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ETHIOPIA Part 7 1968 - 1970 Emperor Haile Selassie’s Ethiopia

By Espen Solheim

April 18, 1968 – Death Centenary of Emperor Theodor II From the official Ethiopian post office presentation folder: Emperor Theodore reigned over the Empire of Ethiopia from 1855 until 1868. April 22, 1968 is the centenary of his death. In 1818, a son was born to Dejazmatch Haile Mariam of Quarra. He was named Kassa. He was sent to a clergy school where he acquired a keen interest for learning and diligently applied himself to the study of Amharic, Geez, literature and theology. Many years later, the French Consul Lejean was to describe Kassa as the “most learned Ethiopian of his time.” Kassa’s education did not consist solely of academic pursuits. His childhood and adolescence were spent in an often harsh environment of struggle. This was the era of the Grand Lords when authority in Ethiopia was split among the four main regions of Gondar, Gojam, Tigre and Shoa, each with a Lord vying for the other’s power. Consequently, the strife of regional military and political violence tempered the outlook and ambition of the young Kassa. Kassa’s environment instilled in him the desire to bring unity and harmony to Ethiopia. As Kassa became attuned to political realities, he began to consolidate his military and political power. The Lords, in turn, became suspicious and fearful of this young man. Their suspicion and fear inevitably resulted in military clashes. The strength of young Kassa was put to the test, and he set about the task of unifying the country, which he accomplished on February 7, 1855, when he was anointed Theodore Emperor of Ethiopia. Almost immediately after taking the throne, Theodore found his Empire faced with external threats and pressures. Activities of some foreign missionaries and consular representatives within Ethiopia forced Theodore to take certain measures that eventually brought him into conflict with Great Britain. This ultimately resulted in an armed confrontation between the British Army and Theodore’s forces at Magdala, Theodore’s high mountain fortress located in the northeastern part of Ethiopia. A fierce battle ensued between the two armies, in which Theodore’s army, fought courageously. Theodore realized that the defeat of his army, fighting without the benefit of then modern weaponry, was inevitable. On Easter Monday, 1868 Theodore dismissed his followers and retired to Magdala. It was there Theodore chose to take his own life rather than allow himself, an Emperor, to be captured or killed by foreign hands. Today, Ethiopians remember Emperor Theodore. He is a national symbol, a symbol of Ethiopian unity, pride, unique heroism, courage and national dignity. It is the occasion of the centenary of Theodore’s death that the Post Office has chosen to honor this national hero by the issuance of this set of commemorative stamps. The denominations are; 10c – Portrait of Emperor Theodore, 20c – Emperor Theodore with lions, 50c – Crown of Emperor Theodore.

Details of the stamps Denominations: Size: Quantity: Designer:

Printers: Process of printing:

Lord Napier storms the Magdala fortress in 1868

10c, 20c and 50c 42 x 26 mm incl. perforations 250,000 sets 10C-De Baudran from the book Theorore II, by G. Lejean; 20C-Emile Bayard after a sketch by G. Lejean; 50C-from a sketch in the Illustrated London News of the Abyssinian Exposition Thomas De La Rue, London Photo-Offset

May 31, 1968 – Human Rights Year From the official Ethiopian post office folder: The United Nations General Assembly on 12 December, 1963, designated the year 1968 for the purpose of commemorating the 20th Anniversary of Human Rights. The Commission on Human Rights and the Economic and Social Council has been engaged since its foundation in 1947 in preparing an International Bill of Rights. The first of the three proposed parts of this document took the form of a Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which was proclaimed without dissenting vote, by the General Assembly on December 10th 1948. Since 1950, when the Assembly proclaimed the Anniversary of this event as the Human Rights Day, December 10 has been widely observed by both member and non-member states. In its 30 articles the Declaration of Human Rights affirms that all men have the right to life, liberty, and security of person; to freedom from arbitrary arrest; to a fair trial by an independent and impartial tribunal; to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to the law and with non-retroactivity of the law; to freedom from interference with privacy, home or correspondence; to asylum; to a nationality; to own property; to freedom of thought, conscience, and religion; to freedom of opinion and expression; to association and peaceful assembly; to work, to rest and leisure; to a standard of living adequate for health and wellbeing; to education; and to participate in the social life of the community. These rights and freedoms were declared by the Assembly to be a "common standard of achievements for all peoples and all nations", and the Member States, the Secretary General, and the Specialized Agencies were asked to help spread awareness of them through the world. A Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, the Slave Trade and Institutions and, Practices Similar to Slavery went into force in 1957, bringing up to date the provisions of the Slavery Convention concluded in 1926 under the League of Nations. It marked the end of a century and a half of international effort to stamp out slavery in all its forms. In the dedication of this year 1968 to Human Rights is the recondition that human rights is the most basic need in the world today, for what use is economic development if it does not promote better standards of life in larger freedom, and for what purpose is international peace and security to be maintained, if not to preserve the right to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. Details of the stamps Denominations : 15c and 1$ Size : 26 x 42 mm (incl. perforation) Quantity : 200,000 Sets Designer : Adapted from the UN Human Rights Emblem Printers : Harrison and Sons Limited, London Process of Printing : Photo-Offset in two colors

June 3, 1968 – State Visit of Shah of Iran From the official Ethiopian post office folder: Upon the invitation of His Imperial Majesty Haile Selassie 1, His Imperial Majesty Mohammed Reza Pahlavi Aryamehr Shahanshah of Iran, accompanied by Her Imperial Majesty Empress Farah Pahlavi Shahbanou of Iran, will visit Ethiopia commencing June 3, 1968.

On the occasion of this important State Visit of His Imperial Majesty Shahanshah of Iran, the Ministry of Posts, T. & T. of the Imperial Ethiopian Government has much pleasure in announcing the issue of new postage stamps. The stamps depict the portraits of His Imperial Majesty the Emperor of Iran with the Iranian flag on the left side and the portrait of His Imperial Majesty Emperor Haile Se1issie I with the Ethiopian flag on the right side, with the background color of royal blue.

Details of the stamps Denominations: 5c, 15c and 30c Size: 26 x 42 mm incl. perforations Quantity: 100,000 sets Designer: Berhanena Selam Printing Press Printers: Berhanena Selam Printing Press, Addis Ababa Process of printing: Photo-Offset in six colors

July 22, 1968 – Ethiopia's Struggle for Peace From the official Ethiopian post office presentation folder: Throughout its long history, Ethiopia had consistently struggled for the cause of World Peace and the strengthening of the Principle of Collective Security. This same principle was invoked by His Imperial Majesty Emperor Haile Selassie I in 1936 in Geneva to the League of Nations for the peaceful survival and freedom of all mankind. When the United Nations Security Council called for forces from member States to restore order and tranquility to the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia dispatched its Tekil Brigade and some civilian personnel to the country and by so doing Ethiopia further demonstrated her sincere determination for the maintenance of peace, not only within Africa, but throughout the world. Indeed, it was for these purposes and in order to bring to fruition the struggle for peace and for the preservation of the hard won independence of the African countries that His Imperial Majesty the Emperor took the initiative to convoke the 1963 African Heads of State Conference in Addis Ababa, at which the Organization of African Unity came into Four Sabre jets of the Imperial Ethiopian Air Force at Leopoldville for UN duty in the Congo. being. Needless to say that Ethiopia, for the purpose of world peace, has always supported Afro-Asian and nonaligned countries efforts toward realizing this goal, and in this connection the personal contributions of His Imperial Majesty Haile Selassie I have brought about commendable and fruitful results. It has always been the conviction of His Imperial Majesty that, in the Principle of Collective Security, rested the best hope for achieving the peace of the world and that through good will and understanding conflicts between nations can be resolved through peaceful negotiation.

Peacekeeping in Korea: Ethiopia sent the “Kagnew- battalion” which served with great distinction. 121 Ethiopians were killed and 536 wounded during the course of the conflict.

Details of the stamps Denominations: Size: Quantity: Designer: Printers: Process of printing:

15c, 35c and 1$ 30 x 51 mm incl. perforations 200,000 sets G. E. Robson Government Printing Press, Israel Photogravure

August 30, 1968 – 20th Anniversary of WHO From the official Ethiopian post office presentation folder: The World Health Organization (WHO) is an independent international agency with its own membership and financial resources. Membership in WHO is open to all States and in June 1966 it had 126 member states, including three associate members. 7 April 1948, the date of acceptance of the WHO Constitution by the required number of United Nations Member States, is celebrated yearly as World Health Day.

The first World Health Assembly was held at the birth of the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1948

The first World Health Assembly, the governing body of WHO, met in Geneva in 1948, and chose that city as their headquarters. Here the world-wide services of WHO are concentrated. WHO’s work covers all aspects of health and is primarily directed towards improving health services and stimulating national initiative. It has established six regional organizations, one each for Africa, The Americas, South-East Asia, Europe, Eastern Mediterranean and the Western Pacific. Each has a regional committee which meets once a year to review health work in the region and plan its continuation and development. Technical units at Headquarters in Geneva advise on such planning and methods.

A large part of WHO resources is devoted to education and training programs geared to the improvement of health services. WHO fellowships are granted to qualified health workers for studies not available in their own countries. Specialized training courses in such fields as malaria, anesthesiology, human genetics, and viral laboratory techniques are organized. WHO medical research efforts are directed towards problems that by their nature cannot be adequately investigated on the national level. The Organization works with institutions and laboratories all over the world, coordinating projects, testing new hypothesis and obtaining a clear picture of the different types of diseases in order to provide research workers with a basic tool in the search for the causes of various diseases. WHO works with the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization and the United Nations Children’s Fund to combat malnutrition and deficiency diseases, to improve food hygiene, and to control animal diseases that infect man or reduce food supplies. To meet special health needs international programs have been organized. The malaria eradication campaign launched in 1955 is the greatest venture in public health that the world has ever seen and aims at complete elimination of malaria everywhere. An intensified, well-coordinated global campaign for the eradication of smallpox as well was organized by the 19th World Health Assembly in 1967.

Demonstration of anti-malarial insecticidetreated bed nets in Ethiopia

In every Project in which it is involved, in every part of the world, the World Health Organization is striving to create conditions which will demonstrate that “health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence disease or infirmity.”

Details of the stamps Denominations: 15c and 60c Size: 42 x 26 mm incl. perforations Quantity: 200,000 sets Designer: Adapted from WHO Emblem Printers: Harrison and Sons, London Process of printing: Offset

October 12, 1968 – Olympic Games, Mexico From the official Ethiopian post office presentation folder: In commemoration of the Games of the XIX Olympiad which are to be held in Mexico this year, the Post Office Department of the Ministry of Posts, T. & T, has pleasure to announce the issuance, on October 12, 1968, of a series of five stamps depicting five games: Running, Football, Boxing, Basketball and Cycling. From Internet: The 1968 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XIX Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event held in Mexico City, Mexico, in October 1968. These were the first Olympic Games to be staged in Latin America, the first to be staged in a Spanish-speaking country, and the first to be staged in a developing country. They were also the third Games to be held in autumn, after the 1956 Games in Melbourne and the 1964 Games in Tokyo. The Mexican Student Movement of 1968 happened concurrently and the Olympic Games were correlated to the government's response. Catering for the event was handled by Cesar Balsa in participation with ARA Inc. Serving 10,000 athletes 30,000 meals a day. Ethiopia competed at the 1968 Summer Olympics in Mexico City, Mexico. 18 competitors, all men, took part in 13 events in 3 sports. Mamo Wolde Biography: As dramatic as Olympic participation can be, few athletes end up living a life as full of drama as Mamo Wolde, who won the marathon at the 1968 Games as well as taking silver in the 10 000 metres. Wolde would add a third Olympic medal four years later when he came third in the marathon at the age of 40, but events in Ethiopia two years later changed his life forever. In 1974 Wolde was spared when the Soviet-backed Marxist dictatorship known as The Derg murdered the Emperor Haile Selassie and went on to rule through terror. Wolde was given an honorary position and allowed to coach athletics, but one night he was taken to the scene of a murder, which he claimed to have no involvement in. But in 1993 he was put in prison, accused of participating in an execution, where he stayed without charge for several years. When he was eventually put up for trial after many delays, he went for time served. In early 2002 he was convicted to six years of imprisonment, but released because he had spent nine years in detention. Wolde died of liver cancer a few months after his release.

Gold: Mamo Wolde – Athletics, men's marathon Silver: Mamo Wolde – Athletics, men's 10000 meters

Details of the stamps Denominations: Size: Quantity: Designer: Printers: Process of printing:

10c, 15c, 20c, 40c and 50c 42 x 26 mm incl. perforations 250,000 sets G. E. Robson Istituto Poligrafico e Zecca dello Stato, Rome, Italy Photogravure

Athlete Age Mamo Wolde 36 Bekele Alemu 27 Bayu Ayele 19 Tegegne Bezabeh 27 Abebe Bikila 36 Fikru Deguefu 31 Tadesse Gebregiorgis 30 Fisihasion Ghebreyesus 27 Matias Habtemichael 17 Wohib Masresha 22 Gabrou Merawi 36 Yemane Negassi 22 Mehari Okubamicael 23 Mikael Saglimbeni 27 Mamo Sebsibe 24 Fantahun Seifu 20 Tadesse Wolde-Medhin 32 Tekeste Woldu 23

Sport Athletics Boxing Boxing Athletics Athletics Athletics Boxing Cycling Athletics Athletics Athletics Cycling Cycling Cycling Athletics Boxing Athletics Cycling

December 10, 1968 – Ethiopian Costumes (series 1) From the official Ethiopian post office presentation folder: The Post Office Department of the Ministry of Posts, T. & T. of Ethiopia has issued a special series of postage stamps depicting actual costumes used by Ethiopians throughout the country. There are actually many more National Costumes in Ethiopia than the Post Office is able to represent here, but the Costumes selected are, wherever possible, found to be widely known in a particular region and throughout the country. With the exception the Kaffa Costume, all other selected Costumes are in use today, either wholly or partially in different combinations. The Kaffa Costume is now extinct and was actually in use almost half a century ago. Because of its beauty and strong characteristics it has been chosen to be included in this selection instead of the present day costume. The designs include costumes from each of the following provinces of Ethiopia: Arussi, Gemu Gofa, Godjam, Kaffa, Harrar, Illubabor and Eritrea.

People visiting our camp in Shala, 1964

From Internet (Tourism Ethiopia): In general, the peoples of areas far from large population centers wear simple clothing ingeniously decorated. Near the Sudan Ethiopia frontier, the Koma women wear bark aprons trimmed with ostrich egg shell discs, while their chiefs may sport leopard skins slung about the shoulders, often over an Arab shirt. The Ingassana nationalities of southern Ethiopia go almost naked; the men may wear a belt covered with small pieces of iron, and the women a small apron of leather strips. The Suri chiefs wear Colobus monkey fur hats; and young men, though usually naked, may deck themselves out in a white bark belt, leather strap ornamented with notches, and short skin garment. The Gubba of Gojjam show a remarkable variety in dress, the men wearing padded cotton garments, while the women content themselves with jewelry and a small apron. Enset, the false banana plant, provides fibres for some regional wear, and Enset leaves are often put to use as umbrellas.

Of special note are the colorful costumes of the Hararghe people of eastern Ethiopia. In and near Dire Dawa and Harar the women dress in brilliant veils, tightly fitted velvet, silk, or cotton trousers, vivid printed or dyed over-blouses, and a profusion of the Nomadic women of the Somali, particularly in the Ogaden area, do not dress in the bright fabrics of the city women. Details of the stamps Denominations: 5c, 15c, 20c, 30c, 35c, 50c and 60c Size: 48 x 30 mm incl. perforations Quantity: 200,000 sets Designer: Afewerk Tekle Printers: Harrison and Sons Ltd, London Process of printing: Photoengraving

Weaving cotton in Lalibela (2002)

March 10, 1969 – 75th Anniversary of Ethiopian Postal Service From the official Ethiopian post office presentation folder: The Ethiopian Postal Service dates back to 1894 when it was established by Imperial Edict on 9 March of that year. With the construction of Djibouti – Addis Ababa Railway Line in 1999, regular distribution of mails has been more and more organized, and expanded. Since then with more expansion of air and land transport networks throughout the country, the postal service has increased its activities. In the international field, Ethiopia became a member of the Universal Postal Union as early as 1908. By the Post Office Proclamation of 1966, the Post Office was made an independent Department of the Ministry of Posts, Telegraphs & Telephones. This was done for the purpose of expanding, improving and bringing about more efficiency in the postal service of the country.

The first post offices in Addis Ababa

Early postman carrying letters on a stick

Details of the stamps Denominations: Size: Quantity: Designer: Printers: Process of printing:

10c, 15c and 35c 52 x 44 mm incl. perforations 250,000 sets Afewerk Tekle Thomas de La Rue, London Photogravure

Mail departure from Harar by mules

April 10, 1969 – 50th Anniversary of ILO From the official Ethiopian post office presentation folder: The International Labor Organization (ILO) was founded in 1919. Its Charter was drawn up during the World War I peace conference. The Organization was founded to bring together governments, employers and workers for united action in the cause of social justice and higher living standards. Universal peace, declares the Charter, can be established only if it is based on social justice. In the period between the wars the ILO functioned as an autonomous part of the League of Nations. It was the only major League body to survive the Second World War, and in 1946 it became the first specialized agency associated with the United Nations. The main task assigned to the ILO at the outset was that of improving the conditions of life by building up a comprehensive code of law and practice. This standard-setting function is still performed by the ILO. Since 1919 the International Labor Conference – supreme deliberative body of the ILO – has adopted 259 conventions and recommendations regulating many aspects of labor administration, social welfare and human rights. The second main task of the ILO is to participate actively in the war against want, and concentrates on three main areas: developing human resources, building up social institutions and improving conditions of work and life: A large part of the effort is devoted to training the key personnel – from skilled workers to senior managers – required for economic development. The ILO’s work in the social sphere is designed to ensure that the benefits of such development are shared fairly by all people in terms of higher standards of living. Today the ILO’s membership has grown to 119, with 37 member states in Africa. Ethiopia has been a member since 1928. The International Labor Office, the ILO’s permanent secretariat, is staffed by officials of some 80 nationalities. In Africa – where some 300 ILO experts are now at work – the Organization has set up a decentralized administrative system with regional headquarters in Addis Ababa.

In 1969, on the occasion of ILO's 50th anniversary, the organization was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize

A major role in the operational training program is played by the ILO’s International Center for Advanced Technical and Vocational Training in Turin, Italy, and The International Institute for Labor Studies in Geneva. Details of the stamps Denominations: Size: Quantity: Designer: Printers: Process of printing:

15c and 60c 42 x 26 mm incl. perforations 200,000 sets Taken from the ILO Emblem Harrison and Sons, London Offset in 2 colors

May 8, 1969 – 50th Anniversary of League of Red Cross Societies From the official Ethiopian post office folder: The League of the Red Cross Societies is a Federation of 111 National Societies, bound together by the doctrine of Red Cross to work out and propose to the individual Red Cross Societies a program of action on behalf of the general welfare of humanity. Thus on May 5, 1919, the League of Red Cross Societies was founded to perpetuate the following duties: 1. To encourage and facilitate the establishment and development in every country of a national, independent and duly authorized Red Cross Society working in accordance with the principles of the Geneva Conventions and of its International Red Cross Conference and the Board of Governors; 2. To act as a permanent liaison between national Red Cross Societies, for such coordination and study as may help them in organizing and carrying out their national and international activities; 3. To cooperate with the Red Cross Societies in all spheres of their work, in particular for the improvement of health, the prevention of disease and the mitigation of suffering; 4. To represent the national Red Cross Societies on the international level and to be the exclusive spokesman to express opinions of its members as a whole on questions which have been the subject of resolutions by the Board of Governors; 5. To be the guardian of the integrity of its members and the protector of their interests; 6. To cooperate with the International Committee of the Red Cross in matters affecting the work of either institution. The LRCS receives no Government grants and is an institution free of any political, racial and religious ties. Over the years the League of Red Cross Societies has proved itself worthy of its objectives. Through its constant encouragement and technical assistance the number of Red Cross, Red Crescent and Red Lion and Sun National Societies grew from only 65 in 1947 to 111 in 1968. Through its encouragement, assistance and advices National Societies developed from organizations for relief work only to organizations of more permanent services, such as training and education in First-Aid, professional nursing, accident prevention, civil defense, blood transfusion etc. Through the liaison and coordination of the LRCS, national Societies now work more closely and communicate more purposefully. Sun members pay homage to the 50th Anniversary of the League of Red Cross Societies. On May 8, 1969 the Red Cross bell tolls “In a changing world, Red Cross Stands for tomorrow.� In a rapidly changing world, the Red Cross is not a thing of the past, but definitely of the present, endeavoring to anticipate the future by bringing improved techniques and realism to its tasks and its concern for a better and more peaceful World. The League of Red Cross Societies, armed with its principles of humanity, impartiality, neutrality, independence, voluntary service, unity and universality, remains to be the vanguard of this humane idealism. Details of the stamps Denominations: Size: Quantity: Designer: Printers: Process of printing:

5c, 15c and 30c 42 x 27 mm incl. perforations 100,000 sets Assefe Yemane Berhan Bradbury, Wilkinson, England Offset in 3 colors

June 19, 1969 – Ancient Ethiopian Coins From the official Ethiopian post office presentation folder: There are many Axumite coins. We know of several thousand kept in public collection at Addis Ababa or in European Museums; others are in private collections. These coins are of great importance for knowledge of the history of ancient Ethiopia, because the names of the greater of the Axumite kings are known only by them. Very often the figure of the king, crowned or uncrowned appears either on one face, or on both, as bust or only a profile turned to the right. With Ezana (4th century) the cross makes its appearance on the coins, taking the place of the astral symbol – a disc on a crescent – of the EthioSabean religion used before Christianity. The legends are either in Greek or in old Ethiopian. As these coins are not dated, their classification is uncertain. They give us the name of 24 kings, the first of whom was probably Endybis and the last one Hazana (8th century). ENDYBIS: 3rd century A. D. This silver coin, with marked relief, is the most beautiful of the Axumite coins. Inscription in Greek; obverse: “Endybis king”; reverse; ”of the Axumite's of the race of Dakhu”. Above the king's head is the astral symbol, a disc on a crescent. EZANA: 4th century. This coin is made of gold. Ezana was the most famous of the Axumite kings. We know many events of his reign thanks to lapidary inscriptions in Axum. One may think that during his reign the king exercised some sort of supremacy over foreign countries. It is known that Ethiopia ruled South Arabia around 335 A. D. The adoption of the Christian religion was an important event of Ezana’s reign.. KALEB: 6th century. This coin is made of gold. Kaleb was, with Ezana, one of the most famous kings of ancient Ethiopia. Kaleb is known in some Greek texts under the name of Ellesbaas, which derives from the Ethiopian Ella-Atsbeha, one of Kaleb’s names, called also, according to tradition, Konstantinos and Dawit. Around 525, backed by Byzantium, he led a military expedition to Arabia, in order to end the persecution of the Christians by the Jewish king of South Arabia. Kaleb may also have wanted to recover a country that, long ago, was under Axumite influence. ARMAH: 7th century. This coin is made of bronze. The legend “King Armah” is in old Xthioplan. On this coin the king is shown seated on his throne, in profile, wearing his crown. During his reign this king had good relations with Mohamed and Islam in its early beginning. WAZENA: 7th century. This coin is made of bronze. King Wazena is known only by his coins. For several Axumite kings, known only by their coins, such as Wazena and Gersem, the dates mentioned are probable but not absolutely certain. GERSEM: 8th century. This coin is made of gold. Gersem is only known by the coins bearing his name. Some of these bear, on the reverse, the following legend in old Ethiopian: “By Christ you will win”. Details of the stamps Denominations : 5c, 10c, 15c, 30c, 40c and 50c Size : 42 x 26 mm (incl. perforation) Quantity : 100,000 Sets Designer : G. E. Robson Printers : Harrison and Sons Limited, London Process of Printing : Photoengraving in 3 colors

August 29, 1969 – African Tourist Year From the official Ethiopian post office presentation folder: Tourists think of Ethiopia as a land of blue-purple rock and spectacular gorges, of unique art and mysterious history hinted at in the stelae of Axum and the churches of Lalibela. But Ethiopia’s richness for tourist and vacationer goes beyond beauty and mystery to offer a range of all year sporting possibilities that is the envy of other countries. Where else could a man conquer 15,000 feet of jagged mountain and hunt big game, camp on rolling rich hills and water skiing tropical sea, fish in almost untouched deep sea fishing grounds and in secret inland waterways? 5c – Hunting. The Imperial Ethiopian Government is establishing national parks and reserves at Awash, the Simiens, Gambela, Omo, the Bale Mountains (proposed) and Danakil where life is protected. Outside of the preserves there are large controlled areas for those who prefer to hunt with a gun instead of a camera. Hunters should be sure to procure a license at the Wildlife Conservation Department before hunting, to learn which animals may or may not be killed.

Camping at Lake Shala (1964)

Espen as hunter

10c – Camping in Ethiopia is not a city of blue tents and a Coca Cola refreshment stand. Here you set up your private campsite on a ridge overlooking a deep and rich valley, and waiting for the soft strangeness of the African light to move gently through a spray of dusky colors before it drops abruptly behind the escarpment. Camping in Ethiopia is both delightful and inexpensive. The visitor need only be sure he is not on private property, be careful of his fire and leave his campsite clean to enjoy the most intensely personal way of seeing this exciting land.

15c – Fishing. Massawa and the Dahlac Islands were once a secret known only to the connoisseurs of tropical pleasure gardens. But word is beginning to travel now about the 128 off-shore islands that bide some of the most beautiful marine life ever available to sport fishermen. Skilled Massawa fishermen are ready to rent their boats and equipment, and share their knowledge of the shoals and inlets most likely to net the kind of catch you are looking for. Available too is skin-diving equipment so that the adventurous can investigate for themselves the rare beauty of the marine life below. 20c – Water Skiing about and around the 128 Dahlac Islands off Massawa is a lovely way to spend a winter vacation. Massawa is the place where the traveler looking for exotic beauty still unspoiled can find those secluded white sand beaches that writers always talk about. Water sporting is not limited to the sea. In the highlands just south of Addis Ababa are the blue crater lakes of Bishoftu. Water skiing can be an uncommon joy here in the heart of ancient volcanos. Boating and water skiing on the Rift Valley Lakes offer yet another charm. Details of the stamps Denominations: Size: Quantity: Designer: Printers: Process of printing:

5c, 10c, 15c, 20c and 25c 26 x 42 mm incl. perforations 100,000 sets Marianne & Jacques Dubois Thomas de la Rue, London Delacryl process in 4 colors

Boating in Beshoftu (1963)

25c – Mountain Climbing. Ethiopia’s Simien Mountains, one of the few remaining frontiers for the mountain climber who wants to test his skill where no other has climbed before him, offer a distinct challenge. They are as high as the Alps, but they have no covering of snow.

October 24, 1969 – 25th Anniversary of the United Nations ("Peace and Progress") From the official Ethiopian post office presentation folder: On October 24, 1945, the United Nations came into being. Its main purpose is to maintain international peace, develop friendly relations among nations, and promote social progress. The United Nations Charter also encourages respect for fundamental freedoms for all, and the Organization has played an important role in hastening the emancipation of dependent peoples. One of the largest peacekeeping operations took place in Africa. On July 12, 1960 the Congolese Government asked for United Nations military assistance to protect itself against external interference. For four years, the United Nations Force protected the Congo, while the Organization was launching a massive program of technical assistance. Ethiopian soldiers leaving Congo To promote economic advancement in the continent, the U. N. established in 1958, with its headquarters in Addis Ababa. The Commission has acted as a clearing house for the exchange of information and a focal point for the discussion of ideas. Its research has contributed to the knowledge of Africa's development problems. Finally, the Commission has actively fostered economic co-operation and economic communities with permanent inter-governmental institutions are now being built in various parts of Africa. Africa Hall in Addis Ababa In the field of telecommunications, two of the United Nations specialized agencies, the International Telecommunications Union and the World Bank, have co-operated with the Imperial Board of Telecommunications of Ethiopia.

Details of the stamps Denominations: 10c, 30c, and 60c Size: 42 x 26 mm including perforations Quantity: 100,000 sets Designer: M & J Dubois Printers: Poligrafica & Carte Valori Ercolano, Naples Process of printing: Photoengraving in four colors

December 10, 1969 – Ancient Ethiopian Crosses (series 2) From the official Ethiopian post office presentation folder: Ethiopia, more than any other Christian country, has taken the symbol of faith, the cross, and made it into an art form. Ethiopian crosses, like the strong monophysite faith they represent, have developed over one of the longest spans of unbroken Christian nationhood in the world – since 330 AD. Ethiopians accepted the symbol of the cross immediately, and King Ezana is believed to have been the first monarch to imprint the sign of the cross on his coins.

Ethiopia’s Orthodox Christians wear the traditional neck crosses, and have expanded creative possibilities for their cross designers by also demanding hand crosses, all of different character and size. Ethiopian crosses are on display in museums, churches and monasteries throughout the Empire.

Details of the stamps Denominations: Size: Quantity: Designer: Printers: Process of printing:

5c, 10c, 25c and 60c 51 x 44 mm incl. perforations 100,000 sets Marianne & Jacques Dubois Harrison and Sons, London Photoengraving

February 6, 1970 – Ancient Ethiopian pottery (series 1) From the official Ethiopian post office folder: The archeological excavation works in Ethiopia have exposed a large quantity of vases in terre cuite (burnt clay). The sites of MATARA in Eritrea and YEHA in TigrÊ are probably those which furnished the most remarkable ceramic collections. They can be seen at the National Museum of Addis Ababa. There exists the ordinary pottery in red burnt clay also in black burnt clay. Generally the pottery is well burnt. Many of the pots are smooth or covered with a lid.

The vases have various dimensions, from die tiny cups to the 80 centimeters high jars. The forms are diverse. We distinguish particular types: jars, bowls, cooking-pots, jugs, plates, cups, basins and goblets. The decorations are also diverse: incised, painted, designed and engraved. The pottery has always simple geometrical designs: festoon, guilloche, squares, triangles and crosses. A symbolic value is attached to some of these designs, as in the case of an ibex engraved on the body or certain vases, which represents the sign of a divinity of a South Arabian pantheon. The Christian cross is frequently marked, engraved or painted on the vases. This cross also forms, on the base of certain cups, a remarkable embossed decoration. This ancient pottery of Ethiopia dates chronologically between the 5th century B.C. and the 10th century A.D.

Details of the stamps Denominations: 10c, 20c, 25c, 35c and 60c Size: 51 x 44 mm incl. perforations Quantity: 150,000 sets Designer: Marianne and Jacques Dubois Printers: Harrison and Sons Limited, London Process of printing: Photoengraving in 4 colors

April 15, 1970 – Rock Churches of Lalibela From the official Ethiopian post office folder: Among the historical monuments Ethiopia offers to its visitors, the group of monolith churches of Lalibela is in the first order. Certainly, Lalibela is not the only part of Ethiopia where rock-hewn churches are found, since they exist in the region of Addis Ababa and are, numerous in the province of Tigre. But, Lalibela, in the Lasta, takes pride in the general architectural harmony capable to produce the most violent shock on the imagination of amateurs of antiquities. These churches date 7th and 8th century A.D. The tradition attributes the erection of these monuments to the King Lalibela of the Zagwe dynasty. Truly, they have not been constructed, but carved and excavated in massive blocks detached from the rock by trenches. The decorations are itch with sculptured designs and painted in elaborate fantasy. The sanctuaries are grouped in two sectors, each closed with a rocky enclosure wall. The first sector consists of Bieta Medhane Alem, Bieta Mariam, Bieta Maskal, Golgotha-Mikael and Bieta Danaghel.

The second sector consists of Bieta Amanuel, Bieta Merkurios, Bieta Gabriel and Abba Libanos. Alone, Bieta Giorgis is erected in the middle of a 12 meters deep well, and has the form of a Greek cross. This group of rock-hewn churches brings up one of the most perfect realization of the Ethiopian Christian art.

My photos from 2002

Details of the stamps Denominations : 5c, 10c, 15c, 20c and 50c Size : 30 x 49 mm (incl. perforation) Quantity : 100,000 Sets Designer : Marianne and Jacques Dubois Printers : Harrison and Sons Limited, London Process of Printing : Photo engraving in three colors

June 19, 1970 – Fishes (series 1) From Internet: 5c – The sailfin tang (Zebrasoma veliferum) live at water depths of 1 – 60 m, and grow to a maximum length of 40 cm. It has an extensive range throughout Oceania, the Indian Ocean, and the South Pacific. They are herbivorous fish specializing in filamentous algae. Though their skin is light beige with stripes, it can turn dark brown under stress. The body of the Sailfin tang is disc-shaped with a much elevated dorsal fin and a big anal fin. It has an extended snout. On each side of the caudal peduncle, there is a single sharp spine (the so called scalpel) which is used for defense and to establish dominance. When the fish is not using its scalpel, it will be folded down inside a groove. 10c – The orange-striped triggerfish or undulated triggerfish (Balistapus undulatus) is a triggerfish of the tropical Indo-Pacific area. It is the only member of the genus Balistapus. They reach a maximum size of about 30 cm. They feed on coral, crabs and invertebrates. They are found up to around 50 m deep in tropical waters. 15c – The raccoon butterflyfish (Chaetodon lunula), also known as the crescent-masked butterfly fish or lunule butterflyfish. It is found in the Indo-Pacific region and in the southeast Atlantic. Its length is up to 20 cm (nearly 8 in). Although the coloration of this group varies greatly, they are all largish butterflyfishes with an oval outline, and most have a pattern of ascending oblique stripes on the flanks. 25c – The Orange face butterflyfish (Chaetodon larvatus) is one of the smaller butterflyfish with a triangular shape, grey body with yellow lines, black dorsal fin and tail, orange head. It is clearly distinguished by the orange face. It is found in the Aden Gulf and Red Sea. Size 11-12 cm. 50c – The emperor angelfish (Pomacanthus imperator) is a species of marine angelfish. It is a reef-associated fish, native to the Indian and Pacific Oceans, from the Red Sea to Hawaii and the Austral Islands. Juveniles are dark blue with electric blue and white rings; adults have yellow and blue stripes, with black around the eyes. It takes about 24 to 30 months for an emperor angelfish to acquire its adult coloring. They grow to 40 cm (15.75 in) in length. Details of the stamps Denominations : 5c, 10c, 15c, 25c and 50c Size : 32 x 42 mm incl. perforation Quantity : 100,000 Sets Designer : Marianne and Jacques Dubois Printers : De La Rue Security Print, England Process of Printing : Lithography in 4 colors

August 14, 1970 – International Education Year From the official Ethiopian post office presentation folder: The United Nations General Assembly officially designated 1970 as International Educational Year. The purpose of IEY should be towards taking stock of the present situation throughout the world, focusing attention on the expansion and improvement of education, making available greater resources for education and strengthening international cooperation. With education in the industrialized and developing world in a crisis, the choice of 1970 as International Educational Year is timely. IEY comes at the threshold of the second United Nations Development Decade, a time when a fresh opportunity presents itself for world-wide concerted efforts to meet and overcome the problems of education. These problems entail the need for reforms and changes within existing education systems. The program for IEY is thus underlined by three principles. First, education should be understood to include all forms of training and instruction. Second, although emphasis should be given to national programs, IEY should be conceived as a concerted activity by the whole United Nations system based on the contribution of education to economic and social development. Third, programs should focus on promoting reflection and action by governments themselves and by the international community at large. In 1970, training courses oriented to IEY objectives will be arranged by the ILO, UNESCO, WHO and the Universal Postal Union (UPU). In addition WMO, the International Atomic Energy Agency, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade and possibly the ICAO and the ITU will also arrange special courses and training programs for IEY. Besides, many non-governmental organizations have expressed their intention to participate in the IEY. Within the United Nations system, UNESCO has primary responsibility for the international aspect of IEY. According to UNESCO publication program, plans have been made for publications on such themes of IEY as (1) the status of education in the world of 1970; (2) life-long permanent education; (3) equality of access of education to women and girls; (4) functional literacy; (5) educational research (6) training opportunities offered in the United Nations system of organizations. The International Educational Year will be regarded as time for evaluating past efforts – and still more as a starting point, IEY emerges, then, as a “bridge-year “ – between the First and Second United Nations Development Decades. It will provide the opportunity to measure education and training as factors in the process of economic and social development. Moreover, the year of IEY will be the combined search for renovated definition of education, its role and its methods. And so the IEY 1970 should permit an analysis by all nations of the causes of the world crisis in education now evident. New synthesis can then be arrived at which should suggest ways to surmount the crisis. Details of the stamps Denominations: 10c, 20c and 50c Size: 32 x 42 mm incl. perforations Quantity: 100,000 sets Designer: M. Treska Printers: Österreichische Staatsdruckerei, Vienna Process of printing: Lithography in 4 colors

September 21, 1970 – Organization of African Unity From the official Ethiopian post office folder: On May 25, 1963 in Addis Ababa thirty African Heads of State and Governors established the Organization of African Unity (OAU) and signed the Charter. At present there are forty-one member states of the OAU. It’s headquarter in in Addis Ababa. Objectives of the OAU a. A To strengthen the unity said solidarity of the African States, b. to coordinate and intensify their cooperation and efforts to secure the best living conditions for the African peoples. c. to defend their sovereignty, territorial integrity and independence. d. to eliminate every form of colonialism from Africa. e. to promote international cooperation, with due regard to the Charter of the United Nations and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. To achieve these ends Member States agreed to coordinate and harmonize their general policies in: a. Politics and Diplomacy b. Economics, Transport and Communications c. Education and Culture, d. Health, Hygiene and Nutrition, e. Science and Technology f. Defense and Security To attain its objectives the OAU set up the; a. Assembly of Heads of State and Government b. Council of Ministers c. General Secretariat d. Commission of Mediation, Conciliation and Arbitration. There are also three Specialized Commissions: a. Economic, Social, Transport and Communications Commission b. Defense Commission, c. Educational, Scientific, Cultural and Health Commission. The Assembly meets in Ordinary Sessions once every year and the Council meets in Ordinary Sessions twice every year. The General Secretariat is headed by an Administrative Secretary General assisted by four Assistant Secretaries General. It is the permanent organ of tile OAU which carries out duties as assigned to it by the Charter, and implements decisions of the Assembly and the Council. It services meetings of the Assembly, the Council, the Specialized Commission and other organs of the OAU, and keeps all records and documents. The flag of the OAU was raised for the first time on 1st January 1970. Details of the stamps Denominations : 20c, 30c and 40c Size : 33 x 52 mm (incl. perforation) Quantity : 100,000 Sets Designer : M. Treska Printers : Heraclio Fournier S.A, Spain Process of Printing : Photoengraving in five colors

October 30, 1970 – 40th Anniversary of Haile Selassie's Coronation From the official Ethiopian post office folder: His Imperial Majesty Haile Selassie I, destined to be classed among the outstanding leaders of history, and to undertake the future enormous responsibilities as Monarch & Head of State, was born on July 23, 1892 at Egersa Goro in the Province of Harrar. As a young Prince, he showed exceptional talents and ability at a very early age. His ability attracted the attention of Emperor Menelik II, who delegated to him the responsibility of Governor in his adolescence and bestowed upon him the title of Dejazmatch, one of the highest ranks of the nation. Not only did Regent Ras Teferi introduce far-reaching internal reforms but in the international sphere, he made the master stroke that ushered Ethiopia definitely on to the world stage. Upon his insistence and instigation he led Ethiopia to become a member of the League of Nations in July, 1923 and followed this up by making a tour of European and Middle Eastern countries in the following year, which, upon his return, was reflected in several schemes for the modernization of his country.

Haile Selassie visiting Norway in 1954

Expressively human, Haile Selassie is popular with the youth. One of his burning interests is manifested in the school-house, where he never loses an opportunity to be asking personal questions of the pupils and preferring his fatherly advice and encouragement. His Imperial Majesty's graciousness is particularly exemplified in his attitude to, and care for the unfortunate. Hardly a week passes but he is found in the hospitals, orphanages, institutions for the blind and other organizations for the unfortunate. A great part of the Emperor's private financial interests has been turned over to the Haile Selassie First Foundation that plans and administers institutions for the invalid and the indigent. Details of the stamps Denominations: 15c, 50c, and 60c Size: 26 x 42 mm incl. perforations Quantity: 100,000 sets Designer: Mrs. M. Treska Printers: Harrison & Sons Ltd, London Process of printing: Photoengraving in five colors

As leader and sovereign of one of the oldest independent countries of the world, the Emperor's position in Africa cannot escape recognition. Even during the African Summit Conference, Haile Selassie I was universally recognized as an effective factor in achieving the great measure of unity and solidarity that sprang therefrom. On the continental level, it was the Emperor who convoked, in his own national capital, the successful African Heads of State conference in May, 1963, and who played a key role in the establishment of the Organization of African Unity.

December 30, 1970 – New Post and Telecommunications Buildings From the official Ethiopian post office folder: His Imperial Majesty, Haile Selassie I, inaugurated on 1st November 1969 the complex of three large buildings for the Ministry of Posts Telecommunications and General Post Office.

These buildings were designed by a Yugoslav Company of Architects, Messrs. Zdravko Kovacevic and Ivan Straus, who had been awarded the first prize in an international competition, in which 37 architects from 16 different nations participated. The unit cost of the whole project, in terms of volume or usable floor space, was the lowest for comparable projects of this size. The buildings are designed to accommodate the ever-growing requirements of the Ethiopian postal and telecommunication services for many years to come. The two high rise buildings – each seven storeys, in addition to the ground floor and basement, and the general post office, which has horizontal development emphasized by the hollow concrete sun-breakers, has a ground floor and basement, and also a mezzanine to the rear of the main Public Hall are interconnected by means of a colonnade, to form a pleasing architectural ensemble, based on functions and simplicity. A modern Postal Museum will be opened in the near future in the large annex to the Ministry of C.T. & Posts Building. Details of the stamps Denominations: Size: Quantity: Designer: Printers: Process of printing:

10c, 50c and 80c 44 x 52 mm incl. perforations 100,000 sets Thomas de la Rue, London Thomas de la Rue, London Photoengraving in 5 colors

07 1968 1970 album  

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