saerTo termino­ logiisa da koncefciis Seqmna aucilebelia. yvela moTamaSes, saerTaSorisos Tu saSinaos, unda hqondes saerTo da konkretuli warmodgena gamosayenebeli terminologiis Sesaxeb - ras warmoadgens strategiuli komunikacia, ra aris propaganda da riT gansxvavdeba is dezinformaciisagan, ra elementebisgan Sedgeba sainformacio omi da rogori sapasuxo zomebis gamoyenebaa saWiro.

1.2 emociurad pozitiuri, prodemokratiuli gzavnilebis Seqmna da komunikacia vinaidan propaganda umTavresad moqalaqeebis gulisa da gonebis mosageb saSualebas warmoadgens, arsebobs gadaudebeli saWiroeba, Seiqmnas sando, Tanmimdevruli da emociuri gzavnili, romelic aRwers Cvens demokratiul faseulobebs da fundamentur principebs. amJamad, post-faqtobrivi demokratiisa da filtrebis pirobebSi, romlebic qmnian informaciul buStebs, Zveli gzavnilebi ekonomikur keTildReobaze, Tavisuflebasa da moralur upiratesobaze aRar aris efeqtiani. dasavleTs sWirdeba Zalisxmeva, romelic miznad isaxavs advilad gasageb, mimzidvel da saintereso gzavnilis Seqmnas. aseTma gzavnilma unda gaaCinos moqalaqeebSi grZnoba daicvan es faseulobebi, aafrialon demokratiis droSa, Sedegad ki uaryon demokratiis avtokratiiT Canacvlebis mcdelobebi. Cveni oponentebis gzavnilebis msgavsad, aseTi pozitiuri gzavnili morgebuli unda iyos TiToeul qveyanaze, raTa aRweros im qveynis istoria, faseulobebi, kultura da siamayisa da patriotizmis wyaroebi. mas Semdeg, rac SemuSavdeba gzavnili, is Tanmimdevrulad unda iyos gamoyenebuli natos, misi struqturebis, yvela wevri qveynisa da samTavrobo struqturebis mier yvela sakomunikacio arxis meSveobiT. „putini cdilobs warmoaCinos Tavisi Tavi „antiestebliSmentis“ „anti-maRali sazogadoebis“ Ce gevarad“ populizmisa da eqstremizmis zrda evropasa da aseve CrdiloeT amerikaSi gvaCvenebs, rom moqalaqeebi Sors arian natos mier warmodgenili demokratiuli faseulobebisa da rwmenisgan. xalxs aqvs moklevadiani istoriuli mexsiereba da maTTvis demokratiuli sazogadoebis sargebeli ubralod wesia. Tumca, demokratia ar aris ubralod mocemuloba. demokratia ar aris miRweuli etapi istoriaSi, aramed aris uwyveti procesi, romelic saWiroebs dacvas, ganmtkicebas da axsnas xalxisTvis. aRniSnulidan gamomdinare, evrokavSirma da nato-m unda daiqiravon sazogadoebasTan urTierTobebis profesionalebi ukeTesi sakomunikacio strategiebis Seqmnis mizniT. Seiqmnas „axali krebuli“ nato-sa da dasavleT qveynebisTvis _ Cveni gzavnilebis da istoriebis ukeTesi gavrceleba/dasavleTis „rebrendingi“ evrokavSirma da nato-m ukeTesad unda auxsnan sxva qveynebs maTi faseulobebi da principebi. civi omis

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Georgia’s European Way | April 2017

information warfare efforts are characteristic by not using a single narrative, rather they employ a variety of narratives and local proxies to make sure the content resonates with the target audience. In order to stimulate exchange of knowledge, lessons learnt and to identify promising practices in addressing and countering information war, GLOBSEC Policy Institute organised Advanced Research Workshops in Tbilisi on 27-28 September 2016 and in Bratislava on 28-29 November 2016. Both workshops were kindly supported by NATO-SPS programme and organised in partnership with Information Centre on NATO and EU in Tbilisi. They attracted more than 100 participants from 15 counties and produced a number of relevant recommendations reflecting different aspects of information war.

I. Recommendations to NATO and its institutions 1.1 Develop common terminology Development of common terminology and concepts of information warfare are a must. All actors, whether international or domestic, should have a clear and common understanding of the terminology used - what constitutes strategic communication, what is propaganda and how it differs from disinformation, which elements comprise information warfare, and what countermeasures need to be applied. 1.2 Create and implement emotionally positive, pro-democratic narratives Since propaganda is essentially a fight for the hearts and minds of citizens, there is an urgent need for creating a credible, coherent and emotional narrative explaining our democratic values and fundamental principles. During these times of post-factual democracy and filters creating information bubbles, the old narrative of economic prosperity, freedom and moral superiority is no longer effective. The West needs to step up efforts aimed at developing an easily understandable, appealing and engaging narrative. Such a narrative should inspire citizens to stand up for these values, raise the flag of democracy and reject attempts to replace it with autocracy. Similar to the narrative of our opponents, this positive narrative should be tailored in each country to reflect its history, values, culture and sources of pride and patriotism. Once fully developed, it should then be used consistently in all communication efforts by NATO, its bodies, member states and their governmental structures. “Putin is trying to establish himself as Che Guevara of the anti-establishment.”


Analytics | analitika periodSi nato-m miatova komunikacia, maSin ruseTis federacia iyenebda sxvadasxva sainformacio taqtikebs, rogorc omis aseve mSvidobis dros. ukrainis SemTxvevaSi, SesaZlebeli iyo imis aRmoCena, rom ruseTis federaciam daiwyo mtruli dezinformaciis gavrceleba gamiznulad ukrainis winaaRmdeg yirimis aneqsiamde da saomari moqmedebebis aRmosavleT ukrainaSi amofrqvevamde 2 wliT adre. msgavsi tipis hibriduli omi iwarmoeba CineTis mier, romelic xedavs msoflios, rogorc did sainformacio dapirispirebas 3 doneze - fsiqologiuri, media da iuridiuli. Sesabamisad, dasavleTi, misi gaxsnili komunikaciiT da gamWvirvaleobiT, sainformacio omis mimdinareobis aRqmaSi CamorCeba ruseTis federacias da CineTs. aseTi qveynebi aRiqvamen msoflios, rogorc sainformacio konfrontacias. sainformacio omSi naambobi da gzavnilebi warmoadgenen gadamwyvet faqtors. samxedro strategiebi da gzavnilebi dakavSirebulia erTmaneTTan. SeuZlebelia moigo sainformacio dapirispireba da hibriduli omi mxolod faqtebiT. nato-s principebi dafuZnebulia Ria komunikaciaze, faqtebze dayrdnobil argumentaciaze da gamWirvalobaze. ruseTi ki ar emorCileba aseT wesebs da awarmoebs tyuilebsa da cru faqtebze dafuZnebul sainformacio dapirispirebas. ruseTi Zlieria iseTi istoriebis TxrobaSi, romlebic advilad ipyrobs Cveulebrivi adamianis gulsa da gonebas, Sedegad ki sjobnis nato-s mier informaciis miwodebasa da argumentacias. ruseTis propaganda aseve Zalian efeqturia specifikur auditoriaze gzavnilebis morgebaSi da sajaro yuradRebis mipyrobaSi. „Cven unda davibrunoT Cveni gulgrili faqtori/ damokidebuleba“ urTierTgamomricxavi gzavnilebis aRmoCena SesaZlebelia ruseTis federaciasa da natos Soris. Sesabamisad, nato saWiroebs „rebrendings“. saWiroa iniciativis gamoCena da faseulobebze dafuZnebuli gzavnilis Seqmna. dasavleTma unda iswavlos ras aris xalxisTvis mimzidveli da Sesabamisad gamoiyenos morgebuli gzavnili. dezinformaciis gamovlena saWiroa, magram amis gakeTeba saWiroebs axal, Zlier gzavnilebs. 1.3 nato-s kandidat qveynebSi sakomunikacio resursebis gaZliereba natom da evrokavSirma unda gaaZlieron maTi komunikaciebis strategiebi da Zalisxmeva balkaneTisa da aRmosavleT evropis qveynebSi narativebis gavrcelebis mizniT. rogorc Cans, „magnituri Zala“ am qveynebSi dakargulia da xalxs ar esmis, ra upiratesobebi da privilegiebi SeiZleba hqondeT wevr qveynebs. Tu kandidati qveynebis moqalaqeebma ar ician konkretulad, Tu ras efuZneba zeerovnuli organizaciebi, maSin evrokavSirs da natos dakarguli aqvT normatiuli Zala am qveynebSi. evrokavSiri warmoadgenda unikalur samoqalaqo Zalas, romelic axorcielebda sakomunikacio normatiul universalizms da aseve uzrunvelyofda adamianebis usafrTxoebas, xolo nato uzrunvelyofda misi wevri qveynebis mniSvnelovan usafrTxoebas. aseTi dasavluri organizaciebi Secvales sxvadasxva regionebSi mSvidobis damyarebis, kargi mmarTvelobis da aRmosavleT ev-

The rise of populism and extremism in Europe as well as in North America, show that citizens are growing distant from the democratic values and beliefs NATO represents. People have short-term historical memories and take the benefits of democratic society for granted. However, democracy is not a given. Democracy is not a stage that is reached but rather a continuous process to be defended, reaffirmed and explained to people. Therefore, the European Union and NATO need to employ skilled PR agencies, which should develop better communication strategies for explaining their principles, stories and achievements. Develop “new” playbook for NATO and Western countries – Better dissemination of our stories and narratives / Re-branding of the West The European Union and NATO need to explain their values and the principles to other countries better. While NATO abandoned its Cold War communication procedures, its opponents did not. The Russian Federation employs its information confrontation tactics both during warfare as well as during peace. In the case of Ukraine, it was possible to observe that the Russian Federation started to spread hostile disinformation targeted against Ukraine two years prior to the annexation of Crimea and eruption of hostilities in Eastern Ukraine. A similar technique of hybrid warfare is applied by China, which understands the world as an information confrontation on three levels – psychological, media and legal. Therefore, the West, with its open communication and transparency, lags behind the Russian Federation and China in their perception of how warfare is conducted. These countries view the world as information confrontation. Storytelling and narratives are crucial factors of information war. Military strategies and narratives are interlinked. It is impossible to win an information confrontation and hybrid war only with facts. While NATO’s principles are based on open communication, fact-based argumentation and transparency, Russia does not abide by such rules and pursues information confrontation based on lies and fake news. In the post-factual world Russia is great at telling stories that capture the hearts and minds of ordinary people and beat NATO’s data and argumentation. Russian propaganda is also very effective in spinning stories, targeting specific audience and capturing public’s attention. “We need to bring back our cool factor.”

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Analytics | analitika ropis qveynebSi stabilurobis meSveobiT benchmark-is da reformebis procesebiT. amgvari miRwevebi da narativebi unda ganaxldes. 1.4 natos SesaZleblobebis gaZliereba sainformacio omis winaaRmdeg brZolisa da analizisTvis natom unda gaiTvaliswinos civi omis gakveTilebi da gaaZlieros orive _ analitikuri da saxalxo diplomatiis SesaZleblobebi da SeZlos sainformacio omTan dakavSirebuli aqtivobebis gamoyeneba. arsebuli struqturebi, rogoricaa NATO STRATCOM CoE da StratCom-is gundi evropaSi mokavSireTa Zalebis umaRles sardlobaSi (SHAPE) unda iyos gaZlierebuli. sainformacio omis talRis ukan mobrunebis TvalsazrisiT, natos mxridan resursebisa da gamocdilebis gaerTianebam SesaZloa iTamaSos gadamwyveti roli. calkeuli qveynebi zewolas diversiuli Zalisxmevis pirobebSi regionuli Zalebis mxridan marto ver uZleben. aseTi ZalisxmevisTvis saWiroa resursebisa da SesaZleblobebis kombinacia saerTaSoriso doneze gamoyofil dafinansebasTan erTad, raTa davupirispirdeT informaciuli omis Setevebs.

It is possible to observe the clash of narratives between that of the Russian Federation and of NATO. Therefore, NATO needs to rebrand itself. It must take initiative and re-develop its value-based narratives. The West needs to learn what makes people “tick” and employ narratives that resonate. Debunking disinformation is important, but it needs to go hand in hand with the creation of our own strong narratives. 1.3 Strengthen communication efforts in NATO candidate countries

II. rekomendaciebi erovnuli mTavrobebisTvis

The European Union and NATO should enhance their communication strategies and efforts to spread their narratives in the Balkan and Eastern European countries. It seems that the magnetic power of these organizations is lost and people in these regions do not understand the benefits and privileges of being a member. If citizens of candidate countries do not clearly know what these supranational organizations stand for anymore, then the European Union and NATO have lost their normative power. The European Union has been a unique civilian power, pursuing a communicative normative universalism, as well as human security, while NATO has provided hard security to its members. These Western organizations have transformed various regions through the focus on peace-building and good governance and stabilized Eastern European countries through benchmarking and reform processes. These narratives and achievements need to be refreshed and rejuvenated.

2.1 ucxouri propagandis Zalisxmevis arsebobisa da zegavlenis oficialuri dadastureba

1.4 Enhance NATO’s capacities to analyse and counter information war

oficialurad aRiarebuli propagandistuli da mtruli ucxouri gavlenebi CixSi amwyvdevs saSinao demokratiul procesebs da sazogadoeba, rogorc erToba, aris pirveli win gadadgmuli nabiji sayovelTao pasuxis ganviTarebisTvis sainformacio omze. xelisuflebis da saerTaSoriso institutebis mier aRiareba aris uzenaesi gadawyvetilebis mimReb pirebs Soris cnobierebis amaRlebisa da zogadad, sainformacio omis mier gamowveuli saxalxo qmedebebisTvis. natom, Tavisi bunebidan gamomdinare, unda ipovos gza, SesaZleblobebi da saxsrebi, romlebic gamoiyeneba sainformacio omSi ucxoeli aqtorebis mier, rac aseve xelmisawvdomia erovnuli xelisuflebisaTvis. erovnul doneze, dazvervis samsaxuri, Sss da Tavdacvis saministro valdebulia sajarod amxilos buneba da miznebi, rac vlindeba rusul, Cinur da sxva mtrulad ganwyobili saxelmwifoebis arsebul ZalisxmevaSi, meTodebsa da iaraRebSi, rasac iyeneben individualuri qveynebisa da mTlianad, evro-atlantikuri sistemis dasustebisaTvis.

NATO should apply lessons learnt from the Cold War and enhance both its analytical and public diplomacy capacities and activities pertaining to information war. The existing structures such as NATO STRATCOM CoE and the StratCom team at SHAPE should be further strengthened. Pooling resources and expertise from across NATO could be decisive in turning back the tide in information war. Individual countries cannot resist the pressure of subversive efforts of regional powers alone. A combination of resources and capabilities at the international level coupled with dedicated funding for such efforts would be required to repel and counter concentrated info war attacks.

2.2 sainformacio omze sapasuxod mTavrobis saerTo midgomis Camoyalibeba arademokrati aqtorebis damangreveli gavlenebi aris gansakuTrebiT efeqturi maTi ostaturi kombinirebuli aqtivobebis da gavlenebSi sxvadasxva aqtorebis CarTulobis wyalobiT _ media, sadazvervo samsaxurebi, kiberoperaciebi, strategiuli korufcia, diplomatia, energetikuli da ekonomikuri zewola. amitom sapa-

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II. Recommendations for National Governments 2.1 Officially acknowledge the existence and impact of foreign propaganda efforts Official recognition that propaganda and the impact of hostile foreign influence pose a threat to domestic democratic processes, and the society as a whole, is a first step towards developing a comprehensive response to information war. Recognition by state authorities and international institutions is paramount for raising awareness among decision makers and the general public of the dangers posed by information war and its actors. NATO should make its findings regarding the nature, scope and means used in information war by foreign actors, accessible to national authorities. At a national


Analytics | analitika suxod maT unda miiRon dapirispireba _ koordinirebuli, integrirebuli mTavrobis saerTo midgomis saxiT. izolirebuli nabijebi sxvadasxva saagentoebisgan da institutebisgan ar aris sakmarisi. imisaTvis, rom mivaRwioT saerTo koordinirebul midgomas, unda Camoyalibdes erovnuli sakoordinacio struqtura. aseTi magaliTebi arsebobs natos ramdenime saxelmwifoSi (CexeTi, latvia) da isini amtkiceben, rom misi gamoyeneba sainformacio omis gavlenebis mimarT sayovelTao qcevis CamoyalibebisTvis warmatebulia. „ruseTis gavlena centralur da aRmosavleT evropaze (CEE) muSaobs rogorc mikrotalRuri Rumeli _ xorcis (qveynis) SigniT aduRebs molekulur wyals, romelic aris maTi miznebisTvis saxlSi moyvanili produqti“. 2.3 erovnuli strategiebis (StratCom) SesaZleblobebis danergva yvela saxelmwifo valdebulia ganaviTaros erTiani strategiuli sakomunikacio SesaZleblobebis politika. strategiuli komunikacia unda iyos erovnuli usafrTxoebis strategiis da struqturis integrirebuli (ganuyofeli) nawili. interdisciplinarul da interministerialur kooperaciaSi strategiuli liderebis CarTuloba aucilebelia. natos wevrma saxelmwifoebma unda daarson specialuri SesaZleblobebi (gzebi), rac orientirebuli iqneba strategiul komunikaciaze da dezinformaciebis pasuxebze saSinao Tu sagareo politikis doneze Tu iqneba saWiroeba. es nawili ufro metad unda iyos gaumjobesebuli. individualur saxelmwifoebs unda hqondes aucilebeli unarebi, rom uzrunvelyon kontrdartymebi ucxouri mtruli gavlenebis mimarT, sanam saerTaSoriso organizaciebi, rogoricaa nato da evrokavSiri, uzrunvelyofs xelmZRvanelobas, srul ndobas maTi hibriduli omis pasuxebze. da rwmena, TiTqos suprnacionaluri organizaciebi gadawyveten maTi wevrebis yvela problemas aris miuRebeli. sapasuxo dartymebis ganviTareba da „Cveni“ narativebis gavrceleba unda xdebodes erToblivi ZalisxmeviT, yvela saxelmwifos CarTulobiT. sanam erovnuli gadawyvetilebebi mniSvnelovania, erovnuli doqtrinebi unda gasdevdes erT xazad natos politikas. axlandel miRwevebs CexeTSi, specializebuli Cexuri strategiuli komunikaciis gaerTianebis da Sida usafrTxoebis auditis dafuZneba _ kargi magaliTi unda iyos sxva evropuli saxelmwifoebisTvis. „moqalaqe da ara samxedro piri aris pasuxismgebeli strategiebiT Camoyalibebul qmedebebze“ 2.4 ndobis aRdgena da institutebis saimedooba ruseTis dezinformaciis politikis erT-erTi mTavari narativia Russia Today-s devizi _ dasvi meti kiTxva. es narativi emsaxureba undoblobis daTesvas da SiSis gavrcelebas xalxs Soris _ ar unda endo aravis, saxelmwifo institutebis CaTvliT. Tu ar ici ra xdeba, arc arafers akeTeb. es pasiuroba an uunaroba upasuxo droulad aris mTavari mizani mtrulad ganwyobili gare ZalebisTvis _ ruseTs surs Ziri gamouTxaros gadawyvetilebis miRebis process mTavrobebSi. ruseTis dezinformaciis meTodebi iyenebs

level, the intelligence services, Ministry of Interior and Ministry of Defence should publicly state the nature and aims of the current efforts by Russia, China and other hostile foreign actors and the methods and tools they use to destabilise individual countries and the whole Euro-Atlantic security architecture. 2.2 Adopt whole-of-government approach to countering information war Subversive efforts of undemocratic actors are particularly effective due to the fact they skilfully combine activities and impact of various actors – media, intelligence, cyber operations, strategic corruption, diplomacy, energy and economic pressure. As such, they should be confronted with the same response – a coordinated, integrated whole-of-government approach. Relying on isolated measures implemented by individual agencies and institutions is no longer enough. In order to achieve such a coordinated approach, national coordinating structures should be established. Examples of such structures exist in several NATO countries (the Czech Republic, Latvia) and they prove to be very effective in addressing information war efforts in a comprehensive manner. “Russia‘s influence in CEE works like a microwave - heating up water molecules inside the meat (these countries) that are home-grown for their purposes.” 2.3 Set up dedicated national StratCom capacities Every country should develop dedicated strategic communication capacities and policies. Strategic communication should be an integral part of national security strategies and structures. Interdisciplinary and inter-ministerial cooperation involving strategic leaders is necessary. NATO member countries should establish specific capacities that would focus on strategic communication and countering disinformation on the domestic and foreign policy levels. These could be further enhanced if need be. Individual states should have the necessary capacities to provide countermeasures against foreign hostile influence. While international organizations such as NATO or the European Union should provide guidance, complete reliance on their hybrid war countermeasures, and the belief that these supranational organizations are going to solve everything for their members, is unaccept-

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Analytics | analitika gazrdil undoblobas saxelmwifo institutebis mi­ marT da meTods, rom Camoyalibdes xedva, TiTqos dasavlur saxelmwifoebSi sistema korumpirebulia. „rodis iyo bolos, rom centraluri sadazvervo saagento (CIA) filmSi gansaxirebuli iyo rogorc kargi biWi?“ Bond and Bourne-s filmebSi, yvela satelevizio serialSi, rogoricaa X-Files an Person of Interest, mtris saxe yovelTvis xazs usvams emociebs da dakavSirebulia kulturul konteqstTan, romelSic dasavluri samyaros moqalaqeebi cxovroben _ ar endo aravis. garda amisa, gamWirvaloba da korufciis gamoaSkaraveba aris gadamwyveti ndobis aRdgenaSi saxelmwifo institutebis mimarT da sainformacio omTan brZolaSi. 2.5 kvlevebis gaZliereba da sainformacio omis monitoringi da misi teqnikebi sainformacio epoqaSi swrafi cvlilebebis wyalobiT da dRiTidRe mzardi gavlenebiT socialiuri qselebidan da samoqalaqo Jurnalistikidan, sainformacio omSi gamoiyeneba iseTi meTodebi da teqnikebi , romlebmac mudmivad unda Seiswavlon da gaanalizon misi paternebi, trendebi da meTodebi, rogor ganviTardes efeqtiani kontrdartymebi. natos strategiuli komunikaciis centris aqtivobebis kompetenciis zrdasTan erTad, msgavsi analitikuri SesaZleblobebi unda dainergos erovnul donezec, sadac garantirebuli iqneba natos kvlevebis gamoyenebis siswore. 2.6 sicruis gamoaSkaravebisa da faqtebis gadamowmebis xelSewyoba dezinformaciul saSualebaTa mier gavrcelebuli sicrueebis gamoaSkaravebis gziT, isini kargaven TavianT mimzidvelobas da TavianT namdvil saxes aCenen _ esaa sainformacio saSualebebi, romlebic sicruis gavrcelebiTa da TavianTi msmenelebisa da mkiTxvelebis manipulirebiT arian dakavebulni. Tumca efeqtiani Sedegis misaRwevad, gamoaSkaraveba da faqtebis gadamowmeba konkretul qveyanaze unda iyos orientirebuli, radgan dezinformaciul saSualebebic swored konkretuli qveynis saWiroebebzea morgebuli da, zemoqmedebis gaZlierebis mizniT, adgilobriv enaze iTargmneba. xeli unda Seewyos iseT iniciativebs, rogoricaa Stopfake (yalbi informaciis uaryofa), xolo maTi Sedegebi farTod unda gaSuqdes. 2.7 trolingis msxverplTa dacvis meqanizmebis SemuSaveba evropaSi socialuri mediisa da trolingis realuri Zalis erT-erT yvelaze mkafio dasturad siZulvilisa da diskreditaciis is kampania iqca, romelic jesika aros winaaRmdeg agorda _ fineli Jurnalisti, romelic Seecada fineTSi internettrolebis zemoqmedeba Seeswavla. zogadad, is adamianebi da institutebi, romlebic „maxinji sinamdvilis“ gamoaSkaravebas cdiloben, xSirad xdebian internettrolebis, kiber-Setevebis, dablokvebisa da hakeruli Tavdasxmebis msxverplni. amitom mTavrobebma Sesabamis zomebs unda mimarTon amgvari adamianebisa da institutebis

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able. The development of countermeasures and dissemination of “our” narratives should be a joint effort, requiring the active involvement of every country. While national solutions are necessary, national doctrines should be aligned with NATO policies. The recent achievements of the Czech Republic - the establishment of specialized Czech strategic communication unit and internal security audit – could serve as a good example for other European countries to follow. “A civilian, not military body, should be responsible for StratCom measures.” 2.4 Re-build trust and the credibility of institutions One of the main narratives of Russian disinformation policy is the motto of Russia Today – question more. This narrative aims to sow distrust and dismay among people - to trust no one including the state institutions. If you don’t know what’s going on, you do nothing. This inactivity or inability to respond promptly is one of the main goals of hostile foreign influence – Russia wants to undermine the decision-making processes of foreign governments. Russian disinformation methods are utilizing the increased lack of trust in state institutions and the perception that the system is corrupt in Western countries. “When was the last time the CIA was portrayed in a movie as the good guy?” The perception of “the enemy” in Bond and Bourne movies, as well in TV series’ such as the X-Files or Person of Interest, highlights the emotional and cultural context in which the citizens of Western countries are living – trust no one. Therefore, transparency and the unmasking of corruption are crucial in re-establishing trust in state institutions and fighting an information war. 2.5 Enhance research and monitoring of information war and its techniques Due to the rapid changes of the information era and the ever-increasing impact of social media and citizen journalism, methods and techniques used in information war should be continuously studied and analysed to identify patterns, trends and to develop effective countermeasures. Aside from further expanding the scope of NATO STRATCOM CoE activities, similar analytical capacities should be established at the national level, making use of the excellent NATO STRATCOM CoE research. 2.6 Support debunking and fact checking By debunking false stories being spread by disinformation outlets, their appeal diminishes and they are shown for what they are – media outlets spreading lies and manipulating their viewers and readers. However, in order to be effec-


Analytics | analitika mxardasaWerad. dezinformaciis an kiberTavdasxmebis msxverplTa dasacavi zomebi mtruli saxelmwifos zemoqmedebis winaaRmdeg mTavrobis mier gatarebuli RonisZiebebis ganuyofel nawilad unda iqces. 2.8 demokrtiuli imunuri sistemis gaZliereba brZola adamianebis gulebis mosagebad da gonebaze gasabatoneblad axali fenomeni araa. Tumca saqme isaa, rom Cveni sazogadoebisa da socialuri mediis teqnologiuri ganviTarebis Sedegad, gaizarda cru informaciis gavrcelebis SesaZleblobebi, ramac Secvala sainformacio garemo. Zalze mcirea SezRudvebi imasTan dakavSirebiT, Tu risi gamoqveyneba ar SeiZleba socialur mediaSi, ar arian arc karis mcvelebi, anu is redaqtorebi an akreditebuli Jurnalistebi, romlebic socialuri mediis kontentis xarisxs gaakontrolebdnen. „socialuri media masobrivi ganadgurebis iaraRad iqca“ mediis sferoSi gaTviTcnobierebuloba da kritikuli azrovnebis unari warmoadgens nomer pirvel bariers tyuilisa da dezinformaciuli da propagandistuli saqmianobiT gamowveuli manipulaciebis winaaRmdeg. yvela adamianma, iyenebs Tu ara socialur medias, unda icodes, rogor amoicnos damaxinjebuli informacia. Cven unda mivceT adamianebs TavianTi sainformacio sistemebis dacvis SesaZlebloba. Sesabamisi unar-Cvevebis ganviTareba da cnobierebis donis amaRleba aZlierebs mdgradobas dezinformaciisa da mtruli saxelmwifos zemoqmedebis mimarT. Tumca natos wevr da partnior bevr qveyanas ar gaaCnia Sesabamisi programebi da struqturebi, romlebic mowyvlad jgufebs amgvari unar-Cvevebis ganviTarebis SesaZleblobas miscemda. swored amitom mediis sferoSi gaTviTcnobierebuloba da kritikuli azrovnebis unar-Cvevebis saswavlo programaSi Setana uaRresad mniSvnelovania im kuTxiT, rom axalgazrdebi aRar gaeban dezinformatorebisa da mediamanipulatorebis xafangSi. 2.9 mediis specialistebisa da Jurnalistebis treningebis uzrunvelyofa sazogadoebisTvis informaciis miwodebisa da politikuri azris formirebis TvalsazrisiT, Jurnalistebi da tradiciuli media-saSualebebi jer kidev mniSvnelovan rols asruleben. miuxedavad amisa, Jurnalistebs jer kidev ar aqvT dezinformaciis an cru informaciis aRmoCenisa da gamovlenis unar-Cvevebi. amitom mediis specialistebs faqtebisa da wyaroebis gadamowmebis kuTxiT TavianTi unarebis ganviTarebis SesaZlebloba unda mieceT, vinaidan dezinformaciuli kontenti tradiciul mediaSic aRwevs. faqtebis Semowmebis kontenti Setanil unda iqnas saswavlo programebSi, aseve kvalifikaciis asamaRlebel kursebSi. 2.10 mediasaSualebaTa mflobelobis transparentulobis uzrunvelyofa mediis seqtorSi sakuTrebis koncentracia safrTxes uqmnis mediapluralizmsa da politikuri Tu sazogadoebrivi movlenebis obieqturad gaSuqebas.

tive, debunking and fact-checking should be country specific, since the disinformation outlets are also customised and translated into national languages to increase their impact. Initiatives such as Stopfake should be further expanded and their outcomes widely publicised. 2.7 Develop protection mechanisms for the victims of trolling One of the most prominent wake-up calls in Europe, in terms of revealing the power of social media and trolls, was the hate and discrediting campaign against Jessika Aro, a Finish journalist who tried to map the influence of online trolls in Finland. In general, people and institutions uncovering the “ugly truth” are often targets of the army of online trolls, cyberattacks, lawsuits, denial-of service attacks or hacking. Therefore, governments, using appropriate measures, should provide support to such people or institutions. Protective measures for victims of disinformation or cyberbullying should be an integral part of state countermeasures developed to target hostile foreign influence. 2.8 Strengthen the democratic immune system The battle for the hearts and minds of people is not a new concept. However, the technological development of our society and social media have increased the dissemination of fake news and so changed the information environment. There are very few restrictions on what cannot be posted on social media and no gate keepers such as editors or accredited journalists that control the quality of the content on social media. “Social media have become weapons of mass destruction.” Media literacy and critical thinking are the first barrier to deception and manipulation by disinformation and propaganda efforts. Everybody, a social media user or not, should know how to distinguish a distorted story. We need to empower people to defend their own information systems. The development of skills and awareness among people leads to more resiliency towards disinformation and hostile foreign influence. However, many NATO member and partner countries lack the adequate curricula and structures enabling the most vulnerable groups to equip themselves with such skills. Therefore, incorporation of media literacy skills and critical thinking into school curricula is essential to successfully prevent young people from falling into the trap of false information and media manipulation by disinformation. 2.9 Support training for media professionals and journalists Journalists and traditional media still play a major role in informing public and forming political opinions. Yet, journalists often lack the basic skills enabling them to detect and spot disinformation and fake news. Therefore, media professionals should be given an opportunity to further develop and increase their skills on fact and source checking, as the disinformation content also spreads to traditional media. Fact

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Analytics | analitika bevr SemTxvevaSi es arTulebs mediasaSualebaTa realuri mflobelebis dadgenas, radgan isini iyeneben ofSorul kompaniebs sakuTrebis realuri struqturis dasamalad. farTo sazogadoebaze maTi uzarmazari zegavlenis gamo saxelmwifo doneze srulad unda aikrZalos mediakompaniebis ofSorul zonebSi registracia. mediasaSualebaTa mflobelobis transparentuloba, efeqtian antitrastul zomebTan erTad, Seamcirebda adgilobriv mediaze arademokratiulad ganwyobili aqtorebis zegavlenas. 2.11 demokratiis napralebis Sevseba da sazogadoebasa da eleqtoratTan mWidro kavSiris damyareba sainformacio omis erT-erTi aspeqtia antidasavluri da antidemokratiuli ritorikis gavrcelebaSi adgilobrivi mokavSireebis _ marginaluri politikuri partiebisa da mxareebis gamoyeneba. antidasavlur ritorikas, Tu is adgilobrivi politikuri Zalebisgan momdinareobs, bevrad ufro mZlavri zemoqmedebis moxdena SeuZlia, vidre ucxouri organizaciebis mxridan pirdapir komunikacias. bevr qveyanaSi amgvar Zalisxmevas pirdapir Tu arapirdapir mxars uWers kremli. mis gasaneitraleblad, demokratiulma politikurma Zalebma unda gaaZlieron pirdapiri komunikacia amomrCevlebTan da Zireulad Secvalon internetSi TavianTi aqtivobis done. rusuli ritorikis mimarT keTilganwyobili marginaluri politikuri partiebi bevrad ufro efeqtianad axerxeben socialur mediaSi TavianTi gzavnilebis gavrcelebas. ukiduresad aucilebelia gaweul iqnas maTi qmedebebis sapirwone Zalisxmeva da dabalansdes marginaluri da demokratiuli politikuri partiebis internetaqtivoba. internet komunikaciis garda, mniSvnelovnad unda gaZlierdes pirdapiri urTierTobebi politikur elitasa (gadawyvetilebis mimRebi da sazogadoebrivi azris Semqmneli pirebi) da regionis mosaxleobas Soris. sazogadoebrivi azris Semqmnelebma Tavi unda daaRwion maT garSemo Seqmnil sainformacio vakuums da isaubron da reagireba moaxdinon im adamianebis problemebze, romlebic politikuri da kulturuli centrebisgan moSorebiT cxovroben.

III. rekomendaciebi sxva aqtorebisTvis: arasamTavrobo organizaciebis, mediisa da kerZo seqtorisTvis 3.1 dezinformaciis winaaRmdeg brZolis sferoSi sainformacio teqnologiebis kompaniebis rolis gaZliereba socialuri media TavisTavad arc kargia da arc cudi, magram is SeiZleba Zalze efeqtianad da martivad iyos gamoyenebuli orive mizniT. suraTi an videoklipi bevrad ufro efeqtiania gzavnilis auditoriamde mitanis TvalsazrisiT, vidre sarwmuno argumentebiTa da monacemebiT savse teqsti. amasTan, yvela, visac ki smartfouni aqvs, Jurnalistad an „sasargeblo idiotad“ iqca, romelic konkretuli ri-

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checking content should be incorporated into curricula as well as professional development courses. 2.10 Ensure transparent media ownership Concentration of media ownership threatens media pluralism and unbiased reporting on political and societal developments. In many cases, it is very difficult to track the real owners of media, since they use offshore companies to hide the real ownership structure. Due to their huge impact on the general public, a complete ban on offshore ownership of media companies should be introduced at the national level. Transparent media ownership coupled with effective anti-trust measures would diminish the impact of undemocratic actors on local media. 2.11 Close the democratic gap and reach out to audience and voters One of the aspects of information war is the use of local allies – fringe political parties and actors - to spread the anti-western, anti-democratic narrative. By using domestic political actors, the anti-western narrative has much broader impact, compared to direct communication by foreign entities. In many countries, such efforts are directly or indirectly supported by the Kremlin. In order to counter them, democratic political actors need to step up their direct communication with voters and fundamentally change their online presence. Fringe political actors sympathetic to the Russian narrative are far more effective in communicating their messages on social media. There is an urgent need to match these efforts and close the gap in online presence between fringe political parties and democratic political actors. Aside from online communication, direct interaction between political elites (decision and opinion makers) and the people in the regions should be greatly enhanced. Opinion makers should step out of their information bubbles, listen to concerns and respond to the needs of people living outside of political and cultural centres.

III. Recommendations for Other Actors: NGOs,Media and Private Sector 3.1. Increase the role of IT companies in countering disinformation While social media are inherently neither good nor evil, they can be very effectively and easily used for both purposes. An image or video is more efficient in making a point than any text full of credible arguments and data. Furthermore, everybody with a smartphone has become a journalist or a “useful idiot”, disseminating particular narratives. Currently, the structure of online advertisement earns those who get the most views and clicks money. “Fake news generate an incredible amount of money” Online advertising does not question the validity of information. Furthermore, social media operated by private companies are used by everybody – they spread both disinformation and real news. The knowledge of search engine algorithms and social media tools rests with private companies.


Analytics | analitika torikis tiraJirebas eweva. amJamad onlain reklamiT is sargeblobs, visac yvelaze meti „naxva“ aqvs. „yalbi informaciis Semqmnelebi warmoudgenlad did fuls Souloben“ onlain reklama kiTxvis niSnis qveS ar ayenebs informaciis sarwmuneobas. amasTan, kerZo kompaniebis mier marTul socialur medias yvela iyenebs _ da isini iq rogorc informacias, ise dezinformacias avrceleben. saZiebo sistemis algoriTmebsa da socialuri mediis instrumentebze xeli kerZo kompaniebs miuwvdebaT. amitom dezinformaciis ganeitralebaSi aqtiurad unda CaerTon swored iseTi kerZo kompaniebi, rogoricaa tviteri, feisbuqi da gugli. magaliTad, feisbuqze unda dainergos sistema, romelic potenciurad cru kontents gacxrilavs. „Cvens droSi, rodesac tyuilebi cecxliviT swrafad vrceldeba, simarTlisTvis ukeTesi marketingia saWiro“ 3.2 cifruli kulturisa da socialuri mediis xelSewyoba e.w. postfaqtobriv samyaroSi demokratia dawkapunebebis raodenobazea damokidebuli. teqnologiebi imdenad swrafad ganviTarda, rom politikuri da gadawyvetilebis gamotanis bevr procesSi jer kidev SeimCneva CamorCena. zogierTi saxelmwifo departamenti da instituti socialuri mediis SesaZleblobebs swavlobs da cdilobs sazogadoebas am arxebis meSveobiT ekontaqtos. Tumca Zalze mcire monacemi moipoveba imasTan dakavSirebiT, Tu rogor xdeba socialur mediaSi informaciisa Tu dezinformaciis gavrceleba, ra tipis statiebsa da postebs exmaurebian adamianebi da ra ubiZgebT maT aRniSnuli postebis gaziarebisa da Semdgomi gavrcelebisken. aseve naklebadaa cnobili, ra gziT iyeneben avtomatizebul sistemebsa da vebrobotebs hibridul omSi dezinformaciis gavrcelebis mizniT. dRes ukve ajameben da amuSaveben socialuri mediis momxmarebelTa yvela „dawkapunebasa“ da „mowonebas“. am monacemebs, romlebic yovelgvari winaswar ganzraxvis gareSea dafiqsirebuli, kompaniebi gadawyvetilebis miRebis procesebis formirebisa da im sainformacio vakuumebis aRsadgenad iyeneben, romlebSic socialuri mediis momxmareblebi arian gamoketilni. swored amitomaa mniSvnelovani cifruli kulturisa da adamianebsa da demokratiaze misi zemoqmedebis Seswavla.

Therefore, private businesses such as Twitter, Facebook and Google should be actively involved in countering disinformation. For example, a Facebook news verification system flagging potentially fake content should be established. “We need better marketing for the truth during times when lies spread like fire.” 3.2 Support study of digital culture and social media In the so-called post-factual world, the democracy sphere depends on the number of clicks. Technological development has occurred so fast that many policies and decision-making processes are still trying to catch up. Some of the state departments and institutions are slowly exploring the possibilities of social media and are attempting to communicate with the public via these outlets. However, there is little data on how information or disinformation is spread via social media, what articles or posts people react to on social media, as well as what makes them share and further spread these narratives. There is also limited knowledge on how bots and automated systems are used to spread disinformation in hybrid war. Already all the clicks and preferences of social media users are being collected and processed. This data, given unwittingly, is eventually used by companies to shape people’s decision-making processes and re-instate the information bubbles people are locked in on social media. Therefore, it is important to study the vastness of digital culture and what impact it has on people and democracy.

3.3 dezinformaciis winaaRmdeg mebrZol aqtorTa qseli

3.3 Build network of actors countering disinformation

dezinformaciis winaaRmdeg brZolisTvis saWiro resursebi mwiria. amitom samTavrobo Tu arasamTavrobo organizaciebma am sferoSi aqtiurad unda iTanamSromlon. nou-hausa da resursebis dagroveba da gaziareba kontrzomebis efeqtianobasa da zemoqmedebas gazrdida. mniSvnelovania Seiqmnas samTavrobo dawesebulebebisa da samoqalaqo sazogadoebis organizaciebis Zlieri qseli, romlebic saerTo Rirebulebebisa da ideebis garSemo gaerTiandebian. samTavrobo dawesebulebebma da saerTaSoriso organizaciebma aqtiurad unda iTanamSromlon analitikur da samecniero gaerTianebebTan. unda funqcionirebdes sazoga-

Resources available for countering disinformation are scarce. Therefore, organizations active in this field, whether governmental or non-governmental actors, should actively cooperate. Pooling and sharing know-how and resources would increase efficiency and the impact of countermeasures. It is important to build strong networks of governmental institutions and strong civil society organizations united by common values and ideas. State institutions and international organizations need to actively cooperate with thinktanks and academia. In case of emergencies, a pool of opinion makers and experts should be available to be employed to address the public and counter disinformation.

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Analytics | analitika doebriv moRvaweTa da eqspertTa jgufi, romelic gadaudebel SemTxvevebSi mimarTavs sazogadoebas da imoqmedebs dezinformaciis gasaneitraleblad. 3.4 tradiciuli mediisTvis gamoweris axali modelis SemuSaveba Cveni sazogadoebisa da socialuri mediis teqnologiurma ganviTarebam fundamenturad Secvala sainformacio garemo. miuxedavad imisa, rom tradiciul medias metismetad didi dro dasWirda am cvlilebasTan adaptirebisTvis, is mainc mniSvnelovan rols asrulebs rogorc realobis meTvalyure da sazogadoebis mier daqiravebuli deteqtivi. Tumca im dros, rodesac falsificirebuli informacia ufaso da advilad xelmisawvdomia, sainformacio sagamoZiebo saagentoebis gamoweris gansxvavebuli modelebi kidev ufro urTulebs adamianebs faqtebisa da simarTlis Setyobas. informaciasTan fasiani wvdoma sazogadoebas or nawilad yofs: isini, vinc sargebloben gamoweriT da Sesabamisad floben informacias da isini, vinc damokidebulni arian „ufaso“, advilad xelmisawvdom (dez)informaciaze. „tradiciuli media hgavs fermis cxens avtomobilebis epoqaSi“. amitomac msxvilma tradiciulma mediasaSualebebma, rogoricaa Wall Street Journal, Economist, News York Times an Washington Post, uari unda Tqvan individualuri gamoweris modelze da unda isargeblon gamoweris im modeliT, romelsac musikaluri kompania iTunes iyenebs. dafinansebis amgvari modeli kvlav moutanda medias Semosavals, xolo xelmomwerebi mxolod maTTvis sasurveli statiebis safasurs gadaixdidnen. 3.5 sagamoZiebo Jurnalistikis damoukidebeli fondis Seqmna antielitaruli da antiistebliSmenturi ganwyobebi anti-Jurnalistur ganwyobebSic gamovlinda. yalbi informaciis gamavrcelebeli industria uamrav fuls gamoimuSavebs, magram SeuZlebelia yvela amgvar qmedebas rusuli propaganda uwodo, vinaidan am industriis warmomadgenlebi wminda ekonomikuri interesebiT xelmZRvaneloben. amitomac socialuri mediis msxvilma kompaniebma sagamoZiebo Jurnalistikis mxardamWeri fondi unda Seqmnan. es fondi mediasaSualebebs an samoqalaqo organizaciebs Jurnalisturi gamoZiebis Catarebis SesaZleblobas miscems. xolo sainformacio saagentoebs, StatgareSe Jurnalistebs an meTvalyure organizaciebs monacemTa xangrZlivad Segrovebisa da siRrmiseuli analizisTvis saWiro resursebi gauCndebaT.

Sefaseba saxelmwifos mxardaWeriT organizebuli dezinformaciuli kampaniebi hibriduli omis mniSvnelovan instrumentad iqca, romelic Zirs uTxris evrokavSirisa da natos institucionalur struqturas, demokratiul Rirebulebebsa da evropis usafrTxoebis arqiteqturas. arsebuli informaciiT, kremlma mniSvnelovnad gazarda sabiujeto mediaxarjebi, rac dezinformaciuli kampaniebis Catarebasac iTvalis-

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3.4 Develop new subscription based models for traditional media The technological development of our society and social media have drastically changed the news and information environment. While traditional mainstream media were too slow to adapt to this change, they still play an important role in being the watchdogs of reality and investigators of society. However, while fake news is free and easy to access, the different subscription models of investigative news outlets create another obstacle for people to get the facts and truth. These information paywall bubbles are splitting society into two parts – those who have subscriptions and thus have information, and those who rely on “free” easily-accessible (dis)information. Therefore, big traditional media like the Wall Street Journal, the Economist, the News York Times or the Washington Post should abandon the model of individual subscription and should use the subscription-based model used by music companies such as iTunes. This financing model would still provide media with revenue and subscribers would pay only for the articles and news they read. 3.5. Set up an independent fund for investigative journalism An anti-elitist, anti-establishment attitude also manifested itself in an anti-journalist attitude. Fake news industry generates a lot of money, but it is not possible to label all such practices as Russian propaganda since they are driven purely by commercial interests. Therefore, big social media companies should set up a fund to support investigative journalism. This fund will enable media outlets or civic organizations to pursue their stories further and investigate. News outlets, freelance journalists or watchdog organizations would have resources for long-term data collection and in-depth analyses.

Credits Organised state-sponsored disinformation campaigns have become an important tool of hybrid warfare weakening the institutional framework of the European Union and NATO, democratic values and undermining the security architecture of Europe. According to available information, the Kremlin has significantly increased its budget for media spending, which includes disinformation campaigns. The RT (formerly known as Russia Today) television network alone operates in 100 countries with budget of some 300 million EUR from the Russian government and Sputnik, online news service established by the Russian government-controlled news agency Rossiya Segodnya, spreads the Russian narrative of online news in 32 foreign languages and countries. In addition, according to unofficial sources, thousands of people in Russia, including those in troll factories, are actively working on producing and spreading disinformation and Russian narratives - of the ‘evil West’ with an aggressive NATO and the EU in shambles; the (distorted) world according to the Kremlin, in particular on the Crimea Conflict and


Analytics | analitika winebs. mxolod RT-is satelevizio qseli (romelic adre Russia Today-is saxeliT iyo cnobili) 100 qveyanaSi mauwyeblobs da ruseTis biujetidan daaxloebiT 300 milioni evro aqvs gamoyofili, xolo onlain sainformacio samsaxuri „sputniki“, romelic ruseTis mTavrobis mier kontrolirebuli sainformacio saagentos „rossia segodnia“-s mier dafuZnda, axal ambebs rusuli interpretaciiT 32 qveyanaSi avrcelebs. garda amisa, araoficialuri wyaroebis mixedviT, ruseTSi myofi aTasobiT adamiani, maT Soris „trol fabrikebSi“ gaerTianebuli pirebi, aqtiurad muSaoben dezinformaciisa da rusuli ritorikis tiraJirebaze „boroti dasavleTis“, agresiuli natosa da nangrevebad qceuli evrokavSiris Sesaxeb; damaxinjebulad da kremlis Sesabamisad gadmoscemen msoflios pozicias, kerZod yirimis konfliqtTan da ukrainasTan dakavSirebiT, xolo keTil ruseTs mSvidobisa da usafrTxoebis damcvelad warmoaCenen. aRniSnuli Zalisxmevis zemoqmedebas kidev ufro aZlierebs cru informaciis swrafad mzardi industria, romelic socialur medias realobis damaxinjebuli versiiTa da sensaciuri tabloiduri saTaurebiT anagvianebs. amgvari sainformacio saSualebebi, romlebic ZiriTadad TavianTi mflobelebis gamdidrebis mizniT Seiqmnen, ara mxolod Tavad qmnian falsificirebul axal ambebs, aramed saxelmwifos mier mxardaWerili dezinformatoruli mediaarxebis ruporebadac gvevlinebian. mediasaSualebaTa simravle da sainformacio nakadebis decentralizacia iZleva imis SesaZleblobas, rom dezinformaciam da propagandam pirdapiri zemoqmedeba moaxdinos sazogadoebriv azrze sxvadasxva qveyanaSi, rac, Tavis mxriv, politikur diskurszec aisaxeba. miuxedavad imisa rom, sainformacio omis zemoqmedebis Sesarbileblad natos bevr qveyanaSi sajaro diplomatia instinqturad gaaqtiurda, saTanado yuradReba unda daeTmos aRniSnuli safrTxis winaaRmdeg sistematiurad brZolis strategiebis SemuSavebasa da koordinacias. nato da mis wevri saxelmwifoebi hibriduli omis sxvadasxva scenarisTvis unda moemzadon, maT Soris samxedro, aseve gasamxedroebuli elementebi, romlebic yovlismomcvel da centralizebul Zalisxmevas mimarTaven, rac moicavs diplomatiur, biznes, sisxlis samarTlis, dazvervis, propagandistul da sxva saSualebebs. hibriduli omebis epoqaSi konfliqtma SeiZleba ramdenime etapi gaiaros vidre me-5 muxliT gaTvaliswinebul zRvars miaRwevdes da Cveni reagireba da dagegmva am axal realobas unda asaxavdes. natom da misma wevrma da partniorma qveynebma ufro masStaburad unda iazrovnon, ufro Rrma analizi unda gaakeTon da unda gamoiyenon maT xelT arsebuli yvela SesaZlebloba erTmaneTisTvis sakuTari gamocdilebis gasaziareblad _ Tuki surT, daamarcxon konfliqtis es axali forma. kremli da sxva ucxo saxelmwifoebi wlebis manZilze qmnidnen TavianT propagandistul manqanas. maT startze mopovebuli upiratesoba aqvT, magram, Tu warmateba gvsurs, SesaZleblobebs Soris naprali unda amovavsoT. swored amitom naswavli gakveTilebis gaziareba da natos gafarToebul ojaxSi sainformacio omis negatiuri Sedegebis daZlevisa da aRmofxvris efeqtiani modelebis amoqmedeba Cveni warmatebisTvis sasicocxlod mniSvnelovania.

Ukraine; and the narrative of the good Russia portrayed as the protector of peace and safety. The impact of these efforts is further strengthened by the click-bait model of the rapidly growing fake news industry, spamming social media with its distorted version of reality and bombastic tabloid headlines. Such outlets, mostly set up for the profit of their owners, not only produce their own dismaying hoaxes and distorted news, but also serve as echo chambers for the content produced by state-sponsored disinformation media channels. Thus, the vastness of media outlets and decentralization of information flows enable the direct impact of disinformation and propaganda narratives on public opinion in countries, which in turn affects the policy debate. Although the public diplomacy activities of many NATO countries have been instinctively increased in order to mitigate the impacts of the information war, adequate attention needs to be paid to the development and coordination of strategies to address this threat systematically. NATO and its member states must plan and train for scenarios of hybrid war including military as well as paramilitary elements well integrated into a comprehensive, centralised effort comprising diplomatic, business, criminal, intelligence, propaganda and other means. The conflict in an era of hybrid warfare may go through several stages before reaching the threshold of Article 5 and our responses and planning should reflect this new reality. NATO and its member and partner countries need to think bigger, analyse deeper, and use every available opportunity to learn from each other if they are to succeed in winning this new form of conflict. The Kremlin and other foreign powers have laid the groundwork for their propaganda machine for years. They have a head-start but we need to close this capability gap if we are to succeed. Sharing lessons learned and successful models of countering and preventing the negative effects of information war across the larger NATO family is therefore essential to our success.

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Tourism | turizmi

yviras mTa Kvira Mountain

სამეგრელოს ტურისტული პოტენციალი Samegrelo tourism potential

s

aqarTvelom turizmis sferoSi or mniSvnelovan niSnuls pirvelad miaRwia 2016 wels - (1) saerTaSoriso mogzaurebis raodenobam 6 milions gadaaWarba da (2) Semosavlebma saerTaSoriso turizmidan 2 miliard aSS dolarze meti Seadgina. pozitiuri dinamika SenarCunebulia 2017 welsac. saqarTvelos regionebSi sul ufro izrdeba rogorc saerTaSoriso, aseve Sida turistebis raodenoba. saqarTvelos turistul mimarTulebebs Soris gansakuTrebiT popularulia samegrelo. martvilis kanioni turistebisaTvis erT-erTi yvelaze mimzidveli adgilia martvilis kanioni. bunebis es Zegli warmoadgens mdinare abaSis mier kanioniseburad gaWril xeobas. kanionis sigrZe 2400 metria, CaWris siRrme 2030 metri, xolo sigane 5-10 metri. kanionis Sua welSi warmoiSoba 12-15 metriani simaRlis vardnis mcire CanCqerebi. erTi monakveTi gamoirCeva gansakuTrebuli silamaziT. es aris ofucxole, romelic cnobilia „dadianebis sabanaos”

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T

he year 2016 was extremely important for Georgia’s tourism industry. The number of international travelers visiting Georgia exceed 6 000 000 and international tourism receipts demonstrated an increasing trend reaching more than USD 2 billion. The positive dynamics have been continuing, which means that Georgian regions accept more international and domestic visitors every year. It is worth mentioning that Samegrelo is one of the most popular tourist destinations in the country.

Martvili Canyon Martvili Canyon is one of the most attractive places to visit in Georgia. It is very beautiful and rare nature spot located in Samegrelo region of Western Georgia, 280km from Tbilisi. Canyon is 2400 meters long, 20-30m deep and 5-10m wide. In the middle of the canyon one can see different small waterfalls. This part is extremely beautiful and many years ago they used to be a bath place for Georgian nobles, Dadiani family. Moreover, according to a legend David the Builder (the most successful Georgian ruler) and his tutor and the


Tourism | turizmi saxeliT. aq Casasvlelad biliki kirqvis didi kvadrebisgan aSenebul kibes Cauyveba. gadmocemis Tanaxmad, swored am kibiT dadiodnen giorgi Wyondideli da daviT aRmaSenebeli. martvilis kanionTan gasul wels vizitorTa centri aSenda, moewyo turistuli bilikebi, gadasaxedebi, xidebi, navmisadgomi da vizitorTa mosacdeli. restavracia Cautarda qvaSi nakveT dadianebis istoriul kibesa da wylis wisqvils. tobavarCxili laSqrobebis moyvarulebsa da ekoturizmiT dainteresebulebs samegreloSi gansakuTrebiT izidavT vercxlis tba, anu tobavarCxili. Cxorowyus municipalitetSi, egrisis qedze 6 tba aris aRricxuli. diditoba zRvis donidan 2650 metrze mdebareobs. tbis udidesi siRrme 35 metria. tbisken mimavali gza grZeli da rTulia, tobas mimarTulebiT molaSqreTa nakadis zrdis fonze turizmis erovnulma administraciam egrisis qedze, tobas mimarTulebiT 6 turistuli marSrutis markireba moaxdina.

closest adviser, later court minister George of Chkondidi used to walk here. Nowadays, the place represents a tourist site where people walk around, enjoy the incredible scenery of the waterfalls, emerald-green river and take a boat trip on it. In 2016, the Visitors Centre was opened in Martvili, it consists of tourist trails arrangement, bridges and landing-stages. Dadiani historical ladders and water mill have been restored as well. Tobavarchkhili Lake Tobavarchkhili is located in the Egrisi mountain range, in Samegrelo-Zemo Svaneti region. The lake is known as “Crystal Lake” because of its clear, transparent water. At an altitude of 2643m above sea level Tobavarchkhili is one of the most beautiful and remote natural monuments of Georgia.

anaklia da ganmuxuri

The lake was formed by a glacier eroding the rock and then melting, filling the space that it created.

Savi zRvis kurortebi, romelTac erTmaneTTan akavSirebs 552 metriani safexmavlo xidi, izidavs turistebs qviSiani plaJebiT, bulvariT, sastumroebiT, akvaparkiTa da iaxtklubiT.

The road towards the lake is very difficult, it is only possible to reach this glacial lake on foot — it’s about 20 km from the small town of Chkhorotsku. That is why the place is very attractive for people who enjoy hiking and ecotourism.

anaklia Anaklia

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Tourism | turizmi

martvilis kanioni Martvili Canyon

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Tourism | turizmi

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Tourism | turizmi

tobavarCxilis tba Tobavarchkhili lake

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Tourism | turizmi

anaklia Anaklia

martvilis kanioni Martvili Canyon

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Tourism | turizmi

samegrelo Samegrelo

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Tourism | turizmi

საქართველოს ტურისტულ მიმართულებებს შორის განსაკუთრებით პოპულარულია სამეგრელო. Samegrelo is one of the most popular tourist destinations in the country.

kolxeTis erovnuli parki anaklia-Wuriis monakveTi gamoirCeva qviSian diunaze torfiani WaobebiT, sfagnumiT, reliqturi, gadaSenebis piras myofi da iSviaTi mcenareebiT, TevzebiT, gadamfreni frinvelebiT. parki Zalian mimzidvelia ekoturistebisaTvis mTeli wlis ganmavlobaSi.

tobavarCxilis tba Tobavarchkhili lake

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Due to increased number of visitors, Georgian National Tourism Administration has marked 6 tourist routs here. Ganmukhuri and Anaklia Ganmukhuri and Anaklia are two Black Sea resorts connected to each other by a 552 meter pedestrian bridge. The resorts attract tourists for their sandy beaches, peaceful boulevards, hotels, water parks, and yacht clubs. Kolkheti National Park The National Park was created in order to protect and maintain the Kolkheti wetland ecosystems, which are of international importance. The Kolkheti National Park Administration offers boat tours on Lake Paliastomi and river Pichori, as well as sport fishing, bird watching and eco-educational tours. Tours are carried out throughout the year. The swinging rock — “Kuakantsalia” This rock stands on the limestone massif in Tsalenjikha - 27 kilometers from Zugdidi. What makes this particular place so special is that a simple touch of a human hand is enough to shake this giant rock and create loud knocking sounds. Complex of “Otsindale” The Otsindale complex is located 759 meters above the sea level, overlooking the beautiful Kolkheti valley. The complex


Tourism | turizmi

tobavarCxilis tba Tobavarchkhili lake quaqancalias moqanave lodi quaqancalias lodi, mis garkveul wiboze, Tundac susti dawoliT qanaobs da kakunis xmas gamoscems. quaqancalias moqanave lodis Taviseburebas gansazRvravs misi Semadgenloba (kirqva) da is faqtori, rom igi karstul masivze, walenjixis municipalitetSi mdebareobs. „ocindales“ kompleqsi kompleqsSi Semavali sabrZolo koSki VI saukuneSia agebuli. Zegli mdebareobs zRvis donidan 759 metrze da gadahyurebs kolxeTis dablobs. aqvea XIV saukunis wm. giorgis saxelobis eklesia. Surubumu Surubumu bunebis erT-erT saintereso obieqts warmoadgens. karstuli mRvime migariis masivSi iRebs saTaves. aq aris ulamazesi kanioni, romelic garSemortymulia aTaswlovani bzis tyiT.

combines a church, which dates back to the 14th century and a tower once used for military purposes and was constructed around the 6th century. Shurubumu Shurubumu is one of the most interesting places to see. The area is covered with lush green moss and thousand-year old buxus trees. You will also find a cave in the area, with numerous stalactites and stalagmites. Canyon of Intsra The cave is located within the basin of the river Instra; inside the cave you will find numerous stalactites, stalagmites and helictites. The water flowing out of the cave creates a 26 meter high beautiful waterfall.

Georgian National Tourism Administration

inwras kanioni mdinare inwras auzSi mdebare es mRvime gamoirCeva stalaqtidebiT, stalagmitebiTa da heleqtidebiT. mRvimidan gamosuli nakadi ramdenime metrSi 26 metris simaRlis inwras CanCqers warmoqmnis. saqarTvelos turizmis erovnuli administracia

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Business and Economy | biznesi da ekonomika

„ანკა ფეარ თრეიდი“- პირველი ქართული კომპანია, რომელიც ბიო-თხილს აწარმოებს და ექსპორტზე გაიტანს

Anka Fair Trade - the first Georgian company producing organic hazelnut due to export

„a

nka fear Treidi“ pirveli Txilis gadamamuSavebeli qarxana iqneba saqarTveloSi, romelic bio-sertifikats aiRebs. rogorc eugeorgia.info-s kompaniis warmomadgenelma, nino gabravam ganacxada, warmoebis Sesabamisi meTodebi qarxanaSi ukve dainerga, kviris bolosTvis ki germaniidan sertifikatis gamcemi kompaniis pasuxs miiReben. misi TqmiT, moTxovna organul Txilze evropaSi sakmaod maRalia da maRal safaso segmentSic iyideba. „organulis garda, ukve vflobT UTZ serTifikats, romelic warmoadgens miwaTmoqmedebaSi, Txilis dargvidan gadamuSavebamde, saukeTeso praqtikas. es sistema Txilis warmoebaSi ar iyo danergili, radgan sakmaod rTuli procesia. amoqmedda mxolod 2011 wels TurqeTis iniciativiT. mogexsenebaT, is Txilis sididiT pirveli mwarmoebelia msoflioSi. aRniSnuli serTifikatebi eqsportirebisas xels Segviwyobs”, _ ganacxada nino gabravam. „anka fear Treidma“ Sesabamisi standartebis ned­ leuliT uzrunvelsayofad biologiur asociacia „elkanasTan“ erTad sapilote programa wamoiwyo _Seiqmna fermerebis kooperativi, romelsac organuli da UTZ meTodebis danergvaSi exmareba. kooperativi imereTSi, guriasa da samegreloSi 550-ze met fermers aerTianebs. rogorc kompaniaSi acxadeben, fermerTa daintereseba TanamSromlobisTvis sul ufro izrdeba. „davdeT winaswari memorandumi, rom sertificirebuli fermerebis Txils garantirebulad, CveulebrivTan SedarebiT maRal fasSi CavibarebT. wels, magaliTad, 1 kg bio-Txilze fasnamati 1 lars aRwevda, miuxedavad imisa, rom saqarTveloSi SarSan Txils masobrivad daavadeba gauCnda da sakmaod dabali xarisxis mosavali iyo. saqme exeba Sida sidamples, romlis raodenoba saqonelSi 2%-s ar unda aRematebodes, wels ki 6-8% da 10%-sac ki aRwevda. ra mniSvneloba aqvs, bioa Tu Cveulebrivi, Tu produqcia ar varga, evropaSi iwuneben. fermerebs es ar ugrZvniaT, Cven ki sakmaod davzaraldiT, Tumca, vcdilobT, rom maT xeli SevuwyoT“, _ aRniSnes kompaniaSi, „anka fear Treidis“ informaciiT, dReisaTvis saqarTveloSi Txilis mxolod 25 organuli meurneobaa.

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Georgia’s European Way | April 2017

A

nka Fair Trade will be the first hazelnut plant in Georgia to be awarded organic certificate.

Nino Gabrava, a representative of the Company told eurogeorgia.info that respective production methods have already been incorporated into the plant and a decision of the German certification company will be known by the end of the week. According to her, demand for organic hazelnut in Europe is high and the product carries a high price tag, respectively. “Along with organic certificate, we hold UTZ Certificate as well, which is a proof of the best farming practice employed from growing to handling of the product. Such farming practice was not in use before since it is a very sophisticated process. It was adopted in 2011, at the initiative of Turkey, which is the world’s leading hazelnut producer” — Nino Gabrava said. Anka Fair Trade in association with Elkana — a biological farming association launched a pilot programme — a cooperative of farmers, which was set up to assist the adoption of organic and UTZ methods. The cooperative brings together over 550 farmers from Imereti, Guria and Samegrelo. According to representatives of the Company, farmers show an increasing level of interest in cooperation. “We signed a preliminary memorandum under which we guaranteed to buy hazelnut from certified farmers at prices above the market price. This year trade mark-up per 1 kg of organic hazelnut reached 1 GEL despite the widespread disease wreaking havoc on hazelnut and causing a sharp decline in quality. The disease known as invisible rot attacked 6-10% of kernels while the damaged kernel content must not be above 2%. It makes no difference whether the low-quality product is organic or not - in any case it is rejected in Europe. Farmers, however, were not affected while we incurred the loss. But we are oriented towards supporting farmers” — Company representatives told eurogeorgia.info. According to Anka Fair Trade, there are only 25 organic hazelnut farms in Georgia. Farmers are not only paid high premiums but are also offered other incentives, including financial and


Business and Economy | biznesi da ekonomika waxalisebisTvis, maRali premiis garda, fermerebs sertificirebis procesSi finansur da teqnikur daxmarebas sTavazoben. am mizniT proeqtSi ucxouri donori „heqseperic“ CarTes. „yoveldRe modian axali fermerebi da gvTxoven, kooperativSi gavawevrianoT, Tumca, fizikurad, amxela kooperativis organizeba sakmaod rTulia. Tavidan gaTvla iyo, rom kooperativi pirvel wels dafinansebuliyo, momdevno wlebSi ki Tavad gamoemuSavebina sertificirebisTvis saWiro Tanxa, Tumca ver SeZlo. Cveni sapilote proeqti samwliani iyo, wels misi vada iwureba. Semdeg fermerebi sakuTari menejmentis amara darCebian“, _ ganacxada nino gabravam. „anka fear TreidSi“ miiCneven, rom dargis ganviTarebisTvis saxelmwifom meti Zalisxmeva unda gamoiCinos.

„ანკა ფეარ თრეიდი“ პირველი თხილის გადამამუშავებელი ქარხანა იქნება საქართველოში, რომელიც ბიო-სერთიფიკატს აიღებს. Anka Fair Trade will be the first hazelnut plant in Georgia to be awarded organic certificate.

„es kerZo proeqtia, ar aris masStaburi, organizebuli konkretuli adamianebis mier, romlebmac moipoves dafinanseba. saxelmwifo unda CaerTos am procesSi. erTi qarxana ver gaswvdeba. am dargSi bevri problemaa, miwis registraciidan dawyebuli, daavadebebiT damTavrebuli. saWiroa meti yuradReba _ Txils, yurZenze meti Semosavali Semoaqvs saqarTvelosTvis, sxva midgomaa saWiro. Tundac is daavadeba, rac SarSan da SarSanwin gavrcelda, Tu igive problema am sezonzec dafiqsirda, CaTvaleT, qarTuli Txilis Tema damTavrebulia, welsac ki Cvens Txils aRar yidulobdnen“, _ acxadeben kompaniaSi. „anka fear Treidi“ 2009 wels daarsda. misi damfuZnebeli Turquli warmoSobis Sveicariis moqalaqea. analitikuri veb-portali eugeorgia.info

technical assistance in the certification process. The foreign donor company Hexeper was also involved in this project. “An increasing number of new farmers come to us every day asking to let them join the cooperative. It is, however, very difficult to manage such a large cooperative. Initial plans were to have the cooperative funded for the first year and then, for the next years, let it earn its own resources necessary for certification. However the expectations were not met. Our pilot project covered 3 years and it will be concluded this year. Afterwards, farmers will have only their management to fall back on” - Nino Gabrava said. The widespread belief in Anka Fair Trade is that the State should direct more efforts to the development of the industry. “It is a private project, not a large one, and it is managed by a group of specific people who have received funding. The State should get involved in this process. One plant cannot stretch itself to solve all problems persisting in the industry, starting with land registration and ending with abundance of diseases. Hazelnut industry calls for more attention — after all, hazelnut brings more income to Georgia than grape. Therefore, a different approach needs to be adopted. The disease, which attacked hazelnut trees last year and the year before, will bring to nought the entire hazelnut business if it recurs during this season. Georgian hazelnut sales already hit a dramatic low during this year” — Company representatives said. Anka Fair Trade was founded in 2009 by a Swiss citizen of Turkish origin. Analytical web portal eugeorgia.info

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Business and Economy | biznesi da ekonomika

ქართული კომპანია ვარდის ფურცლებს გერმანიაში ექსპორტზე გაიტანს

The Georgian Company will Export Rose Petals to Germany

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ompania „kaxeTi bio“ wnorSi wels 10 ha-ze vardis plantaciis gaSenebas gegmavs. biomeurneobam „galikas“ jiSis vardis kalmebisgan CiTilebis gamoyvana weliwad-naxevris win daiwyo, daaxloebiT, or TveSi ki nergebs ukve Ria gruntSi gadaitans. „wels, maisSi plantacia, albaT, pirvel niSans mogvcems, sami wlis Semdeg ki ukve srul mosavals miviRebT, savaraudod, 1 ha-ze 4-5 tona furcels velodebiT. furclebs gavaSrobT da eqsportze gavuSvebT evropaSi, winaswari SekveTebi germaniidan ukve miviReT“, _ ganucxada kompaniis teqnikurma direqtorma, aleqsandre kurtaniZem eugeorgia.info -s.

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Georgia’s European Way | April 2017

K

akheti Bio plans to start a rose plantation over 10 hectares.

The company began to cultivate Gallic rose seedlings a year and a half ago. In two months’ time young saplings will be planted in open ground. “The plantation will yield first signs of budding in May and a full harvest will be in three years. We expect to get a yield of 4-5 tons of petals from the area of one hectare. The harvest of petals will then be dried and exported to Europe. We already got pre-orders from Germany,”noted Aleksandre Kurtanidze, the company’s technical director with eurogeorgia.info.


Business and Economy | biznesi da ekonomika

„წელს, მაისში პლანტაცია, ალბათ, პირველ ნიშანს მოგვცემს, სამი წლის შემდეგ კი უკვე სრულ მოსავალს მივიღებთ.“

“The plantation will yield first signs of budding in May and a full harvest will be in three years.”

misi TqmiT, gamSral vardis furclebs ucxoeTSi kosmetikuri daniSnulebiT da Cais danamatad iyeneben. vardis furclebis garda, eqsportze qarTuli kompania sxva mcenareebsac gaitans, maT Soris, pitnas, RiRilos, tarxunas, furisulasa da babuawveras. aRniSnuli kulturebi „kaxeTi biom” 3 ha-ze gaaSena da meurneobis gafarToebas 10 ha-mde apirebs. „am etapze vardis furclebis Srobaze gvaqvs aqcenti, Tumca, roca plantacia srul msxmoiarobaSi Seva, yvavilis zeTis warmoebazec vifiqrebT. 1 litri vardis zeTi msoflio bazarze 7-10 aTasi evro Rirs, Tumca gamosaxdelad saWiro danadgarebi sakmaod Zviria da warmadobis mixedviT, 100 aTasidan 300 aTas dolaramde jdeba, amitom, dasawyisisTvis, vfiqrobT, saSrobi davamontaJoT“, _ aRniSnes kompaniaSi. „kaxeTi bio“ sawarmos gasamarTad soflis meurneobis saministros saxelmwifo programaSi monawileobasac gegmavs. aRsaniSnavia, rom vardis zeTis esencia sunamoebSi yvelaze xSirad (daaxloebiT, 75%-Si) gamoiyeneba. Tumca surnelze aranakleb dafasebulia yvavilis unikaluri Tvisebebi: vardis zeTi 370-mde mikrobiologiur elements Seicavs da kanis gaaxalgazrdavebis, anTebis sawinaaRmdego, antidepresantisa da hormonaluri disbalansis mowesrigebis unaric ki gaaCnia. vardis zeTis msoflio bazars, TiTqmis 100%-iT, ori tradiciuli mwarmoebeli — bulgareTi (40%) da TurqeTi (60%) inawilebs. es ori qveyana, daaxloebiT, 1,5-1,5 tona produqcias, TurqeTi ki damatebiT 7 tona vardis konkrets (produqtis saxeoba) awarmoebs. miuxedavad imisa, rom msoflioSi sunamos warmoebis moculoba izrdeba da weliwadSi 40 miliard dolars aRwevs, TurqeTSi vardis zeTis industria bolo ori aTeuli welia mcirdeba. mizezi qveynis ganviTarebisa da urbanizaciis donis zrdaa. vardis zeTis warmoeba didi raodenobiT SromiT resurss moiTxovs. „sakmaod rTulia vardis zeTis warmoeba investirebis TvalsazrisiT, miwisa da sawarmos did farTobs moiTxovs, Sromatevadia misi krefa, radgan ekliania, amave dros, specifikuri drois SerCeva unda“, _ acxadebs aleqsandre kurtaniZe. aTasobiT saxeobidan komerciulad Rirebuli mxo­ lod sami jiSis vardia _ Rosa damascen (damaskos var­di), Rosa centifolia da Rosa gallica (maisis var­di). „galika“ ar aris pretenziuli, sWirdeba kargad drenaJirebuli miwa, uyvars mze, uZlebs yinvas (-25 gradusamde). yvavis mxolod erTxel _ maisSi. is erT-erTi uZvelesi vardis jiSia, romlis kultivireba jer kidev Zvelma berZnebma da romaelebma SeZles.

According to him, dried rose petals are used in cosmetics as well as tea additives abroad. Besides rose petals, the Georgian company plans to export other plants, including mint, cornflower, tarragon, primrose and dandelion. Kakheti Bio cultivates these plants over the area of 3 hectares and is due to expand its farm up to 10 hectares.

ანალიტიკური ვებ-პორტალი eugeorgia.info

Analytic web portal eugeorgia.info

“Our focus at this stage is on the drying of rose petals. However, when the yield of the plantation reaches its peak we will consider launching the production of flower oil. One litre of rose oil sells for 7-10 thousand Euros on the world market. Distillation equipment is also very expensive with a price varying from 100 000 to 300 000 USD, according to its capacity. We will, therefore, restrict ourselves to installing only a drying equipment at this stage”, Company representatives said. Kakheti Bio intends to participate in the state programme of the Ministry of Agriculture. Rose oil essence is most widely used in perfumes (in 75% of them). Unique benefits of the rose are of no less importance: rose oil contains up to 370 microbiological elements and helps regenerate skin cells, is anti-inflammatory, antidepressant and can even balance hormones. Bulgaria and Turkey are the world’s largest producers of rose oil respectively holding 40 and 60 percent share of the market. These two countries produce about 1,5-1,5 tons of the product. Additionally, Turkey produces 7 tons of rose concrete. Despite the steady rise in global fragrance industry worth almost $40 billion per year, Turkey’s rose oil output has declined for two decades — the reason being the rapid development of the country and urbanisation. Besides, rose oil is a labour-intensive product. “Rose oil is difficult to produce, including in terms of investments. It requires large area of land and facilities. Moreover, thorns make rose harvesting a laborious process. Rose harvesting time is also specific”, stated Aleksandre Kurtanidze. Out of great variety of roeses, only Rosa damascena (Damask rose), Rosa centifolia and Rosa gallica (Gallic rose) have the commercial value. Gallic rose needs a sunny site and well-drained soil. It is frost tolerant (-25°C) and blooms only once a year (in May). It is one of the most ancient types of rose that have been cultivated by ancient Greeks and Romans.

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Business and Economy | biznesi da ekonomika

ქართული ბიო-ჩაი ექსპორტზე ევროპაში გავიდა Georgian Organic Tea has been Exported to Europe „a T naseulis” Cais fabrika” Tavisi produqcia CexeTSi eqsportze gaitana. rogorc kompaniaSi eugeorgia.info-s ganucxades, pirveli saeqsporto partiis moculoba 820kg iyo. qarTuli organuli Cai evropaSi daufasoebeli gavida. CexeTis garda, mcire moculobiT, sacdeli partia „anaseulma“ germaniaSic gagzavna. „kompania 10 ha Cais plantacias flobs, romelsac mTlianad organuli meTodebiT vuvliT. evrokavSirTan daaxloebis procesi mimdinareobs, amitom orientacia swored bioproduqciaze aviReT, radgan evropul bazarze gacilebiT moTxovnadia. movla rTuli ar aris, magram wesebis dacva unda, plantaciaSi Segvaqvs mxolod biosasuqebi, daculi unda iyos saqonlisgan, sufTa garemo iyos. kultivaciis process mkacrad akontrolebs organizacia „kavkasserti“, romelic standartebis danergvaSi dagvexmara da bioserTifikati mogvaniWa. amasTanave, fabrikaSi organuli produqciis sawarmoeblad calke xazi gvaqvs, mTlianad uJangavi foladis danadgarebiT mimdinareobs gadamuSaveba“, _ aRniSnes kompaniaSi. rogorc „anaseulis” Cais fabrikaSi acxadeben, biologiuri Cais kultivacia, CveulebrivTan SedarebiT, 20-30%-iT Zviri jdeba, Tumca misi fasi

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Georgia’s European Way | April 2017

he Anaseuli Tea Plant exported its product to the Czech Republic.

As company representatives told eurogeorgia.info, the volume of the first shipment was 820kg. Georgian organic tea was shipped to Europe unpackaged. Along with the Czech Republic, first batch of Anaseuli Tea was sent to Germany as well. “The Company holds an area of 10 hectares which is farmed organically. While Georgia is approximating with the EU, we also set our sights on organic products as they are increasingly in higher demand on the European market. Organic products are not difficult to cultivate if you follow a set of rules: fertilizers should be organic, the farm area - protected from cattle and clean. The cultivation process is strictly controlled by the Caucascert Organisation, which assisted us in adopting the standards and awarded us with an organic certificate. Our plant separately operates an exclusive organic production line which involves the use of entirely stainless steel equipment for handling the goods” - we were told at the Company. According to representatives of the Anaseuli Tea Plant, the cultivation of organic tea is 20-30% more expensive than its conventionally grown counterpart, but organic tea has a higher price tag,


Business and Economy | biznesi da ekonomika

ორიენტაცია სწორედ ბიოპროდუქციაზე ავიღეთ, რადგან ევროპულ ბაზარზე გაცილებით მოთხოვნადია.

we also set our sights on organic products as they are increasingly in higher demand on the European market.

SedarebiT maRalia. kompaniaSi saeqsporto fasi ar dausaxelebiaT, magram aRniSnes, rom jerjerobiT, mcire marJebze muSaoben, raTa ucxoeli partniorebi ufro metad daaintereson. aRsaniSnavia, rom „anaseulis“ produqcia adgilobriv bazarzec aris warmodgenili. „ana batoniSvilis brendiT“ mwvane da Savi Cai Tbilisis supermarketebis qselebSi iyideba. „anaseulis“ Cais fabrika Tavisi plantaciebis garda, nedleuls adgilobrivi fermerebisganac ibarebs. 1 kg Cais fasi, xarisxis mixedviT, 1,5 lars aRwevs. „sakmaod kargi SefuTva gvaqvs, Tan bio-produqciaa, magram saqarTveloSi, realurad, myidveli did mniSvnelobas ar aniWebs amas, bio-produqcia CvenTan maincdamainc popularuli ar aris. wels vgegmavT, Cai erTjerad paketebSic gamovuSvaT, romelzec SedarebiT maRali moTxovnaa. axali produqcia „anaseulis brendiT“ gamova bazarze. specialuri danadgarebi ukve gvaqvs, proeqti aSS-is ganviTarebis saagento USAID-ma dagvifinansa“, _ aRniSnes kompaniaSi.

respectively. Though saying nothing about the export price of the tea, Anaseuli workers told us that the company works with small profit margins to get foreign partners interested.

analitikuri veb-portali EUGEORGIA.INFO

Analytical web portal eugeorgia.info

Anaseuli product has already found its own niche in the local market as well. Under the brand name of Ana Batonishvili, its black and green teas are available on supermarket shelves in Tbilisi. Along with the yield from tea plantations, the Anaseuli Tea Plant uses the raw purchased from farmers paying 1.5 GEL per kilogramme based on quality. “We use quality packaging and sell organic tea. Georgian customer does not, however, seem to appreciate it - organic products are not very popular in Georgia. This year we plan to introduce to the market bagged tea, which is in higher demand than loose tea. The new product will appear under the Anaseuli brand. We already have special equipment. The project was funded by the US Agency for International Development - USAID” - we were told at the Company.

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Georgia and EU | saqarTvelo da evrokavSiri

ლიკა ღლონტი Erasmus+ ეროვნული ოფისის კოორდინატორი Lika Glonti

Coordinator National Erasmus+ Office

Erasmus+ საქართველოში – წარმატების ისტორია

Erasmus+ in Georgia – A Success Story

e

vrokavSiris programa Erasmus+ xels uwyobs TanamSromlobas evropel partniorebTan ganaTlebis, axalgazrdobisa da sportis sferoebSi. es evrokavSiris erT-erTi yvelaze ufro popularuli da warmatebuli programaa, romelsac mTel msoflioSi icnoben da romelic wels 30-wlian iubiles aRniSnavs. am xnis ganmavlobaSi programam moicva msoflios 131 qveyana; Erasmus-is stipendiebiT cxra milionma adamianma isargebla, maT Soris oTx milionze meti studenti iyo. qarTveli studentebi Erasmus+-is sastipendio programebSi 2007 wlidan monawileoben, Tumca instituciuri TanamSromlobis proeqtebi universitetebisaTvis 1995 wlidan finansdeba. amJamad Erasmus+-is umaRlesi ganaTlebis proeqtebSi Cveni qveynis 39 universitetia CarTuli, rac saqarTveloSi arsebuli umaRlesi saganmanaTleb-

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Georgia’s European Way | April 2017

E

rasmus+ is an EU programme for education, youth and sport. This is one of the most popular and successful European programmes, known in the whole world and celebrating this year its 30th anniversary. Since 1987 programme has covered 131 countries worldwide; over 9 million people benefited from Erasmus+, among them four million students. Georgian students joined Erasmus exchange programmes in 2007, although institutional cooperation projects for universities started already in 1995. 39 Georgian higher education institutions (52% of all existing HEIs in the country) are currently involved in different Erasmus projects; Erasmus+ projects are being implemented in Tbilisi, Batumi, Kutaisi, Telavi, Gori, Zugdidi and Akhaltsikhe.


Georgia and EU | saqarTvelo da evrokavSiri lo dawesebulebebis 52%-ia; Erasmus+ xorcieldeba Tbilisis, Telavis, quTaisis, goris, axalcixis, zugdidis, baTumis universitetebSi. proeqtebis saerTo raodenobam 400-mde miaRwia _ saqarTvelo Erasmus+-is programis erT-erTi yvelaze ufro aqtiuri da warmatebuli monawile qveyanaa. evrokavSiris daxmarebiT saqarTvelos universitetebSi ganaxlda arsebuli da Seiqmna axali saganmanaTleblo programebi, maT Soris aqamde ararsebuli profesiebisaTvis (socialuri muSaki, migraciis specialisti, adiqtologi), aRiWurva laboratoriebi, biblioTekebi, iTargmna da gamoica axali saxelmZRvaneloebi, Catarda 300-ze meti konferencia. vTanamSromlobT evropis 30 qveyanasTan da aseve regionul partniorebTan (somxeTi, azerbaijani, ukraina, belarusi, moldova, israeli, bosnia da hercegovina, yazaxeTi, yirgizeTi, tajikeTi, uzbekeTi, TurqmeneTi, CineTi, avRaneTi, filipinebi). aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom amJamad moqmedi Erasmus+-is programa Seiqmna evrokavSiris ramdenime arsebuli programis Serwymis Sedegad da am saxeliT 2014 wlidan daiwyo proeqtebis dafinanseba. ganaTlebis, kerZod ki umaRlesi ganaTlebis sferoSi arsebuli programebi (Erasmus Mundus, Tempus) amJamad milevad reJimSi moqmedebs da nel-nela xdeba maTi Canacvleba Erasmus+-is axali programebiT. saqarTvelos magaliTze Tanafardoba Eras­mus-is „Zvel“ da „axal“ programebs Soris ase gamoiyureba:

programa instituciuri TanamSromloba

Total number of projects is up to 400, making Georgia one of the most active and successful Erasmus+ countries. Erasmus+ projects in Georgia have created a solid basis for the successful implementation of the higher education reform, while supporting curriculum development, the introduction of quality assurance mechanisms, national qualifications framework and lifelong learning. The development of new study programmes, in particular, has contributed to the introduction of professions previously non-existent in Georgia, such as, for example, those of social workers, addictology and migration specialists. In the framework of Erasmus+ projects new laboratories and libraries have been established and equipped, textbooks developed, translated and published, over 300 international conferences conducted. We cooperate with 30 European countries and also with regional partners (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Ukraine, Belarus, Moldova, Israel, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, China, Afghanistan, Philippines). Erasmus+ programme has been created after merging of several previously existing EU programmes and operates under current name since 2014. Programmes in the field of higher education, such as Tempus and Erasmus Mundus are now phasing out and are gradually replaced by new programmes. In case of Georgia, the ratio of “old” and “new” Erasmus projects looks as following:

2014 wlamde

2015 wlidan

Tempus _ 77 proeqti

Capacity Building for Higher Education (CBHE) _ 14 proeqti

universitetebs Soris proeqtebi evrokavSiris Sesaxeb

Jan mone - 5 proeqti

Jan mone _ 6 proeqti

studentebisa da personalis

Erasmus Mundus A2 _ 23 proeqti

International Credit Mobility _ 258 proeqti

gacvliTi programebi samagistro stipendiebi

Programme

Joint Master Degree Programmes _ 54

Joint Master Degree Programmes _ 23

stipendia

stipendia

Till 2014

After 2015

Institutional collaboration

Tempus – 77 projects

Capacity Building for Higher Education (CBHE) – 14 projects

EU studies

Jean Monnet – 5 projects

Jean Monnet – 6 projects

Student and staff exchanges

Erasmus Mundus A2 – 23 projects

International Credit Mobility – 258 projects

Master scholarships

Joint Master Degree Programmes – 54 scholarships

Joint Master Degree Programmes – 23 scholarships

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Georgia and EU | saqarTvelo da evrokavSiri aSkaraa proeqtebis raodenobis zrdis tendencia _ rig SemTxvevebSi bolo or weliwadSi imaze gacilebiT meti proeqti miviReT, vidre wina eqvswlian periodSi. ase magaliTad, 2007-2014 wlebSi 23 gacvliTi programiT 847 qarTvelma studentma da profesorma isargebla, 2015-2016 wlebSi ki stipendiantebis raodenobam 1684-s miaRwia 258 proeqtis farglebSi. swored sastipendio programebSi miRebuli Sedegis mixedviT saqarTvelo Erasmus+ programaSi monawile 131 qveyanas Soris me-8 adgilzea: #

qveyana

It’s clear that number of projects is continuously increasing – for some sub-programmes Georgia got more projects in last two years, than in previous six year period. For example between 2007 and 2013 only 847 Georgian students and professors benefited from exchange programmes, whereas in 2015-2016 number of scholarships reached 1684 and Georgia ranked 8th among 131 partner countries participating in Erasmus+ international credit mobility programme.

stipendiebis saerTo raodenoba

evropisken

evropidan

1

ruseTi

6 913

4 103

2 810

2

serbeTi

5 073

3 197

1 876

3

ukraina

4 522

3 455

1 067

4

israeli

3 835

2 425

1 410

5

CineTi

2 915

1 870

1 045

6

bosnia & hercegovina

2 521

1 607

914

7

maroko

2 480

1 803

677

8

saqarTvelo

2 444

1 684

760

9

albaneTi

2 086

1 371

715

1 841

958

883

Total

Outgoing

Incoming

10 aSS #

Country

1

Russia

6 913

4 103

2 810

2

Serbia

5 073

3 197

1 876

3

Ukraine

4 522

3 455

1 067

4

Israel

3 835

2 425

1 410

5

China

2 915

1 870

1 045

6

Bosnia & Herzegovina

2 521

1 607

914

7

Morocco

2 480

1 803

677

8

Georgia

2 444

1 684

760

9

Albania

2 086

1 371

715

1 841

958

883

10 USA

Erasmus-is stipendia niSnavs ara marto swavlas evropis universitetebSi _ es aris mogzauroba, ucxo enis Seswavla, axali megobrebi, axali STabeWdilebebi, evropuli Rirebulebebis gacnoba. ar iqneba gadaWarbebuli, Tu vityviT, rom Erasmus+ programa mniSvnelovani instrumentia saqarTvelos evrokavSirTan daaxloebis saqmeSi.

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Georgia’s European Way | April 2017

Erasmus scholarship means not only possibility to study abroad and master foreign language – it also gives opportunities to travel and get new friends and impressions, it literally widens horizons. Without any exaggeration we can say that Erasmus+ is an important and efficient tool for Georgia’s European integration. More information here: www.erasmusplus.org.ge


Georgia and EU | saqarTvelo da evrokavSiri

Erasmus-ის სტიპენდია ნიშნავს არა მარტო სწავლას ევროპის უნივერსიტეტებში – ეს არის მოგზაურობა, უცხო ენის შესწავლა, ახალი მეგობრები, ახალი შთაბეჭდილებები, ევროპული ღირებულებების გაცნობა. Erasmus scholarship means not only possibility to study abroad and master foreign language – it also gives opportunities to travel and get new friends and impressions, it literally widens horizons.

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Conference | konferencia

კონფერენცია - „საქართველოევროკავშირის ასოცირების ამოცანები” Conference “Georgia-EU: Association Objectives”

„C

ven gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas vaniWebT qveynis evropuli integraciis Taobaze samTavrobo da arasamTavrobo seqtoris Zalisxmevis gaerTianebas, qveyanaSi sazogadoebis konsolidacias, rac xels Seuwyobs da damatebiT impulss miscems qveynis evrointegraciis process“ _ am sityvebiT saqarTvelos premier-ministrma giorgi kvirikaSvilma konferenciis „saqarTvelo-evrokavSiri: asocirebis amocanebi“ monawileebs mimarTa. evropul da evroatlantikur struqturebSi integraciis sakiTxebSi saxelmwifo ministris aparatisa

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“W

e attach particular importance to the unified efforts of governmental and non-governmental sector, as well as consolidation of the society in the country on the issues of European integration which we believe will contribute and provide additional impulse to the EU integration process” - Prime Minister of Georgia, Giorgi Kvirikashvili addressed the participants of the conference “Georgia-EU: Association Objectives”. On 22 November, Office of the State Minister of Georgia on European and Euro-Atlantic Integration and Georgian National


da aRmosavleT partniorobis samoqalaqo sazogadoebis forumis saqarTvelos erovnuli platformis organizebiT, 22 noembers, TbilisSi safuZveli Caeyara yovelwliur konferencias, romlis mizans asocirebis Sesaxeb SeTanxmebis ganxorcielebis xelSewyoba da am procesSi samoqalaqo sazogadoebis maqsimaluri CarTulobis uzrunvelyofa warmoadgens. konferenciaSi monawileoba miiRo 100-ze metma warmomadgenelma (samTavrobo institutebis, arasamTavrobo organizaciebis, saqarTveloSi akreditirebuli saelCoebisa da saerTaSoriso organizaciebis warmomadgenlebi, aseve damoukidebeli eqpertebi). konferencia Catarda 2015 wlis 13 noembers saqarTvelos mTavrobasa da „aRmosavleT partniorobis“ samoqalaqo forumis saqarTvelos erovnul platformas Soris gaformebuli TanamSromlobis memorandumis farglebSi. RonisZiebis „saqarTvelo-evrokavSiri: asocirebis amocanebi“ finansuri mxardaWera saqarTveloSi gaeros ganviTarebis programam (UNDP), evrokavSirma da SvedeTis mTavrobam uzrunvelyo. konferencia gaxsna saqarTvelos premier-ministrma giorgi kvirikaSvilma. man misasalmebel sityvaSi yuradReba gaamaxvila samoqalaqo seqtorTan mWidro TanamSromlobis mniSvnelobaze. „mTavrobis 4-punqtiani gegmis erT-erTi prioritetuli mimarTuleba inkluziuri mmarTvelobaa da am konteqstSi, prioritetulia arasamTavrobo seqtorTan TanamSromloba, romelic mravali mimarTulebiT CarTulia

Conference | konferencia

„ჩვენ განსაკუთრებულ მნიშვნელობას ვანიჭებთ ქვეყნის ევროპული ინტეგრაციის თაობაზე სამთავრობო და არასამთავრობო სექტორის ძალისხმევის გაერთიანებას, ქვეყანაში საზოგადოების კონსოლიდაციას, რაც ხელს შეუწყობს და დამატებით იმპულსს მისცემს ქვეყნის ევროინტეგრაციის პროცესს“. “We attach particular importance to the unified efforts of governmental and non-governmental sector, as well as consolidation of the society in the country on the issues of European integration which we believe will contribute and provide additional impulse to the EU integration process”

Platform of Eastern Partnership Civil Society Forum organised an annual conference in Tbilisi, which aims to contribute to the implementation of the Association Agreement, as well as to ensure the engagement of civil society in this process. More than 100 representatives participated in the conference (governmental institutions, non-governmental organisations, Embassies accredited in Georgia and representatives of international organisations, as well as independent experts). The conference was held in the frameork of the Memorandum of Cooperation between the Government of Georgia and the Georgian National Platform of Eastern Partnership Civil Society Forum signed on 13 November 2015. The event “Georgia – EU: Association Objectives” was held through the financial support of United Nations Development Program (UNDP), European Union and the Government of the Kingdom of Sweden.

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Conference | konferencia reformebis ganxorcielebaSi da mTavrobas demokratiuli, Tanamedrove da ganviTarebuli qveynis mSeneblobaSi exmareba“. premier-ministrma Tavis gamosvlaSi isaubra asocirebis SeTanxmebis mniSvnelobasa da valdebulebebis Sesrulebis procesSi miRweul progresze. giorgi kvirikaSvilma xazi gausva asocirebis SeTanxmebis ganxorcielebis procesSi samoqalaqo seqtoris CarTulobis mniSvnelobas da aRniSna: „CvenTvis Rirebulia arasamTavrobo seqtorSi arsebuli eqspertuli codna, romelic gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania rogorc calkeuli mimarTulebebiT reformebis efeqtiani dagegmvisa da ganxorcielebis, aseve evrointegraciis sakiTxze sazogadoebrivi azris konsolidaciis TvalsazrisiT“. gamomsvlelTa Soris, aseve, iyvnen evrokavSiris elCi saqarTveloSi ianoS hermani, gaeros elCi saqarTveloSi nils skoti, aRmosavleT partniorobis samoqalaqo sazogadoebis forumis saqarTvelos erovnuli platformis Tavmjdomare kaxa gogolaSvili da aRmosavleT partniorobis samoqalaqo sazogadoebis forumis saqarTvelos erovnuli koordinatori laSa tuRuSi. konferenciis ZiriTadi nawili mieZRvna samoqalaqo seqtoris mier sxvadasxva sferoSi: mcire da saSualo biznesi, transporti, energetika, inovaciebi, garemos dacva asocirebis Sesaxeb SeTanxmebis ganxorcielebis Taobaze momzadebuli rekomendaciebis ganxilvas. kaxa gogolaSvilis, saqarTvelos erovnuli platformis Tavmjdomaris gancxadebiT, samoqalaqo sazogadoebis warmomadgenlebma ramdenimeTviani muSaobis Sedegad SeimuSaves politikis dokumentebi, romlebic asocirebis Sesaxeb SeTanxmebis 25-ze met mimarTulebas moicavs. paneluri diskusiis formatSi monawileebma imsjeles da ganixiles zemoxsenebul sferoebSi arsebuli politika, gamowvevebi da momzadebuli rekomendaciebis praqtikaSi danergvis aspeqtebi. asocirebis Sesaxeb SeTanxmebis farglebSi miRweuli progresis miuxedavad, saqarTvelos xelisuflebas kidev bevri mniSvnelovani reformis ganxorcieleba aqvs dagegmili, rac araerT gamowvevasTan aris dakavSirebuli. konferenciis dasasruls monawileebma aRniSnes, rom samTavrobo da arasamTavrobo organizaciebis mWidro TanamSromloba mniSvnelovnad zrdis asocirebis Sesaxeb SeTanxmebis ganxorcielebis efeqtianobas.

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Georgia’s European Way | April 2017


Conference | konferencia Prime Minister of Georgia, Giorgi Kvirikashvili opened the conference. In his welcoming speech, he focused on the importance of close cooperation with civil society. “One of the top priorities of the 4-point Action Plan of the Government of Georgia is inclusive governance and in this context, cooperation with non-governmental sector is crucial. They are actively involved in the implementation process of the reforms and assist the government in building modern, democratic and developed country.” In his speech the Prime Minister addressed the importance of Association Agreement and the progress achieved in fulfilling the obligations. Giorgi Kvirikashvili underlined the significance of civil society involvement in the process of the Association Agreement implementation. “We highly value the expertise accumulated in the civil society which is particularly important for effective planning and implementation of reforms in specific directions, as well as consolidation of public opinion on the issues of European integration.” The EU Ambassador to Georgia H.E. Janos Herman, UNDP Resident Representative in Georgia Mr. Niels Scott, Chairman of Georgian National Platform of Eastern Partnership Civil Society Forum Mr. Kakha Gogolashvili and Georgian National Coordinator of Eastern Partnership Civil Society Forum Mr. Lasha Tughushi were also among the speakers. The major part of the conference was dedicated to the discussion of the recommendations elaborated by civil society in various fields, including: small and medium enterprises, transport, energy, innovations and environment protection. Kakha Gogolashvili, the Chairman of Georgian National Platform of Civil Society Forum outlined the work carried out by the representatives of civil society during several months which resulted in the Policy Paper covering more than 25 sectors of the Association Agreement. During the panel discussions the participants addressed the policies, challenges and aspects of practical implementation of the prepared recommendations. Despite the success achieved in the field of EU integration, the Government of Georgia plans to further implement number of significant reforms, thus, creating new challenges. In their final remarks, the participants addressed the importance of close cooperation between civil society and the Government of Georgia which will increase the effectiveness of the Association Agreement implementation process.

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About Georgia | saqarTvelos Sesaxeb moZravi qandakeba „ali da nino“. baTumi qandakebis konfiguracia icvleba yovel 10 wuTSi

Tbilisi, restornebi Zvel ubanSi People at restaurant in the Old Town of Tbilisi

siRnaRi, kaxeTis regioni Signagi in Kakheti region

Moving sculpture “Ali and Nino” in Batumi. The configuration of the sculpture changes every 10 minutes

saTafliis mRvime saqarTveloSi sxvadasxva feris naTebiT Sataplia cave in Georgia illuminated by colorful lights

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Georgia’s European Way | April 2017


About Georgia | saqarTvelos Sesaxeb mtkvris piras gaSenebuli qalaqi mcxeTis panorama mzis Casvlisas Evening panoramic view of Mtskheta city and Kura river from Jvari monastery at sunset. Georgia. Europe

fantastiuri varskvlavuri ca mTa uSbis Tavze. mestia, zemo svaneTi, kavkasionis qedi Fantastic starry sky over the mountain Ushba. Dramatic and unusual scene. Location Mestia, Upper Svaneti, Georgia. High Caucasus ridge

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About Georgia | saqarTvelos Sesaxeb

varZia, kldeSi nakveTi samonastro kompleqsi Vardzia is a cave monastery site

TuSeTis erovnuli parki, koSkebi mTis sofelSi Tusheti National Park, mountain village towers

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About Georgia | saqarTvelos Sesaxeb

qalaq mcxeTis xedebi Views of the Georgian city Mtskheta

didi saTxilamuri sabagiros zeda sadguri gudaurSi Top stantion of big ski lift in Gudauri

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About Georgia | saqarTvelos Sesaxeb

qarTuli suveniri, yanwebi Georgian souvenirs: horn drinking wine

kavkasiuri nacionaluri fafaxi, Jileti da xanjali National Caucasian fur hat, vest and dagger

kaci xinklis keTebisas, nacionaluri kerZi Man making khinkali, national dish

yvareli, saqarTvelo - muxis kasrebi da boTlebi maranSi, civi miwisqveSa gvirabiT KVARELI, GEORGIA - Oak barrels and bottles inside huge Winery with cold underground tunnel

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About Georgia | saqarTvelos Sesaxeb

CanCqeri omalos gzasTan, TuSeTSi Waterfall next to the road to Omalo in the Tusheti region

patara saxli tyeSi, kavkasiis mTebSi

sofeli Satili piriqiTa xevsureTSi

Small house in the forest in Caucasus mountains

Shatili village in upper Khevsureti

yvelaze saxifaTo gza msoflioSi. omalo, TuSeTi Most dangerous road in the world. Omalo in Tusheti, Georgia.

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Education and Culture | ganaTleba da kultura

გიორგი რუსიაშვილი

ქართული სამართალი და ევროპული ტრადიცია Giorgi Rusiashvili

Georgian Law and European Tradition Sesavali: samarTali da eris goni

Introduction: Law and Volksgeist

germanel iuristTagan yvelaze didis, fridrix karl fon savinis, damsaxurebad unda miviCnioT samarTalsa da „eris gons“ (Volksgeist) Soris kavSiris gamokveTa. samoqalaqo samarTali aris ama Tu im xalxis Taviseburebis gamomxatveli, iseve rogorc misi ena, Cveuleba an saxelmwifo wes-wyobileba da warmoiSveba saerTo rwmenidan da Sinagani aucileblobidan1. „eris goni“ da mis safuZvelze warmoSobili samarTalic savinisTanac hegelianuri tradiciis Sesabamisadaa Camoyalibebuli: „samarTali erTan erTad viTardeba, iRebs dasrulebul formas da Semdeg kvdeba masTan erTad2.” samarTali warmoadgens istoriul fenomens da misi kodificireba, Tu es organulad ar Seesatyviseba eris samarTlebrivi kulturis ganviTarebis dones, mxolod mavne zegavlenis mqonea3. amis gamo germanelebma franguli Code civil-s ZalaSi Sesvlidan mxolod erTi saukunis Semdeg, 1900 wels miiRes TviTmyofadi, germanuli gonis Sesatyvisi samoqalaqo kodeqsi. mTeli winare periodi maT romauli samarTlis, rogorc germanuli samarTlis organuli nawilisa da misi istoriis, gadaazrebasa da kazuisturi masalis abstraqtul kategoriebad Camosxmas moaxmares.

Friedrich Carl von Savigny, one of the greatest German jurists, should be credited for insisting on parallels between volksgeist (national spirit or character) and law. Civil law reflects the characteristics of one nation or another, similar to its language, traditions or political structure, and builds upon inward conviction and necessity.1 Savigny formulated both volksgeist and law, which he claimed stems from volkgeist, in conformity with Hegelian tradition: “Law grows with growth, and strengthens with the strength of the people, and finally dies away as the nation loses its nationality.”2 Law is a historical phenomenon, and its codification, unless it organically matches the legal culture of the people, can only be detrimental.3 This is why the Germans adopted a unique civil code that matched German thought as late as 1900, a century after the French Civil Code came into force. Before that time, the Germans spared no effort in thinking of Roman law as an organic constituent of German law and history, and to group casuistic material into abstract categories.

1  F. C. Savigny, Vom Beruf unserer Zeit für Gesetzgebung und Rechtswissenschaft, Heidelberg 1814, 8.

1

2 

Savigny, Vom Beruf unserer Zeit, 7.

P. Caroni, Savigny und die Kodifikation, in: Zeitschrift Savigny Stiftung Germ. Abt. 86 (1969), 97 da Semdgomni; Savigny, Vom Beruf unserer Zeit, 29: „samarTals aqvs Tavisi yofiereba da es misi yofiereba aris uSualod adamianTa Tanacxovreba, gansakuTrebuli mxridan danaxuli“. 3 

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Georgia’s European Way | April 2017

At first glance, the modern-day Georgian Civil Code, which came into force on November 25, 1997, does not seem to   F. C. Savigny, Vom Beruf unserer Zeit für Gesetzgebung und Rechtswissenschaft, Heidelberg 1814, 8.

2

  Savigny, Vom Beruf unserer Zeit, 7.

  P. Caroni, Savigny und die Kodifikation, in: Zeitschrift Savigny Stiftung Germ. Abt. 86 (1969), 97; Savigny, Vom Beruf unserer Zeit, 29: „Law exists independently, and its existence lies directly in the coexistence of people as seen from a very different angle.“

3


Education and Culture | ganaTleba da kultura

Tanamedrove qarTuli samoqalaqo kodeqsi, romelic 1997 wlis 25 noembers Sevida ZalaSi, erTi SexedviT, namdvilad ar aRmocenebula „eris gonidan“. is sakmaod naCqarevad Seqmna qarTul-germanulma komisiam, romlis spiritus rector-i bremeneli profesori rolf kniperi iyo. es kodeqsi ar emyareboda mis winamorbed sabWoTa samoqalaqo samarTlis tradiciasa da piriqiT, germanuli (da nawilobriv franguli) samoqalaqo samarTlis sasargeblod sabWoTa samarTlis principebze uaris Tqmas miiTvlida Tavis mTavar Rirsebad. TavisTavad, msoflioSi erT-erTi yvelaze ganviTarebuli samarTlis kulturis miRwevebis gadmotanac ki SeiZleba arafris, anda sulac zianis momtanic gamxdariyo, Tu qarTuli samarTlebrivi tradiciis saxiT srulebiT unayofo niadagi daxvdeboda, romelic mas ucxo sxeulad aRiqvamda. es rom ase ar moxda, metwilad Zveli qarTuli samarTlis tradiciis damsaxurebaa, romelic ganvlili saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi yovelTvis cdilobda fexi aewyo romis samarTlis recefciis procesisaTvis evropaSi.

რომის კლასიკური სამართალი და მისგან მომდინარე პრინციპები უწყვეტ გავლენას ახდენდა ქართულ სამართალზე ჯერ რომაულსირიული, შემდეგ ბიზანტიური და საბოლოოდ კი რომის სამართლის საფუძველზე შექმნილი თანამედროვე გერმანული სამართლის პირდაპირი კოპირების მეშვეობით. Roman law and its principles have had a continuous impact on Georgian law through the direct copying of modern German law, which in turn stemmed from the Roman and Syrian legal system at first, then the Byzantine and finally the Roman laws.

romis samarTali da evropuli tradicia germanel iuristTagan yvelaze cnobili, goeTe, ekermanTan saubrisas romis samarTals ixvs adarebs. CayvinTavs, amoyvinTavs, magram mainc zedapirze rCeba4. iseve rogorc ixvi, romis samarTalic xandaxan qreba xolme iuridiuli diskurisadan imisaTvis, rom Semdeg isev mis centrSi moeqces. Tumca saerTo jamSi romis samarTali yovelTvis evropuli iuridiuli diskursis TvalsawierSi imyofeboda da arasodes gamqrala zedapiridan imgvarad, rom misi mniSvneloba eWvqveS damdgariyo5. digestebi, romis samarTlis mTavari kompilatoruli teqsti, es aris evropuli samarTlis kulturis dasawyisi, romlis gareSec es kultura am formiT warmoudgenelia6. is aris ara marto evropuli samarTlis kulturis dasawyisi, aramed, amave dros, romauli samarTlis Cvenamde moRweuli yvelaze srulyofili Zegli, romael iuristTa ganazrebaTa jami7. Tumca erTi SexedviT gaugebaria, Tu rogor SeiZleba samarTali, romelic Seiqmna mravali saukunis winaT sul sxva socio-kulturul garemoSi wiTel xazad gasdevdes evropis mTel istorias Tavisi Sua saukuneebiT, renesansiT, ganmanaTleblobiT, nacionalizmiT, monarqiebiTa Tu respublikiT da dRemde ganapirobebdes mis samarTals maSin, rodesac Cvens droSic ki erTi qveynis samarTali meore qveynisaTvis gamousadegari SeiZleba aRmoCndes, epoqebs Soris gansxvavebebze rom aRaraferi vTqvaT. sxva antikuri xalxebis samarTals ar gamouwvevia amgvari rezonansi saukuneebis ganamvlobaSi, ris gamoc damsaxurebulad arian kidec miviwyebulni. romis samarTali imave beds rom ar iziarebs, amis mizezi Semdegia: romaelebma pirvelebma Tqves uari nacionaluri samarTlis ideaze da Seqmnes e. w. „gaxsnili samarTalis sistema“, sa4  Goethe zu Eckermann, 6. April 1829; Rainer, Das Römische Recht in Europa, Wien 2012, 1. 5 

be based on volksgeist by any stretch of the imagination. It was composed quite hastily by a joint Georgian and German commission led by its spiritus lector, Professor Rolf Knipper. This code was not based on its predecessor, Soviet civil law, either. On the contrary, it prided itself on rejecting the principles of Soviet law in favor of German, and partially French, civil law. Naturally, adopting the achievements of even the most advanced culture of law could have been futile or even harmful if Georgian legal tradition would have rejected this innovation as something alien. The fact that the law wasn’t rejected should be credited to old Georgian legal tradition, which had worked hard for centuries in order to keep pace with the reception of Roman law in Europe.

Roman Law and European Tradition In his conversations with Eckermann, Goethe, the most celebrated German jurist, likened Roman law to a duck. Sometimes it is visible, swimming prominently on the surface of the water, and at other times it is hidden, diving amid the depths, but it is always there.4 Similar to a duck,

Rainer, Das Römische Recht in Europa, 1.

H.-D. Spengler, Römisches Recht und europäische Rechtskultur, in: Die kulturelle Eigenart Europas, Freiburg, Basel, Wien, Herder 2010, 48. 6 

7 

Spengler, Römisches Recht und europäische Rechtskultur, 53.

  Goethe zu Eckermann, 6. April 1829; Rainer, Das RömischeRecht in Europa, Wien 2012, 1.

4

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Education and Culture | ganaTleba da kultura dac samarTlis ramdenime fena (ius civile, ius gentium-i da ius honorarium-i) Tanaarsebobda da ucxos (peregrinus anu „gaRmamindvreli“, ris qarTul Sesatyvissac landSaftidan gamomdinare gadamTieli warmoadgens) samarTlebrivi mdgomareoba romis moqalaqis mdgomareobas uTanabrdeboda. romaelebma gadalaxes antikuri samarTlisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli ritualuri motivebiT nakarnaxevi mkacri formalizmi. nasyidobis, qiravnobis, ijarisa da mTeli rigi sxva xelSekrulebebis dadeba SesaZlebeli iyo formis dacvis gareSec, mxolod mxareTa konsensusis safuZvelze8, rac kerZo avtonomiis principis srulyofas warmoadgens. am ritualuri formalizmis gadalaxvasTan erTad samoqalaqo garigebis mboWavoba emyareba axal safuZvels _ fides _ anu mxareTa urTierTndobas, romelic moqmedebs rogorc mxolod romaelTa, ise romaelTa da peregrinTa Soris. garigebidan warmoSobili valdebulebis safuZvels warmoadgens swored urTierTndoba, romelmac mxareebs gadaawyetina am garigebis dadeba da romlis gacudebis SemTxvevaSic damrRvev mxares sasamarTlo magistrati sarCeliT avaldebulebda imis gadacemas an gakeTebas, rac am ndobidan gamomdinareobda _ quidquid dare facere oportet ex fide bona. amrigad, romaelebma pirvelebma moaqcies ndobis dacva iuridiuli diskursis SuagulSi, rac dResac Tanamedrove samarTlis sistemebis qvakuTxeds warmoadgens. samoqalaqo samarTlis nacionaluri xasiaTis gadalaxva, kerZo avtonomiis mis umTavres principad qceva da garigebis mxareTa urTierTndobis dacva is principebia, romliTac evropa da zogadad mTeli civilizebuli samyaro samudamod aris davalebuli romis samarTlis winaSe9. amave dros, romael iuristebs arasodes auRiaT xeli TavianTi samarTlis ganviTarebaze, ris gamoc meoce saukunis samarTlis didi istorikosi hainrix mitaisi maT mTavar damsaxurebad samarTlis pozitivisturi gaxevebisagan da iuridiuli dogmebis brma rwmenisagan gaTavisuflebas miiCnevs10. samarTlis mecnierebi dRemde kamaToben, Tu rogor unda moxdes evropis qveynebis samarTlis dajgufeba. erTi Teoriis11 mixedviT, evropis samarTali iyofa romanistul, germanul (es ori samarTlis ojaxi moicavs kontinenturi evropis qveynebis samarTals) da saerTo samarTlis ojaxebad (didi britaneTis qveynebi Sotlandiis garda), xolo meores mixedviT12, unda ganvasxvavoT mxolod romis samarTlisa da saerTo samarTlis qveynebi. Tumca orive Teoria Tanxmdeba imasTan dakavSirebiT, rom kontinenturi evropis samarTlis saerTo fundaments romis samarTlidan momdinare tradicia warmoadgens. Spengler, Römisches Recht und europäische Rechtskultur, 61; rogorc romaeli iuristi ulpiane meore iuristis, pediusis, citirebisas imeorebs: „SeTanxmebis mniSvneloba aris uzogadesi, rogorc eleganturad ambobs pediusi, ar arsebobs xelSekruleba, ar arsebobs SeTanxmeba, romelic sakuTar TavSi ar Seicavs konsensus, iqneba es saqmiT, Tu iqneba es sityviT“ (Ulp. D. 2.14.13: Adeo autem conventionis nomen generale est, ut eleganter dicat pedius nullum esse contractum, nullam obligationem, quae non habeat in se conventionem, sive re sive verbis fiat).

8 

9  10 

Spengler, Römisches Recht und europäische Rechtskultur, 61 da Semdgomi. H. Mitteis, Vom Lebenswert der Rechtsgeschichte, Weimar 1947, 129, 131.

K. Zweigert/H. Kötz, Einführung in die Rechtsvergleichung I, Tübingen 1985, 72 da Semdgomni. 11 

12  H. Honsell, Lebendiges Römisches Recht, in: Gedächtnisschrift für Theo Mayer-Maly , Wien 2011, 227.

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Roman law would sometimes disappear from legal discourse only to reemerge in the spotlight later. Ultimately, however, Roman law had always been within range of European legal discourse and had never disappeared from the surface or submerged deeply enough to have its importance questioned.5 The Digests, the main compendium of Roman law, are the very foundation of European law, without which European culture in its current form would be unimaginable.6 It is not only the source of European legal culture, but at the same time the most comprehensive surviving monument of Roman law, a summary compilation of the reasoning of Roman jurists.7 At first glance, it is not clear how a law composed centuries ago in a totally different social and cultural environment could have been applicable in times like the Middle Ages, Renaissance and Enlightenment, and with power structures such as Nationalism, monarchies, and republics, and continue to define the structure of European law to this day. Today, the law of one country may prove useless in another, not to mention in different eras. The laws of other nations in classical antiquity have failed to rise to prominence, consequently sinking into oblivion. Roman law, on the other hand, is a different story, and with good reason. The Romans were the first to reject the notion of national law and to establish the so-called open legal system, wherein several legal concepts, such as ius civile, ius gentium, and ius honorarium, coexisted, and the legal status of peregrini or non-Roman citizens, equaled that of Roman citizens. The Romans succeeded in overcoming the strict formalism of ancient legal codes, which stemmed from ritualistic considerations. No formalities, only mutual consensus, were required to execute bills of sale, rental agreements, and other legal documents,8 which is characteristic to advanced personal autonomy. Along with rejecting ritualistic formalism, the binding power of civil agreements rested upon a different foundation, bona fides or good faith and fair dealing between parties, which applied to legal agreements between both Romans and peregrine. Mutual trust, as the foundation of obligations set forth in an agreement, enabled the parties to execute a contract. Should a given party violate this mutual trust, it will be ordered by the magistrate to provide goods or perform acts stemming from mutual trust (quidquid dare facere oportet ex fide bona). Thus, the Romans were first to place the protection of trust in the very heart of legal discourse, which is the cornerstone of contemporary legal systems. Overcoming the narrow national character of civil law, turning personal autonomy into its fundamental norm and pro5

  Rainer, Das RömischeRecht in Europa, 1.

  H.-D. Spengler, Römisches Recht und europäische Rechtskultur, in: Die kulturelle Eigenart Europas, Freiburg,Basel,Wien, Herder 2010, 48.

6

7

  Spengler, Römisches Recht und europäische Rechtskultur, 53.

  Spengler, Römisches Recht und europäische Rechtskultur, 61; Roman jurist Ulpian quotes his colleague, Quintus Pedius Paulus: „Agreement has a general significance, as Pedius put it neatly, there is no contract, no obligation, which does not consists of agreement, be it in deed or word“ (Ulp. D. 2.14.13: Adeo autem conventionis nomen generale est, ut eleganter dicat pedius nullum esse contractum, nullam obligationem, quae non habeat in se conventionem, sive re sive verbis fiat).

8


Education and Culture | ganaTleba da kultura berZnul-romauli samarTali da qarTuli samarTlis tradicia saqarTveloSi romis samarTalma ZiriTadad bizantiuri samarTlis gavliT SemoaRwia. bizantiuri kulturis gavlena SeuZlebelia ar asaxuliyo ZvelqarTul samarTlebriv kulturazec, ris uSualo dastursac bizantiuri kanonikuri samarTlis Zeglebis, didi da mcire sjulis kanonis, gadmoReba warmoadgens13. bizantiuri saeklesio samarTlis gavlenas ganicdis daviT aRmaSeneblis, ruis-urbnisis Zeglis wera” (1103 w.)14. rac Seexeba saero kanonmdeblobas, am mxriv XVII saukunis qarTuli samarTlis Zegli, vaxtang VI-is samarTlis wignTa krebulia gamorCeuli. krebuli Seqmnilia 1705-1708 wlebSi da Semdegi nawilebisgan Sedgeba: 1. `samarTali mosesi”, 2. `samarTali berZnuli”, 3. `samarTali somxuri”, 4. `samarTali kaTalikosTa”, 5. `samarTali mefis giorgi”, 6. ` samarTali aRbuRasi“ da uSualod vaxtang VI-is kanonTa krebuli `samarTali batonisSvilis vaxtangisa”. somxuri samarTlis wignSi XII saukunis somxuri samarTlis krebulis mxiTar goSis samarTlis wignis garda Setanilia aseve „siriul-romauli samarTali“. siriul-romauli samarTlis wigni aris gviani antikurobis Zegli, romelic savaraudod imperator leon I-is gardacvalebidan (474 w.) maleve unda Seqmniliyo berZnul enaze15. misi avtoroba samarTlis leqtors vinme ambrosius miewereba16 da teqstic Janrobrivadac swored leqciebis Canawers unda warmoadgendes. teqsti ZiriTadad gvianantikur kanonTa krebulebs emyareba, rogoricaa imperator Teodosiusis kodeqsi, misive novelebi, valentiniane III-s novelebi, gregorianesa da hermogenes kodeqsebi, aseve nawyvetebs gaiusis instituciebidan da paulusis sentenciebidan, sxva ucnobi klasikuri xanis iuristebis fragmentebTan erTad. miuxedavad imisa, rom es, savaraudod, siriul-romauli samarTali, somxeTis msgavsad, saqarTveloSic vaxtangis kanonebamde karga xniT adre moqmedebda17, vaxtangis droisaTvis misi Zveli Targmani ukve dakarguli yofila, ris gamoc misi somxuridan Targmna mouwiaT mxiTar goSis samarTalTan erTad. siriul-romauli samarTlis wignis meSveobiT romauli samarTali, marTalia, arasistematizebuli da Zalze fragmentaruli saxiT, magram mainc pirvelwyarodan aRwevs saqarTveloSi. vaxtang VI-s samarTlis wignTa krebulSi rigiT meore adgili uWiravs berZnul samarTals da Cvenamde misi 418 muxlia moRweuli. es aris bizantiuri kanonebi, bizantiuri samarTlis me-3 periodidan18, ZiriTadad XIV saukunis Tesalonikeli kanonistisa da Teologis maTe vlastaris sintagmisa da amave periodis nomofilaqsis konstantine armenopulos wignis kompilaciis saxiT19. sintagma, savaraudod, Semokleb. zoiZe, evropuli samarTlis recefcia, Tb., 2005, 38. iqve, 38. 15  D. Liebs/P. Nagel, Rezension des Werkes von Selb/Kaufmann, in: Savigny-Zeitschrift für Rechtsgeschichte, Rom. Abt. 121 (2004), 560. 16  Liebs/Nagel, Rezension des Werkes von Selb/Kaufmann, 560. 17  v. sokolski, berZnul-romauli samarTli vaxtang VI-is kodeqsSi, 1896, 88.. 18  T. bregaZe, berZnuli samarTali vaxtang VI samarTlis wignTa krebulidan, Tb. 1964, 20. 19  bregaZe (berZnuli samarTali, 23) vl. sokolskize miTiTebiT.

tecting mutual trust between parties are the principles for which Europe and the civilized world in general are forever indebted to Roman law.9 At the same time, Roman jurists never ceased to ensure the development of their laws; which is why Heinrich Mitteis, a great legal historian in the twentieth century, believed that freedom from legal positivistic stagnation and from blind faith in legal dogmas to be Rome’s greatest achievements.10 Legal theoreticians continue to debate how to categorize the laws of European countries. According to one theory, European law is divided into the family of Roman, German, and common laws (the first two make up Continental law, and the third covers all of Great Britain with the exception of Scotland).11 The other insists on differentiating between only Roman law and common law countries.12 Both theories agree, however, that Roman legal tradition is the foundation of Continental law.

Greco-Roman Law and Georgian Legal Tradition Roman law was introduced in Georgia through the influence of Byzantine law. The obvious impact of Byzantine culture on Georgian legal culture is confirmed by the adoption of Nomocanon and Lesser Nomocanon, monuments of Byzantine canon law.13 Byzantine influence can also be seen in the 1103 Ruis-Urbnisi Code of Canons under Davit Aghmashenebeli (David the Builder).14 As for civil law, the Code of Laws compiled under King Vakhtang VI between 1705 and 1708 deserve special

13  14 

9

  Spengler, Römisches Recht und europäische Rechtskultur, 61.

 H.Mitteis, Vom Lebenswert der Rechtsgeschichte, Weimar 1947, 129, 131.

10

  K. Zweigert/H. Kötz, Einführung in die Rechtsvergleichung I, Tübingen 1985, 72 da Semdgomni.

11

  H. Honsell, Lebendiges Römisches Recht, in: Gedächtnisschrift für Theo Mayer-Maly , Wien 2011, 227.

12

13

  b. zoiZe, evropuli samarTlis recefcia, Tb. 2005, 38.

14

  zoiZe, evropuli samarTlis recefcia, 38.

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Education and Culture | ganaTleba da kultura buli redaqciiT unda iyos gadmoRebuli, xolo armenopilodan da sxva berZnuli wyaroebidan fragmentebi mis Sesavsebadaa gamoyenebuli. sxvadasxva samarTlis wignebs Soris mimarTeba Semdegnairia: vaxtang VI-is samarTlis wignTa krebulis gamoyenebisas upiratesoba uSualod vaxtangis kanonebs unda miniWeboda, Tumca arc ucxo samarTali warmoadgenda mxolod arasavaldebulo xasiaTis mqone teqsts, romlidanac msajuls mxolod zogadi principebis amokrefa SeeZlo. ucxo samarTalic pirdapir gamoiyeneboda. Tavad ambobs vaxtang VI Tavisi samarTlis wignis SesavalSi, rom `romelic enebos mosamarTlesa miT iqmodes samarTalsa”-o, xolo ufro win miuTiTebs, iguleT da igulismodgineT da, romelic genebosT da umjobes giCndesT, miT sjideT da samarTalsa iqmodeT”-o. ucxo samarTlis praqtikaSi gamoyenebas mowmobs aseve sxvadasxva periodis dokumentebi20. amis gamo vaxtan VI-s epoqaSi gviani antikurobis romauli da bizantiuri samarTali iyo ara mxolod qarTuli iuridiuli azrovnebis organuli nawili, aramed aseve moqmedi kanonmdeblobac, riTac ZvelqarTuli samarTalic imeorebs aRmosavleTis sxva marTlmadidebluri qveynebisaTvis damaxasiaTebel tendencias berZnul-romauli samarTlis gadmoRebisa21.

ius gentium: sxvisi samarTali, rogorc sakuTari samarTali vaxtan VI samarTlis wignSi sxva xalxebis samarTlis Setana Zalian hgavs fenomens, romelic antikuri saxelmwifoebidan pirvelad romSi gvxvdeba. ius gentium-is e. w. „xalxebis samarTalis22“ idea romalebma samudamod usaxsovres evropas da evropac aqtiurad iyenebda mas nacionaluri saxelmwifoebis Camoyalibebamde23. misi warmoSobis mokle istoria Semdegia: romis moqalaqeTa samarTali _ ius proprium civium Romanorum _ da misi institutebi vrceldeboda mxolod romaelebze, iseve rogorc sxva xalxebis samarTali mxolod maTTvis iyo mboWavi. saerTo samarTlebrivi sivrcis Seqmna romaelema SesZles ius gentium-is meSveobiT, romlis Seqmnisasac gaiTvaliswines sxva xalxebis gamocdileba24 da aqcies es sakuTar samarTlad. ius gentium-i iyo „yoveli 20 

bregaZe, berZnuli samarTali, 17 da Semdgomi. v. sokolski, berZnul-romauli samarTli vaxtang VI-is kodeqsSi, 92. 22  rac am terminis sakmaod arazust Targmans warmoadgens, rac metwilad gamowveulia msgavsi fenomenis SeuZleblobiT Tanamedrove samarTlis sistemebSi (W. Kunkel/ H. J. Schermaier, Römische Rechtsgeschichte, Köln, Weimar, Wien 2005, 96). 23  1495 wels saRvTo romis imperatorma maqsimilian I-ma Seqmna imperiis kameraluri sasamarTlo. am sasamarTlos, sxva samarTlis wyaros ararsebobis SemTxvevaSi, unda emsjela `imperiis saerTo werilobiTi samarTliT”, romlis qveSac iustinianes Corpus iuris civilis igulisxmeboda. 24  romanistikaSi dRemde farTod gavrcelebuli mosazreba (mag., Kunkel/Schermaier, Römische Rechtsgeschichte, 97), romlis mixedviTac romaelebs sxva xalxebis samarTlis siRrmiseuli SeswavliT Tavi didad arasodes SeuwuxebiaT da ius gentium-is farglebSi mxolod sakuTar samarTals avrcelebdnen sxva xalxebze, maTi saerTo samarTlebriv sivrceSi moqcevis mizniT, calsaxad ukugdebulad unda CaiTvalos e. w. „babaTas arqivis“ aRmoCenis Semdeg (SedarebisaTvis T. J. Chiusi, Babatha vs. The Guardians of Her Son: A Struggle for Guardianship – Legal and Practical Aspects of P. Yadin 12-15, 27, in: Ranon Katzoff and David Schaps. Law in the Documents of the Judean Desert. Leiden 2005). 21 

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mention. It consists of the following parts: 1. Mosaic Law, 2. Greek Law, 3. Armenian Law, 4. Law of Catholicoi, 5. Law of King George, 6. Law of Aghbugha, and 7. Law of Prince Vakhtang, that is, the code of laws compiled by Vakhtang VI himself. Besides the Code of Armenian Law of Mkhitar Gosh, the Armenian law section also contains Syrian and Roman law, a Late Antiquity monument created in the Greek language shortly after the death of Emperor Leo I in 474 AD.15 Its composition is credited to Ambrose, a professor of law16 at the time, and the body text, divided by genre, seems to be a summary of his lectures. For the most part, this monument is based on the Late Antiquity compilations of laws, such as the Code and Novellae Constitutiones of Emperor Theodosius, the Novellae Constitutiones of Valentinian III, the Codex Gregorianus, and the Codex Hermogenianus, as well as excerpts from the Institutiones of Gaius, the Sententiae of Paulus, and other unknown jurists of Classical Antiquity. Although this supposedly Syrian and Roman Law was applied in Georgia and Armenia much earlier than Vakhtang’s laws, its old translation had been lost by the time of Vakhtang, so it was necessary to translate it from the Armenian language along with the Law of Mkhitar   D. Liebs/P. Nagel, Rezension des Werkes von Selb/Kaufmann,in: Savigny-Zeitschrift für Rechtsgeschichte, Rom. Abt. 121 (2004), 560.

15

16

  Liebs/Nagel, Rezension des Werkes von Selb/Kaufmann, 560.


Education and Culture | ganaTleba da kultura adamianis samarTali“25, samarTali romelic boWavda ara mxolod ucxoebs, aramde aseve romaelebsac, gamowveuli mTeli rigi da maT Soris umTavresad ekonomikuri faqtorebiT, rac Zv. w. me-3 saukunidan moyolebuli romis teritoriul zrdasa da Semdeg ukve romis moqalaqeobis gavrcelebas mohyva. magram mniSvnelovania, ara am fenomenis ganmapirobebeli faqtorebi, aramed mis ukan mdgomi idea. ius gentium-i es aris romauli Sesatyvisi ganmanaTleblobis periodSi aRmocenebuli bunebiTi samarTlis ideisa26. ciceronis mixedviT, marTalia, ius gentium-is mboWavobas saxelmwifo uzrunvelyofs, magram is mboWavia aseve ucxoTaTvis, radganac es adamianTa saerTo bunebas Seesatyviseba27. aseve gaiusi Tavis cnobil definiciaSi ius gentium-s bunebriv gons ukavSirebs _ Quod vero naturalis ratio inter omnes homines constituit, id apud omnes peraeque custoditur vocaturque ius gentium: samarTali, romelsac yvela adamianSi bunebrivi goni warmoSobs, daculia yvela xalxTan da xalxebis samarTlad iwodeba. ius gentium-i ar aris „sxvebis samarTali“, radgan is romis moqalaqeebisaTvisac moqmedebs da arc internacionaluri samarTali Tanamedrove gagebiT, romlis mizansac mxolod sxvadasxva marTlwesrigebs Soris koliziis gadawyveta warmoadgens28. ius gentium-i uSualod moqmedi samarTalia da aris sxvisi samarTlis sakuTar samarTlad qcevis idea, Tu es naturalis ratio-dan gamomdinareobs. igive idea udevs safuZvlad vaxtan VI-is kompilatorul naSroms, romelic, rogorc zemoT vaxseneT, qarTuli samarTlis wyaroebis garda, Seicavda bibliur, berZnul-romaul da somxur samarTalsac, romlis meSveobiTac V saukunis droindeli siriul-romauli samarTali qarTuli samarTlis nawili gaxda. sxva xalxebis samarTlis Zeglebis qarTul samarTalTan erTad samarTlis krebulSi moTavseba arc vaxtang VI-mde iyo ucxo qarTveli samarTalSemoqmedisaTvis, ris dastursac XIII-XIV saukuneebiT daTariRebuli beqa-aRbuRas samarTlis wigni warmoadgens29. Tumca vaxtangis samarTlis krebuli am ideis yvelaze srulyofili xorcSesxmaa. es ar iyo mxolod qarTuli samarTlis normebis sxva samarTlidan nasesxebi danawesebiT Sevsebis idea, rac naTlad Cans vaxtangis zemoT citirebuli winaTqmidan, rodesac is uSualod msajuls utovebs arCevans, Tu romel samarTals miiCnevs naturalis ratio-s Sesatyvisad. magaliTad, solomon II-is (XVIII-XIX ss.) erT-erTi sasamarTlo gadawyvetileba30 dasabuTebulia jer bibliuri samarTliT, franguli da petre pirvelis kanonebze miTiTebis Semdeg ki “TaTarTa, uriaTa, kerpmsaxurTa da yovelTa sjulierTa” da aseve `urjuloTa” samarTalia moSveliebuli. berZnuli samarTlis moxseniebas mosdevs uSualod vaxtang VI-is kanonebis 25 

M. Kaser, Ius gentium, Köln, Weimar 1993, 42.

F. Wieacker, Zum Ursprung der bonae fidei iudicia, in: Zeitschrift der Savigny-Stiftung für Rechtsgeschichte, Rom. Abt. 80 (1963), 10. Tumca romauli samarTlisagan gansxvavebiT bunebiTi samarTlisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli iyo swrafva maTematikuri sizustiT gansazRvruli cnebebisaken da TviTkmari, daxuruli sistemisaken, romelSic danaskvi deduqciis meSveobiT gamomdinareobs wanamZRvrisagan, rac samarTlis, rogorc socialuri fenomenisaTvis, arc Tu ise gamarTlebuli meTodia (Honsell, Lebendiges Römisches Recht, 226).

26 

27 

Cic. de off. 3.17.69; Cic. de har. resp. 14.32.

28 

M. Kaser, Römisches Privatrecht, München 1971, 202.

29 

iv. javaxiSvili, Txzulebani Tormet tomad, t. VI, Tb. 1982, 114. i. doliZe, qarTuli samarTlis Zeglebi, VI, Tb. 1977, 431-434.

30 

Gosh.17 Roman law entered Georgia in its original, albeit unsystematic, fragmented form through the book of Syrian and Roman law. Greek law, with its 418 surviving article, covers the second section in King Vakhtang’s Code of Laws. It consists of laws from the third period of Byzantine law,18 which comprise a compilation of the Syntagma by Matthew Vlastar (a Thessalonian canonist and theologian in the fourteenth century) and a book by Constantine Harmenopoulos (a jurist in the same period).19 Most likely, an abridged redaction of the Syntagma was adopted, and excerpts from Harmenopoulos and other Greek sources may have been used to fill the gaps. As for the hierarchical order of different books within the Code of Laws of Vakhtang VI, the laws compiled by the king would be given priority, but foreign laws were not nonobligatory texts containing only general guiding principles for judges; imported legal provisions were just as applicable. As King Vakhtang VI points out in the introduction to his work, “The judge may use whichever at his discretion” and “Consider and reason which [law] is preferable and rule accordingly.” Documents from different periods bear witness to the application of foreign laws in Georgia.20 This is why, in the time of King Vakhtang VI, Late Antiquity Roman and Byzantine laws were not only organic parts of Georgian legal thought, but also applicable laws, due to which old Georgian law, similar to other Eastern Orthodox Christian countries, took to adopting Greek and Roman laws.21

Ius Gentium: The Law of Others as One’s Own Including foreign laws in the Code of Laws of Vakhtang VI resembles a phenomenon found for the first time in Rome among the states of classical antiquity. The concept of ius gentium, that is, law of nations,22 is a Roman heritage applied in Europe until the emergence of nation states.23 A brief history of this concept is as follows: ius proprium civium romanorum, the law of Roman citizens, and its institutions applied only to its citizens, much like in other nations. The Romans used ius gentium to establish a general legal environment, in doing which they took into account the experience of other   v. sokolski, berZnul-romauli samarTli vaxtang VI-is kodeqsSi, 1896, 88..

17

18   T. bregaZe, berZnuli samarTali vaxtang VI samarTlis wignTa krebulidan, Tb. 1964, 20 19

  bregaZe (berZnuli samarTali, 23) vl. sokolskize miTiTebiT

20

  bregaZe, berZnuli samarTali, 17 da Semdgomi

  v. sokolski, berZnul-romauli samarTli vaxtang VI-is kodeq­ sSi, 92. 21

22   Which is an incorrect translation of the term due, in part, to the impossibility of this phenomenon in modern legal systems (W.Kunkel/ H. J. Schermaier, Römische Rechtsgeschichte, Köln, Weimar, Wien 2005, 96).

  In 1495, Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I established the Imperial Chamber Court which was guided by the General Written Imperial Law (the same as Corpus iuris civilis of Justinian) if other legal sources were not in place.

23

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Education and Culture | ganaTleba da kultura citireba, ris Semdegac mefe midis daskvnamde, rom „am mtkicesa da WeSmaritis samarTliT daumkvidra Tavis Svils yma da mamuli Tvisi xutu miqelaZem“ da aRiarebs qalis samemkvidro uflebas31. rogorc solomon meores gadawyvetilebidan vxedavT, ucxo samarTals is iyenebs ara sakuTari samarTlis xarvezis amosavsebad, romelic am SemTxvevaSi arc ki arsebobs, aramed sakuTari samarTlis safuZvelze miRebuli gadawyvetilebis marTebulobis dasadastureblad da amgvarad midis „mtkicesa da WeSmaritis“ samarTlis ideamde, rac romaul naturalis ratio-sTan gvabrunebs.

romauli samarTlis dogmebis istoriidan garda zemoT xsenebuli uzogadesi principebisa Tanamedrove evropuli samarTali romis samarTlis winaSea davalebuli iseTi konkretuli institutebiT, rogoricaa sakuTreba, xelSekruleba, anderZi da mravali sxva32. evropaSi Tanamedrove „dogmebis istoriis“ sagans warmoadgens romis samarTlidan momdinare dogmebis funqciis, maTi ekonomikuri, socialuri da ideologiuri wanamZRvrebis kvleva, rac mxolod erTobliobaSi iZleva imis gagebis saSualebas, Tu ratom moxda am dogmebis mxolod nawilis recefcia konkretul kulturul garemoSi, xolo danarCenni daviwyebas mieca. Cven, ra Tqma unda, am statiis farglebSi romis samarTlis dogmebis recefcias Zvel qarTul samarTalSi verc srulad da verc nawilobriv ver movicavT. SevexebiT mxolod oriod dogmas, romlebic, garkveulwilad, savizito baraTiviTaa ama Tu im samarTlis sistemis romauli ojaxisaTvis mikuTvnebisas. romis samarTlis erT-erTi niSvnelovani monapovri _ mxareTa konsensusi, rogorc xelSekrulebis umTavresi safuZvli _ vaxtang VI-is krebulis berZnuli samarTlis me-4 muxlSia dafiqsirebuli: „yovlisa kacisa jer ars syidva da gasyidva. da msyidveli da ganmsyidveli igi unda iyos Serigebulni da dajerebulni faszeda“. amis garda iv. javaxiSvili33 nikorwmindis XI saukunis sigelisa da nasyidobis ramdenime gadarCenili sabuTis analizis Sedegad midis daskvnamde, rom amdroindel qarTul valdebulebiT samarTals simboluri formalizmis etapi ukve srulebiT gadalaxuli aqvs. nasyidobis dadeba SesaZlebelia rogorc werilobiTi, ise zepiri formiT. formis dacva, magaliTad mowmeTa daswreba, garigebis dadebisas aris ara misi namdvilobis winapiroba, aramed Semdgomi mtkicebis tvirTis gaadvilebas emsaxureba. is faqti, rom qarTuli samarTals XI saukuneSi ritualuri formalizmis etapi ukve gadalaxuli aqvs da mxareTa konsensuss miiCnevs garigebis erTaderT da mTavar winapirobad, srulebiT ar aris umniSvnelo, Tu gaviTvaliswinebT imas, rom samarTali TavisTavad progress ar ganicdis. magaliTad, germanikuli samarTali Sua sakuneebSi avlens im niSnebs, rac romis samarTlisaTvis Zv. w. V saukuneSi iyo damaxasiaTebeli. iv. javaxiSvili34 yuradRebas amaxvilebs 31 

zoiZe, evropuli samarTlis recefcia, 42. Honsell, Lebendiges Römisches Recht, 225. 33  iv. javaxiSvili, Txzulebani Tormet tomad, t. VII, Tb. 1984, 310. 34  javaxiSvili, t. VII, 313. 32 

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nations24 and incorporated it in their own law. The creation of ius gentium or the law of all nations,25 was triggered by a number of factors, mainly economic, which followed the territorial expansion of Rome and then its citizenship after the third century AD. Yet, the factors that drove it are not as important as the idea behind ius gentium, because it is a Roman equivalent of natural law that emerged in the Age of Enlightenment.26 According to Cicero, although the state ensures the binding force of ius gentium, it is equally binding in the case of non-citizens, as it befits the nature of all people.27 In his definition of ius gentium, Gaius ties it to natural reason: “Quod vero naturalis ratio inter omnes homines constituit, id apud omnes peraeque custoditur vocaturque ius gentium,” (The rule which natural reason has established among all men is called the law of nations). Ius gentium is not “the law of others”, as it applies to the citizens of Rome as well, nor is it international law in its modern sense, which aims to address possible contradictions between different legal systems.28 Ius gentium is a directly applicable law and the idea of turning someone else’s law into one’s own, as long as it builds upon naturalis ratio. The same idea was the basis of King Vakhtang VI’s code, which as mentioned earlier, consisted of Georgian legal sources, biblical, Greco-Roman and Armenian laws, the last including fifth century AD Syrian and Roman law. Incorporating the legal codes of other nations in a Georgian code

  According to an opinion circulating in Roman studies (for example, Kunkel/Schermaier, Römische Rechtsgeschichte, 97), the Romans never bothered to scrutinize the laws of other nations, only cultivating their own law within the framework of ius gentium in order to incorporate other nations in their legal framework. This opinion was refuted after the discovery of the so-called Babatha cache (comp. T. J. Chiusi, Babatha vs. The Guardians of Her Son: A Struggle for Guardianship – Legal and Practical Aspects of P. Yadin 12-15, 27, in: Ranon Katzoff and David Schaps. Law in the Documents of the Judean Desert. Leiden2005).

24

25

  M. Kaser, Iusgentium, Köln, Weimar 1993, 42.

  F.Wieacker, Zum Ursprung der bonae fidei iudicia, in: Zeitschrift der Savigny-Stiftung für Rechtsgeschichte, Rom. Abt. 80 (1963), 10. Unlike Roman Law, however, Natural Law aimed at precisely defined terms and a self-contained, closed system wherein the effect stems from the cause by means of deduction, which is a questionable method in law as a social phenomenon (Honsell, Lebendiges Römisches Recht, 226).

26

27

  Cic. de off. 3.17.69; Cic. dehar. resp. 14.32.

28

  M. Kaser, Römisches Privatrecht, München 1971, 202.


Education and Culture | ganaTleba da kultura aseve nasyidobis sabuTebSi dafiqsirebul formulaze „RmerTman gibednieros Tquen da TquenTa momavalTa“ an „gqondes da gibednieros RmerTman“, romelsac avtoris azriT Semdegi funqcia hqonda: „raki gamyidvels myidvelisaTvis ganayidis bednieri dasakuTreba da floba mxolod sruli dakmayofilebis Semdeg SeeZlo, amitom safiqrebelia, rom es formulac fasis dasajereblobisa da srulad miRebulobis Sesatyvisad da damamtkiceblad iyo miCneuli“. es detali imis dasturia, rom zemoT naxsenebi kerZo avtonomia, anu samarTlebrivi urTierTobis farglebSi TviTgansazRvris Tavisufleba, amdroindel qarTul samarTals gasigrZeganebuli aqvs. nasyidobis sabuTSi gamyidvels SeuZlia fasis gadaxdis dasturad miuTiTos, rom miiRo „fasi sruli“ an „fasi dasajerebeli“, anda Caanacvlos es imaze miTiTebiT, rom mas meore mxaris mimarT pretenzia ar aqvs _ „gibednieros RmerTman“. amis garda qarTuli samarTlis ZeglebSi uxvad moipoveba calkeuli terminologiuri Tu institucionaluri msgavseba berZnul-romaul samarTalTan. magaliTad, romauli legatum anu saanderZo danakisri, qarTulad „leRatad“ aris Targmnili35. romauli mflobeloba _ possessio _ romelic laTinuri sedere-dan aris nawarmoebi, qarTul samarTalSi „jdomad“ uTargmniaT, riTic nivTis dauflebas aRniSnavdnen. qurdobiT da sxva ukanono gziT mopovebuli qoneba samkvidro masaSi ar gaiTvaliswineba, rac aseve romis samarTlis gadmonaSTia. mravaljeradi qurdobisaTvis CamoxrCobiT dasja bizantiur gavlenas unda mivaweroT. „ruis urbnis ZeglisweraSi“ qalis saqorwino asakad 12 wlis miCnevac iustinianes samarTlidanaa gadmoRebuli. Tumca mxolod es samagaliTod moyvanili terminologiuri da calkeuli institucionaluri msgavseba ver gaxdeba qarTuli samarTlis evropuli ojaxisaTvis mikuTvnebisa da misi evropaSi romis samarTlis recefciis procesSi CarTvis mizezi, radgan imave tipis msgavseba aranaklebia aRmosavlur (arabul, sparsul da Turqul) samarTalTanac36. is, rac qarTul samarTals istoriul perspeqtivaSi evropuli samarTlis nawilad aqcevs, aris ara calkeuli terminebi da institutebi, romliTac mxo­ lod berZnul-romauli samarTlis cnoba dasturdeba, aramed romis samarTlidan momdinare zemoT naxsenebi meTodisa da fundamenturi principebis gasigrZeganeba.

sakuTreba dominium duplex: ormagi sakuTreba sakuTrebis uflebas romaulma samarTalma sabolood SesZina Tavisi konturebi, romelic dRemde cocxalia Tanamedrove samarTalSi. qristes Sobamde pirvel da meore saukuneebSi romauli samarTlis doqtrinam gamokveTa absoluturi sakuTrebis cneba _ mesakuTre aris is, visac aqvs nivTze saukeTeso ufleba da is aris erTaderTi. magram sakuTrebis absoluturi cnebis ganviTarebasTan erTad viTardeba erT-erTi yvelaze saintereso samarTlebrivi figura, rome35 

am da sxva qvemoT moyvanili terminologiuri paralelebisaTvis Seadare zoiZe, evropuli samarTlis recefcia, 57. 36 

zoiZe, evropuli samarTlis recefcia, 71 da Semdgomni.

of laws was not uncommon among Georgian lawmakers before the time of Vakhtang VI, which is illustrated by the Law of Beka-Aghbugha, which dates back to the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries.29 Vakhtang VI’s Code of Laws, however, is the most complete embodiment of this idea. As Vakhtang VI said himself, it was not about simply borrowing foreign norms to complete Georgian law, since it was up to the judge to choose the most adequate provision in line with the naturalis ratio. For example, one of the court decisions of King Solomon II (ruler in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries) was substantiated with biblical law, French Law and the Code of Peter I of Russia, and made references to “the laws of the Tatars, Jews, pagans”, and “all believers and unbelievers” alike.30 This reference to Greek law is followed by a quote from the Code of Laws of King Vakhtang VI. Consequently, Solomon II concluded that “In willing his servants and estate to his daughter, Khutu Mikeladze has made a solid and truthful judgment,” and the king upholds her right to inheritance.31 This decision shows that foreign legal norms were used not to fill inconsistencies (which were absent in the first place) in Georgian law but rather to substantiate and prove the lawfulness of a decision based on local laws. All this lead the king to the notion of “solid and truthful judgment” and therefore the Roman principle of naturalis ratio.

From the History of Roman Legal Dogmas Besides said general principles, contemporary European law is also indebted to Roman law for concrete institutions, such as property, contracts, and testaments.32 The subject of the history of modern dogmas in Europe is to study the purpose and economic, social, and ideological preconditions of dogmas stemming from Roman law. It is the unity of these factors that explains why only a part of the dogmas were adopted in a particular cultural environment, while the others faded into insignificance. This essay does not aim to cover fully, or even in part, the reception of Roman legal dogmas in old Georgian law. It will rather describe two quintessential examples of categorizing legal systems into the Roman group. Legally binding agreements between parties, one of the most important achievements of Roman law, is found in Article 4 of the Greek Law section of King Vakhtang VI’s Code of Laws. It reads, “All men are entitled to sell and buy, and the buyer and the seller shall have an agreement upon the price.” In addition, based on analysis of the eleventh century Nikortzminda document and several surviving bills of sale, Ivane Javakhishvili asserts that legally binding Georgian laws of that time had successfully passed the historical stage of formalism.33 Bills of sale could be executed in both verbal and written forms. The observation of formal29

  iv. javaxiSvili, Txzulebani Tormet tomad, t. VI, Tb. 1982,114

30

  i. doliZe, qarTuli samarTlis Zeglebi, VI, Tb. 1977, 431-434

31

  zoiZe, evropuli samarTlis recefcia, 42.

32

  Honsell, Lebendiges Römisches Recht, 225.

33

  iv. javaxiSvili, Txzulebani Tormet tomad, t. VII, Tb. 1984,310.

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Education and Culture | ganaTleba da kultura lic mogvianebiT romis samarTlisagan memkvidreobiT ergo evropuls. es aris duplex dominium-i, anu ormagi sakuTrebis ufleba. sakuTreba, rogorc absoluturi Zalaufleba nivTze, am absoluturobidan gamomdinare, SeiZleba hqondes mxolod erT pirs. romis samarTalSi agraruli cxovrebis wesis mimdevari sazogadoebisaTvis mniSvnelovan nivTebze, rogoric iyo miwis nakveTebi, oTxfexa pirutyvi da monebi, sakuTrebis mopoveba SeeZloT mxolod romis moqalaqeebs _ kviritebs da misi mopovebis saSualeba iyo mancipacio (mancipatio), ritualuri aqti, romlis drosac xuTi mowmis TandaswrebiT brinjaos naWers Semokravdnen saswors da ambobdnen ritualur sityvebs _ HUNC

EGO HOMINEM EX IURE QUIRITIUM MEUM ESSE AIO ISQUE MIHI EMPTUS ESTO HOC AERE AENEAQUE. zemoT xsenebul nivTebs amis gamo mancipirebadi nivTebi (res mancipi) ewodeboda. mancipatio iyo ius civile-s institu-

ti da Sesabamisad ucxoTaTvis miuwvdomeli. Tumca peregrinebTan aReb-micemobis ganviTarebasTan erTad aucilebeli gaxda aseve maTTvis sakuTrebis mopovebis SesaZleblobis micema. romaelebma, romlebic Zvel institutebs arasodes auqmebdnen, miaRwies amas ius gentium-is farglebSi axali institutis SeqmniT. Tu kviriti mesakuTre araromaels mancipirebad nivTs ritualuri formis daucvelad mihyidda da gadascemda, marTalia, arakviriti SemZeni ver moipovebda nivTze kviritul sakuTrebas (dominium ex iure quiritium), Tumca mopovebuli nivTi faqtobrivad daculi iyo kviriti mesakuTris mier ukan gamoTxovisagan. SemZeni iyo faqtobrivi mesakuTre. nivTis amgvar mopovebas ewodeboda in bonis habere („qonebaSi qona“), xolo TviTon mesakuTres bonitaruli mesakuTre. anu romis samarTalSi kvirituli sakuTrebis gverdiT arsebobda sxva sakuTrebac _ bonitaruli sakuTreba, rasac gaiusi37 ormag sakuTrebas duplex dominium-s uwodebs. duplex dominium-i ukve oficialur terminad iqca Sua saukuneebis evropul iuridiul doqtrinaSi. absoluturi mesakuTre iyo dominus directus, xolo sargeblobis uflebis mqone iZenda dominium utile-s38. miuxedavad kritikisa, duplex dominium-is Sesaxeb moZRvreba Sua saukuneebSi sakmaod gavrcelebulia da exeba ZiriTadad glexsa da miwis mesakuTres Soris urTierTobas. batoni iyo dominus directus, xolo glexs hqonda miwaze dominium utile. me-19 saukuneSi es moZRvreba ZiriTadad ukuagdes39 da germanuli samoqalaqo samarTlis Semqmnelma komisiam masze sabolood Tqva uari40. Tumca es uaris Tqma mxolod nawilobrivi uaris Tqma iyo, radgan am ideis meore mxare _ mflobelis mesakuTrisdari dacva _ germaniis samoqalaqo kodeqsis 1007-e paragrafSi dRemde cocxalia. Tu ramdenad axlos dgas qarTuli samarTlebrivi tradicia evropulTan Cans ZvelqarTul samarTalSi `qonebis” cnebis arsebobidan. `qoneba” ar iyo nivTze absoluturi sakuTreba, romelsac aRniSnavdnen terminebi `mamuli” da `monagebi”41, Tumca aseve ukugdebu37 

Gai 1.54; 2.40: aseve Iust. C. 7.25.

38 

H. J. Wieling, Sachenrecht, Bd. 1, Berlin, Heidelberg 2006, 272.

H. Wagner, Das geteilte Eigentum im Naturrecht und Positivismus, Breslau 1938, 71 da Semdgomi.

ities, such as the presence of witnesses, is not a mandatory precondition for the validity of a given deal, but rather a means to ease the burden of proof in the future. Since such laws do not progress on their own, the fact that as early as the eleventh century, Georgian legislation had passed the stage of ritualistic formalism and recognized consensus between the parties as the only and primary precondition of a lawful deal is very significant. For example, German law in the Middle Ages exhibited characteristics peculiar to Roman law in the fifth century BC. Ivane Javakhishvili emphasizes the following formulas in bills of sale: “May God grant happiness to you and your posterity” and “May you possess it and may God grant you happiness.”34 The author believes that these formulas served the following purpose: “Since the buyer could enjoy and own the subject matter of sale purchased from the seller only after paying in full, these formulas must have been designed to confirm receipt of the contractual price in full.” This detail proves that Georgian law at that time had already adopted personal autonomy, that is, the right of privacy in legal relations. The seller may have confirmed in the bill of sale that “the price had been paid in full” or verify that he or she had no claims against the buyer by adding “May God grant you happiness.” In addition, Georgian legal monuments contained multiple terminological and institutional similarities with Greco-Roman law. For example, the Roman legatum (a bequest) is translated into Georgian as leghati.35 Georgian Law uses the term jdoma (to sit) as the equivalent of the Roman legal term possessio (possession), which derives from Latin sedere (to sit). Stolen or illegally obtained property cannot be bequeathed in Georgian law, which also echoes Roman law, and the sentence of hanging for multiple thefts in Georgia must be credited to Byzantine influence. According to the Ruis-Urbnisi Code, the marriageable age for females begins at twelve, which was most likely copied from the Code of Justinian. These individual terminological and instructional similarities, however, do not suffice to categorize Georgian law as a member of the European legal family and a participant of the reception of Roman law in Europe, as equally numerous similarities also exist with the laws of other Eastern countries (Arab, Persian, and Turkish).36 What make Georgian legislation a historical part of European law are not individual terms or institutions, which confirm familiarity with Greco-Roman law, but rather the understanding of the method and fundamental principles described earlier.

Ownership Dominium duplex: Divided Ownership Property rights, as set forth in Roman law, have survived in modern jurisprudence to this day. In the first and second centuries BC, Roman legal thought distinguished the

39 

40 

H. H. Jakobs/W. Schubert, Sachenrecht I, Berlin, 1985, 448.

41 

i. doliZe, Zveli qarTuli samarTali, Tb. 1953, 141; iv. javaxiSvili, qarTuli samarTlis istoria, w. II, nakveTi II, Tb. 1929, 403.

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34

  javaxiSvili, t.VII, 313.

  am da sxva terminologiuri paralelebi, SedarebisTvis: zoiZe, evropuli samarTlis recefcia, 57. 35

36

  zoiZe, evropuli samarTlis recefcia, 71 da Semdgomi


Education and Culture | ganaTleba da kultura lia mosazreba, rom „qoneba“ mxolod mflobelobis aRmniSvneli iyo42. feodaluri samarTlis rTuli da danawevrebuli sanivTo samarTlebrivi reJimis gamo qarTuli samarTlebrivi Zeglebic evropulis msgavsad ar avleben mkafio zRvars sakuTrebasa da mflobelobas Soris. sakuTreba da mflobeloba terminologiurad erTmaneTSia gadaxlarTuli da mflobeloba xSirad iTavsebda kidec sakuTrebis uflebis Sinaarss. seniori ar sargeblobda sakuTrebis ganusazRvreli uflebiT da vasali ki ara marto faqtobrivad batonobda nivTze (mflobeloba Tanamedrove gagebiT), aramed SeeZlo garkveul CarCoebSi am qonebis gankargva. XIIIXIV saukunis beqa-aRbuRas samarTalSi sakuTrebas saqarTveloSic amgvari danawevrebuli xasiaTi aqvs43. miwa ekuTvnis patrons _ `adgili patronisa ars”, magram miwa aris vasalis mflobelobaSi da sanam yma patronis samsaxurs asrulebs, mas es miwa ar SeiZleba CamoerTvas. patrons ar SeuZlia misi gayidva an sxvagvarad gasxviseba. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom ymas patronze ukeTesi uflebac ki gaaCnia nivTze. sakuTrebasa da ZvelqarTul mflobelobas Soris amgvar dapirispirebas amZafres isic, rom `qonebis” uflebamosileba mflobels SeiZleboda gadascemoda misi memkvidreebisaTvis gadacemis pirobiTac44. sakuTrebasa da mflobelobas Soris amgvari diqotomia aris romauli idea, romelic duplex dominium-is saxeliT cnobilia Sua saukuneebis evropaSi da cnobilia aseve qarTul samarTalSic. Tu evropaSi romis samarTlis CayvinTvis xanad nacional-socializmis xana45 SeiZleba miviCnioT, saqarTveloSi romis samarTalma sabWoTa periodSi ufro xangrZlivi droiT da ufro safuZvlianad CayvinTa. sabWoTa samoqalaqo kodeqsma, miuxedavad mTeli rigi instituciebis gadmoRebisa romis samarTlidan, ar gaiziara misi fundamenturi principebi. amdenad, saintereso da erTi SexedviT ucnauria, sabWoTa drois qarTul iuridiul literaturaSi gacxarebuli kamaTi mflobelobis dacvasTan dakavSirebiT46. qarTveli samarTlis mecnierebi intuitiurad (duplex dominium-is idea diskusiisas ar uxsenebiaT) acnobierebdnen, rom is rac maT memkvidreobiT ergoT Zveli qarTuli samarTlisagan, iyo ara mxolod mflobelobis faqtis dacva, aramed mflobelobis uflebis dacvac, rogorc romSi bonitaruli mesakuTris „sakuTrebis“ dacvis sapirwone. germanuli danawesis (germaniis samoqalaqo kodeqsis 1007-e paragrafi) qarTuli Sesatyvisi saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsis 160-e muxlia: `Tu keTilsindisier mflobels CamoerTmeva mflobeloba, 42 

doliZe, Zveli qarTuli samarTali, 143. 43  doliZe, Zveli qarTuli samarTali, 149. 44  iv. surgulaZis (iv. surgulaZe, `sakuTrebis uflebis instituti~, universitetis Sromebi XXXV (1949), 244.) mosazrebis sapirispirod i. doliZe (Zveli qarTuli samarTali, 149) miiCnevs, rom qoneba XIV saukuneSic mxolod mflobelobas gulisxmobs, Tumca, rogorc zemoT vaxseneT, misi Sinaarsi gacilebiT ufro farToa, vidre Tanamedrove mflobelobisa da xSirad sakuTrebasTan mimarTebaSi pirveladi xasiaTic ki aqvs. 45  Spengler, Römisches Recht und europäische Rechtskultur, 64, Tumca romis samarTlis sruli gandevna sauniversiteto sivrcidan, ra Tqma unda, SeuZlebeli iyo. 46  t. rcxilaZe, mflobelobis dacva, sabWoTa samarTali, 1928, # 1, 7-9; i. futkaraZe, qarTuli samarTlis istoriis sakiTxebi, Tb. 1979, 116-118.

notion of absolute ownership. Along with duplex dominium or absolute ownership, the idea of divided ownership, one of the most interesting forms, also developed and was later inherited by European law from Rome. Ownership, as absolute power over an item, due to its absolute character, can be exercised by one person only. Roman law authorized only quirites (Roman citizens) to own important agricultural items, such as lands, cattle, and slaves. To transfer ownership they prescribed mancipatio, a solemn ritualistic act during which Roman citizens, in the presence of five witnesses, would strike a pair of scales with a piece of bronze and pronounce: “Hunc ego hominem ex iure Quiritium meum esse aio isque mihi emptus esto hoc aere aeneaque libra.” (I affirm that this slave is mine according to quiritary right, and he is purchased by me with this piece of bronze and scales). These items were called res mancipi (mancipation items). Mancipatio is an institution of ius civile, and was therefore unavailable for foreigners. Nevertheless, as trade with peregrine picked up, granting them ownership opportunities became a necessity. To this end, the Romans, who never annulled old institutions, established a new institution within ius gentium. If a quiris or Roman citizen, sold or gave a mancipation item to a non-citizen without observing a relevant ritualistic form, the buyer would not obtain dominium ex iure quiritium, that is, ownership according to the law of the quirites, or jus civile, though the subject matter of sale would be in effect protected from reclamation by the quiris owner, because the buyer would be considered the actual owner. With this type of acquisition, the buyer would have in bonus habere or bonitary ownership. In other words, along with the ownership of the quiritium, Roman law recognized bonitary ownership, referred to by Gaius as divided ownership.37 Duplex dominium was adopted by European legal thought as an official term in the Middle Ages. The absolute owner was called dominus directus, and dominium utile referred to the beneficial ownership of property.38 Despite criticism and controversy, the doctrine of duplex dominium gained a foothold in the Middle Ages, mainly to regulate relations between the peasant, who enjoyed dominium utile, and the landlord or dominus directus. In the nineteenth century, this concept was rejected for the most part,39 and the German Commission for Civil Law finally refuted it.40 However, the rejection was only partial, as the second part of the concept, protection of property rights, is still enshrined in Article 1007 of the German Civil Code. The term koneba or ownership, in old Georgian law bears witness to the closeness of Georgian legal tradition with European legal tradition. This term did not refer to the absolute ownership of an item, as the terms mamuli or inheritance, and monagebi or gain, were used to this end.41 On the other hand, it was confirmed that koneba did not 37

  Gai 1.54; 2.40: aseve Iust. C. 7.25.

38

  H. J.Wieling, Sachenrecht, Bd. 1, Berlin, Heidelberg 2006, 272.

  H.Wagner, Das geteilte Eigentum im Naturrecht und Positivismus, Breslau1938, 71.

39

40

  H. H.Jakobs/W. Schubert, Sachenrecht I, Berlin, 1985, 448.

  i. doliZe, Zveli qarTuli samarTali, Tb. 1953, 141; iv. javaxiSvili, qarTuli samarTlis istoria, w. II, nakveTi II, Tb. 1929, 403 41

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Education and Culture | ganaTleba da kultura mas sami wlis ganmavlobaSi SeuZlia axal mflobels nivTis ukan dabruneba mosTxovos. es wesi ar gamoiyeneba maSin, roca axal mflobels aqvs mflobelobis ukeTesi ufleba. mflobelobis ukan dabrunebis moTxovna SeiZleba gamoyenebul iqnes ukeTesi uflebis mqone piris mimarTac, Tuki man nivTi moipova Zaladobis an motyuebis gziT”. Tanamedrove germanuli samarTlis normis am erTi SexedviT meqanikur kalks fesvebi ZvelqarTul samarTalSi aqvs, radgan igive principia dafiqsirebuli 1741 wlis erT-erT sabuTSi47, sadac sadavo nivTze sakuTrebis uflebis dadgena daiyvaneba flobis faqtis dadasturebamde48: `Tu lasurma an Sehficos da mowame uSovnos _ dRes aqamomde lasurs sWerodes da ar gamorTmeodes, vaxtangs xeli ar aqvs axalSens venaÃTan”. anu faqtobrivad mesakuTre aris is, visac modave mxareTagan aqvs ukeTesi ufleba mflobelobaze, Tumca namdvili mesakuTre SesaZlebelia saerTod mesame piri iyos. am formiT mflobelobis, rogorc sakuTrebis dacva, cnobilia germanul samarTalSi, Tanamedrove qarTul samarTalSic da cnobili iyo Zvel qarTul samarTalSic, ris gamoc es norma ara kopirebul ucxo sxeuls, aramed qarTuli samarTlebrivi azrovnebisaTvis sakmaod nacnob movlenas warmoadgens. usucapio: mflobelobiTi xandazmuloba

sakuTrebisa da nebismieri sxva uflebis mopovebis SemTxvevaSi romis samarTalSi moqmedebda principi, rom aravis SeuZlia gadasces imaze meti, vidre TviTon flobs (Ulp. D. 50.17.54: nemo plus iuris ad alium transferre potest quam ipse habet). gansxvavebiT Tanamedrove samarTlisagan, sadac magaliTad, aramesakuTrisagan sakuTrebis keTilsindisierad mopovebaa SesaZlebelia, romSi aramesakuTre sxvas ver gadascemda sakuTrebas. Tumca aReb-micemobis interesebidan gamomdinare, mTel rig SemTxvevaSi, aucilebeli iyo aseve keTilsindisieri SemZenis uflebis mopovebasTan dakavSirebuli ndobis dacvac, maSinac ki, rodesac mas es ufleba arauflebamosilma pirma gadasca. amis gamo romaelebma SeimuSaves sakuTrebis mopovebis damatebiTi saSualeba _ mflobelobiTi xandazmulobiT, romelic romauli samarTlis gavleniT gavrcelda Sua saukuneebis evropaSi da memkvidrebiT ergo Tanamedrove kodifikaciebs. Tu gamsxvisebeli ar iyo mesakuTre, magram SemZeni nivTs keTilsindisierad flobda rogorc sakuTars, garkveuli drois gasvlis Semdeg moipovebda masze sakuTrebas. amrigad, xandazmulobiT sakuTrebis mopovebis instituti emsaxureboda moCvenebiTi da realuri iuridiuli mdgomareobis SesabamisobaSi moyvanas49 _ nivTis faqtobrivi mompovebeli moCvenebiTi mesakuTridan xdeboda misi iuridiuli mesakuTre. gaiusi50 xandazmulobiTi sakuTrebis aucileblobas Semdegnairad asabuTebs: `es imis gamo SemoiRes, rom nivTebze sakuTreba ar yofiliyo didi xnis ganmavlobaSi daudgeneli. amasa-

solely refer to ownership.42 Due to the complex and fragmented nature of feudal property law, Georgian legal monuments, similar to those in Europe, did not draw a clear line between possession of property and ownership. These terms were interchangeable, and ownership often means the right to property. The lord did not exercise unlimited power, while the vassal not only enjoyed actual ownership (ownership in its modern sense), but was also authorized to govern property. The Law of Beka-Aghbugha in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, featured quite fragmented property regulations enforced in Georgia.43 The land belongs to the lord (“the place belongeth to the lord”), but the vassal exercises the ownership of the land, and as long as he serves the lord, the land cannot be taken away from him. The lord cannot sell or alienate the land in any form. In a way, the vassal enjoyed greater rights on property than the lord himself. This contradiction between the possession of property and old Georgian koneba ownership becomes deeper in light of the right of the owner to bequeath koneba ownership.44 The dichotomy between possession of prop-

47 

42

  doliZe, Zveli qarTuli samarTali, 143

48 

43

  doliZe, Zveli qarTuli samarTali, 149

s. kakabaZe, istoriuli sabuTebi, w. V, tf. 1913, 60. futkaraZe, qarTuli samarTlis istoriis sakiTxebi, 110; kakabaZe, w. V, 60. 49  Honsell, Lebendiges Römisches Recht, 230. 50  Gai 2.44.

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  iv. surgulaZis azris sapirispirod (iv. surgulaZe, “sakuTari uflebis instituti”, universitetis Sromebi XXXV (1949), 244), i. doliZe (Zveli qarTuli samarTali, 149)

44


Education and Culture | ganaTleba da kultura Tanave erTi an orwliani vada, romelic mflobelobiTi xandazmulobisaTvis aris aucilebeli, sakmarisia mesakuTrisaTvis nivTis mosaZebnad”. am institutis momwesrigebel danawesebs Seicavda jer kidev Tormeti tabulis kanonebi, romlis mixedviTac miwis nakveTi ori, xolo moZravi nivTebis erTwliani uwyvetad flobis SemTxvevaSi mflobeli xdeboda mesakuTre. gamonaklisi iyo moparuli nivTebi. mflobelobiTi xandazmulobis vadebi da aseve nivTebi, romlebzec is vrceldeboda sakmaod xSirad icvleboda. magaliTad,A424 wels imperator Teodosi II-m daawesa e. w. saerTo sasarCelo xandazmulobis 30-wliani vada, romlis gasvlis Semdegac mesakuTre nebismier SemTxvevaSi kargavda kuTvnili nivTis ukan moTxovnis saSualebas. iustinianem es danawesi Tavis mxriv kidev Secvala, magram miuxedavad konkretuli cvlilebebisa, mflobelobiTi xandazmulobis romauli modelis mizani erTi iyo: samoqalaqo brunvis simyaris uzrunvelyofa da mis monawileTa ndobis dacva _ keTilsindisieri piri, romelic garkveuli drois ganmavlobaSi uwyvetad flobs nivTs rogorc sakuTars, xdeba kidevac mesakuTre. daculia rogorc misi, aseve yvela im piris ndoba, romelic mogvianebiT misgan SeiZens am nivTs. amave dros namdvil mesakuTres, romelmac dakarga nivTze mflobeloba, rCeba Sansi da sakmarisi dro, raTa moZebnos da daibrunos nivTi. gaiusis mier naxsenebi oqros Sualedis monaxvas samoqalaqo brunvisa da mesakuTris interesebs Soris emsaxureba aseve beqa-aRbuRas samarTlis 77-e muxli, romlis mixedviTac, Tu 7 wlis ganamvlobaSi batoni ar eZebs Tavis gaqceul ymas da ar iTxovs mis ukan dabrunebas, kargavs kidec am ymaze sakuTrebis uflebas51. es 7-wliani vada grZeldeba 30 wlamde, Tu gaqceuli yma Sors wavida da batonma ar icis misi adgil-samyofeli. gaqceuli ymis SemTxvevaSi aseve 30-wlian xandazmulobis vadas iTvaliswinebs vaxtangis samarTalis 199-e muxli52. amrigad, ukve ZvelqarTuli samarTali imeorebs romauli samarTlis gadawyvetas da germaniis samoqalaqo kodeqsis 937-945-e paragrafebSi mowesrigebuli mflobelobiTi xandazmuloba, romelsac misi gadmoRebis Semdeg saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsis 165-168 muxlebi Seesatyviseba, qarTuli samarTlebrivi tradiciisaTvis sakmaod nacnobi institutia. col-qmars Soris naCuqrobis akrZalva col-qmars Soris naCuqroba romis samarTalSi, savaraudod, arqauli periodidan moyolebuli akrZaluli iyo53. romaeli iuristebi am akrZalvas pirvelad avgustusis dros axseneben, Tumca albaT kargad aRar esmiT namdvili istoriuli motivebi da oficialuri ideologiis Sesabamisad mas meuRleTa urTierTgrZnobebiT gamowveuli qonebrivi zianis Tavidan acilebiT asabuTeben54 _ erTi meuRle ar unda gamdidrdes meoris gaRaribebis xarjze _ „Cveulebis 51 

doliZe, Zveli qarTuli samarTali, 159 da Semdgomi. iqve, 160; javaxiSvili, t. VII, 292. 53  F. Wieacker, Hausgenossenschaft und Erbeinsetzung. Über die Anfange des romischen Testaments, Leipzig, 1940, 48 da Semdgomi. 54  Kaser, Römisches Privatrecht, 331. 52 

erty and ownership is a Roman idea and was accepted in Georgian law as well. The rise of nationalism in Europe brought about a decline in Roman law.45 In Georgia, on the other hand, a similar period of decline, albeit longer and more severe, took place under the Soviet Union. Despite adopting several Roman institutions, the Soviet Civil Code failed to embrace its fundamental principles, which made the fierce debates on the protection of ownership in Soviet Georgian legal literature both interesting and strange from a foreign perspective.46 Georgian law experts knew instinctively – the idea of duplex dominium was never mentioned in the debates – that what they had inherited from old Georgian Law was not the protection of ownership only, but the protection of the right of ownership as well. Article 1007 of the German Civil Code is echoed by Article 160 of the Georgian Civil Code: “If the owner in good faith is dispossessed, he or she, within three years, is entitled to reclaim the item from the new owner. This rule shall not apply to the holders of priority rights. Reclamation of the item may be requested from the holder of priority rights if he or she has obtained the item through violence or deceit.” This seeming imitation of a German legal norm has its roots in old Georgian law. The same principle is found in a document dating back to 1741,47 wherein the identification of ownership required proof of ownership: “If Lasuri swears solemnly or produces a witness to testify that Lasuri has been in possession of the vineyard, and that the ownership of vineyard has not been taken away from him, then Vakhtang shall have no claim over the vineyard.”48 In other words, the owner is the one who holds priority rights of ownership, although the actual owner may be a third party. This form of protection of ownership is found in German legislation and both modern and old Georgian laws. Consequently, this norm is not a mere imitation of a foreign corpus, but a familiar feature of Georgian legal thought. Prohibition of Transfers of Property (Gift) Between Spouses Transfers of property without valuable consideration or gifts, were most likely prohibited by Roman law since ancient times.49 Roman jurists mention this prohibition as early as in the time of Augustus, although its true historical motives were misconstrued with a need to ensure against property damage caused by mutual feelings between spouses, and to prevent one spouse from gaining wealth at the expense of the other.50 “We have received the customary rule that gifts between husband and wife are invalid. This rule was received so that they are not ruined by mutu  Spengler, Römisches Recht und europäische Rechtskultur, 64. On the other hand, it was impossible to fully remove Roman Law from academic environment.

45

  T. rcxilaZe, mflobelobis dacva, sabWoTa samarTali, 1928, # 1, 7-9; i. futkaraZe, qarTuli samarTlis istoriis sakiTxebi, Tb. 1979, 116-118. 47   s. kakabaZe, istoriuli sabuTebi, w. v, Tb. 1913, 60 48   furkaraZe, qarTuli samarTlis istoriis sakiTxebi, 110; kakabaZe, w. v. 60. 49   F.Wieacker, Hausgenossenschaft und Erbeinsetzung. Über die Anfange des romischen Testaments, Leipzig, 1940, 48 and following. 50   Kaser, Römisches Privatrecht, 331. 46

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Education and Culture | ganaTleba da kultura mixedviT, CvenSi damkvidrebulia, rom colsa da qmars Soris naCuqroba ar SeiZleba Sedges, imisaTvis, rom ormxrivi siyvarulis gamo ar gaZarcvon erTmaneTi mouTokavi guluxvobiT....55.“ germanelma mkvlevarma klutmanma56 gamoTqva mosazreba, rom xevsurul CveulebiT samarTalSi gavrcelebuli akrZalva colsa da qmars Soris naCuqrobisa, romis samarTliT iyo ganpirobebuli da mis arsebobas sxva mxaris CveulebiT samarTalSic savaraudod miiCnevda. dResdReobiT es mosazreba ukugdebulia57. qarTuli samarTlisaTvis meuRleTa Soris naCuqrobis zogadi akrZalva, ise rogorc es romis samarTalSi moqmedebda, arasodes yofila damaxasiaTebeli. klutmanis sapirispirod gamoTqmuli mosazrebis mixedviT58, col-qmars Soris Cuqebis mowesrigebis mxriv qarTuli iuridiuli yofa ufro ZvelaRmosavlur, somxursa da berZnul samarTals uaxlovdeba. Tumca moyvanili ar aris magaliTi, Tu ZvelaRmosavluri samarTlis romeli instituti SeiZleba gamxdariyo col-qmars Soris naCuqrobis SezRudvis winamorbedi qarTul samarTalSi. magram es SezRudva rom qarTuls samarTalSic moqmedebda, amis dasturs vaxtangis samarTlis berZnuli versiis 183e muxli59 warmoadgens, romelic „qmarTa da colTa erTmaneTis saqonlis micemisaTvis“ aris dasaTaurebuli. TviTon muxlSi ki saubaria imis Sesaxeb, rom Tu meuRleebi erTmaneTs mTel TavianT qonebas an mis naxevars aCuqeben, es Cuqeba ar iqneba namdvili, radgan „siyuaruliT micema aris“ da am siyvarulma ki meuRleebi ar unda gaaRaribos. muxlis saTauric da misi Sinaarsic imis maniSnebelia, rom berZnuli samarTlis gavliT col-qmars Soris naCuqrobis amkrZalavi Tu ara SemzRudavi danawesi mainc moxvedrila qarTul samarTalSi, rac savaraudod romis samarTlidan momdinare akrZalvis Serbilebul variants unda warmoadgendes. col-qmars Soris naCuqrobis sruli akrZalvis arseboba qarTul samarTalSi ar mtkicdeba, magram mosazreba, romlis mixedviTac colma da qmarma siyvaruliT urTierTnaCuqobiT erTmaneTi SeiZleba gaaRaribon (sawinaaRmdegos damtkicebamde) romauli samarTlis gadmonaSTad SegviZlia miviCnioT. 1997 wlis saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsi saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsi, romelic dRes moqmedebs, 1997 welsaa miRebuli. is Tavisi agebulebiT zogadi dogmatikiTa da konkretuli normebis SinaarsiT yvelaze metad germanuli samoqalaqo kodeqsisganaa davalebuli da mis SeqmnaSic yvelaze meti wvlili swored germanel iuristebs miuZRviT.

al love, not sparing on gifts but with extravagance toward themselves.”51 German expert Klutmann speculates that the Khevsurian custom of prohibiting gifts between spouses must have stemmed from Roman law, believing that similar norms can be found in the laws of other Georgian regions as well.52 This idea has been refuted,53 as Georgian Law has never been characterized by the universal prohibition of gifts between husband and wife in the same way that it was in Rome. Contrary to Klutmann’s hypothesis, it has been suggested that Georgian legal norms regulating gifts between spouses must stand closer to ancient Asian, Armenian, and Greek laws.54 The quote above, however, does not identify which ancient Asian legal institution could have been the predecessor of the Georgian prohibition of gifts between spouses. Article 183 of the Greek version of King Vakhtang’s Code of Laws (On Transferring Property between Husband and Wife) confirms that the prohibition was indeed enforced in Georgia.55 According to this norm, a transfer of property, or even half of it, between spouses is invalid since it is “a transfer with love”. The title and context of the article indicates that the limitation, if not prohibition, of gifts between spouses entered Georgian law through Greek legal codes and must have been a moderate version of the Roman prohibition of transfers of property between husband and wife. The full legal prohibition of transfers of property between spouses in Georgia has not been confirmed, though the notion that a husband and wife should not impoverish each other by transferring “gifts of love” may be viewed as a surviving element borrowed from Roman law until proven otherwise. The 1997 Civil Code of Georgia The current Civil Code of Georgia was adopted in 1997. In terms of its structure, overall dogmas, and the content of particular norms, it stands closest to the German Civil Code, and German jurists have contributed most to its creation. The work on the Georgian Civil Code, which started in 1993, did not aim only to copy German norms and institutions. Its outcome was supposed to be a new Georgian legislation that would share a system of values with German law and serve as the precondition for the establishment of a contemporary Georgian civil society. It was not an easy task. The Soviet Civil Code, directly applicable legislation in the Soviet Union, only partially, if at all, shared these values. For example, the Soviet Civil Code failed to build civil order on the protection of private property. Georgian lawmakers, on the other hand, aimed to establish a law upon new values, with personal autonomy, contractual

55  Ulp. 24.1.1: Moribus apud nos receptum est, ne inter virum et uxorem donationes valerent. Hoc autem receptum est, ne mutuo amore invicem spoliarentur donationibus non temperantes ...

51

56  R. Klutmann, Analyse des national-grusinischen Obligationenrechts im Kodex König Wachtangs VI, Zeitschrift für vergleichende Rechtswissenschaft, einschliesslich der ethnologischen Rechtsforschung, 29 (1878), 445 sqolio 24.

52

57 

futkaraZe, qarTuli valdebulebiTi narkvevebi, gv. 40 da Semdgomni. 58  iqve, gv. 43. 59  bregaZe, berZnuli samarTali, 90.

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samarTlis

istoriis

  Ulp. 24.1.1: Moribus apud nos receptum est, ne inter virum et uxorem donationes valerent. Hoc autem receptum est, ne mutuo amore invicem spoliarentur donationibus non temperantes ...   R.Klutmann, Analyse des national-grusinischen Obligationenrechts im Kodex König Wachtangs VI, Zeitschrift für vergleichende Rechtswissenschaft, einschliesslich der ethnologischen Rechtsforschung,29 (1878), 445.

  futkaraZe, qarTuli valdebulebiTi narkvevebi, gv. 40 da Semdgomi

samarTlis

istoriis

  futkaraZe, qarTuli narkvevebi, gv. 43.

samarTlis

istoriis

53

54

55

valdebulebiTi

  bregaZe, berZnuli samarTali, 90.


Education and Culture | ganaTleba da kultura 1993 wels dawyebuli muSaoba saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsze miznad ar isaxavda mxolod germanuli normebisa da institutebis meqanikur kopirebas. misi Sedegi unda yofiliyo axali qarTuli kanonis Seqmna, romelsac germanulTan faseulobaTa sistema eqneboda saerTo, rac iqneboda Tanamedrove qarTuli samoqalaqo sazogadoebis Camoyalibebis winapiroba. es ar iyo martivi davaleba, radgan sabWoTa samoqalaqo samarTali, romelic postsabWoTa periodSic uSualod moqmedi samarTali iyo, mxolod nawilobriv Tu iziarebda am faseulobebs, ar ayenebda ra magaliTad kerZo sakuTrebis dacvas samoqalaqo marTlwesrigis SuagulSi. qarTveli kanonmdeblis mizans ki warmoadgenda axali faseulobebis mqone kanonis Seqmna, romlis qvakuTxedic kerZo avtonomia, saxelSekrulebo Tavisufleba da kerZo sakuTrebis dacva iqneboda. bremenis universiteti profesoris rolf kniperis, advokat hartmut fromisa da mario pelegrinos daxmarebiT qarTvelma kanonmdebelma am davalebas Tavi gaarTva. goeTes mosazreba, romelic man germanul samarTalTan mimarTebaSi gamoTqva, marTldeba aseve qarTuli samarTlis SemTxvevaSiv. romis klasikuri samarTali da misgan momdinare principebi uwyvet gavlenas axdenda qarTul samarTalze jer romaul-siriuli, Semdeg bizantiuri da sabolood ki romis samarTlis safuZvelze Seqmnili Tanamedrove germanuli samarTlis pirdapiri kopirebis meSveobiT. dasavleT evropisagan gansxavavebiT saqarTveloSi romis samarTals digestebis meSveobiT ar SemouRwevia. man saqarTveloSi SemoaRwia siriul-romauli samarTlis wignis, romlis nawilebsac samecniero diskusiaSi vulgarul samarTalsac ki uwodeben da bizantiuri samarTlis wignebis meSveobiT, romlebic saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi klasikuri periodis romis samarTlis gamartiveba-Semoklebis60 nayofs warmoadgens. Tumca esec sakmarisi aRmoCnda imisaTvis, rom qarTul iuridiul azrovnebas Tavisad eqcia romis samarTlis principebi. digestebi aris evropuli samarTlis kulturi dasawyisi, magram, amave dros, garkveuli gagebiT misi dasasrulic. me-20 saukunis cnobili romanisti Teo maier mali Tavis statiaSi “samarTlebrivi figurebis dabruneba”61 TvalnaTliv warmoaCens, Tu rogor eZleva romis samarTlis dogmebi daviwyebas imisaTvis, rom Semdeg isev dabrundes. xSirad srulebiT gaucnobierebladac ki iuristebi Tavidan igoneben daviwyebas micemul romaul dogmebs, radgan isini samarTlebrivi azrovnebis universalur modelebs warmoadgenen, romlisaTvisac gverdis aqceva SeuZlebelia. qarTvel kanonmdebels romis samarTlis dogmebi Tavidan ar gamougonia, man isini germanuli samarTlidan gadmoiRo, magram imdenad, ramdenadac qarTul samarTalsac germanulis msgavsad saerTo fesvebi romis samarTalSi aqvs gadgmuli, es gadmoRebuli dogmebi misTvis kargad daviwyebuli Zveli aRmoCnda da iq moxvda sadac unda momxvdariyo, sadac maTi aTvisebisaTvis aucilebel samarTlebriv kulturas jer kidev saukuneebis win Caeyara safuZveli.

freedom, and protection of private property as its cornerstones. With the help of Rolf Knipper, a lawyer and professor at the University of Bremen, lawyer Hartmut Fromm and Mario Pellegrino, Georgian lawmakers succeeded in fulfilling this task. Goethe’s opinion about German law equally applies to Georgian legislation. Roman law and its principles have had a continuous impact on Georgian law through the direct copying of modern German law, which in turn stemmed from the Roman and Syrian legal system at first, then the Byzantine and finally the Roman laws. Unlike Western Europe, Roman law entered Georgia not through the Digests of Roman law, but through books of Syrian and Roman law, parts of which are referred to as “vulgar laws” in academic discourse, and Byzantine law texts, which are simplified and abridged versions of Roman law in classical antiquity.56 They proved sufficient enough to ensure the full acceptance of Roman legal principles by Georgian legal thought. The Digests are the cultural beginning and, to some extent, the end of European law. In his article Return of Legal Constrctions, Mayer-Maly, a prominent expert in Roman studies in the twentieth century, clearly described how Roman legal dogmas sink into oblivion only to make a comeback later.57 Jurists, often without even realizing it, “reinvent” long-forgotten Roman dogmas, which are universal models of legal thinking and therefore cannot be neglected. Georgian lawmakers did not reinvent Roman legal dogmas, but only adopted them from German law. These dogmas were rediscovered and taken to their rightful places, where the legal cultural ground suitable for their application was prepared centuries earlier.

60 

Kunkel/Schermaier, Römische Rechtsgeschichte, 228.

56

  Kunkel/Schermaier, Römische Rechtsgeschichte, 228.

61 

Th. Mayer-Maly, Die Wiederkehr von Rechtsfiguren, JZ 26 (1971), 1-3.

57

  Th. Mayer-Maly, Die Wiederkehr von Rechtsfiguren, JZ 26 (1971), 1-3.

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# 11 / 04 / 2017

ISSN 1987-8486

Georgia's European Way eleventh edition - საქართველოს ევროპული გზა მეთერთმეტე პერიოდული გამოცემა  
Georgia's European Way eleventh edition - საქართველოს ევროპული გზა მეთერთმეტე პერიოდული გამოცემა  

Georgia's European Way Eleventh edition of the magazine. საქართველოს ევროპული გზა მეთერთმეტე პერიოდული გამოცემა.

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