DECEMBER 1-7 2013
A step into the three-dimensional universe that is all set to transform the future
DECEMBER 1-7 2013
The Future is Printed
A step into the threedimensional universe that is all set to transform the future
Sculpted by various cultural influences, Hyderabadis hold age-old traditions close to heart
Bare necessities Gripped by a basic need for shelter, Basho turns a blind eye to deforestation
6 People & Parties: Out and about with beautiful people 48 Review: The Shadow of the Crescent Moon 50 Futuristic: The art of coffee reading
Magazine In-charge: Sarah Munir and Sub-Editors: Dilaira Mondegarian and Manahyl Khan Creative Team: Amna Iqbal, Essa Malik, Jamal Khurshid, Samra Aamir, Munira Abbas, S Asif Ali & Talha Ahmed Khan Publisher: Bilal A Lakhani. Executive Editor: Muhammad Ziauddin. Editor: Kamal Siddiqi For feedback and submissions: email@example.com Twitter: @ETribuneMag & Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/ETribuneMag Printed: firstname.lastname@example.org
Maya Khan, Zaara Khan, Lali Khan and Mariam Khan
T I E S emed R A P N D oween th A E L PEOPholds a Hall abad y lam Fun Cit party in Is
Anam Abdal and Nadia Bilour
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Faizan and Khadija
Fiza Gillani and Asfandyr
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Fahad and Rima
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Dania, Alyzeh, Gul, Natty, Giti, Sophyia and Faiza Hifsa Khan
Yasir Nawaz and Nadia Ramzan Ali and Zarmeenah
PEOPLE AND PARTIES
Ahan holds an exhibition at Fashion Central, Lahore Anila Gulraiz and Mahnoor Saleem
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b Wahab, Ra , Hamdan b a h a W h Ayema
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IES T R A P l l D a N M A n E e L m P l O o PE at D p u s n e p o iesta
Party F hi c a r a K , n o t f i Cl
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PPRINT PRINTED RINTED RINTE ED D RINTED
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A step into the three-dimensional universe that is all set to transform the future TEXT BY FAROOQ BALOCH PHOTOS BY PIR AKRAM SUHARWARDY DESIGN BY SAMRA AAMIR
Imagine a world where you could print your own meals. Your own toothpaste. Coffee mug. Medicines. Your son yanks off the wheel of his toy car for a fourth time. You no longer have to endure the agony of piecing it together with a reassuring smile plastered on your face. Instead, all you have to do is put some plastic in a three-dimensional (3D) printer, program the design of the wheel using a special software and wait for a fresh new wheel to pop out. Welcome to a new three-dimensional wonderland. The concept of 3D printing was born in 1984 when visionary Charles W Hull invented stereolithography â€” a printing process that creates a 3D object using digital data. Visually, a ste-
28 DECEMBER 1-7 2013
reolithograph is like the fine lines a chef makes on a piece of fish for sushi. Similarly, 3D printing is a layer-by-layer manufacturing process, called additive manufacturing, in which the printer melts plastic or metal under a certain temperature to produce 3D objects of any shape. The 3D printer doesn’t waste any raw material which makes it cost-effective and environment friendly, unlike the traditional machining techniques. While plastic and metal are the most commonly used raw materials so far, other types of printers also work with ceramics, biological tissue and food. Initially, 3D technology was costly, retailing for nearly $20,000 before 2010 but the prices have changed since then. Due to free and open source software licensing and the RepRap project (an open source initiative to build a 3D printer that can print most of its own components), 3D printers have become
1984 THE 3D PRINTER IS BORN The technology first came about when Charles Hull invented stereolithography — a process that allows a 3D object to be printed using digital data. 3D printing is a layer-by-layer manufacturing process, called additive manufacturing, in which the printer melts plastic or metal under a certain temperature to produce 3D objects of any shape.
HOW A 3D PRINTER WORKS 1. A laser source sends out a laser beam to solidify the raw material. 2. The platform is raised and lowered with the elevator to help lay down the layers. 3. The raw material used to create the 3D object lies in the vat. 4. The 3D object starts taking form as parts are layered on top of each other. 5. Advanced 3D printers use materials including plastic, ceramics, metal, food and biological tissue. SOURCE: T ROWE PRICE
more affordable for smaller companies and average consumers. In today’s markets, a 3D printer can be bought for as little as $500 (roughly the same price of an iPad), though the prices keep shooting upwards from there. However, Terry Wohlers, an industry consultant mentions in his report that only 68,000 consumer printers have been sold globally so far with most home users being technology aficionados. He also predicts that the 3D printing industry will top $6 billion by 2017 and grow to a massive $10.8 billion by 2021. Even though 3D printing has been around in the global market for over three decades now, the concept was alien to Pakistan until a couple of years ago. It was not until Afaque Ahmed and Yasin Altaf — two friends who wanted to help their children develop an understanding of science — ended up launch-
1992 PARTS ARE BUILT, LAYER BY LAYER The first stereolithographic machine is produced by 3D systems, which produces three-dimensional parts layer-by-layer. Although far from perfect, the machine proved that complicated parts could be manufactured overnight.
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COVER STORY ing a scientific learning centre that the country got its first ever 3D printer. The duo established Robotics Labs in Karachi, the only modern scientific learning centre in Pakistan so far. The laboratory is helping young children learn about the latest technologies, which include but are not limited to 3D scanning, modeling and printing. It’s not only training possible future scientists but also, quietly, defining the way ahead for manufacturing in Pakistan. “My children would paint or draw different kinds of objects, jewellery and dolls for example, on paper and computers but had no platform to bring their ideas to a physical form,” says Ahmed. Funnily enough, it was a toy that his daughter would break often which pushed him to look for a solution. “My daughter had a small helicopter and she would frequently break its rotor coupling,” Ahmed says. “Since I could not find that part anywhere in Pakistan, I decided to manufacture it myself and bought a 3D printer — so that’s how all of this started,” he says. The printer might have helped Ahmed’s daughter make the broken part of her helicopter, but he remained frustrated as a father at the lack of availability of science-based courses for his children. Ahmed was not alone in his struggle to find a scientific learning centre for his children. “After exhausting all options in Karachi, we realised there wasn’t a single place where we could send ourr kids to learn taf. There were about science,” says Robotics Labs co-founder Altaf. i but ic butt nothing programmes in arts, painting, karate and music o through thro th r ugh with ro based on science, which motivated the men to go e science-based scie sc ienc n e-based d the launch of Robotics. According to Ahmed, the bout bo ut practical lab that uses robotics to train young children a about the e time of its science was a fresh concept even in the US at th launch in Pakistan. ry’s ry y’ss b righ ghtt The long-accepted trend has been for the country’s bright wo ffri r en ends d minds settle abroad for a better life, but these two friends ecch fi fir rms took the opposite route. After working at high-tech firms in Silicon Valley for 13 years, both Ahmed and Altaf reW mightt We turned home to connect with their families.“We have been able to earn a lot more in San Jose, California ly and but the satisfaction of staying close to our family nd making some tangible contribution to society and the economy is unmatched,” says Ahmed. l-Although advanced 3D printers are now avails ic st able, the one at Robotics is one that prints plastic antt to an o rrep ep-objects. “Firstly, you either scan a product you want repa,” exp e xpla lain inss licate or design one based on your original idea,” explains er a and instrucMuhammad Hasan Shariq, a managing engineer ou improve or tor at the Robotics Lab. “In the second step, you er your specific specifiic modify it — change its size, design etcetera as per 30 needs through a high-end 3D modeling software, are, and iin n the DECEMBER 1-7 2013
After Afterexhausting exhausting all all options optionsin in Karachi, we we realised realised there there wasn’t aasingle single place where we wecould could send send our kids to tolearn learnabout about science. This Thisis iswhy why we started Robotics Robotics Lab Lab - Yasin Altaf
1999 HUMAN ORGANS: CHARTERING NEW TERRITORY The first lab grown organ is planted into humans, using a synthetic 3-D scaffold covered with their own cells. This paved for more ways of producing human organs, including printing them. The chances of rejection are also minimal because they are made using the person’s own cells.
2002 final step, you print it.” Structured in a vertical rectangular wooden box without any side walls, the 3D printer has a 10cm by 10cm base area, which can print small objects that can be used for multiple purposes, ranging from making human body parts to tools to toys and large scale industrial components.“With applications in a range of industries, 3D printers can produce almost any object,” says Shariq. “The possibilities are endless, it just depends on how creative you are.” One of the uses of 3D printing involves experimenting and prototyping to check how an object would look like after being manufactured. Once convinced of the product’s model (its dimensions, design etc), you can proceed with large-scale manufacturing of the same at factory level. Recently, the Pak Suzuki Motor Company approached the lab to print a prototype of a new spare part that they were planning to install in their automobiles. “They gave us their design in a 3D model and we printed it for them. Had they manufactured it through their own product line, it would have been very costly,” explains Shariq. Similarly, Zain Mustafa, an architect, came to them to convert his designs into 3D models that could be shown to his clients. Instead of seeing what their houses would look like on paper, the clients could now hold the model in their hands and get a feel for the design. “Mustafa was also working on a project for historical sites and sent us pictures of Makli tombs that we converted in 3D and printed for him,” says Pir Arkam Suharwardy, a telecom engineer and instructor at Robotics Lab. However, the biggest use of this technology is in bio-engineering. Scientists are printing human body parts, such as the nose, ears, hands and legs through 3D printers and installing them in the human body. “In one such example, an American had a hand printed for his son for just $12. His son can now play
A FUNCTIONING 3D KIDNEY Scientists manufacture an artificial kidney that filters blood and produces dilated urine in an animal. This development led to the aim of printing organs and tissues using 3D technology.
2005 A PRINTER THAT PRINTS ITS OWN PARTS RepRap, an open source printing initiative is founded that allows a printer to print most of its own parts. The purpose of the project is to enable people everywhere to create their own products.
2006 MANUFACTURE ACCORDING TO YOUR OWN DESIGN The first selective laser sintering machine comes into effect, allowing a laser to fuse material into 3D objects. This development paves way for mass-customisation of industrial parts. The same year, another machine is created which allows printing in multiple materials. DECEMBER 1-7 2013
COVER STORY basket ball,” says Suharwardy. In Pakistan, the awareness about 3D modeling and printing is gradually increasing and members of academia along with other industries are now approaching the laboratory. “We recently helped a student from SZABIST make a 3D printer as part of his project,” says Suharwardy. One of the most amazing aspects of a 3D printer is that it can produce its own replica since it is capable of printing up to 60% of its own parts. “This can come in handy if you want a nationwide rollout of 3D printers.” It costs around $1,200 to import an unassembled 3D printer but producing it here can bring down the cost to as low as $300 to $400. While it might not be of the same quality, it can still be used for various purposes. But for the pioneers of this technology in Pakistan, advancing science education remains on top of their agenda. “You can teach the concepts of 3D modeling to students who will learn how to convert those concepts to physical form and manufacture a range of objects, cartoons, toys etc, using those techniques,” says Ahmed. Being proficient in the technology also gives students an edge in the job market. “3D modelling is gaining acceptance in all industries, whether it is architecture, entertainment or advertisind. So, it would be of great help to me regardless of which field I choose,” says Alishba Chapsi who took a 3D addiction course at Robotics. The duo is also currently looking for ways to ensure a wider audience for this technology rather than keeping it limited to a certain income class.“Our goal is to push this science lab to TCF schools, a nationwide school network covering about 150,000
underprivileged students,” says Ahmed. The project, however, is currently pending because of funding constraints. “We have asked them to find some big donor for this purpose. Currently, we train these children only through field trips to our labs.” Their desire to create a level playing field was best seen recently when a child with visual impairment built his robotic design, which is otherwise easy to do for children who have full vision. Unlike the normal practice of text-based programming, the laboratory teaches robotics through block-based programming since it is easier for young children to understand. Children select blocks, and piece them together to design robots on a computer. However, a visually impaired child can’t do it on a computer so they printed out those blocks based on the braille system. The child, by touching and feeling, connected those blocks to build a robot, said Zartaj Waseem, manager STEM education at Robotics. If you are innovative, the potential of this technology knows no bounds. The printers have also been used to make chocolate cakes. “All they had to do was replace plastic with raw chocolate,” says Ahmed. In May 2013, NASA also invested $125,000 in a Texas-based company to develop 3D printed food for astronauts. The idea was to find ways to design an assortment of meals from a limited number of ingredients in a low-gravity environment. Like all revolutionary inventions, the technology can be drastically misused if it falls into the wrong hands — for example, being used to print firearms.“You can’t manufacture a gun from plastic-based 3D printer but metallic ones can certainly do that and that, too, very cheaply,” says Ahmed. Solid Concepts, a Texas-based company printed the first 3D metal gun last month, arousing a great deal of concern and controversy. It would not be incorrect to compare the open access that 3D printing allows to the internet. The average Joe now has the capacity to print whatever he wants, without any quality or safety checks. Once, the technology becomes more common, it also poses the risk of putting a lot of people out of jobs. While the world is still struggling to harness and regulate the wonders of the digital world, it would only be sensible to introduce some kind of regulation or governing principles for this new post-industrial world order before it unlocks another Pandora’s Box that lies beyond our control. T
2008 THE FIRST PRINTER THAT REPLICATES ITSELF The RepRap project releases the first self-replicating printer that is able to print most of its own parts.
2009 DIY 3D PRINTER KITS COME TO THE MARKET DIY printer kits that allow users to make their own 3D printers and products become available in the market. THE FIRST 3-D PRINTED BLOOD VESSEL A 3D bioprinter prints the first blood vessel.
2011 3D GETS WINGS The first 3D aircraft was printed in seven days with a budget of £5,000. 3D ON WHEELS A sleek and environmentally friendly car with a complete 3D printed body is unveiled. If it becomes commercially available, the car would sell for anywhere between $10,000 and $50,000. PROVING ITS METAL For the first time, 14K gold and sterling silver are used as raw material in 3D printers, opening up cheaper avenues for jewellery producers.
A two-week 3D Addiction course at Robotics Lab costs Rs9,500. For further details contact 021-35241256 With Additional Input by Raheel Essa Farooq Baloch is a business reporter at The Express Tribune. He tweets @alifaarooq
2012 A 3D PRINTED PROSTHETIC JAW An 83-year-old woman suffering from a chronic bone infection was implanted with a customised 3D prosthetic jaw by doctors in the Netherlands. The technology has the potential to pave way for the growth of new bone tissue. SOURCE: T ROWE PRICE
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Sculpted by various cultural influences, Hyderabadis hold age-old traditions close to heart BY FERYA ILYAS ILLUSTRATION BY JAMAL KHURSHID DESIGN BY KIRAN SHAHID
Swathed Sw S w in an off-white cotton ssari, arii,, ar Zubeida Bibi sits on her takht, deftly Z Zu u efttlyy preparing paan for her guests. With pre pr itth a glistening silver paandan resting next glis glis gl is ne n ext xt to to her, she hurriedly wraps the green re ee en leaves le eav v as she notices a couple of guests uests essts ts winding up their meal. Her aim, like w wi n liike e always, is to ensure that none off th a al lw tthe he guests leave the dastarkhwan without gu u houtt ho a jjuicy paan in their mouth. Her grandand n for cchildren flock around her, asking ffo ch or a bite of the stuffed leafy goodness but b are shooed away with promises of a a treat once the guests depart. Zubeida ttr r Bibi B Bi b is one of the many Hyderabadis who wh w ho migrated to Pakistan after Partition tiion on and is determined to keep the ways of of her h ancestors alive through these small ssm ma rituals. Her community, which is largely larg la rg defined by its food, language and mannerisms, is one of the many formerman ma lyy m migrant groups that make Karachi a subcontinent in itself. sub su
History The Hyderabadis who came to Pakistan come from the Deccan region of India. Tracing their footsteps in history, we learn that the area was ruled by the Bahmani Sultanate in 1347. The empire was the first Muslim kingdom in the southern part of India and was founded by Alauddin Hassan, an Afghan by birth and a descendant of Persian King Bahman. How he landed in India is not clear, however, what is known is that he established the Bahmani Empire in the area after revolting against the Delhi Sultanate that ruled the Indian subcontinent at the time. When the Bahmani Empire started to deteriorate in the 16th century, Sultan Quli Qutbul Mulk, who served the then-Bahmani sultan, conquered the empire’s main city of Golkonda and declared independence from the Bahmani Sultanate. Quli, who migrated to India from a federation consisting of presentday Azerbaijan, Armenia, Iraq and parts of Iran and Turkey, established the Qutb Shahi dynasty in Golkonda in 1518. Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah, the fifth ruler of the Qutb Shahi dynasty, founded the city of Hyderabad in 1591. The city derives its name from Hyder, the title of the fourth caliph of Islam Hazrat Ali (RA), which means lion. Another myth states that the city was named after the founder’s wife Bhagamati who was named Hyder Mahal after she converted to Islam,
while another version claims it was named after his son. The Qutb Shah Dynasty ruled Golkonda for 171 years but was forced to acknowledge the Mughal Empire’s authority in the later years. In 1687, the area was taken over by Mughal emperor Aurangzeb and was made a province of the empire. In 1724, Nizamul Mulk Qamaruddin, a Mughal viceroy, declared independence from the Mughal Empire and established the Asif Jahi Dynasty. During the rule of this dynasty which lasted for two centuries, Hyderabad became a prominent Muslim state and a stronghold of Islamic identity in the Indian sub-continent which was greatly influenced by colonial culture. When the British colonial forces arrived in India and strengthened their grip on the subcontinent, the Asif Jahi ruler signed an alliance with the British East India Company. In 1798, Asif Jahi dynasty’s capital, Hyderabad, became a princely state under the Company’s governance. And then Partition happened. The princely states present were given a choice between joining Pakistan, India or staying independent. Hyderabad decided against joining the Indian Union and opted to stay sovereign, surrounded by Indian states. However, the independence didn’t last very long and the Indian army forcibly took over in 1948. The majority of the people who migrated from Indian Hyderabad arrived in Kara- 37 DECEMBER 1-7 2013
PROFILE chi and settled mainly in Hyderabad Colony, Laiqabad and Bahadurabad. (This historical account has been compiled from the following sources: Locating Home: India’s Hyderabadis Abroad, Our faithful ally, the Ni th N izza a am, m,, T m he IIndian he nd n dia ian Em ian E mppiir Its People, History and Products, Golconda mpi the Nizam, The Empire: T Th hrooug ugh gh T Ti im mee: A Mirr M Mi irr rroorr ooff th tthe h Evolving Deccan, Hyderabad State and the Through Time: Mirror Greate Gr eate ea t r Hyderabad Hy H yde era raba abad bad Municipal ba Mu Mu Greater Corporation website)
Whet W Wh he ett yyour our ap ou our appetite pp pe ettiite te More M Mo ore e tthan han anything, ha han a yt an ythi hiing hi ng ng, g, the Hyderabadi community is known for for its fo its mouth-watering it mo m ou utthh-w wa ate eri ri cuisine, which is a unique blend of of Mughlai, Mu ug gh hlla aii, A Ar Arabic rab bicc a and Telugu food. Typical to any Indian d sh di h, the th he Hyderabadi Hyd Hy Hyde de era raba badi d food di f dish, is a blend of aromatic spices and herrb he bs, s the th he e most mosst p herbs, prominent ingredients being coconut, tam ta tama ma arriin nd d d,, peanuts and sesame seeds. tamarind, Accco Ac corrd d According to Henna Khan, a Hyderabadi moth mo ther er people expect to be served kachi yakhni mother, ki biryani, bir irya an mirchi ka salan, begharay baigun and khooki bba ani n kka a meetha when they attend a Hyderababani di get-together. ge ett di Ho How ow However, Khan says these are festive diish d ish hes es associated mainly but not exclusivedishes ly tto o important iim m ly occasions such as weddings or E id On an average day, a Hyderabadi id or Eid. ki k itc tche he is filled with the aroma of simmerkitchen iin ng kkh ha ha daal, dalcha or tamater ka kut, to be ing khatti sserved se erv ved dw with kulfa ghost or dum ka qeema. “W We a “We also have a great snack menu with llu uqm uqm mi, sp pe ecc dahi baray and mirchi pakori,” boasts a luqmi, special vi v isi sib blly de d el visibly delighted Khan. C Ch hakna akkna a na,, however, is the one controversial dish Chakna, on tthe on he H he y Hyderabadi menu, which the older gener e ra attio on ccannot get enough of but the younger eration on o ness ttry rry y hard to disown. A spicy stew made ones ou o ut off g o tripe, chakna also contains chunks out goat of lliver of iv verr a and kidneys. If you feel daring enough to og ive iit a try, visit Karachi’s Hyderabad Colive iv give o on ny and ny an nd ask anyone to direct you the closest ony jjoint jo oin nt se sselling el this chopped-up delicacy.
Th T he wh w ho nine yards: Fabric, The whole sstyle st tyylle a an nd ffa as and fashion With Wi W ith th ttraditions ra adi diti tio on ns that are as grand as their cuisine, ns their tth hei eir aesthetics ae a esttheti heti he tics cs lack no splendour either. Hyderabadi women wo w omen me m en can c n be ca be seen carrying elaborate, six- metre long lo ong ng d up u pa attta tas during d long dupattas wedding ceremonies. Their tradi d ition tion ti ona all d ress re ss called ca ditional dress the kurtanni comprises a twin-layer e red d sshirt, hirrttt,, cch hi hu urr ered churidaar pajama and a long dupatta that iss w rra apped pped pp ed a rou the body in a specific style known rou ro wrapped around as khara khar kh khar ara d du uppa atttta. T as dupatta. The method of pinning the dupatta
The Hyderabadi community, which is largely defined by its food, language and mannerisms, is one of the many formerly migrant groups that make Karachi a subcontinent in itself
Language It is easy to spot a Hyderabadi once they start speaking. Based on a combination of words from Urdu, Hindi and Telugu, the Hyderabadi dialect is different from the mainstream version of Urdu. Try saying some of these common words used in Hyderabadi Urdu:
around the body is so intricate that only a few women in any family have mastered the art. Shamin Arif is one of those women in her family. She tries to arrive early to family weddings anticipating frantic girls, carrying their dupatta with a bunch of safety pins, looking for her. While many think it is a complex way of tying a simple dupatta, Arif does it meticulously. “It’s fairly simple if you get the hang of the method and the sequence,” says Arif. For men, the attire consists of a plain kurta over a white pajama, while on special occasions they would don simple sherwanis. Today, this is a rare sight with a vast majority sticking to the standard shalwar kameez.
Sui generis traditions Influenced by various cultures over the years, Hyderabadi traditions are intriguing to say the least. Nazia Ahsan, a Hyderabadi who has lived in both Pakistan and India, shared a few fascinating customs followed by the community. She, however, was quick to mention that these practises vary from family to family. - The bride is given a special necklace called kali poath (Hyderabadi version of mangalsutra — a sacred Hindu thread given by the groom to the bride) after the wedding ceremony. In the ritual, the mother-in-law puts the necklace around saath suhaguns (seven married women) before she places it around the bride’s neck. Similarly, many wedding-related rituals are performed with the help of married women as it is assumed it brings good luck to the new bride. - Hyderabadis believe in the concept of Charshamba — Wednesday in Hindi. Important work is avoided on this day of the week, for they believe that anything that happens on Wednesday repeats itself three more times. For instance, if someone dies in a family on this day, it is believed that three more deaths will follow. - Hyderabadis emphasise manners and etiquettes; the young usually greet elders with an adaab or bowing their head in respect. The elder person reciprocates by gently placing their hand over the head, or sometimes by kissing the forehead. The elders also expect the younger members of the family not to seat themselves at a level higher than theirs. - Many Hyderabadi families also take great care during their daughter’s first pregnancy. The woman is brought home in the seventh month of her pregnancy following a ceremony called Satwasa, in which she is given seven fruits of the season as a present. On the sixth day after the birth of the baby, the baby is given a name at a ceremony called chatti. Forty days after the birth date, the parents are showered with gifts in yet another gathering called chilla. This also marks the return of the mother to her in-laws’ house. As the guests leave, Zubeida Bibi takes a deep breath while her stomach growls in protest. Her mind has been so preoccupied with feeding her guests that she has not put a single morsel in her mouth all day. In her books, it is impolite not to give complete attention to your visitors. But before she can savour the biryani and mirchi ka salan, she has one more important task left. Her wide-eyed grandchildren are still waiting for their share of the paan. And she must prepare it with extreme care if the original taste is to be preserved for future generations. T
F act box • The city of Hyderabad in Pakistan has nothing to do with the Hyderabadi community that migrated from India. • Famous TV personality, Anwar Maqsood traces his roots to Hyderabad. Professional tennis player Sania Mirza was also brought up in Hyderabad, India. • After 1947, most of the Hyderabadis initially settled in Karachi’s Hyderabad Colony, Laiqabad and Bahadurabad area. • ‘Charminar’ (Four towers) — the global icon of Hyderabad, India — was replicated in Pakistan in the form of a roundabout in the Bahadurabad neighborhood of Karachi. • Hyderabadis never speak in a literal sense; when they say they want something itna sa (just a little), they don’t really mean little. When they say they did something parson (day before yesterday), they mean they did it ages ago.
Ferya Ilyas works with The Express Tribune as a sub-editor. She tweets @ferya_ilyas DECEMBER 1-7 2013
Gripped by a basic need for shelter, Basho turns a blind eye to deforestation TEXT AND PHOTOS BY AMEER HAMZA DESIGN BY ASIF ALI
asho forests are the pride of Baltistan, but my recent visit to the area stripped this myth and laid it bare. Just like the forests. What baffled me more was the apathy from those who thrive on these forests than the absence of the lush green landscape promised to me by my Balti friend, Tipu.
Almost as a forewarning, even the route to Basho is as dangerous as the looming threat to the ecosystem in the area. Nearly 40kms before approaching Skardu city, a sharp turn descends into a precariouslooking bridge that is suspended over the furiously flowing River Indus. If one is not skilled or courageous enough to maneuver the jeep over these wooden planks, I’d suggest they walk across it. The waterfall that welcomes you after this treacherous drive however is quite uplifting and following it is the final ascent up to the receding forests of Basho. The landscape here is inundated with settlements. The rows and rows of houses in the village, commonly known as Khar Basho village, explain the cause for deforestation. The winding ride through the village ends at the mouth of the Basho forest valley and what it now holds comes as a major disappointment. Only traces remain of this once thriving forest. I feel an overwhelming urge to leave but the weight of exhaustion and the expense of travelling holds us back. After spending Rs4,000 on a jeep ride, the decision to spend two nights at a community rest house seemed like the most practical thing to do. Our guide, Sher Muhammad, informed us that the income of this rest house is purportedly distributed equally among the villagers of Basho. But a little bit of inquiry reveals that the major chunk of the income was pocketed by a contractor, Yonus, leaving only a meager sum for each household that is distributed annually, by the end of the tourist season. The services at the rest house were below par and the
tea served here was perhaps the worst I’ve ever had. Day one was hence spent agonising over how to best spend the second day in the absence of the area’s biggest pull factor — the forest. Next morning, however, things seemed a bit brighter. The sun shone over the mountain top, making it a perfect day for photography. I left the rest house with my equipment to head down to the river. In the absence of the forest, the mountains on all four sides satiated my appetite for photography. Although they are not as high or as impressive as the K2, they manage to strike a chord with everyone who visits the place. Basho suddenly got a lot more interesting as I grudgingly admitted to myself that beauty can take any shape. It was also the first day out on the hills for the nomads. Women and children were dressed for this special occasion to see off their husbands and fathers as they wander through the mountains for months. Only a few stay back to tend to their families in case of an emergency as the nearest hospital is all the way in Skardu. According to a villager however, the village is very safe and the last time someone was shot here was nearly 10 years ago. Everyday life in the village is uneventful explains our guide, Muhammad. Most of the village elders have been to Karachi. “Karachi is our mother,” they claim. But perturbed by the recent developments in the city they claim that Karachi is sadly no longer safe for them. “The best chefs in Karachi come from Basho village,” claims a villager proudly, adding that the chief chef at Spicy Roll is from Basho. Many villagers travel to the city to look for opportunities to earn and the new houses that continue to spring up across the village are directly linked to their stable earnings in the city. As my visit here comes to an end, I prepare for my journey back home; carrying luggage to the jeep under a merciless sun, without any forest trees in the vicinity that could provide shade. Before we checked out however, I had a chance to speak to the chief forest ofDECEMBER 1-7 2013
The Pakistan Forest Act of 1927 states that the forests in Balistan and Basho are government property
ficer and range officer who had just made their way up to the rest house for a routine meeting with the villagers to discuss local problems. In the meeting, a local is granted a permit to use the forest wood to build a house. According to the Pakistan Forest Act of 1927, the forests in Balistan, including those in Basho have been absorbed as part of the government’s property with only ‘use’ rights extended to villagers. They must seek permission DECEMBER 1-7 2013
from the government for the use of forest products. Wanting to learn more about the destruction of forest land, I decided to confront the man. “Who cut all these trees?” I cut to the chase. The officer swiftly dismisses my query with, “which organisation do you belong to?” He then proceeds to give an unconvincing explanation, blaming the state of the forest on alpine conditions. But this does not explain the overnight appearance of tree stumps. My protest falls on deaf ears as the officer requests me to set up a meeting with him in Skardu regarding any further queries. His reluctance to address the issue was answer enough. During the winter season, when temperatures in Basho drop to a reported -25 degrees centigrade and there are no forest officers to keep an eye, many villagers commit wood theft to light fires to keep warm. Although a ban was imposed on all commercial exploitation of forests throughout the Northern Areas in 1986, many instances of theft continue to be reported. During 1997, more than 90 loads (one load equaling 1,200kg) of wood were transported to Skardu without official permit, according to a case study by Jawad Ali from the Aga Khan Rural Support Programme, Baltistan. And according to our jeep’s driver (a former driver for the lumber mafia), every single villager in Basho has a part to play in this callous plunder. Ameer Hamza is a former curator for Getty Images USA. He tweets @ameerhamzaadhia
[Un]Predictable games Amidst dark tales, Fatima Bhutto manages to shine as a writer BY SAMRA MUSLIM
As unfair as it sounds, one picks up Fatima Bhutto’s first foray at fiction writing not because of an appealing plotline or positive reviews, but for the tragic family legacy she carries with her Bhutto surname — being the late Zulfikar Ali Bhutto’s granddaughter, niece of the slain former prime minister Benazir Bhutto and daughter of slain political leader Mir Murtaza Bhutto. The Shadow of the Crescent Moon set in Mir Ali, a small town in the troubled tribal region of Waziristan (or the FATA area as we mark it on the map of Pakistan), chronicles the story of three brothers (Aman Erum, Sikandar and Hayat) and the two women close to them (Mina and Samarra) through the course of a single, eventful morning. The story that unfolds is a bitter tale of betrayal, discrimination, oppression and a e war that has no closure because there are just too many sides to it — the Taliban, the army, the religious divide between Sunnis and Shias and the people of the land. In a Gulf News interview, Bhutto disclosed that “When I was a journalist, I had travelled a lot. All the things that did not fit into articles, all the little moments you have with people, those stayed with me. The surge in this book came from that period of journeys. The scenery or the descriptions come from what I saw. So, even though it iiss fiction, The Shadow of the Crescent Moon is not a fake story.” ck While the book contains some lovely imagery, its vivid setting fails to offset the lack ro oun und da of a proper closure as many questions are left unanswered. The novel is structured a around gin ng th the e single morning, but various backstories are filled in through extended flashbacks tugging reader in multiple directions that often becomes difficult to keep track of. The characters stand in stark contrast with each other and most pop up and die down in the narrative, only for their significance to dawn on us pages later. Samarra, the mysterious Colonel Tarik and even Sikandar’s wife, Mina, were initially mentioned in a very forgettable manner. Pleasantly however, it is the female characters in the novel that are much stronger then the three male protagonists. In the end, the reader just feels more connected to the g gr iie evviing n M Min na or tthe h reb he b grieving Mina rebellious Samarra than either of the three brothers. A ma majo j r di jo dis sapp appoi oii major disappointment is Bhutto’s writing which is inconsistent and tte end ds to vvar ary fr ar ffrom ro poetic to breezy, to extremely perceptive. But, there tends vary is a m emor em ora able ab le section in the book when Aman Erum travels to Ismemorable la am ma abad ba ad fo or h lamabad for his US visa interview — which showed sheer brilliance. O Ov erra alll,, tthe h book gives one a strong sense of déjà vu, as it is Overall, a al lso so a p olit ol itic ticc also political-religious narrative that is telling a story of Pakist tan an tthat hat ha ha h a been ventured by Mohsin Hamid and Mohammed stan has H Ha niif in n n ttheir hei he ei works. But it succeeds far more than it fails. Only a Hanif few fe w de d ebu b t no debut novels can adequately communicate a theme or messa age g —a n the end result here is complex and compassionate nd sage and att tthe a he ssame time. he Samra Sam S mra Muslim is a digital marketing professional, an avid reader and mo buff. She tweets @samramuslim a movie
Available at Liberty Books for Rs995
The Shadow of the Crescent Moon is Bhutto’s fourth book. Her earlier works are: • Whispers of the Desert, a volume of poetry which was published in 1997 by Oxford University Press, Pakistan when she was 15 years old, • 8.50 am. October 8, 2005, a collection of first-hand accounts from survivors of the earthquake in Pakistan, and • Songs of Blood and Sword, a memoir on the life of her father, Mir Murtaza, who was murdered when she was just 14.
Bean there, might do that The swirls of dry, ground coffee hide certain clues that can give you a brief glimpse into the future. But those who want to decrypt secrets through coffee reading must be prepared to gulp the bitter-sweet truth the beans behold. Accounts of the origin of coffee reading are many and varied, but there is consensus regarding regardi the fact that the reader must sp be spiritual and should be gifted with s a strong intuition. “Everything app peared so clearly before my eyes w when I did my first reading,” says Pari Dokht, who has been coffee reading for family and friends for the past 15 years. The symbols and patterns formed by the coffee grounds just flashed before her eyes and she immediately felt connected tto them. “At the time it was for a friend in India and she was left in a state of awe when I reported instanc from her present and offered stances insight into her future.” insights While tthe art of visualising patterns grou in coffee grounds may remain a mystery to preparati of the coffee cup is fairly simmany, the preparation
Decoding the beans
What some of the shapes and figures represent: Window
The residue in your coffee cup can give you a glimpse into what lies ahead BY DILAIRA MONDEGARIAN DESIGN TALHA AHMED KHAN
lains that, “a teaspoon of ple. To prepare the blend, Dokht explains hicker conTurkish ground coffee, carefully selected for its thicker sistency, is added to a small coffee cup full of boiling water.” It is allowed to rest for a while after which one is asked to drink it slowly and make a wish after taking the last sip. A saucer is then placed on top of the cup and, once it is well sealed, rotated clockwise at chest level. “It should always face the heart,” Dokht says. The cup is then placed upside down on the saucer and left in the same position for a few minutes, allowing the grounds to cool down and dry up. “This will create patterns and symbols as the grounds slowly slide towards the saucer,” she says. The cup is then placed upright on the saucer for the reader to decrypt the symbols and patterns. “I wish I had noted down everything when I got my coffee read,” says *Mina Hussain who had requested Dokht for a reading. She came with many questions, like everyone else, about her life ahead and to clear her mind before pursuing a business venture. “She told me I would be travelling to a distant land and at the time I never thought I would actually be off to Australia for two weeks. She also saw a camel in my coffee cup and told me I had to fulfil my mannat (wish).” And while Hussain was informed about her good fortunes, not every coffee reading ends on a happy note. To be able to peak through a window into the future, one must be prepared for even the worst. T Dilaira Mondegarian is a subeditor on The Express Tribune Magazine desk. She tweets @DilairaM
A standing couple
Funnel-shaped coffee trail
The start of a relationship.
If the two vertical lines grow
But, if the girl is standing
wider apart as they reach the
at the distance, then that
brim of the cup, it means one
shall be travelling in the near
future. But, if the coffee trail
Health in your home.
appears slashed at any point,
it means that your plans will
An old man Someone who
Shade of the coffee trail
If it is a lighter shade, it
months or even years,
is commonly noted that
depending on the interpreter.
They could symbolise days,
one is happy. But, if it is
a deep shade of brown, it
implies depression and
Gift or money.
unhappiness. DECEMBER 1-7 2013
will help and