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VOLCANOES Your Proofness: Mahim Maher Master Storyteller: Sundar Waqar Creativity Analysts: Amna Iqbal, Essa Malik, Jamal mal Khurshid, Samra Aamir, Anam Haleem, Umar Waqas


THE EXPRESS TRIBUNE, SEPTEMBER 1, 2013

2

Hi light

VOLCANOES The recent volcanic eruption in South Asia occurred in Pakistan two years ago and caused shock in volcanic centres worldwide. No volcanic activity had ever been reported in South Asia before. These eruptions remind us that natural disasters can occur anywhere and at anytime which is why we should always be cautious. Let’s take a closer look at volcanoes and learn some precautions in case of a future eruption.

What is a volcano? A volcano is a mountain that opens downward to a pool of molten rock below the surface of the earth. When pressure builds up, eruptions occur. Gases and rock shoot up through the opening and spill over or fill the air with lava fragments. Eruptions can trigger tsunamis, flash floods, earthquakes, mudflows and rock falls.

Eruptions

Precautions

In a volcanic eruption, hot lava rushes out from beneath the Earth’s crust up to the Earth’s surface. This lava is actually hot melted rock called magma. Just underneath the Earth’s crust is a layer called the mantle, which is made up of plates (plate tectonics) that are always moving and shifting. Sometimes the plates separate. That creates heat and causes the mantle to melt into magma. The magma comes up through the crack between the plates. It spreads out, cools down, and becomes rock again. The solid magma stays beneath the Earth’s surface. Sometimes the plates collide. When that happens, one plate can slide under the other. This also causes the mantle underneath to melt. The magma pushes upward, melting more rock. The hot magma collects under the surface of the Earth. If the pressure is high enough or a crack opens in the crust, the magma rushes out. Now the magma is called lava.

During:

Follow the evacuation order issued by authorities. Avoid areas near the volcano. If you are caught indoors, close all windows and doors. If you’re caught in falling rocks, roll into a ball and protect your head. If you’re caught near a stream, be aware of mudflows and move to higher ground. Protect yourself when ash falls by wearing long-sleeved shirts and long pants. Use goggles to protect your eyes. Wear a dust mask and keep car engines off. After: Cover your mouth and nose. Volcanic ash can irritate your respiratory system. Wear goggles and protect your eyes. Keep your skin covered. Clear roofs of ash, because the ash is very heavy and can cause the building to collapse.

Volcanic Vocab

Magma is the liquid rock inside a volcano. Lava is the liquid rock (magma) that flows out of a volcano. Lava glows red hot to white hot as it flows. Ash consists of very small fragments of lava or rock blasted into the air by volcanic explosions. Active volcano is one which has recently erupted and there is a possibility that it may erupt soon. Dormant volcano is one which has not erupted in a long time but there is a possibility it can erupt in the future. Extinct volcano is one which has erupted thousands of years ago and there’s no possibility of eruption.


THE EXPRESS TRIBUNE, SEPTEMBER 1, 2013

3 Types

• Composite volcanoes are steep-sided volcanoes composed of many layers of volcanic rocks, usually made from lava, ash and rock. They are the most abundant volcanoes. An example is Mount Fuji in Japan. • Shield volcanoes are gently sloping volcanic mountains built almost fully of fluid lava flows. They are named for their large size and low profile, resembling a warrior’s shield. These volcanoes are typically much larger then composite volcanoes. An example is Mauna Kea in Hawaii. • Lava domes are formed when erupting lava is too thick to flow and makes a steep-sided mound as the lava piles up near the volcanic vent. An example is in the craters of Mt St Helens in USA. • Mud volcanoes or mud domes refer to formations created by geo-excreted liquids and gases, although there are several different processes which may cause such activity. Hot water mixes with mud and surface deposits. An example is Neza-eSultan in Pakistan.

Hi light

Lava dome Mt St Helens, USA

Volcanoes In Pakistan

Most of the volcanoes located in Pakistan are mud volcanoes, rather than the conventional magmatic type. Neza-e-Sultan, Malan Island, Jebel-e-Ghurab, Chandragup, Hingol and Tor Zawar are some of the mud volcanoes found in Pakistan. The first and recent volcanic eruptions in South Asia occurred in Tor Zawar in Balochistan. Tor Zawar is a group of closely spaced mud volcanoes on a non-volcanic mountain in a tectonically active region near Wham in Ziarat, Balochistan. Two volcanic eruptions occurred in the region from 27 January to 3 March 2010 and January 2011. An eruption in the region on January 29, 2010, shocked the world’s volcanological society, as no previous volcanic activity had ever taken place there before. A local scientist reported that the eruption was preceded by an earthquake on 27 January. For the second time, a small eruption took place in January 2011.

Composite volcano Mount Fuji, Japan

Plate Tectonics

The theory of plate tectonics is supported by a wide range of evidence that considers the earth’s crust and upper mantle (one of the layers of the earth) to be composed of several large, thin, relatively rigid plates that move relative to one another. The plates are all moving in different directions and at different speeds. Sometimes the plates crash together, pull apart or sideswipe each other. When this happens, it commonly results in earthquakes. SOURCE: GLOBAL VOLCANISM PROGRAM

Shield volcano Mauna Kea, Hawaii

Mud volcano Neza-e-Sultan, Pakistan What would you like to see in Hi Five? Send an email to hifive@tribune.com.pk and let us know!


THE EXPRESS TRIBUNE, SEPTEMBER 1, 2013

4 Origami Flower ToffeTV.com’s Ayesha Mehmood teaches you how to make an origami flower.

Supplies needed:

Step 1

• A4 sheet • Scissor • Coloured marker • Pencil

Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5

Take a coloured A4 sheet and cut it in half.

Now take the half you have cut and fold it in half and crease. Fold the paper once again.

Hold the corner tip and drag it to the other side to form an angle as shown.

Use a pencil to draw a petal. With a scissor cut the petal you have drawn.

Now open the folds of petal and see the flower is ready. Use colours or markers for adding some details as shown. Your origami flower is ready!


THE EXPRESS TRIBUNE, SEPTEMBER 1, 2013

Get your weekly dose of the unusual and funny news from across the globe!

Cow-shedding A small Welsh village keeps plunging into darkness — and cows are getting the blame. Llanddona, on the island of Anglesey, North Wales, has suffered power shortages for years and engineers say the problem is caused by cows touching the electricity poles. “For years now the electricity has been going off for a few seconds then coming back on,” said Carwyn Jones, county councilor for Llanddona. “I contacted ScottishPower and they got back to me saying they thought it was cows scratching, playing or chewing the equipment, leading to a temporary cut as the equipment is moved.” Fences have been placed around poles to prevent cows from getting close to the equipment and causing electricity disruptions in the future. “The repair has now been carried out and a fence has been placed around the poles to prevent this from happening again,” said Jones. METRO.CO.UK

World wide weird

5

Stick ships

Master model maker, Philip Warren, has spent 65 years and used more than a million matchsticks on his 463-ship fleet. It features every class of ship in the Royal Navy since 1945, each with miniature (smaller copy) aircraft. Warren’s models are up to 1m (3ft) long and made using just a ruler, razor blade and glue. “It all started when I was about 17 and fascinated with ships,” said the retired company director. “I got tips from magazines and other model makers but the technique is my own,” he continued. Warren, 82, builds ships with matchsticks in a spare room at his home in Blandford and can spend a year completing a vessel. “I’ve also made about 60 American carrier ships as some of them are pretty awesome,” he added. More than 200 of his ships are displayed at Nothe Fort in Weymouth. METRO.CO.UK

Macaw that Under my umbrella With temperatures rising and the heat being unbearable motorcyclists in China decide to protect themselves with umbrellas. Motorcycles may not have roofs for protection from direct sunlight but Chinese motorcyclists have ensured they do not suffer heat-stroke and have attached umbrellas to their motorcycles. The umbrellas act as a sun-shade, and in record breaking temperatures as high as 41o Celsius are a blessing. However, the Chinese government fears that motorcyclists may be putting both themselves and others at danger. “They [umbrellas] obstruct the vision of the riders and when they get caught by the wind or the rush of a passing truck [road accidents can occur],” said a spokesman. “They can wear hats or use high factor sun cream. There are lots of alternatives,” he suggested. The idea popular with motorcyclists, but not so popular with the police, is under scrutiny and may be banned. METRO.CO.UK

A hungry and dehydrated parrot that was picked up by two farmers in Suffolk shocked its rescuers when it took hold of the steering wheel of their combine harvester and drove home on its own for 20 minutes. The confident bird was found by Mark Wells and Andrew Barber, both 40, who work at the George E Gittus & Sons farm in St Edmunds. Wells and Barber stopped harvesting wheat as soon as they spotted a spark of colour in the field, and jumped from their machine to pick the macaw from the stalks below. Believing the exotic bird to be a lost pet, the farmers decided to take it back with them in the hope that they could trace its owner. What they didn’t expect, however, was to see the colourful macaw grasp the wheel with its beak before steering the harvester across the field for 20 minutes before reaching the farmers’ truck. “It’s odd enough to find a bird like that just hopping around a field in England — but to stumble across a bird that can steer a combine harvester is crazy,” said Mark. The workers nicknamed the parrot Rio, describing him as a ‘natural operator’. Macaws are usually found in forests, particularly rainforests, in central and South America and the Caribbean. They have large beaks, long graceful tails and consist of 17 species — many of which are endangered. METRO.CO.UK


THE EXPRESS TRIBUNE, SEPTEMBER 1, 2013

Did you know?

6

Word Origins Piggyback Have you ever wondered why we call a ride on someone’s back a piggyback? And why not human-back or chicken-back? Well, back in the 16th century, goods were transported in packs that people carried on their backs or animals’ backs and the term used to describe this activity was ‘pick pack’. You would pick up a pack in order to carry it on your back. ‘Pick pack’ eventually became ‘pick-i-back’ as people decided it described the activity of picking a bag and carrying it on their back more clearly. However, because of different pronunciations pick-i-back sounded like ‘picky back’ which sounded like ‘piggyback’ and thus, ultimately gave rise to the term ‘piggyback’. As the popular word for people carrying a pack on their back, by the 1930s, the definition of piggyback further progressed to describe riding on someone’s back and shoulders.

How do you say ‘magazine’ in different languages Azerbaijani Catalan Croatian Danish Ditch Filipino Finnish French German Indonesian Italian Polish Portugese Swahili Swedish Turkish

: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :

Jurnal Revista Casopis Magasin Tijdschrift Mag-asin Aikakauslehti Le magazine Magazin Majalah Rivista Magazyn Revista Gazeti Tidningen Dergi

Cool facts Oranges are the most commonly grown fruit on trees in the world. You can rub the inside of a banana skin on mosquito bites to stop the itchiness. The passion fruit flower is the national fruit of Paraguay. There are 10,000 varieties of apples grown around the world. The coconut palm is sometimes called the ‘tree of life’. If you plant a single orange seed you will probably get more than one plant. 25 per cent of an apple’s volume is air, that’s why they float. Watermelons are 92 per cent water. Kiwi fruit contains actinide which can be used to tenderise meat. The largest watermelon ever grown was 262 pounds (119kg).


THE EXPRESS TRIBUNE, SEPTEMBER 1, 2013

7

Fun & games

Crossword

How carefully did you read this week’s issue of HiFive? If you think you are upto the task, try to solve our special crossword. The answers are all over HiFive! Put on your thinking caps, it is time to put the old noggin to work!

Across 2. ----------- and rock shoot up through the opening and spill over or fill the air with lava fragments. 3. This lava is actually hot melted rock called -----------. 5. ----------- volcanoes are gently sloping volcanic mountains built almost fully of fluid lava flows. 7. A volcano is a ----------- that opens downward to a pool of molten rock below the surface of the earth. 9. ----------- consists of very small fragments of lava or rock blasted into the air by volcanic explosions. 11. The ----------- palm is sometimes called the ‘tree of life’. 15. ----------- volcano is one which has not erupted in a long time but there is a possibility it can erupt in the future. 16. ----------- are the most commonly grown tree fruit in the world. 17. Active volcano is one which has recently ----------- and there is a possibility that it may erupt soon.

Down 1. During a volcano use ----------- to protect your eyes. 4. Most of the volcanoes located in Pakistan are ----------- volcanoes. 6. ----------- volcano is one which has erupted thousands of years ago and there’s no possibility of eruption. Extinct volcano is one which has erupted thousands of years ago and there’s no possibility of eruption. 7. If you plant a single orange seed you will probably get ----------- than one plant. 8. Watermelons are 92 per cent -----------. 10. Just underneath the Earth’s crust is a layer called the ----------. 12. ----------- volcanoes are steep-sided volcanoes composed of many layers of volcanic rocks, usually made from lava, ash and rock. 13. The passion fruit flower is the ----------- fruit of Paraguay. 14. In a volcanic eruption, hot ----------- rushes out from beneath the Earth’s crust up to the Earth’s surface. 15. Lava ----------- are formed when erupting lava is too thick to flow and makes a steepsided mound as the lava piles up near the volcanic vent.


THE EXPRESS TRIBUNE, SEPTEMBER 1, 2013

Comic!

Winners of this week’s Liberty Books card competition

Eman Qureshi

11 years

Maham Shahid

11 years


The Express Tribune hi five - September 1  

The Express Tribune hi five for September 01st 2013

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