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The history of print PAGE 2-3

Origami Hen PAGE 4

What is dew? PAGE 6

Science Experiment PAGE 8


THE EXPRESS TRIBUNE, MAY 4, 2014

Hi light

2 The history of printing in its broadest sense dates back to the duplication of images through stamps in early times. The use of round cylinder seals for making an impression onto clay tablets goes back to the early Mesopotamian civilisation. In Europe and India, the printing of cloth certainly preceded the printing of paper or papyrus; this was probably also the case in China. Throughout the years, the process of printing has evolved and changed dramatically. Starting from woodblock we have reached the age of digital printing.

Woodblock printing is a technique for printing text, images or patterns used widely throughout East Asia both as a method of printing on textiles and on paper. The wood block is carefully prepared as a relief pattern, which means the areas to show ‘white’ are cut away with a knife or sandpaper leaving the characters or image to show in ‘black’ at the original surface level. It is necessary only to ink the block and bring it into firm and even contact with the paper or cloth to achieve the desirable print. For colour printing, multiple blocks are used, each for one colour, though a lot of care has to be taken to ensure colours do not overlap.

Woodblock

Movable type is the system of printing using movable pieces of metal type to produce letters or punctuation marks. It is believed that Johannes Gutenberg, of the German city of Mainz, developed European movable type printing technology around 1439 and in just over a decade, the European age of printing began. Compared to woodblock printing, movable type pagesetting was quicker, more durable and more uniform, leading to style and fonts in printing.

Metal movable pieces

Printing press

A printing press is a device for evenly printing ink onto paper or cloth. The device applies pressure to a medium (such as paper or cloth) that rests on an inked surface made of movable type transferring the ink on to it. Typically used for texts, the invention and spread of the printing press is widely regarded as one of the most influential events in human history as it revolutionised book production and communication leading to the spread of knowledge. The systems involved were first assembled in Germany by the goldsmith Johannes Gutenberg in the mid-15th century. Printing methods based on Gutenberg’s printing press spread rapidly throughout Europe first and then the rest of the world, replacing most block printing with movable type printing.

A rotary printing press is a printing press in which the images to be printed are curved around a cylinder to print on long rolls of paper or other material such as cardboard and plastic. Rotary drum printing was invented by Richard March Hoe in 1843. Today, there are three main types of rotary presses namely offset, rotogravure and flexography. While the three types use cylinders to print, they vary in their method. Offset lithography uses a chemical process in which an image is chemically applied to a plate. Gravure is a process in which small holes are carved into a copper cylinder which is filled with ink. Flexography uses printing plates to print on a variety of substances.


THE EXPRESS TRIBUNE, MAY 4, 2014

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Hi light

Colour printing is the reproduction of an image or text in colour (as opposed to simpler black and white printing) which became the most successful method of colour printing developed by the 19th century. The initial technique involved the use of multiple lithography (chemical process in which an image is chemically applied to a plate) but was extremely expensive. However, today there are many techniques for reproducing images in colour, specific graphic processes and industrial equipment are used for the mass reproduction of colour images on paper. The technique used to print colour images, such as colour photographs, is referred to as the ‘four-colour-process’. Four inks are used: three secondary colours plus black. These ink colours are cyan, magenta and yellow; abbreviated as CMYK.

3D printer

Colour printing process

Digital printing refers to methods of printing when material from desktops and other digital sources are printed using laser or inkjet printers. It has a higher cost as compared to other printing methods but it is easier, faster and efficient. The greatest difference between digital printing and other methods such as lithography, flexography, gravure is that there is no need to replace printing plates in digital printing. This results in a quicker turnaround time and lower cost when using digital printing. The most popular methods include inkjet or laser printers that deposit toner onto a wide variety of substances including paper, glass, metal, marble and others. To make it better, we have now entered the age of 3D printing which is the process of making three-dimensional solid objects from a digital model.

What would you like to see in Hi Five? Send an email to hifive@tribune.com.pk and let us know!


THE EXPRESS TRIBUNE, MAY 4, 2014

Activity

Supplies needed: •1 yellow colour square paper (8x8inches) •2 orange colour square papers (1.5x1.5inches) •Stick •Marker

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Origami hen Ayesha Mehmood teaches you how to make a hen out of paper.

Step 1

Step 2

Step 3

Collect all the material you need.

Take a square paper of 8x8inches and fold it diagonally.

Fold it diagonally once more.

Step 4

Step 5

Step 6

Unfold the paper and fold the two opposite corners inwards towards the middle.

Pick the pointed part and settle it to show the flatness.

Pick the upper flap and drag it to the top.

Step 8

Step 9

Step 10

Now turn one corner inward to make the hen’s beak.

Take an orange square paper and fold it diagonally.

Place that diagonal paper on your hen to make its wings.

Step 7 Flip the paper and apply the same step again.

Step 11 On the other small square draw the comb and cut it out using a scissor.

Step 12 Now stick the comb on your hen’s head.

Want to watch a video guide for this? Log onto Toffeetv.com and check out the activities section!

Step 13 Use a marker to make the hen’s eye and attach a stick. Your hen is now ready|!


THE EXPRESS TRIBUNE, MAY 4, 2014

Get your weekly dose of the unusual and funny news from across the globe!

Driverless cars Google says that its cars programmed to drive themselves have started to master the navigation of city streets and the challenges they bring — a critical milestone for any commercially available self-driving car technology. Despite the progress over the past year, the cars have plenty of learning to do before 2017, when the Silicon Valley tech giant hopes to get the technology to the public. Google’s self-driving cars already can navigate freeways comfortably, although with a driver ready to take control. “We’re growing more optimistic that we’re heading toward an achievable goal — a vehicle that operates fully without human intervention,” project director Chris Urmson wrote. The benefits would include fewer accidents, since in principle machines can drive more safely than people. In the initial stages, human drivers would be expected to take control if the computer fails. The promise is that, eventually, there would be no need for a driver. Passengers could read, daydream, even sleep or work while the car drives. While the car knows to stop, just when to start again is still a challenge, partly because they are programmed to drive defensively. At a fourway stop, Google’s cars have been known to wait in place as other cars edge out into the intersection. The cars still need human help with other problems. METRO.CO.UK

You’ll never eat alone Thought it was awkward dining alone? How much more awkward would you feel dining with a giant stuffed toy? A restaurant claims to have solved the dilemma of solo dining alone by offering customers the chance to eat with large stuffed animals instead. The Moomin Café in Tokyo, Japan has a selection of toys available to keep you company over lunch. The stuffed animals are characters from the popular Moomin books from Finland and are offered to customers by staff. There are some drawbacks of course. They can’t speak, they can’t give you relationship advice, they can’t give you a hug when you need one but at least they won’t try to nick your chips. Many patrons have been sitting down with the stuffed toys, which are modelled on hippopotamuses and then sharing photos on social media. The Café recently launched in New York too, but there’s no word as to whether it will be opening anywhere else soon. METRO.CO.UK

World wide weird

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Bedroom museum

Shae Williams, the history-loving schoolboy has turned his bedroom into a museum to Admiral Nelson and is charging friends and family to visit it. The nineyear-old became obsessed with Nelson last summer after learning about him in a history book. Since then, he has decorated his room with hundreds of items of Nelson items and figures. He is charging fees to visit his bedroom and see his collection. His younger brother Kye, six, has been placed as a security guard. Shae is saving up his admission fees so he can buy an original piece of wood from the famous ship — which costs about £100 (Rs12,000). “My museum is the best,” said Shae, who sleeps under a skull and crossbones duvet at home in Norwich. “I’ve got an original copper from the Victory, a shop and sea biscuits that you can eat for free. I don’t really know why I like Nelson and the Victory so much, but I like learning about history.” Mother Karen, 43, an admin assistant, said: “It’s very sweet, he gets every visitor to sign the visitors’ book and he gets quite a few people coming in now. He had an open day this week and had about ten people in. We like to encourage Shae, because I’d rather he was doing this than playing on his Xbox.” METRO.CO.UK

Giant tortoise Due to his size, Victor, who weighs 57kg has been forced to find a new home. The reptile sold as a ‘common’ tortoise to a couple when he was a baby did not know he was a sulcata — the third biggest tortoise species in the world. The regretful owners have now given him up after 14 years because he’s grown too big for their garden in Liverpool. “They were pretty distraught to give him away as he was a much-loved pet,” said farmer Andy Browne, who has brought Victor to live at his wildlife sanctuary in Highworth, Wiltshire. “They’ve been keeping in regular contact since I picked him up around two weeks ago. I’ve never seen one like him before and he’ll need specialist care, so I imagine he’ll end up staying with me for the foreseeable future unless the right person comes forward.” METRO.CO.UK


THE EXPRESS TRIBUNE, MAY 4, 2014

6 Word Origins What causes dew? Have you ever walked on grass in the morning or touched your car and felt that it was wet? Well, those tiny drops of water that form on cool surfaces at night is dew. Actually, dew can form at any time; it just needs the right weather/temperature patterns to make it happen. However, night time is usually the primary period when the factors that cause dew to form are just right. As to what causes dew, air holds a certain amount of water vapour in it. How much water it can hold depends largely on the current temperature. The higher the temperature, the more water vapour air can hold. This is why when you’re in places that are really hot, particularly when near a large body of water, you’ll often feel ‘sticky’ due to how much water vapour the air is capable of and currently holding. In the evening and throughout the night, there are many things outside that aren’t able to strongly conduct heat from deep in the ground or they otherwise radiate heat faster than they can absorb it like grass, cars, many metal objects, lawn chairs etcetera. The temperature along the surfaces of these objects can eventually cool past the ‘dew point’ (the temperature at which, given the atmospheric pressure and humidity, the air can no longer hold all the water vapour it contains). Once this happens, water from the air will condense on the objects, forming droplets. This is pretty much the exact same process that causes water droplets to form on the outside of a glass of ice water. The ice inside cools the glass and air around the glass, lowering the amount of water vapour the surrounding air that’s in close proximity to the cold glass can hold, thus causing water droplets to condense on the glass.

Participate in our essay competition and win a chance to have your essay featured in HiFive. Theme: If you could be the Prime Minister of Pakistan for one day, what are some of the things you will do?

Your essay should be 600 words and you can send in an illustration with it. The best essay will be featured in Hi Five on 25th Entries can be emailed to hifive@tribune.com.pk with your name, age, city and your photograph.

May, 2014.

Deadline: May 20th, 2014


THE EXPRESS TRIBUNE, MAY 4, 2014

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Fun & games

Find your way through!


THE EXPRESS TRIBUNE, MAY 4, 2014

Have fun with science

Invisible Ink Writing with invisible ink can be a lot of fun. You and your friends can pretend to be spies and send secret messages to each other. All you need are some basic household items and the hidden power of lemon juice. However it’s important to research how to achieve the best results and how you can make the invisible ink reappear.

You will need: • White paper • Access to an oven

What To Do:

• A brush or cotton buds

1. Write a secret message on paper using a cotton bud or a brush which is dipped in milk. Let it dry while you heat the oven to 100°C. 2. Place the paper on a baking sheet and put it in the oven. Now pay close attention. How long does it take before the writing becomes visible? Be careful not to overdo your heating and ignite the paper! 3. You can now test if other things from your kitchen work better than milk such as vinegar, lemon juice or even orange juice perhaps?

• Milk

This activity is brought to you by:

Word of the Week: Chemical Reaction

Scientist Factory is a Norwegian social enterprise working to spread science literacy among students in Norway and Pakistan.

A chemical reaction takes place when molecules bind together to form even larger molecules or get divided into smaller molecules. Sometimes during a chemical reaction atoms from one molecule replace atoms in another molecule. Both milk and lemon juice are slightly acidic. The acid remains in the paper even after the juice or milk has dried. When the paper is heated, the acidic part of the paper undergoes a chemical reaction as a result of which it turns brown before the rest of the paper does. This makes the ink visible.

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The Express Tribune hi five - May 4  

The Express Tribune hi five for May 04th 2014