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The Ethical Smart City Playbook


THE ETHICAL SMART CITY PLAYBOOK


Andreas Boehm Intelligent Cities Manager City of Kelowna


We know that cities are facing really complex problems. They don’t just happen in one department, that is why we need to be breaking down silos and looking at technologies in terms of their long term outcomes and what they can achieve.


Jean-Marc La Flamme Smart Cities Designer Smart Villages


There is a real issue with affordability. If we focus our innovation on housing, food and transportation, the three most expensive things in life, the technology we have today will allow everyone to live for free.


Bianca Wylie Open Government Advocate Canada


There are ways to maintain technological sovereignty and control, and to use public data to inform truly public services that don’t rely on a range of proprietary tech solutions. Those options must be explored before the year is up, otherwise the solution we’re presented with for a Smart City is the only one we’ll discuss.1


Fred Eisenberger Mayor City of Hamilton


The success of Smart Cities lies in making it easier for people to come together and collaborate for a progressive transformation.


Nasir Kenea Chief Information Officer City of Markham


We need a cultural shift so that solutions to the problems are found within our communities. A governance model with in-built principles will help us leverage the potential of our communities so we can be empowered to solve our problems.


Allan Thompson Mayor City of Caledon


We need a framework so we can learn how to leverage the right people at the right time. It would be ideal to have the right tools for our specific problems.


Kristina Verner Vice President, Innovation, Sustainability & Prosperity, Waterfront Toronto


Our journey is simple. We have evolved from having ethical intentions to being intentionally ethical.


CONTENTS


20

FOREWORD

22 PREFACE

Cities as Hotspots of Innovation

28 Evolution of Cities 31 Insights from Canadian Municipalities 48 What Do Cities Need? The Ethical Smart City (ESC) Framework

54 Overview 58 Guiding Principles 60 Step 1: Know 74 Step 2: Personalize 88 Step 3: Strategize 102 Step 4: Design 116 Step 5: Adapt The ESC Framework in Action

132 How Can the ESC Framework Be Used? 134 Design Proposals 142 The ESC Toolkit in Action 164 Conclusion The ESC Playbook Community

166 Endnotes 169 The ESC Partners 170 The Institute without Boundaries


FOREWORD

The Ethical Smart City Playbook is the final publication of the 2019–20 class of the Institute without Boundaries (IwB). The Playbook describes the results of a year-long research project on Ethical Smart Cities in partnership with Evergreen, Future Cities Canada, and the Intelligent Community Forum Canada (ICF Canada). In 2019–20, the Institute without Boundaries researched the systems and relationships existing in Smart Cities around Canada and the world to understand how to contribute to the creation of cities that are ethical, inclusive, intelligent and sustainable. Each year, as the IwB explores the themes relevant to the Future Ways of Living project, these core values drive the implementation of the design strategies proposed by our students. This Playbook and the accompanying Ethical Smart City website and videos attempt to summarize the results of this year’s research project and provide communities in Canada and around the world with a practical framework and toolkit to engage with their communities during the development of their Smart City projects. The Ethical Smart City project will be relevant for many cities around the world as their communities are moving toward the incorporation of Smart City technologies and creating intelligent communities. The partnership with Evergreen and ICF Canada provided our students with the opportunity to design the Ethical Smart City (ESC) Framework and test its process through the development of distinct design proposals focused on the three communities of Mississauga, Akwesasne, and the County of Simcoe. Throughout the year, the IwB class collaborated with industry partners, advisors and thought leaders to develop these projects by testing and iterating on the Ethical Smart City Framework.

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The ESC Framework and the ESC Toolkit have been developed based on the core insight that the community and their values must be incorporated into Smart City planning from the beginning of the project development, in order for an initiative to be considered truly ethical. In this way, this project reframes the importance of community involvement through public engagement and introduces a unique Framework to help Smart City Champions embark on an Ethical Smart City transformation process. While the Framework provides stakeholders with the tools and precedents they need to initiate this journey, it recognizes that Smart City solutions are not one size fits all and they must respond to the specific needs of the community. This is evident from the collapse of the Sidewalk Toronto project which demonstrated how difficult it is to get Smart Cities right and do so through proper engagement and incorporation of the community’s values and needs. It is important to note that while no two cities are fostered in identical ways, the solutions and proposals become increasingly more complex at the intersection of marginalized and vulnerable communities and the implementation of technology into a city. Therefore Smart City projects should consider the values of all members of a community. In this way, the ESC Framework does not prescribe any values, challenges or technologies but rather describes the process to help communities identify these elements based on their own needs. The IwB hopes to continue the dialogue around creating ethical, inclusive, sustainable, and intelligent cities and iterate on the ESC Framework based on the feedback from small, medium and large sized communities who are embarking on their Ethical Smart City transformation. Luigi Ferrara Senator: OAA, MRAIC, Hon. ACID O, ICSID Dean: Centre for Arts, Design, and Information Technology, George Brown College Director: Institute without Boundaries

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CITIES ARE GROWING AND THE INTEREST IN SMART CITIES HAS GAINED MOMENTUM HERE IN CANADA AND AROUND THE WORLD.

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PREFACE

In 2019–20, the fifteenth cohort of the Interdisciplinary Design Strategy program at the Institute without Boundaries (IwB), George Brown College in Toronto, embarked on a yearlong project to explore how Smart Cities can be designed to be ethical, sustainable and inclusive. This Playbook is a labour of a year’s dedication to studying, visualizing and developing an Ethical Smart City Framework. To accomplish this task, we carried out extensive research to understand the relationships and interconnections in Smart Cities in Canada and around the world and used human-centred design to derive valuable insights. This exploration helped us break down the conceptual understanding of Ethical Smart Cities into a series of tangible outcomes. Some of the highlights in our journey throughout the academic year were projects such as: The compilation of 100 Smart City precedents

Smart Cities: Cities that place deeply interconnected autonomous and effective technology systems at the forefront of its decision making. Human-Centered Design: A design strategy that focuses on the people in the community to understand their challenges, needs and values. These people need to be integrated into designing the solution and iterating where needed. Charrette: A charrette is a collaborative and creative process that brings together diverse groups of students, professionals and community stakeholders to develop innovative solutions to complex problems.

The development of a systems map which would later take the form of a generative tool The Regent Park Charrette in November 2019 The development of a Smart Cities timeline The award-winning PlayroomTO exhibition for the DesignTO festival in January 2020 While all of these projects were beneficial in the broader exploration of the topic, the International Charrette hosted by the IwB in February 2020 was crucial in narrowing down the scope to Canadian cities and municipalities. In 2018, Infrastructure Canada held a national Smart Cities Challenge, where 139 communities across Canada including local governments and Indigenous Communities submitted proposals that used data and technology to respond to their challenges. The Charrette hosted by the IwB, focused on developing design solutions for 15 of the 139 communities. We later narrowed these projects down to three and developed design proposals around the challenge and design solutions generated during the International Charrette. This project grew with interviews and surveys with municipal leaders and innovation experts, conducted both in-person and remotely, and by researching Smart City initiatives to learn more about the role of municipalities within the Smart Cities context. Additionally, they rendered this Playbook with a dimension of first-hand experiences and perspectives.

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13 STUDENTS. 16 FACULTY MEMBERS. 1 INSTITUTE. 2 PARTNERS. 1 CLIENT. WITHOUT BOUNDARIES.

This year’s cohort comprises 13 students who were born and raised in different cities and countries around the world. Now in Toronto, the city with the motto “Diversity, Our Strength”, we collaborated and embraced each other’s unique perspectives and experiences. With the team’s interdisciplinary backgrounds - ranging from graphic design to anthropology, information technology, architecture, business, psychology and education we came together to design a Framework and a process for the development of Ethical Smart Cities. On this path, we were advised and mentored by the IwB’s faculty and staff. The IwB partnered with Evergreen, as part of the Community Solutions Network (a program of Future Cities Canada), to research and develop strategies for Smart Cities that are inclusive, sustainable and ethical. Our partners were instrumental in knowledge sharing and provided their network and stakeholders as advisors to various events throughout the year. Lastly, this could not have been done without our client, the Intelligent Communities Forum Canada (ICF–Canada), and the mentorship of John Jung, Co-founder of ICF and Expert in Residence at the IwB. He provided us with advice, resources and access to communities within the ICF Network that we would not have otherwise been able to reach, to further our research and solidify our direction on the Ethical Smart City project. We are very grateful to have the opportunity to speak to Smart City Champions from across Canada. A special thank you to Allan Thompson (Mayor, Town of Caledon), Andreas Boehm (Intelligent Cities Manager, City of Kelowna), Anthea Foyer (Project Lead, Smart Cities, City of Mississauga), Cyrus Tehrani (Chief Digital Officer, City of Hamilton), Fred Eisenberger (Mayor, City of Hamilton), Jean-Marc La Flamme (Smart Cities Designer, Smart Villages), Joani Gerber (Chief Executive Officer, Stratford Economic Enterprise Development Corporation, City of Stratford), Kristina Verner (Vice President, Innovation, Sustainability and Prosperity, Waterfront Toronto) and Nasir Kenea (Chief Information Officer, City of Markham) for sharing their knowledge with us. With the guidance of the faculty and the partners, it was determined that municipalities across Canada are constantly looking to solve the challenges their communities are facing. To ensure that this effort was guided into the right direction, the Ethical Smart City project was initiated.

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THE ETHICAL SMART CITY PLAYBOOK IS BORN.

Smart City Champions in municipalities around the world are resorting to the application of digital technologies to overcome the challenges posed by environmental degradation, rapid urbanization, resource crunch and rising inequity. While many of these cities have been successful in doing so and can very well be considered as model Smart Cities, there are quite a few that did not achieve anticipated results. The global interest in the progression and abandonment of Sidewalk Labs’ plans for Waterfront Toronto, the European Union’s implementation of General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), the COVID-19 pandemic bringing the world to a halt–have been important in the evolution of the global conversation around Smart Cities. With no defined measures of success or even a universally accepted definition of a Smart City, the value propositions offered by the deployment of technology are being re-examined. As these aforementioned challenges and many others threaten to take unprecedented forms, there is a need for a more inclusive, sustainable and ethical approach to Smart Cities. The Ethical Smart City (ESC) Playbook has been created to serve the needs of small, medium and large-sized communities, no matter their level of experience or familiarity with the concept of Smart Cities.

Smart City Champions: A person and/or entity that drives Smart City initiatives in a municipality. Communities: Groups of people, localized in space, within an environmental and economic ecosystem. Communities can have a monolithic culture or exist at the intersection of different cultures.

The Playbook includes insights, guiding principles, the Ethical Smart City (ESC) Framework and the ESC Toolkit that can be applied to communities around the world. Also highlighted are numerous national and global examples of cities and communities where solutions, which championed the concerns of their communities, were designed and implemented. Some of these cities were part of the 100 Smart Cities explored at the start of the research phase of the program. As we continued to develop our definition of Ethical Smart Cities, some of the solutions implemented by these cities emerged categorically ethical. While this Playbook only exhibits a handful of such precedents, more projects can be explored online on the Ethical Smart City website: www.ethicalsmartcity.com. Finally, building upon the best practices of Smart City experts and initiatives, we developed the ESC Framework and the ESC Toolkit to transform cities into Ethical Smart Cities. By putting the Framework and the Toolkit into action, municipal leaders and Smart City Champions will find new ways to engage communities in solving their most pressing issues.

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CITIES AS HOTSPOTS OF INNOVATION


EVOLUTION OF CITIES

Human settlements have transformed from small dwellings that were initially tied to agriculture and the domestication of animals to sprawling empires that grew over large territories.2 Nearly 10,000 years ago, the first cities of the world appeared. They were a sign of humankind’s transition from a nomadic way of life to a more permanent one. During this time, cities have played a large role in shaping human behaviour.3 With 68% of the world living in cities by 2050,4 the future of cities is the future of human civilization. As Geoffrey West puts it, “Cities are designed to be the hotspots for commerce and innovation, allowing global economies to exist and interact at the scales they do”.5 With a million people being added to cities each week, these interactions are the foundation of modern human society. The urgency to get cities “right” comes from the realization that the global response to our most pressing challenges—from climate change to mass migration and pandemics—will likely succeed or fail in cities.

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CITIES AS HOTSPOTS OF INNOVATION


Over time, small, medium and large-sized communities across Canada and around the world have integrated information and communication technologies into their products, services and infrastructure and have become Smart Cities. The Smart City movement has been enabled by a range of technologies, such as high-speed broadband networks, which are devised to address the unique challenges each community faces. There has been a steady increase in everything from sensors that detect traffic flow to new building materials that conserve energy. This shift toward using smart technologies is increasingly being seen by communities as a way to innovate, improve service delivery, increase efficiencies, contribute to economic development and improve the quality of life. There is also an emerging consensus that the technologies adopted by Smart Cities have resulted in severe social, political and ethical effects.6 These effects include, but are not limited to, data breaches, mass surveillance, predictive profiling, social isolation and top-down approaches to governance. It is not surprising that communities within these Smart Cities lack trust in their governments, suffer from a decreased quality of life and inequity. A possible cause is that there is a missing link in the way Smart City initiatives address their challenges.7 To address this gap, we propose that cities looking to incorporate technology into their infrastructure by becoming Smart Cities must do so through an ethical, sustainable and inclusive process. Ethical considerations need to be built into Smart City planning from the beginning rather than being retrofitted into the project. “Ethical” in this sense puts into focus the values of the communities within cities while “Smart” leverages established and emerging digital technologies to solve a “City’s” systemic challenges. Building upon this equation, we have developed the Ethical Smart City (ESC) Framework, that will guide Smart City Champions in developing Smart City projects and solutions through an ethical process. As a Smart City Champion, you will be equipped with the tools and precedents you need to facilitate this process with your community. Through candid interviews with municipal leaders and Smart City Champions from communities across Canada—Kelowna, Hamilton and Markham to name a few—we arrived at four key insights. These insights guided the development of the ESC Framework and will be covered in this section.

EVOLUTION OF CITIES

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Joani Gerber Chief Executive Officer Stratford Economic Enterprise Development Corporation City of Stratford


I serve at the pleasure of the taxpayer in the city of Stratford and our constituency has an obligation to know what we’re doing and why it’s important to them. CITIES ARE HOTSPOTS OF INNOVATION |


MUNICIPALITIES ARE COMMITTED TO ADDRESSING THE CHALLENGES WITHIN THEIR COMMUNITY.

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CITIES AS HOTSPOTS OF INNOVATION


As cities continue to attract people and talent, they see the creation and interaction of problems and solutions. The challenges that Smart Cities face today are the cascading impact of disruptors that manifest globally. Even with the use of technology, Smart Cities are struggling to find ways to respond to global disruptors such as climate change, mass migration and pandemics, which are exposing vulnerabilities across cities and communities. The urgency to embed technology into products, services and infrastructure within Smart Cities comes from the need to be prepared to respond to these systemic challenges. Climate change is a global disruptor because it plays a fundamental role in how cities are designed, built and experienced.8 From streets, public spaces and transportation systems, different infrastructural aspects of a city are created to respond to the climate. Migration and movement between places have been connected with the idea of evolution for the longest time. In fact, migration and immigration have been a driver of population growth in Canada for decades. Finally, at the time this publication was being concluded, the COVID-19 pandemic had demonstrated how connected the world and global economy is, placing the human population in a uniquely vulnerable situation.9 Globally, cities have begun to realize that the challenges they experience are often connected by visible and invisible threads such as rapid population growth and urbanization. These result in a need for more efficient infrastructure and resources to help solve the challenges associated with these disruptors.

Disruptors: One-off events or gradually developed phenomena that cause a shift in behaviours and practices at a global scale. Disruptors can lead to considerable changes on both ends of the spectrum, from innovation to unrest. Pandemic: World Health Organization (WHO) defines a pandemic as the worldwide spread of a new disease. Mass Migration: the movement of large numbers of people from one geographical area to another over a period of time for temporary or permanent residency. Climate Change - Any significant long-term change in the expected patterns of average weather of a region (or the whole planet) over a significant period of time. Collective Conscience: refers to the set of shared beliefs, attitudes and knowledge that are common to a community.

The large scale impact of these global disruptors makes it harder to control them with one specific solution and often requires coordinated, strategic and holistic solutions between governments and across borders. While it is difficult for cities to address the impact they endure from global disruptors, they are also undeniably resilient and are the epicenters of innovation. Smart Cities can act as our “collective conscience� and use technological advancements and resourcefulness to co-create resilient and sustainable solutions to address these challenges.

INSIGHTS FROM MUNICIPALITIES

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Fred Eisenberger Mayor City of Hamilton


The area that I worry about most as Mayor is automation and artificial intelligence and the whole array of jobs that are going to be lost as a result of that process. I don’t know where the replacement for that is. And, if that holds true, we’re going to have a lot of people unemployed who will need support to keep a decent standard of living. More people at the margins is going to cause nothing but social unrest— something we’re already seeing the evidence for.


MUNICIPALITIES ARE AWARE OF THE ROLE OF TECHNOLOGY IN SMART CITY PROJECTS, BUT NEED MORE GUIDANCE AND UNDERSTANDING TO LEVERAGE THEM BETTER.

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CITIES AS HOTSPOTS OF INNOVATION


Smart Cities are characterized by a faith in the prowess of technology and innovation.10 This faith coupled with the ubiquitous failures of design, implementation and administration of cities that are not properly equipped with technology has driven the Smart City movement. In a Smart City project, technology is often used as the primary lens through which city challenges are identified and addressed. They are typically built around using information and communications technology (ICT) to engage communities, to deliver city services and to enhance urban systems.11 The use of technology has created solutions for challenges such as mass migration, climate change and pandemics with varying degrees of success. However, it has also created a new set of problems in its wake, such as concerns around the ownership, control and monetization of data. Smart Cities often tend to implement technology solutions, without considering their future or cross-domain implications. As Nehal El-Hadi, Ph.D. Planning and Editor-In-Chief at Studio Magazine, stated during a guest lecture on Ethical Smart Cities at the IwB, “The challenges of today are as a result of the design solutions of yesterday”. 12

Privacy: The right to be in control of the collection and sharing of personal or organizational information. Safety: Defense against physical, social, financial and political harm; reduces risk of exposure to dangers. Sustainability: The equilibrium between effect on the environment or depleting natural resources while supporting social, economic and ecological balance.

Technology is equal measures disruptor and enabler. If used without the right intentions, technology can not only exacerbate existing issues or cause long-term problems, but also shift the focus from the right challenges. addressing the wrong set of challenges. For a city to address its underlying challenges, it must start from the bottom-up—know the values of its people, understand their challenges and use technology as an enabler in solving these challenges. Cities that use technology for technology’s sake often put the ethical values of their communities, such as privacy, safety and sustainability, at risk.

INSIGHTS FROM MUNICIPALITIES

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Nasir Kenea Chief Information Officer City of Markham


Ethics are critical to cities. I think as a society, we have to retain certain values that we believe are core to who we are. Ethics go beyond privacy. While one of these engines may rely on AI, it has got significant capabilities and potential that may question some of the foundational things about us as human beings. We need certain principles to allow us to maintain or retain reasonable ethics and values in what we do. We need to start really taking responsibility to define the boundaries.


MUNICIPALITIES BELIEVE ETHICS ARE CRITICAL TO CITIES, BUT HAVE NOT ESTABLISHED HOW TO CHAMPION THEM IN THEIR SMART CITY PROJECTS.

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CITIES AS HOTSPOTS OF INNOVATION


Municipalities understand that ethics are important to cities and Smart City projects, especially because commmunity values are often threatened as a result of using technology to solve challenges. The elements of the Ethical Smart City Framework—values, technology and challenges—were derived from this insight. Although Smart City projects set out to solve challenges such as those arising from global disruptors, it is often done with an emphasis on technology. Ethical values, such as privacy, sustainability and safety, among others, could be threatened in the processes of designing and implementing these projects.

Ethics: Ethics are the backbone of Ethical Smart Cities. They bring individuals, corporations, non-profits, public services and community groups together to coordinate efforts to build a resilient future.

During the COVID-19 pandemic, the world saw how values could be threatened or upheld while using technology such as Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Big Data to preempt and prepare for the challenges associated with reopening cities and businesses. AI and Big Data proved useful in tackling challenges within healthcare systems in cities around the world. At the beginning stages of the pandemic, a Toronto-based AI firm, BlueDot, developed a disease analytics platform that predicted and warned against the spread of the disease.13 As the situation worsened, it was leveraged by the Canadian Government, to guide their decision-making and to monitor the spread of the disease and the effectiveness of behaviours such as social distancing. By using anonymous data to monitor the response of public health systems, the platform was able to inform the deployment of valuable resources.14 It became an example of how technology can be used to uphold the value of safety. However, AI relies on the collection of large sets of data to function, raising concerns around data privacy. In Israel, anti-terrorism tracking technology was used to surveil citizens and collect data to minimize the spread of the virus. Wide use of this technology included real-time tracking of infected people to pinpoint their current location, where they have been and possibly who they have been in contact with.15 Without the right measures and governance structures in place, the use of similar technologies could continue for purposes that could infringe on people’s privacy. Municipalities must use ethics as the lens by which they address their challenges to ensure that the community values are being upheld in the design and implementation of Smart City projects.

INSIGHTS FROM MUNICIPALITIES

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Cyrus Tehrani Chief Digital Officer City of Hamilton


It is on everybody’s radar that there needs to be some [shared understanding] that has to be at play before you potentially turn on the switch on some technology.


MUNICIPALITIES IN CANADA ARE PROBLEM SOLVERS BUT MIGHT NOT KNOW WHERE TO START.

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CITIES AS HOTSPOTS OF INNOVATION


Cities play many roles for communities within them. They provide services and opportunities among other things. However, the way cities are planned and how they are experienced are not always aligned. Cities need to start with their communities, by actively engaging them to identify and establish their needs and values for this alignment to be achieved. An Ethical Smart City puts the values of its communities at the centre of the planning process. In this sense, municipalities interested in the incorporation of Smart City technologies must conduct a thorough public engagement process to co-create solutions with their community members. This will enable them to harness their values to design and implement holistic, ethical, inclusive and sustainable solutions.

Public Engagement: The broad spectrum of methods through which members of the public become more informed about and/or influence public decisions because they have been empowered to do so. In a hierarchy of needs ways, it is a need-to-have element.

Public engagement is at the core of the decision-making processes in an Ethical Smart City. It is through the broad spectrum of public engagement activities that municipal leaders can identify ethical values important to their communities and facilitate their participation in the co-creation of sustainable solutions. Cities should, therefore, work toward creating a trusting and supportive environment to arrive at innovative solutions with their communities.

Ethical Smart Cities: An Ethical Smart City has at its centre, engaged and diverse communities. The values of the communities guide Ethical Smart Cities to identify their challenges. By identifying systemic challenges and considering these values, Ethical Smart Cities can use appropriate technology to create ethical, sustainable, and inclusive solutions.

Community values are the backbone of Ethical Smart Cities, paving the way for organic and inclusive solutions. Without the community’s input on their values and needs, technology becomes the primary focus for solving city challenges. Actively engaging communities allows for their values to be prioritized and incorporated into the decision-making process. This engagement ensures that cities are using technologies in an appropriate manner to solve the right challenges. It is this shift that drives the Ethical Smart City transformation and creates economically, socially and environmentally sustainable cities.

Co-Creation: A process that involves the collaboration and engagement of users, planners, designers, architects and other stakeholder groups to design and create solutions from start to finish.

The Digi-Tel program implemented, in 2011, in Israel, is an example of how municipalities can focus on their community by considering the elements—values, technology and challenges—of the Ethical Smart City Framework while implementing Smart City projects.

INSIGHTS FROM MUNICIPALITIES

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TEL AVIV, ISRAEL

How did Tel Aviv engage in a participatory design process with its diverse inhabitants to implement a successful Smart City transformation program? Tel Aviv successfully implemented a Smart City technology infrastructure program, “Digi-Tel”, in 2011, which evolved into a personalized city mobile app with the same name, in 2013. This app reflects the values of its diverse communities, provides information and facilitates digital participation to help solve identified problems based on prioritized values such as equity, access and safety. The Digi-Tel framework model was created following the principles of human-centred design and its platform provides access to services and information through a myriad of communication strategies.16 It is an online club for communities consisting of a mobile app, an iView geographical information system and an open data repository. The Digi-Tel program is activated by a unique Personal ID card that can be obtained once the citizen is 13 years old.17 Each citizen acquires a unique identity card to access city services such as information on safety, municipal opportunities and retail savings. This unique ID card also allows citizens to participate and give feedback on city challenges. The city behaves like a true digital democracy and incentivizes online cultural participation. Digi-Tel currently has 206,000 subscribers, which is 60% of the population17 and has been expanded to have sub-clubs for parents of children under the age of three. In addition, free public Wi-Fi was installed throughout the city using 80 nodes for total coverage. WHAT DID WE LEARN FROM TEL AVIV?

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This city-making precedent is proof that even the most diverse communities can be comprehensively engaged and their values be captured and embedded in Smart City solutions.

The principles of human-centred design can be leveraged to create a platform for meaningful public participation.

By collaborating with private businesses and by partnering with new business start-ups, low cost implementations for digital solutions are possible.

CITIES AS HOTSPOTS OF INNOVATION


HOW DO WE DEFINE ETHICAL SMART CITIES?

The aforementioned example demonstrates that if technology is incorporated through the lens of the community and their values, it can be used as an enabler. This is in contrast with the traditional definitions of Smart Cities where technology is the major driving force. The backlash faced by Sidewalk Labs’ $1.3 billion18 plans for Toronto’s Waterfront demonstrated the importance of community involvement from the initial stages of Smart City Planning. The #BlockSidewalk community movement led by thought leaders such as Nasma Ahmed, Sam Burton and Bianca Wylie highlighted that urban planning and development should be led by needs of the community members and the benefits it offers them rather than the needs and interests of a private corporation. The subsequent withdrawal of the tech giant from the project, citing economic uncertainty brought on by the pandemic also demonstrated that technology alone is not enough to solve the challenges that cities face today. The cancellation of the project calls for reflection for cities, so they can make better decisions in the partnerships and alliances they form. Cities are the epicenter of innovation, but for innovation to find support it must serve the needs of the community. Thus, technology alone is not enough to solve challenges, solutions need intention. For a city to address its underlying challenges, it must start from the bottom-up, know its values, understand its challenges and use technology as an enabler. Cities that prioritize the welfare of their communities and build their own capacity to preempt and prepare for challenges are Ethical Smart Cities. In an Ethical Smart City, open, transparent and collaborative systems are intentionally placed for communities to contribute and thrive. Integrating technology into cities and communities must be guided by the values of their residents and address their challenges. In this sense, Smart Cities need to transform into Ethical Smart Cities. The cities of the future have the potential to create efficient, sustainable and resilient solutions only when they consider and meet the values and needs of their communities. We define an Ethical Smart City as one which has an engaged and diverse community of people at its centre, whose values are respected.

INSIGHTS FROM MUNICIPALITIES

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WHAT DO CITIES NEED?

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CITIES AS HOTSPOTS OF INNOVATION


The Smart City approach is falling short for its ability to respond to systemic challenges being faced by communities. It is clear that cities need to establish frameworks to undertake Smart City projects and to ensure their decisions reflect the values of their communities. Therefore, the Ethical Smart City (ESC) Framework was designed to put the community at the centre of the decision making process. It can be adapted to any municipality and guide its journey to becoming an Ethical Smart Citiy. The ESC Framework does not prescribe any values to prioritize, technologies to adopt, or challenges to solve for no two cities are alike. Instead, the ESC Framework equips Smart City Champions in municipalities to prioritize and balance the ethical values of their communities to address their specific challenges by deploying Smart City technologies. To provide practical steps for this journey, the Framework is broken down into five-steps and supported by user-friendly tools, which you will become familiarized with in the next section. All five steps are complemented by precedents of Smart Cities around the world solving their challenges in an ethical manner. These precedents are meant to demonstrate the possibilities and to inspire your municpality’s transformation. Even as each community had its own journey, there are lessons that can be learnt from each of them. These communities show how municipalities or even whole countries can start and focus on their community while using the elements of the Ethical Smart City (ESC) Framework—values, technology and challenges—to design and implement smart city projects. Some of these precedents are meant to serve as examples for how others achieved specific steps as defined in the ESC Framework. Others are to serve as inspiration for Ethical Smart City initiatives.

WHAT DO CITIES NEED

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THE ETHICAL SMART CITY (ESC) FR AMEWORK


Anthea Foyer Project Lead Smart Cities City of Mississauga


As Smart City technologies evolve, and best practices continue to emerge in this field, it would be very useful to have a framework that reflects measurements and goals as they pertain to the complex, multi-disciplinary requirements of Smart City initiatives so that we are including measures that were not traditionally included in technology projects but reflect the values and concerns of the public today.


ESC PROCESS

Broken into five major steps and a set of tools, the ESC Framework will equip you and your community to co-create Ethical Smart City solutions. It is a strategic and iterative process, which leverages the communities’ values to address their challenges. Identifying and understanding a community’s values provides context to the challenges and the technology needed to address them. With its strong feedback loop, every step allows for the evaluation of its generated outputs. The outputs from each step feeds into the next one, which enables the co-creation of ethical, sustainable, inclusive and intelligent solutions with and for their communities. Each step of the Framework is supported by two tools one ESC tool that has been created by us and another that we sourced from other platforms. Both of these tools can be used to implement the Framework’s process for your city’s transformation. The ESC Framework is broken down into the five-step process outlined in this section.

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THE ETHICAL SMART CITY (ESC) FRAMEWORK


STEP 1: KNOW

Municipalities set their ethical baseline with a shared understanding around the community’s aspirations, creating standards to benchmark against. STEP 2: PERSONALIZE

The identification of community’s values and challenges pave the way for identifying the appropriate technologies to address them. At the same time, the limitations of the municipality are identified.

Iterative Process: A process that is repeated to support the refinement of solutions. Ethical Baseline: What your municipality hopes to avoid, achieve and allow as an Ethical Smart City.

STEP 3: STRATEGIZE

Community specific goals are created along with possible scenarios to assess their relevancy. STEP 4: DESIGN

The ideas for solutions such as smart products, services and infrastructure are generated and tested with stakeholders with the community’s values in mind. STEP 5: ADAPT

The lessons learned from the tested prototypes feed into the implementation plans and reinforce the ethical baseline. Once the five–step process is completed, the lessons learned from implementing the projects are fed back into the first step to reinforce the ethical baseline for the municipality’s future projects.

OVERVIEW

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The ESC Framework

1

Know

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2

Personalize

Goals

Define the ethical baseline for your municipality

Identify community needs  and limitations

Objectives

Generate a shared understanding of your ethical baseline. Evaluate which cities you can learn from and use them as benchmarks.

Generate an understanding of prioritized values, relevant challenges and appropriate technologies. Evaluate the limitations that your communities face.

Generate

Know your Ethical Baseline

Personalize your  Understanding of Needs

Output

● ESC Definition ● Benchmark Criteria

● Community Needs ● Prioritized Values ● Relevant Challenge ● Appropriate Technology

Evaluate

Know what you can  Benchmark Against

Personalize your  Considerations

Output

● Benchmark Solutions

● Policies ● Funding Opportunities ● Municipal Goals

THE ETHICAL SMART CITY (ESC) FRAMEWORK


3

Strategize

4

Design

5

Adapt

Goal-setting for Smart City Plans

Determine Smart City Solutions

Plan Implementation ofEthical Solutions

Generate goals based on the prioritized values, relevant challenges and appropriate technology available to your community. Evaluate the potential impact by forecasting possible scenarios.

Generate designs for your current and future stakeholders. Evaluate the perceived value by prototyping and testing.

Generate implementation plans on the basis of lessons learned. Evaluate the plans against community goals.

Strategize with Intent

Design for your Current  and Future Stakeholders

Adapt your Ethical Baseline

● Smart City Planning Goals

● Ethical Smart City Solutions

● Project or I mplementation Plans

Strategize Considering Potential Impact

Design the Perceived Value, Prototype and Test

Adapt to Changes

● Risks ● Trends ● Scenarios Analysis

● Prototype and Test Approach ● Test Results

● Lesson Learned

OVERVIEW

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ESC GUIDING PRINCIPLES

The ESC Framework is underscored by a set of guiding principles that define “ethics� in Smart City development and are essential for creating a common definition. The ESC Framework ensures that community values are at the centre of the decision-making process, as a robust public engagement system drives the transformative process to becoming an Ethical Smart City. These guiding principles therefore, ensure that ethical values are first and foremost in the design, planning and implementation of Smart City projects. And they are:

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DIVERSE AND ENGAGED COMMUNITIES

The ESC Framework ensures that transformation begins by engaging your communities. This engagement uncovers the community’s values and is contingent upon their involvement and commitment to solving their systemic challenges. When the values of the community are prioritized, they can be purposefully involved and mobilized to respond to these challenges.

Systemic Solutions: Solutions that are tested against available resources, economic and social structures; they are replicable, understandable and adaptable.

EFFICIENT SOLUTIONS

The ESC Framework ensures that Smart City solutions are efficient at addressing their challenges and are not creating new ones, in their wake. The Framework enables co-creation to maximize collaboration between stakeholders and to arrive at the most efficient, ethical, sustainable and holistic solutions. Participation and an active feedback loop affect not only the efficiency of the solution but its perception for the stakeholders. SYSTEMIC IMPACT

The ESC Framework generates solutions that are assessed according to their success in ensuring the economic, environmental and social sustainability for the community. By using the Framework, you will be able to identify the systemic challenges faced by your communities and prioritize their values to select the appropriate technology for solving these challenges. You will be able to engage with the appropriate stakeholders at each step to ensure the creation of systemic solutions. TECHNOLOGY AS AN ENABLER

The ESC Framework places community values at the forefront and technology is viewed solely as an enabler. Technology is chosen on the basis of its potential to address the community’s needs. The appropriate technology is one which upholds the values of the communities while solving their challenges.

GUIDING PRINCIPLES

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1 Know

DEFINE THE ETHICAL BASELINE FOR YOUR MUNICIPALITY

Generate a shared understanding of your ethical baseline. Evaluate which cities you can learn from and use them as benchmarks. GENERATE

KNOW YOUR ETHICAL BASELINE

• ESC Definition • Benchmark criteria

EVALUATE

KNOW WHAT YOU CAN BENCHMARK AGAINST

• Benchmark solutions

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The community Generate a shared is first understanding introduced to the ESC Frameof thethrough work Framework this and step.its You philosophy. will take them Evaluate through which a cities you process ofcan knowing learn and fromdefining and usetheir themvalues as benchmarks. to arrive at a shared understanding of ethics. This will enable the municipality to spell out what it wants to achieve and to set an Ethical Smart City benchmarking criteria. When planning for the implementation of Ethical Smart City solutions, you must involve the participation of your community members from the initial stages of planning. To ensure the success of the Framework and the transformation process, communities at large need to learn what it means to become an Ethical Smart City. While each city has its own starting point and journey, identifying the processes used by cities that may have overcome similar challenges, positively influences the implementation of Ethical Smart City projects. An example of a city that has effectively included their communities in the process of initiating their Smart City planning is Mississauga, Canada. Details on how Mississauga started this journey and developed their standards are described ahead.

Benchmarking: The process of setting standards for your city based on your own ethical baseline to select other municipalities whose challenges and or values are aligned with yours.

Ethical Smart City Solutions: Ethical Smart City solutions are the result of the implementation of Ethical Smart City projects.

Ethical Smart City Projects: Ethical Smart City undertakings meant to address challenges.

STEP 1  KNOW

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GENERATIVE: KNOW YOUR ETHICAL BASELINE

In this step, a shared understanding of what is valuable to the community is generated. With this understanding, the community has a starting point for defining what is ethical to them. The ESC Framework makes no attempt at prescribing a set of values; instead it enables you to identify, understand and uphold the values of your communities. The Framework revolves around an understanding of the subjective nature of ethics and its impact on the planning, design and implementation of Smart City projects. The generative output in this step is supported by the ESC Definition and the Value Mapping tools. Both of these tools can be used to achieve a shared understanding of ethics and a definition of ESC for your municipality.

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GENERATIVE PRECEDENT: MISSISSAUGA

How did Mississauga define their Smart City standards? As a growing city, Mississauga recognized that the integration of digital technology into its infrastructure, systems and processes will result in economic resilience and sustainability. In 2018, Mississauga responded to Infrastructure Canada’s Smart Cities Challenge to begin its transformation into a Smart City. The participation in the challenge prompted Mississauga to think of its challenges and how to implement potential solutions. Their application for the challenge became the foundation of their current SMRT CTY Master Plan. This Master Plan highlights the benefits of engaging the public and having the right tools and infrastructure to support the implementation of Smart City projects.19

Infrastructure Canada’s Smart Cities Challenge: This is a pan-Canadian competition open to all municipalities, local or regional governments and Indigenous communities (First Nations, Métis and Inuit). It is meant to empower communities to adopt a Smart Cities approach to improve the lives of their residents through innovation, data and connected technology.

Through the application process, Mississauga was able to identify the focus of their Smart City projects—empowerment and inclusion, economic opportunity and mobility. With an aspiration of becoming a model of government-led Smart City urban development, the city developed its master plan for its residents. To ensure Smart City projects are more than just technological implementations, they developed a tool called the Smart City Lens. This tool set a baseline with a definition and goals for Mississauga as a Smart City, to which all projects adhered. This tool lists a series of questions that ensure projects that implement technology are also aligned with strategy. Every Smart City project uses this tool as a means to evaluate the goals and methods of the project.19

WHAT DID WE LEARN FROM MISSISSAUGA?

Recognizing the role of public engagement in identifying the right focus areas for the community led Mississauga to embed public engagement in their processes.

Projects and policies need to be assessed according to how they align to the goals and framework stated in the Smart City Master Plan to ensure an alignment between the proposed solutions and the needs of the city.

STEP 1  KNOW

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KNOW YOUR ETHICAL BASELINE

ESC DEFINITION TOOL Using prompt questions and a fill in the blank template the ESC Definition tool starts the thinking around ethics in Smart City planning. HOW IS THIS TOOL GENERATIVE?

This tool helps develop a shared understanding of what is valuable to the individual and group. With this understanding, the community is able to have a starting point in defining what is ethical to them. WHY USE THIS TOOL?

This is the first step and the output of this tool guides subsequent steps of the Framework. As you get to know more about your communities, this definition is continually updated until it is representative of the community’s values.

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Objective: To create the Ethical Smart City definition for your community.

GENERATIVE

What does your community want to achieve?

What is economic success for your community?

What practices is your community willing to adopt?

What is social success for your community?

What does your community want to avoid?

What does environmental success look like for your community?

FILL IN THE BLANKS An Ethical Smart City (What does your community want to achieve?) that supports (What practices is your community willing to adopt and avoid?) and ensures (What are the social, economic and environmental successes?)

Based on your definition, what does your community want to learn from others?

STEP 1  KNOW

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KNOW YOUR ETHICAL BASELINE

VALUE MAPPING TOOL Value Mapping is a tool that helps describe personal and organizational values. HOW IS THIS TOOL GENERATIVE?

This tool enables the exploration of values by mapping the degree with which they impact the individual and the community. WHY USE THIS TOOL?

The Value Mapping tool helps align the values of the individual with that of the community. This is useful to generate a shared understanding of what should be prioritized by the community. SOURCE:

You can find more information on this and other tools from Development Impact & You Toolkit: An initiative of Nesta at diytoolkit.org

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GENERATIVE

Objective: To align the community on the basis of shared values

INDIVIDUAL VALUES Always Important

Sometimes Important

Rarely Important

Never Important

COMMUNITY VALUES Always Important

Sometimes Important

Rarely Important

Never Important

STEP 1  KNOW

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EVALUATIVE: KNOW WHAT YOU CAN BENCHMARK AGAINST

Learning from communities with similar Smart City aspirations is the starting point for Smart City Champions. Through learning about the experiences of other communities, you will be equipped with standards to benchmark your intended projects. However, it is not enough for communities to be inspired by or even mimic the best solutions, these solutions need to be adapted to their own local, political, social and economic context. In this step, Smart City solutions and projects from other cities are evaluated against the community’s ethical benchmark criteria. By sourcing and evaluating best practices and benchmarking, the right tools and approaches can be identified. This will not only help inspire solutions, but also reinforce the ethical baseline for your community. The evaluative output in this step is supported by the ESC Benchmark and the Comparative Analysis tools. Both of these tools can be used to set a benchmark criteria to filter possible solutions.

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EVALUATIVE PRECEDENT: MISSISSAUGA

How did Mississauga start its journey toward an Ethical Smart City? To embark on this process, Mississauga first began benchmarking by comparing case studies of Smart Cities such as Barcelona and Tallinn, which demonstrated that a lack of public engagement at the beginning of a process can result in push-back from the public. This insight fuelled the need for including the community in the planning process from the early stages of Smart City development.20 To meet their goal of becoming a Smart City, the city developed a comprehensive public engagement plan to be implemented with its various communities and neighbourhoods.19 Mississauga’s SMRT CTY Master Plan considers what is prioritized by the community and establishes what is needed of the government to align their projects to these priorities. Through a series of workshops and idea sessions, the municipality not only educated the public around the benefits of smart products, services and processes, but also garnered an understanding of the communities’ concerns. These sessions allowed the residents to collaborate with city staff in proposing low-cost solutions for a range of local issues.

WHAT DID WE LEARN FROM MISSISSAUGA?

Public engagement allowed Mississauga to understand and integrate the community’s values of inclusion, accessibility and mobility within each of its Smart City projects.

Based on the understanding that the future of its growth is entirely dependent on the values and quality of life of its communities, Mississauga was able to develop a strategic plan for its Smart City activities.19

STEP 1  KNOW

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KNOW WHAT YOU CAN BENCHMARK AGAINST

ESC BENCHMARKING TOOL This tool evaluates the existing city systems to create a benchmarking criteria for identifying ESC solutions. HOW IS THIS TOOL EVALUATIVE?

Using Why, What, Who, How and Where questions, you can evaluate existing city systems. These questions lead you to create a benchmark criteria that reinforces your ethical baseline. WHY USE THIS TOOL?

The benchmark criteria filters out solutions that do not match what is ethical for your community.

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EVALUATIVE

Objective: To create your benchmark criteria

List WHY questions to understand your community’s challenges

List WHAT questions to understand your city systems and potential solutions

List WHO questions to understand your stakeholders

List HOW questions to understand the experience of your stakeholders

List WHERE questions to understand the scope of your city systems

Benchmark Criteria

Benchmark Solutions

STEP 1  KNOW

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KNOW WHAT YOU CAN BENCHMARK AGAINST

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS TOOL This tool is used to understand similarities and distinctions, performance measures and metrics between products, services, environments and systems. HOW IS THIS TOOL EVALUATIVE?

Comparative analysis is a means to evaluate how other Smart City projects can be used to benchmark against the solutions proposed for your city. By exploring all possible configurations of the proposed plans and comparing them with existing solutions, this tool can be used to consolidate findings and desired outcomes into a new solution. WHY USE THIS TOOL?

The tool helps you analyze the consolidated findings from similar projects to set benchmarks for your proposed solution. SOURCE:

You can find more information on this and other tools from Institute Without Boundaries at institutewithoutboundaries.ca

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EVALUATIVE

Objective: To learn from Smart City projects implemented by other cities

What challenges did the city address?

What technologies did the city implement?

CASE STUDY OF CITY 3

CASE STUDY OF CITY 2

CASE STUDY OF CITY 1

What values did the city uphold?

LESSONS FOR YOUR CITY

List the lessons learned from Smart City projects implemented by other cities.

STEP 1  KNOW

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2

Personalize IDENTIFY COMMUNITY NEEDS AND LIMITATIONS

Generate an understanding of prioritized values, relevant challenges and appropriate technologies. Evaluate the limitations that your communities face. GENERATE

PERSONALIZE YOUR UNDERSTANDING OF NEEDS

• Community needs • Prioritized values • Relevant challenge • Appropriate technology EVALUATE

PERSONALIZE YOUR CONSIDERATIONS

• Policies • Funding opportunities • Municipal goals

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In the second Generate a shared step, understanding Personalize, you will collaborate of theyour with Framework community andto itsidentify philosophy. their Evaluate needs, values which citieslimitations. and you can learn After from theand ethical use baseline them as is benchmarks. set by the community, you will personalize the understanding of your community’s needs and the barriers which prevent the fulfillment of those needs. Equipped with environmental scanning tools, you will identify and prioritize the values of your communities, their most pressing challenges and the appropriate technologies that can be used to address them. Smart City planning not only requires an understanding of the challenges, but also limitations around policy, technology, culture and even mindsets. Personalizing these considerations for the community ensures a holistic view on solving for their needs. Armenia and Bolzano, Italy have effectively integrated their community values and needs in their Smart City planning.

STEP 2  PERSONALIZE

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GENERATIVE: PERSONALIZE YOUR UNDERSTANDING OF NEEDS

To personalize the understanding of your community’s needs, you must begin by identifying the different stakeholders of the community—the residents, the community organizations, the planners, the designers and the architects amongst others—who need to be involved in the process. Involving diverse stakeholders at every stage will enable you to uncover the varying needs within your communities. This step also examines the hierarchy of these often competing needs and the relationships between the various stakeholders in a community. Personalizing the understanding of the needs of various stakeholder groups will build a repository of relevant information about the municipality, which will help you make informed decisions. The generative output in this step is supported by the ESC Needs Analysis Tool and the Interview Guide. Both of these tools can be used to identify the ESC element—values, challenge, technology—combination for your community.

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GENERATIVE PRECEDENT: ARMENIA

How did Armenia address the low representation of its women in governance and decision-making? In 2012, the United Nations Development Program, the European Union (EU) and the Republic of Armenia invested in a project, Women in Local Democracy, to “advance gender equality, strengthen local democracy and enhance social cohesion within the Republic of Armenia”.21 This project was spearheaded by the Republic of Armenia’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Territorial Administration. There was an extremely low representation of women in local and national government which, in addition to limiting democracy, also hindered sustainable development and social justice. The socio-economic conditions of women and youth, which are ultimately linked to the Gross National Product and overall economic health of the country, could only improve if there is a focus on policies for education, health, social welfare and child care.22 These policy decisions, in turn, need the participation of women in the decision-making process. The goal of the engagement, funded by the EU in partnership with the local government body, was the advancement of gender equality, strengthening local democracy and enhancing social cohesion within the Republic. As part of a larger workshop series, the problem definition tool was used in the first segment of a three-part session. Key stakeholder representatives comprising women in local government, regional authorities, village mayors, NGOs and journalists were tasked to first identify existing problems in five previously identified thematic challenges in local democracy. The group was then asked to vote for one priority issue in each thematic challenge and the problem definition tool was used to further explore each of the identified challenges.23 As a result, in 2012, Armenia’s local government elections saw an increase in female representation from 7% to 9% and an even further improvement in 2016 from 9% to 12%. The “Equal Rights and Equal Opportunities for Women and Men” law was passed in part due to these efforts in 2013.24

WHAT DID WE LEARN FROM ARMENIA ?

By enabling diverse stakeholders to find consensus with shared experiences, the project could dig deeper into the identified challenges.

The repeated workshops across the nation resulted in papers, policies, programs and procedures supporting participatory decision-making and created opportunities for involving women in local government.

STEP 2  PERSONALIZE

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PERSONALIZE YOUR UNDERSTANDING OF NEEDS

ESC NEEDS ANALYSIS TOOL The ESC Needs Analysis tool facilitates the identification of the community’s needs. HOW IS THIS TOOL GENERATIVE?

This tool examines your community’s needs and experiences to identify the prioritized value, relevant challenge and appropriate technology. These are the elements that will serve as the foundation of the ESC solutions for your city. WHY USE THIS TOOL?

Identifying these elements for your community will provide an ethical foundation for your Smart City plans.

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Objective: To identify prioritized values, the right challenge and appropriate technology

CHALLENGES

VALUES

GENERATIVE

TECHNOLOGY

What are the most pressing issues in your community?

What values are most important to your community?

What are the technologies that are available to you right now?

How do these issues manifest in your daily life and long-term plans?

What are the pain points you encounter when trying to live by these values?

What technologies have caused harm or created challenges within your community?

What are some barriers you want to get rid of?

What values do you want your community to focus on?

What other technology do you want to be implemented that can support your daily activities?

Based on the answers above, identify the relevant challenge, prioritized values, and appropriate technology.

RELEVANT CHALLENGE What is the right challenge to address at this time?

PRIORITIZED VALUES Which value is most important to uphold while solving this challenge?

APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY Which technologies will be best suited to help solve the challenge?

STEP 2  PERSONALIZE

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PERSONALIZE YOUR UNDERSTANDING OF NEEDS

INTERVIEW GUIDE TOOL The interview guide is a tool to ensure that relevant information is collected from stakeholders. HOW IS THIS TOOL GENERATIVE?

Interviews are a qualitative research tool that provide rich insight into the behaviours, attitudes, motivations and preferences of stakeholders. The interview guide can be optimized for one-on-one or group interviews to achieve this detailed understanding. WHY USE THIS TOOL?

The interview guide can inform your strategy for selecting and asking the right questions to your stakeholders. An interview is a direct interface with the community and can be structurally optimized to understand their values and challenges. SOURCE:

You can find more information on this and other tools from Development Impact & You Toolkit: An initiative of Nesta at diytoolkit.org

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Objective: To guide you through the interview process with stakeholders

GENERATIVE

SHOW ME Have the interviewee walk you through the process of using services or products. This is a way to understand the users’ needs and motivations.

DRAW IT Ask participants to map out their activities and experiences through sketches and diagrams. This is a good way to debunk assumptions and reveal how people perceive and order their activities.

THINK ALOUD As they perform a process or task, ask participants to describe aloud what they are thinking. This helps uncover their motivations, concerns, perceptions and reasoning.

BE SPECIFIC Ask people to talk about a specific period of time. This is ensure the responses are not general but rich in important details.

STEP 2  PERSONALIZE

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EVALUATIVE: PERSONALIZE YOUR CONSIDERATIONS

In this step, you will analyze and assess the enablers that will support and the barriers that will hinder the process of addressing the community’s needs. Understanding the perceived, foreseen and potential enablers and barriers will contextualize your communities’ needs and values in a more meaningful way. Assessing the impact of disruptors to the community and having a holistic view of their environment will fortify your Smart City plans against future disruptions. The evaluative output in this step is supported by the ESC Systems Mapping and Systems Mapping tools. Both of these tools can be used to visualize the systems contributing to and affected by your challenge.

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EVALUATIVE PRECEDENT: BOLZANO, ITALY

How did Bolzano prepare for the perceived, foreseen or potential barriers and drivers to implement a smart energy pilot project? In 2015, Sinfonia, a five-year initiative funded by the European Commission and coordinated by the Research Institutes of Sweden (RI.SE) was formed. It helped “deploy large-scale, integrated and scalable energy solutions in existing mid-sized European cities” and transformed them into smart energy districts. Bolzano, Italy and Innsbruck, Austria partnered with Sinfonia to each pilot a smart energy project with the goal of achieving 40-50% increase in energy savings and a 20% increase in renewable energy use.25 Although both projects benefited from the Strength, Weakness, Opportunity and Threat (SWOT) analysis, the results detailed here focus mainly on Bolzano’s achievements. This smart energy project included three approaches: Retrofitting pre-existing residential buildings to become more energy efficient and include renewable energy use Creating a heating and cooling network to monitor and recover wasted energy from other areas Implementing a smart grid system for public lighting, supporting electric vehicles and climate monitoring 26 Two SWOT analyses were conducted as part of a feasibility study. The first focused on the past and ongoing Smart City projects to learn from their experiences. This exercise was conducted through inputs from questionnaires and direct interviews with experts actively involved in the identified Smart City projects. Using the data from the first exercise, a second analysis was conducted to provide a better picture of the current project. In addition, both Sinfonia’s project plan and the local energy plan was analysed by Bolzano’s municipal experts to determine possible synergies and blockers to the proposed smart energy plan.27

WHAT DID WE LEARN FROM BOLZANO?

The outcomes of the dual SWOT analyses helped Sinfonia and Bolzano realize that the key driver for overcoming barriers was public participation.

The analysis of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of a project can empower municipalities to tap into the potential of community participation in implementing Smart City projects.

By cultivating previously unimagined or overlooked strengths and opportunities in managing and mitigating project risks, Sinfonia was successfully able to achieve final energy savings goals of 4,508 MWh/yr and a carbon reduction of 1,462 tonnes, annually.28

STEP 2  PERSONALIZE

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PERSONALIZE YOUR CONSIDERATIONS

ESC SYSTEMS MAPPING TOOL ESC Systems Mapping is a tool to help you explore the impact of your challenge on different stakeholders in the community through the context of policies, technology, infrastructure and environment. HOW IS THIS TOOL EVALUATIVE?

This tool can be used to evaluate the interdependencies between a challenge and its impact on the community through different lenses. WHY USE THIS TOOL?

By mapping the systems contributing to and affected by a challenge, you will be able to understand the community’s context. This will also enable you to consider the dependencies and limitations of the problem and solution space.

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Objective:To identify the systemic forces that positively and negatively impact the challenge

EVALUATIVE

What is the challenge you are trying to tackle?

POLICY What economic and social policies affect the challenge? How do these policies impact or get impacted by the existing system? Who are the decision makers that can make or block changes to the existing policies?

TECHNOLOGY What technologies affect the challenge? How do these technologies impact or get impacted by the existing system? Who are the decision makers that can make or block changes to the existing technologies?

ENVIRONMENT What changes in the environment affect the challenge? How do these changes to the natural environment impact or get impacted by the existing system? Who are the decision makers that can make or block changes to the existing environment?

INFRASTRUCTURE What city infrastructures affect the challenge? How do these infrastructural changes impact or get impacted by the existing system? Who are the decision makers that can make or block changes to the existing infrastructure?

STEP 2  PERSONALIZE

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PERSONALIZE YOUR CONSIDERATIONS

SYSTEMS MAPPING TOOL A tool for mapping the interactions between stakeholders, institutions and external factors. HOW IS THIS TOOL EVALUATIVE?

This tool can be used to evaluate limitations and opportunities within the problem and solution space. WHY USE THIS TOOL?

Mapping the interactions between stakeholders, institutions and external factors, will enable you to visualize the gaps and interdependencies. SOURCE:

You can find more information on this and other tools from Institute Without Boundaries at institutewithoutboundaries.ca

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Objective: To map the interactions within the systems in your city.

STAKEHOLDERS List the stakeholders impacted by the system.

EVALUATIVE

INSTITUTIONS List the institutions within the system.

EXTERNAL FACTORS List the external factors affecting the people and institutions of the system.

In a separate sheet, map how the listed items interact with one another to identify interdependencies and gaps.

STEP 2  PERSONALIZE

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3

Strategize GOAL-SETTING OF SMART CITY PLANS

Generate goals based on prioritized values, the relevant challenges and appropriate technologies for your community. Evaluate the potential impact by forecasting possible scenarios. GENERATE

STRATEGIZE WITH INTENT

• Smart City planning goals

EVALUATE

STRATEGIZE CONSIDERING POTENTIAL IMPACT

• Risks • Trends • Scenarios analysis

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In this step, you will be able to actualize the insights from the previous step, into goals for your Smart City projects. Once you build a holistic view of your community’s values as well as potential barriers, you will be able to strategize this understanding into specific goals. These goals will become the criteria to prioritize and evaluate Smart City projects. Ethical Smart City goals are a synthesis of the understanding of the prioritized values and needs of the communities. The active involvement and input of the relevant stakeholders in the goal-setting process will ensure the alignment of these goals with the community’s needs. To ensure that the Ethical Smart City strategy is holistic, potential future scenarios are also drawn up in this step while considering the enablers and barriers identified in the previous step. St. Albert, Canada illustrates how to strategize intentionally, while upholding community goals, and Taiwan champions the use of forecasting in identifying the correct solution for their communities.

STEP 3  STRATEGIZE

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GENERATIVE: STRATEGIZE WITH INTENT

An Ethical Smart City strategy needs to be grounded in the aspirations of your community and what can be accomplished and implemented by the municipality. The outcomes of this step are meant to serve as a reflection of community values and facilitate strategizing with the intent of protecting these values. To define the goals of a project through engagement with relevant stakeholders, you must first identify and narrow down the systemic challenges that technology could potentially help solve. This will help prioritize projects to ensure that they are implemented by the municipality. At the end of this step, you will be able to create Smart City project goals that are built through a reinforced understanding of your community’s needs and values. The generative output in this step is supported by the ESC Goal-Setting and Scoping Canvas tools. Both of these tools can be enable you and your community to set ESC goals.

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GENERATIVE PRECEDENT: ST. ALBERT, ALBERTA

How did St. Albert define Smart City goals that championed their community?

Pecha Kucha - A storytelling format meant to create space for sharing ideas and messages through presentations.

The municipal leaders in St. Albert recognized the opportunity to modernize their community by becoming a Smart City in 2014. Identified as a ‘growth region’ in Canada, their population is expected to double in the next 30 years. The city believed that by transforming into an “urban area that solves its core issues through innovation and collaboration and that applies new technologies and data for the benefit of all”,29 it could become more efficient in providing services and support for its communities and businesses.30 A founding member of the Smart City Alliance, a cross-sector collaborative group, and one of the first communities in the province of Alberta to officially undertake this project, the city needed to define what becoming a Smart City meant for their community.31 Conducted over two years and reaching over 2,000 stakeholders, this project was one of the city’s largest and most diverse public engagement efforts. In this process, the city deployed a series of digital, traditional and direct strategies and tools. This included committee presentations, surveys, group visits, focus groups, community and regional events, meetings and forums, a pecha kucha series and online feedback tools which sought engagement from youth, residents, businesses and all levels of education.32 From these sessions, the city identified major themes and developed 22 key strategies under eight focus areas, which were used as the framework of St. Albert’s Smart City master plan.33T

WHAT DID WE LEARN FROM ST. ALBERT?

An extensive approach to engaging and empowering the community, like the one taken by St. Albert, leads to identifying key strategies for Smart City implementation. Some of the key identified strategies were continued cross-sectoral collaboration, ensuring proper resource allocation and implementation, integration and monitoring of technology and digitization, appropriate change management support, cross-municipality collaboration and learning, and continued funding or partnerships to promote further innovation. 32 34

Defining the goals for your Smart City projects will create standards to measure the impact of the implementation of the projects, just as St. Albert did before embarking on any plans.

STEP 3  STRATEGIZE

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STRATEGIZE WITH INTENT

ESC GOALSETTING TOOL ESC Goal-Setting tool enables you and your community to set goals based on their prioritized values, relevant challenges and appropriate technologies. HOW IS THIS TOOL GENERATIVE?

The tool maps internal and external factors that impact community needs. The understanding generated from this overview is used to set goals. These goals will help municipalities design solutions that champion the community values. WHY USE THIS TOOL?

By mapping out factors internal and external to the community, you can set ESC goals that champion their needs.

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GENERATIVE

Objective: To set goals based on community needs

INTERNAL FACTORS RELEVANT STAKEHOLDERS Which communities are relevant to be included in this solution?

COMMUNITY NEEDS What are the needs of the community?

CURRENT STATUS What is the impact of the current condition?

DESIRED CHANGE What changes would benefit the relevant stakeholders?

EXTERNAL FACTORS PARTNERS Which partnerships can serve these goals?

FUNDING What kind of funding is available?

ETHICAL SMART CITY GOALS

STEP 3  STRATEGIZE

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STRATEGIZE WITH INTENT

SCOPING CANVAS TOOL The Scoping Canvas is a tool that ensures scoping and alignment while setting goals for the project. HOW IS THIS TOOL GENERATIVE?

The Scoping Canvas helps generate goals by defining the purpose, value, resources, the current situation and assumptions. The tool produces goals for projects while aligning groups on their intent and scope. WHY USE THIS TOOL?

The Scoping Canvas highlights potential problems and indicates what needs to be included. SOURCE:

You can find more information on this and other tools from Board of Innovation at www.boardofinnovation.com

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GENERATIVE

Objective: To create alignment by goal setting

WHY THIS CHALLENGE? How did the team come up with this challenge? Why is it important for the team?

CUSTOMER SEGMENT Who do you want to create value for?

CURRENT SITUATIONS What is the current user journey?

FIRST SOLUTION IDEAS What are your first ideas on how to solve the challenge? Why did you decide on these solutions? What is the competition doing?

GOAL/SUCCESS What kind of decision do you want to make at the end of the project?

SOLUTION ASSUMPTION What do you think users want to see changed?

THE CHALLENGE: HOW MIGHT WE... Frame the challenge in the “how might we...” format, which frames the context clearly, but leaves options for solutions open!

RELATED INITIATIVES & RESOURCES Are there any projects which recently explored similar areas/challenges?

STEP 3  STRATEGIZE

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EVALUATIVE: STRATEGIZE CONSIDERING POTENTIAL IMPACT

The success of a community in becoming an Ethical Smart City depends on the municipality’s capacity to prepare for future disruptors. This requires building an understanding of the potential impact of the Smart City strategy on stakeholders. By analyzing its possible impact, you can identify who in the community is being excluded from the benefits of the proposed solutions and the opportunities for improving these systems. At the end of this step, you will be able to assess the gaps and risks associated with your Smart City strategy. These foresight and forecasting activities will enable you to visualize future scenarios—the plausible, the probable, the possible and the preferable ones— exploring the various ways in which the community’s challenges will be resolved. The evaluative output in this step is supported by the ESC Foresight and Environmental Scan (STEEPV) tools. Both of these tools can be used to analyze the systemic future of your solutions.

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EVALUATIVE PRECEDENT: TAIWAN

How was Taiwan able to control the COVID-19 epidemic? When COVID-19 was announced, Taiwan was expected to follow the trajectory of the 2003 SARS outbreak and be the second hardest hit by the pandemic after China.35 With geographical proximity and heavy traffic between China and Taiwan, this was an expected outcome. Yet by May 5, 2020, Taiwan had only reported 438 confirmed cases, resulting in 6 deaths,36 which is in sharp contrast to Italy and the USA as of the same day, with 213,013 cases and 29,315 deaths37 and 1,171,510 cases and 68,279 deaths,38 respectively. The control over the spread of the virus could be attributed to a number of factors, including the island’s coordinated leadership structure as well as a fast and strong risk management and disaster planning response approach. The resilient disaster management strategy allowed the integration of information platforms across different sectors to leverage big data and social media to manage and control public fears through open, transparent, real-time communication. Meanwhile, the leadership was able to swiftly and nimbly enact laws to immediately control mass hysteria and impose measures to prevent the spread of the virus.39 They also integrated the national health insurance database with the immigration and customs databases to allow the government to provide real-time data to its citizens and researchers tracking the new disease.40 In the year 2000, Taiwan had developed a Disaster Prevention and Protection Organizational Framework in response to natural hazards which caused major economic losses. However, during the SARS outbreak in 2003, the Framework was updated for biological disasters. Over the next several years, the Department of Health and Centre for Disease Control regularly reviewed and updated their strategies and regulations.

HOW DID WE LEARN FROM TAIWAN?

Taiwan cultivated strong relationships with its communities, private sector and non-profit organizations resulting in smooth and swift action at the community level. This ensured that measures such as quarantine sites were available and protective equipment (PPE) donation services were provided when the pandemic struck.41

Taiwan shows that a concerted approach in leadership with foresight to conduct continued risk management and planning can save lives.

STEP 3  STRATEGIZE

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STRATEGIZE CONSIDERING POTENTIAL IMPACT

ESC FORESIGHT TOOL The ESC Foresight Tool helps you and your community hypothesize how future trends and risks might impact your goals. HOW IS THIS TOOL EVALUATIVE?

The tool examines internal and external factors that might impact the implementation of your goal in the future. WHY USE THIS TOOL?

This tool is a stress test for evaluating the systemic impact of the implementation of your goal and the factors that impact it.

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Objective: To hypothesize the impact of future trends and risks on ESC goals

EVALUATIVE

Undertake trend research related to your city challenges and identify the possible, probable and preferred futures. Once done, make sure you revisit your ESC goals to prepare them for these future scenarios.

POSSIBLE FUTURE What could happen within the context of the social, economic and environmental systems? What internal/ external forces will influence the outcomes of the future scenario? How do we address the impact of these factors on ESC goals?

PROBABLE FUTURE What is likely to happen within the context of social, economic and environmental systems? What internal/ external forces will influence the outcomes of the future scenario? How do we address the impact of these factors on ESC goals?

PREFERRED FUTURE What do we want to happen within the context of social, economic and environmental systems? What internal/ external forces will influence the outcomes of the future scenario? How do we address the impact of these factors on ESC goals?

STEP 3  STRATEGIZE

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STRATEGIZE CONSIDERING POTENTIAL IMPACT

ENVIRONMENTAL SCAN (STEEPV) TOOL This tool breaks down the Social, Technological, Economic, Environmental, Political and Value (STEEPV) factors for strategic discussions. HOW IS THIS TOOL EVALUATIVE?

The STEEPV tool is used to analyze the current and future state of city systems. These systems are assessed for the future impact of goals and strategies. WHY USE THIS TOOL?

This environmental scan coupled with the analysis on present and future trends, tests the adequacy of ESC goals. This ensures that the strategies and goals align with community needs. SOURCE:

You can find more information on this and other tools from Institute Without Boundaries at institutewithoutboundaries.ca

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Objective: To identify the impact of these factors to your ESC goals and strategies

EVALUATIVE

How are your goals and strategies affected by the current and future manifestations of the factors below? Social

Technological

Economic

Ecologic

Political

Values

STEP 3  STRATEGIZE

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4

Design DETERMINE SMART C  ITY SOLUTIONS

Generate designs for your current and future stakeholders. Evaluate the perceived value by prototyping and testing. GENERATE

DESIGN FOR YOUR CURRENT AND FUTURE STAKEHOLDERS

• Ethical Smart City solutions

EVALUATE

DESIGN THE PERCEIVED VALUE, PROTOTYPE AND TEST

• Prototype and test approach • Test results

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The fourth step, Design, entails the co-creation of Smart City solutions that are aligned to the community’s current and future needs as well as testing the value of these solutions through prototyping. Using tools to engage the communities and to evaluate these solutions, this step allows for co-design and co-evaluation. This step begins with the ideation process of Smart City solutions, which are based on community needs and aligned with their values. Various prototypes of potential solutions are created and tested to develop viable, feasible and desirable designs. Through public engagement, stakeholders are able to provide feedback on the solutions and its relevance to the community. This feedback leads to the improvement of the solution - taking it from an abstract idea to a tangible application. Tallinn, Estonia and Penela, Portugal are examples of cities that leveraged their communities in designing solutions to their challenges.

Co-design: Rooted in participatory design methods, co-design is the act of creating products and services with stakeholders.

Prototyping: The process of creating a preliminary sample or model of a product to test the concept, evaluate the design and improve its quality and precision.

STEP 4  DESIGN

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GENERATIVE: DESIGN FOR YOUR CURRENT AND FUTURE STAKEHOLDERS

Designing solutions to address community challenges and needs creates an opportunity to develop projects that are relevant to current and future stakeholders. The combination of the specific challenge, community values and appropriate technology and a commitment to co-design are at the core of Ethical Smart City solutions. The designed solutions must also consider the limitations and risks as identified in previous steps to ensure their resilience and relevance for the various stakeholders in the community over time. At the end of this step, you will be able to come up with potential Smart City solutions that are aligned to your community’s values. The generative output in this step is supported by the ESC Solution and Opposite Thinking tools. Both of these tools can be used to facilitate the ideation activity to propose solutions.

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GENERATIVE PRECEDENT: TALLINN, ESTONIA

How was Tallinn able to leverage its digital community to co-design the right solutions for its public urban spaces? Originally, Tallinn offered a digital feedback tool to its residents to share their ideas to redefine the use of the city’s public spaces. However, this option was limiting and inaccessible as interested residents were required to submit proposals through architectural plans.42 In 2016, in an effort to be more open and inclusive, the City of Tallinn began developing a public engagement app to crowdsource its citizens’ ideas. The app was an accessible and interactive channel where residents could co-create with city planners and monitor the progress of the project. 98% of Estonians have a digital ID-card that allows access to the country’s digital services of which 92% regularly use the internet.43

Crowdsource: A means to obtain information and input from a large sample group, usually done online over the internet. Crowdstorm: A collaborative brainstorming process that works toward a certain output.

Launched in 2018 as an evolved version of the city’s online planning register, the publica engagement app is a co-creation tool for citizens to crowdstorm by generating ideas, support and suggestions for the city’s public space plans. User ideas and proposed plans are plotted on an interactive map, voted upon and discussed by fellow citizens and city planners. In addition, a number of in-person engagement sessions and workshops were conducted to gather further information and ideas. The first major project was about a new public space in Northern Tallinn with two pilot projects for which ideas were crowdsourced. The first was for the structural plan of the Skoone Bastion area and the second was for a street originating from the Skoone structure plan area. Participants voted with a like or dislike in the app over 3,700 times and submitted 235 ideas and comments in these two idea-gathering periods alone.44 Since then, six major projects with over 60 areas for discussion have been co-designed using this digital participation tool.45 HOW DID WE LEARN FROM TALLINN?

Using different forms of public engagement tools—digital and physical— ensures “accessibility, interoperability and user-friendliness”, which Tallinn has demonstrated and hopes to uphold for its people.42

With the right platform, the community can be involved in the planning for its public spaces.

STEP 4  DESIGN

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DESIGN FOR YOUR CURRENT AND FUTURE STAKEHOLDERS

ESC SOLUTION TOOL The ESC Solution tool combines the prioritized value, appropriate technology and the relevant challenge to provide context for generating ideas for ethical solutions. HOW IS THIS TOOL GENERATIVE?

The tool allows for different stakeholders to ideate together and create a shared vision for the ethical solution to be designed. WHY USE THIS TOOL?

The proposed ethical solution will allow you to champion community needs.

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GENERATIVE

Objective: To generate ideas for ethical solutions

What is the most pressing challenge in your community?

What ethical value(s) is (are) most important to you and your community? E.g. privacy, safety, sustainability

What smart technology(ies) can be most impactful in solving your community’s challenge? E.g. Artificial Intelligence (AI), Internet of Things (IoT), Blockchain

Write or sketch your solution that prioritizes your chosen ethical value using smart technology to address your community challenges.

FILL IN THE BLANKS We are creating an Ethical Smart City solution that is (prioritized value) which addresses (right challenge) using (appropriate technology)

STEP 4  DESIGN

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DESIGN FOR YOUR CURRENT AND FUTURE STAKEHOLDERS

OPPOSITE THINKING TOOL Opposite Thinking is a brainstorming tool that leverages limitations to generate ideas. HOW IS THIS TOOL GENERATIVE?

The tool reverses assumptions about the challenge to generate ideas. WHY USE THIS TOOL?

Opposite Thinking will help you examine the assumptions about the challenge and possible solutions. SOURCE:

You can find more information on this and other tools from Board of Innovation at www.boardofinnovation.com

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GENERATIVE

Objective: To generate ideas from an opposite point of view

ASSUMPTION

Describe the assumption you have about your concept or domain.

OPPOSITE

Describe the opposite of this assumption.

SOLUTION

Describe a new service, offering or improvement out of the opposite.

STEP 4  DESIGN

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EVALUATIVE: DESIGN THE PERCEIVED VALUE, PROTOTYPE AND TEST

The value of a solution is assessed when its ability to address challenges is proven. Smart City projects and initiatives need investments in time and money, so having a clear view of their value helps you and your stakeholders feel confident in the proposed solutions. Small scale deployments are commonly used to test and establish the potential of proposed solutions. Pilot projects are also a great way to gather feedback from stakeholders and adjust solutions based on their input. Supported by innovative procurement practices, these prototypes balance implementing solutions and creating value. In this step, you will be able to evaluate the solutions on the basis of their value and contribution to the different stakeholders in the community. The evaluative output in this step is supported by the ESC Testing and Prototyping Testing tools. Both of these tools can be used to test the proposed solutions for their viability, feasibility, and alignment to community needs and values.

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EVALUATIVE PRECEDENT: PENELA, PORTUGAL

How did Penela facilitate its traditional agrarian community to test Smart City solutions?

Quadruple Helix Model: An innovation framework that leverages interactions between university, industry, government and public sectors.

Penela is a village in Portugal that supports a population of approximately 6,000. The community has a low demographic density, which is also mostly ageing. To promote regional development and to address rural challenges, Penela as a municipality began forming partnerships following a quadruple helix model. In this model, the public sector forms partnerships with people in their community as well as those in the private and academic sectors as a way to revitalize and attract growth.46 As a result, the Smart Rural Living Lab was created by the municipality, for Penela to become a testbed for user-driven innovation focused on encouraging sustainability through natural resources, social development, tourism and entrepreneurship. Initiatives such as SmARTES provide support for those in the creative industries and houses an accessible, affordable rapid prototyping lab (FabLab).47 There is also the Mini-Habitat, for micro-companies and the Habitat de Inovação Empresarial nos Sectores Estratégicos (HIESE) for business innovation. In addition to the municipality’s financial support for entrepreneurs with an investment support plan, each of these initiatives provide highly competitive pricing models and the opportunity to connect with local academic institutions.48 Furthermore, the Living Lab is located in close proximity to two major industrial areas which support construction and manufacturing. These partnerships between sectors strengthen the region by attracting growth and development and addressing rural challenges in ways that leverage its local resources. HOW DID WE LEARN FROM PENELA?

A rural community can attract growth and investment by adopting the quadruple helix model which fosters collaboration between diverse sectors—the community, academia, the private sector and the public sector.

The collaboration between diverse sectors leads to innovation. In Panela, it led to the establishment of successful innovations, start-ups and businesses. Among them are Connect Robotics, which uses drone technology for rural delivery options, BugLife, which offers alternative high protein sources for animal feed and EcoXperience, which is a circular solution for food waste.49

STEP 4  DESIGN

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DESIGN THE PERCEIVED VALUE, PROTOTYPE AND TEST

ESC TESTING TOOL ESC Testing is a tool that uses the three lenses of innovation—desirability, viability and feasibility—to evaluate solutions. HOW IS THIS TOOL EVALUATIVE?

The tool evaluates the suitability of the proposed solution by analyzing its viability and feasibility against the values and needs of the community. WHY USE THIS TOOL?

The tool ensures that the benefits of implementing the solution outweigh the potential costs.

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Objective: To test the desirability, viability and feasibility of Ethical Smart City solutions

EVALUATIVE

What is your Ethical Smart City solution?

DESIRABILITY How does the solution uphold community values? What is the unique value proposition? Does it address the community’s needs? Do people want this product or service?

VIABILITY How will it be funded? What are the costs? Does this solution create new problems?

FEASIBILITY How does the solution address the challenge? Is it functionally possible in the foreseeable future?

STEP 4  DESIGN

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DESIGN THE PERCEIVED VALUE, PROTOTYPE AND TEST

PROTOTYPING TOOL PROTOTYPING TESTING TESTING TOOL The Prototyping Testing Tool ensures The Prototyping that the design and Testing concepts Toolof helps solutions ensure are efficiently that thetested design before and concepts resourcesofare solutionsinto invested are creating efficientlythe tested finalbefore solution. resources are invested into creating the HOW IS THIS TOOL EVALUATIVE? final solution. Testing tool facilitates the The Prototype planning for trying out solutions. The How is this tool evaluative? tool helps identify findings to be incorpoThe Prototyping Testing Tool provides rated to improve the ESC solution. ways to evaluate design concepts and WHY USE THIS TOOL? solutions. The tool also helps plan the The toolof provides information on what process prototyping and testing and part of the solution should invested ensures that learnings and be ways to im- in further. prove solutions are done in an efficient manner SOURCE: You can find more information on this Why use this tool? and other tools from Development The tool&helps to makeAn critical investImpact You Toolkit: initiative of ment and what about the Nestadecisions at diytoolkit.org design or concept of a solution should be developed or not.

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Objective: To plan the process of prototyping and testing the solutions

EVALUATIVE EVALUATIVE

What is the Smart City solution you want to test?

Quickly try out your idea to determine whether it can work in real life.

Test your idea again after having developed it further, to examine details before launching it.

Make a list of all the things that you need to bring the idea to life.

STEP 4  DESIGN

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5 Adapt

PLAN IMPLEMENTATION OF ETHICAL SOLUTIONS

Generate implementation plans on the basis of lessons learned. Evaluate the plans against community goals. GENERATE

ADAPT YOUR ETHICAL BASELINE

• Project or Implementation Plans

EVALUATE

ADAPT TO CHANGES

• Lessons learned

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In the fifth step, Adapt, you will plan the implementation and the execution of the approved Smart City projects. To aid the implementation of these solutions, it is also essential to revisit stakeholders’ feedback from the previous steps. Having a view of the change drivers that affect the implementation of Ethical Smart City solutions is important when planning these projects. This view also enhances the resilience of the Smart City solutions. Thus, this step involves the practical application of everything that has been developed and learnt in steps one through four—Know to Design. Dubai, United Arab Emirates and Hamilton, Canada showcase how learning from one implementation can improvise and reinvigorate future projects.

STEP 5  ADAPT

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GENERATIVE: ADAPT YOUR ETHICAL BASELINE

A successful plan for a comprehensive implementation of Smart City projects starts with an assessment of all the learning that has been acquired thus far. The insights that are gathered through the previous steps need to be reflected in how the project and implementation plans are developed. In this step, you will be able to adapt the project plans to consider lessons from tested prototypes and begin the implementation of your Ethical Smart City project plans. The consolidation of these lessons will reinforce your city’s ethical baseline, which will steer the course for future projects. The generative output in this step is supported by the ESC Planning and Business Model Canvas tools. Both of these tools can be used to plan the implementation of your Ethical Smart City projects.

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GENERATIVE PRECEDENT: DUBAI, UNITED ARAB EMIRATES

Why did Dubai do to monitor its Smart City progress? The Smart Dubai initiative was launched in 2014 by the Vice President and the Prime Minister of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and His Highness Sheikh Mohammad Bin Rashid Al Maktoum. By embracing technological innovation, the initiative aimed to make Dubai the happiest, most efficient, safe, and impactful experience for its residents and visitors.

Key Performance Indicators (KPIs): Measurable criteria that show how a company, organization or team is effectively reaching their objectives. International Technology Union’s (ITU): Specialized agency of the United Nations for information and communication technologies. Triple Bottom Line: Economic, Environmental and Social sustainability.

In 2015, Dubai decided to use key performance indicators (KPIs), developed from the International Technology Union’s (ITU) standards for Smart Sustainable Cities, to track their progress and inform strategies for future actions. These KPIs assessed the impact of the information and communication technologies on the sustainability of Smart Cities. Guided by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE), Dubai followed the 7-step process to perform the assessment using the aforementioned KPIs. This process included KPI collection, analysis and identification of data sources, data collection, KPI reporting, ITU assessment, data verification and evaluation.50 Moving forward, it mandated that data collection be embedded within all Smart City projects to ensure that the best quality data was available for the KPIs evaluations.51 The 92 KPIs from the ITU standards were categorized into 19 major topics and further sorted into three broad buckets— economy, environment and society and culture—reminiscent of the triple bottom line. 52 Dubai became the first city to pilot a KPI development using the ITU’s Sustainable Smart Cities standards.53 From this exercise, Smart Dubai was able to quickly develop a standardized data collection method across all departments not only to satisfy the ITU’s KPIs, but their own Smart Dubai strategy KPIs.

HOW DID WE LEARN FROM DUBAI?

Key Performance Indicator (KPI) development and assessment helped Dubai monitor their progress and identify gaps in their Smart City activities.

Dubai was able to build on the International Technology Union’s (ITU) standards for Smart Sustainable Cities,50 which facilitated the development of a Global Smart Sustainable City Index that will be used to assist future Smart City development.52

STEP 5  ADAPT

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ADAPT YOUR ETHICAL BASELINE

ESC PLANNING TOOL The ESC Planning tool creates a backbone for the ESC project plan. HOW IS THIS TOOL GENERATIVE?

The tool provides a snapshot of the project information and community needs to reinforce the foundation of your ESC project plans. WHY USE THIS TOOL?

The tool will guide your planning by highlighting the features critical to your project implementation.

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GENERATIVE

Objective: To summarize the important features of the project plan

What is your Ethical Smart City solution?

COMMUNITY NEEDS

PROJECT INFORMATION

PRIORITIZED VALUES How are the community values reflected in the Smart City project?

GOALS How do the project objectives align with the goals of the city?

RELEVANT CHALLENGE Who was consulted when identifying the problem to be solved? Were they included in the prototype or testing of the solution?

SUCCESS CRITERIA How does this align with your community’s Ethical Benchmark Criteria?

APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY How was the technology chosen? Who was consulted?

RISKS What are the risks around the limitations of your community’s context?

COMMUNITY FEEDBACK What are the insights gathered from knowing the community? How are these insights applied to the project planning?

FUTURE SCENARIO What are the potential change drivers and disruptors that can influence this Smart City project plan? How does this impact economic, social and environmental sustainability?

STEP 5  ADAPT

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ADAPT YOUR ETHICAL BASELINE

BUSINESS MODEL CANVAS TOOL The Business Model Canvas is a tool that identifies the key considerations for the implementation of ESC project plans. HOW IS THIS TOOL GENERATIVE?

The tool highlights the key aspects of the business model, such as partnerships and value proposition, while also emphasizing factors that impact the relationship of internal and external audiences to the project. WHY USE THIS TOOL?

The Business Model Canvas provides a comprehensive picture of components required to implement the ESC project plan. SOURCE:

You can find more information on this and other tools from Development Impact & You Toolkit: An initiative of Nesta at diytoolkit.org

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GENERATIVE

Objective: To generate a comprehensive view of the ESC project.

KEY PARTNERS Who will help you?

KEY ACTIVITIES How do you do it?

VALUE PROPOSITION What do you do that is unique to you?

KEY RESOURCES What do you need?

AUDIENCE SEGMENTS How do you help?

AUDIENCE RELATIONSHIPS How do you interact?

DISTRIBUTION CHANNELS How do you reach them?

COST STRUCTURE What would be the cost?

REVENUE STREAM How much will you make?

STEP 5  ADAPT

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EVALUATIVE: ADAPT TO CHANGES

As you go through all five-steps with your stakeholders, you will be equipped with a comprehensive view of the progress in solving these challenges. In this step, you will review the implementation plans and other outgoing communication materials such as requests for proposals to ensure that the project outcomes remain ethical. This step serves as the final checkpoint for projects to maintain their alignment against community goals and stakeholder needs. Adapting to an iterative mindset is critical for Ethical Smart City transformation projects. With a strong feedback loop, lessons learned with every implementation can inform the understanding of what Ethical Smart City transformation means for your municipality from the first step. As more and more communities adopt the Ethical Smart City Framework, the underlying guiding principles would also evolve to accommodate for a more nuanced and innovative understanding of globally prioritized values, identified challenges and enabling technologies. The evaluative output in this step is supported by the ESC Report Card and Ecology of Innovation tools. Both of these tools can be used to assess the proposed plans and to track the overall progress.

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EVALUATIVE PRECEDENT: HAMILTON, ONTARIO

What did Hamilton do to improve its Smart City efforts? Once Canada’s ‘Steel Capital’, Hamilton’s municipal leaders realized that its one-industry economy needed to shift and modernize to sustain future growth. In 2015, Hamilton, armed with a number of strong projects in innovation, sustainability and digital technologies, among others, decided to measure itself against its peers on a world stage through Intelligent Community Forum’s (ICF) awards program. The City of Hamilton submitted an application highlighting its Smart City initiatives - including information and data on Hamilton’s challenges, intervention strategies and results - for ICF’s annual awards program. The program benchmarks cities around the world against the ICF framework. In 2016, Hamilton was ranked one of the top twenty one Smart Cities in the world by achieving ICF’s SMART21 designation. After that, Hamilton reviewed their infrastructure and activities through ICF’s analytics process, identifying their gaps, strengths and opportunities. With ICF’s feedback, they were able to successfully target several critical areas for improvement related to the knowledge workforce, digital equality and advocacy. Over the next two years, the city focussed its efforts in these areas and reapplied for the ICF awards program in 2018, where it was selected as one of their TOP 7 Intelligent Communities.

HOW DID WE LEARN FROM HAMILTON?

Establishing the Mayor’s Intelligent Community Task Force, under the leadership of the Mayor and his staff, led to Hamilton’s digital transformation. This included the development of a digital strategy, digital services, open data, open government and digital equality.54

Benchmarking against global competition using ICF’s key indicators, helped the Task Force to focus on addressing Hamilton’s key gap areas, especially addressing advocacy, expansion of its broadband infrastructure and undertaking critical youth and entrepreneurial programs.

Collaboration across the community, academia, private sector and other public sector departments were key in achieving Hamilton’s projects such as HIVE, Xperience Annex and CityLAB.55

STEP 5  ADAPT

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ADAPT TO CHANGES

ESC REPORT CARD TOOL The ESC Report Card is a tool that helps track progress and lessons learned across all steps of the Framework. HOW IS THIS TOOL EVALUATIVE?

The tool tracks the progress as well as evaluates the project plan against ESC goals. WHY USE THIS TOOL?

The tool ensures that progress on each step is recorded in one place and can be easily referred to or carried over into the next step of the Framework.

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Objective: To document the progress through the steps of the ESC Framework

ESC FRAMEWORK STEPS

EVALUATIVE

OUTPUT CHECKLIST

KNOW What is your definition of an Ethical Smart City?

ESC Definition Benchmark Criteria Benchmark Solutions

PERSONALIZE What are the needs of your community?

Needs Analysis List of Policies Funding Opportunities

STRATEGIZE What are your ESC goals?

Smart City Goals Risks/ Trends Future Scenarios Analysis

DESIGN What is (are) your ethical Smart City solution(s)?

Ethical Smart City Solutions Prototype and Test Approach Test Results

ADAPT What are the key features in the implementation plan?

Implementation Plan Project Plan Lessons Learned

STEP 5  ADAPT

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ADAPT TO CHANGES

ECOLOGY OF INNOVATION TOOL The Ecology of Innovation is an IwB tool which analyzes the innovation and gaps across five essential systems: social, technical, business, political and design innovation. HOW IS THIS TOOL EVALUATIVE?

The Ecology of Innovation creates a holistic frame of reference for looking at innovative solutions. It assesses the proposed solution and the overall innovation process at a systemic level. WHY USE THIS TOOL?

The Ecology of Innovation ensures that the solutions are holistic and consider five critical systems that impact cities. SOURCE:

You can find more information on this and other tools from Institute Without Boundaries at institutewithoutboundaries.ca

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Objective: To map out the gaps and innovation across all systems in your city.

EVALUATIVE

SOCIAL INNOVATION How do we want to live? What are the barriers to its implementation? How do we overcome the barriers?

DESIGN INNOVATION What is the impact of the design that is needed for change? What are the barriers to its implementation? How do we overcome the barriers?

POLITICAL INNOVATION What governance/policy change is needed? What are the barriers to its implementation? How do we overcome the barriers?

TECHNOLOGY INNOVATION What is the technology that is needed for change? What are the barriers to its implementation? How do we overcome the barriers?

BUSINESS INNOVATION How do we create a business to make this change? What are the barriers to its implementation? How do we overcome the barriers?

STEP 5  ADAPT

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THE ESC FRAMEWORK IN ACTION


HOW CAN THE FRAMEWORK BE USED?

The Ethical Smart Cities project and this Playbook were born out of a concern for the future of cities and the heightened reliance on technology in smart city developments. The Ethical Smart City project views cities as more than geographical locations, but rather as hotspots of innovation, where we can apply insights and foresight to solve some of the world’s most pressing challenges. Through the ESC Framework, you will be equipped with the process and tools needed to co-create ethical solutions that respond to the past, present and future needs of your community, leading to economically, socially and environmentally safe and sustainable cities.

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The ESC Framework is empowered by public engagement strategies to facilitate the participation of your communities. It enables you to go beyond the traditional models of informing them by enabling meaningful and strategic participation of community members in solving their challenges. The ESC Framework’s generative outputs for each step build on a shared understanding of the community values and needs and the evaluative ones investigate the limitations and help to incorporate lessons from similar projects. By using this five-step Framework, Canadian cities and communities around the world can transform in a holistic manner —where they assess their pressing challenges and implement appropriate solutions that reflect their communities’ values. The ESC Framework is meant to evolve with each iteration, with lessons incorporated from each municipality’s application. This evolution can be ensured by a coordinated approach from Smart City Champions to share best practices and knowledge that will be important to take the work of the Framework and this project forward. In developing this Playbook and the ESC Framework, it became increasingly evident that Smart City Champions and municipalities across Canada look to other communities for insights and inspiration. Thus, local and global examples of cities were used along every step of the Framework to demonstrate how ethical processes can be implemented. While each community had its own public engagement process and implementation process, breaking them down per step enabled us to add specific outputs and goals to the steps of the Framework. The most important takeaway from the precedents described in this Playbook is to learn to look forward and back at the same time. This lesson comes especially from studying Indigenous ways of thinking, which champions the seven generations’ view. Learning from the past and planning for the future has always been part of the Indigenous way of being, where communities consciously look forward seven generations and look back seven generations. For cities to prepare for the challenges of tomorrow, they need to transform into Ethical Smart Cities and this transformation is incomplete without learning from their past initiatives and other communities.

HOW CAN THE ESC FRAMEWORK BE USED

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DESIGN PROPOSALS

Through multiple Charrettes this year, we refined and tested the ESC Framework to create a holistic process that can be applied to small, medium and large-sized communities nationally and globally. During the 15th annual IwB International Charrette, we collaborated with 150 students, faculty and staff from local and global partner institutions. The Charrette involved designing tangible, ethical, inclusive and sustainable solutions for 15 communities out of the 139 who applied to the 2018 Infrastructure Canada’s Smart Cities Challenge. The International Charrette brief grouped into five themes—Employment and Education, Housing, Food, Transportation and Health—was developed on the basis of the communities’ proposals to the Smart Cities Challenge. As the ESC project evolved, three design proposals from the International Charrette were further developed around the challenge and solutions generated during the Charrette.

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The ESC Framework and Toolkit are meant to guide projects through every step of the process, from mapping stakeholders and the systems that surround or exacerbate community challenges to determining the scope of a solution’s particular product or service. Due to the iterative nature of the program and the COVID-19 pandemic, the Framework was in development during the completion of the three design proposals. As such, they were retroactively used to test the ESC Framework upon completion. The Framework therefore worked as a gap analysis tool to highlight the limitations of the proposed solutions that can be explored and improved with the participation of community members. It is our hope that these design proposals will be examined by their respective communities and will be iterated upon. Detailed information about these proposals can be found on our website www.ethicalsmartcity.com. The three proposals that were developed were for the communities in the Mohawk Council of Akwesasne, Simcoe, and Mississauga, The following are brief descriptions of the projects and the challenge questions of each proposal.

DESIGN PROPOSALS

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Akwesasne Small-sized City Theme: Health Values: Accessibility, Collaboration, Inclusion Budget: $5 Million

CHALLENGE QUESTION

How might we use the Ethical Smart City Framework to develop a design solution that prioritizes traditional knowledge in order to decrease the rate of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in the Akwesasne community? PROBLEM DESCRIPTION

The prevalence of diabetes in First Nation communities is significantly higher than the national average. While the Canadian national average is around 9%, the rate in Akwesasne is as high as 33%. Recent research reviewing 111 studies worldwide confirmed a disproportionate burden of diabetic disease complications among all Indigenous peoples, regardless of their geographic location. Additionally, the Akwesasne people have also witnessed a loss of culture and tradition. Westernization has disrupted their traditional way of life, polluted the natural food sources and separated the Akwesasne territory into three political jurisdictions.56 PROPOSED SOLUTION

Grow Akwesasne is a holistic health service that addresses the community’s challenge of type 2 diabetes rates, accessibility barriers to food security, treatment for medical needs and re-emphasizes Indigenous ways of knowing. With five greenhouses and community hubs distributed across Cornwall Island, serving as the heart of the system, an application and fleet of mobile shuttles and markets will circulate healthy, fresh food to the homes of Akwesoro:nons as well as provide them opportunities for connecting with each other and culture.

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Grow Akwesasne bus with an attachable trailer that acts as a food delivery service and mobile market. Grow Akwesasne Application that connects the community to healthy recipes and allows people to track and monitor their health, using the diabetes health management reminder feature.

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Simcoe Mid-sized City Theme: Health Values: Accessibility, Safety, Sustainability Budget: $10 Million

CHALLENGE QUESTION

How might we use the Ethical Smart City Framework to develop a design solution that mitigates the impacts of seasonal flooding in the County of Simcoe? PROBLEM DESCRIPTION

Climate change has had a significant effect on Lake Simcoe’s watershed over the past decade. The County of Simcoe has been troubled by the chronic issue of urban flooding, which occurs in different municipalities within the county every year during seasonal events like ice melt and torrential rains. While flooding used to occur mostly during spring, the effects of climate change are evident now as it floods even in the winter months. This chronic flooding problem has caused pest infestations, displacement of residents, damages to public and private property such as roads and loss of crops and livestock. In addition, hundreds of thousands of people, in this community of nearly 307,050, have been affected by waterborne diseases.57 PROPOSED SOLUTION

The issue of flooding in the County of Simcoe is not a natural phenomenon, but is the result of prolonged human intervention. Human interaction with nature has resulted in an unbalanced equation of give and take, where more has been taken from nature than returned. While humans have the knowledge and resources to resolve their problems, an Ethical Smart City requires that solutions to challenges are addressed by considering a balancing act between humans and nature. Simcoe’s design proposal explores how a challenge can become an opportunity and how considering a nature-oriented approach can lead to sustainable solutions.

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Eden Park allows the community to engage in different kinds of activities through indoor facility, semi-open gazebo structures and walking trails while retaining the existing tree cover on the site.

Eden Park utilizes the water redirected to the wetland through a stream that flows into the park site and enables the creation of wetland habitats within the site, fostering flora and fauna to co-exist with human activities.

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Mississauga Large City Theme: Employment and Education Values: Inclusion, Equity, Accessibility Budget: $50 Million CHALLENGE QUESTION

How might we use the Ethical Smart City Framework to develop a design solution that assists newcomers to get long-term employment that will be relevant for the future of work? PROBLEM DESCRIPTION

While the city of Mississauga has built an extensive digital infrastructure, it must also prepare itself for the changing nature of work, while working towards giving people of all backgrounds and circumstances optimal digital resources. Between 2011 and 2016, Mississauga welcomed 53,000 newcomers (this includes recent immigrants and refugees) and is home to 240 cultural groups.58 While the city has access to digital infrastructure and is home to a diverse population, it must also ensure that its newcomer population has equal access to opportunities that prepare them for the changing nature of work. PROPOSED SOLUTION

Newcomers to Canada deal with a broad spectrum of challenges while looking for work. From education credential evaluations, to cultural immersion, the on-boarding process for getting newcomers job-ready for the Canadian market is a long one. For a diverse city like Mississauga, which is home to a large number of newcomers, it was important that its services be inclusive and accessible to all. Thus, Hire, an Ethical Smart City solution was developed in the form of a city service that provides empathetic processes to build awareness, and provide access and support for newcomers. While providing consultation, skills’ assessment and training plans for upskilling as necessary, Hire also facilitates newcomers to connect with industries and opportunities for long-term employment. The design solution works as a comprehensive service bringing together the employers and job-ready newcomers to address their present needs while strengthening the city for the future.

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HiRE mobile studio is a roving service that goes around the neighborhood offering newcomer and employment consultation, skill assessment, upskill training plans and workshop opportunities.

HiRE digital platform that facilitates connection between industries, newcomers and government case workers. The platform becomes their means to match the needs of the newcomer to the service offering.

DESIGN PROPOSALS

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THE ESC TOOLKIT IN ACTION

The ESC Toolkit is intended to propel facilitation, iteration, and co-creation among the different stakeholders in your municipality. As you develop a holistic understanding of their needs, the worksheets in this section will guide and track your progress. The ESC Toolkit is specifically designed by the IwB cohort 201920 to support the ESC transformation process. These ESC tools guide you and your community to achieve the desired outputs throughout the process. The tools have been customized to supplement the Framework so that the process can steer the thinking toward creating Smart City solutions that uphold communities’ values and needs. These tools aid you in the process of developing Ethical Smart City solutions. Embedded with prompts and spaces for answering them, the tools provide the structure for what stakeholders should be thinking about at every step of the Framework. You can find printable worksheets of these tools on our website, www.ethicalsmartcity.com.

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Tools are essential for any problem solving structure and process. The precedents mentioned throughout the Playbook showcase the use of tools that allowed stakeholders to co-create Smart City solutions. The ESC Framework is also supported by a set of tools to facilitate the generative and evaluative outputs of each step. Some tools such as the ESC Goal-Setting Tool and ESC Systems Map can serve the purpose of creating a strategic understanding and allow for multiple stakeholders to communicate with each other. Other tools such as the ESC Testing Tool and ESC Planning Tool allow for the execution and implementation of ESC solutions. The following section displays how the employability challenge specific to newcomers in the City of Mississauga was solved using the ESC Toolkit. These filled worksheets are meant to illustrate how the ESC Toolkit can be implemented by you in your municipalities.

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KNOW YOUR ETHICAL BASELINE

1 ESC DEFINITION TOOL HOW TO USE IT

1. With the relevant stakeholders, answer the seven questions in the ESC Definition tool. 2. Generate your ethical baseline by filling in the blanks for the template to identify what your Ethical Smart City supports and ensures.

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Objective: To create the Ethical Smart City definition for your community.

GENERATIVE

What does your community want to achieve?

What is economic success for your community?

Mississauga’s SMRT CTY master plan highlights three actions the city wants to achieve through their Smart City projects—Mississauga as a City of the Future, Mississauga as a Place for Civic Curiosity, Mississauga as A Smart City for Everybody.

Economic resilience is one of the goals Mississauga had in responding to the Infrastructure Canada’s Smart City Challenge. In the SMRT CTY master plan, providing local economic opportunities to its residents is one of the outputs of their public engagement activities.

What practices is your community willing to adopt?

What is social success for your community?

The city implemented technologies that improved their services for the residents such as Wi-Fi, Internet of Things (IoT) and digital infrastructures. They were open to adopt the right solutions that can improve the lives of its people, as well as planning for future technology trends like 5G, Advanced Traffic Management Systems, and Connected Fleets.

Mississauga wanted to solve their mobility problem and began to explore possibilities of solving the problem holistically. They started focusing on the community and identified daily challenges and solutions that contribute to improving the everyday lives of its people. Social success for Mississauga is having technology that is able to adapt to the needs of the society while improving the quality of life.

What does your community want to avoid?

What does environmental success look like for your community?

Mississauga wants to avoid not being able to manage the changes that come with Smart City projects. When it comes to Smart City planning, they want to leverage opportunities that enable collaboration, open participation and agility. Recognizing the role of change management is very telling of the risks that have to be mitigated when implementing Smart City projects.

Supporting solutions that mitigate the effects of climate change for the community, such as using renewable energy, low or no carbon mobility and clean technology. Through public engagement, the community was able to provide ideas for solutions like exploring Energy District and IoT on waste management.

FILL IN THE BLANKS An Ethical Smart City that supports and ensures

of the future with engagement possibilities for everybody technological advancements, as well as change management economic resilience and inclusive services through collaboration and open participation

Based on your definition, what does your community want to learn from others? While participating in the Smart City Challenge and creating the SMRT CTY master plan, Mississauga wanted to learn the push and pulls of Smart City planning, as well as what worked and didn’t work when implementing Smart City projects. Learning how their plans connected to the values of the place, how they executed these projects, how they managed changes and what the outcomes were for the few areas they wanted to understand in Smart City planning.

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KNOW WHAT YOU CAN BENCHMARK AGAINST

2 ESC BENCHMARKING TOOL HOW TO USE IT

1. List the Why, What, Who, How and Where questions to understand the various facets of your community. 2. Based on the answers to the questions, list the criteria for your city to reinforce your ethical baseline under “Benchmark Criteria”. 3. List other cities whose solutions meet these criteria under “Benchmark Cities”.

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EVALUATIVE

Objective: To create your benchmark criteria

List WHY questions to understand your community’s challenges Why is there a need to focus on newcomers? Why is it important to highlight digital inclusion in the service? Why is employment an issue for newcomers in Mississauga? Why is technology needed for the service to be implemented?

List WHAT questions to understand your city systems and potential solutions What are the existing services available in the city? What industries do these services belong to? What infrastructure can be leveraged? What kind of services cater specifically to newcomers?

List WHO questions to understand your stakeholders Who is affected by the service? Who is excluded from the service? Who are the decision makers?

List HOW questions to understand the experience of your stakeholders How do newcomers currently reach these services? How do they ensure the right problem is being solved? How are the services funded? How does it work as a business? How are stakeholders identified? How is community feedback/opinion/input provided?

List WHERE questions to understand the scope of your city systems Where do these services exist? Where should these services be available? Where do newcomers go for support? Where do newcomers go to look for employment? Where do industries go to look for talent?

Benchmark Criteria

Benchmark Solutions

Does the service support the newcomers in the community?

Existing services related to employment and newcomers

Is there a process in place to get feedback?

Government employment services

Are vulnerable populations included in every technological advancements? Does the solution support social, economic, environmental successes of Mississauga? Does the solution align to Mississauga’s strategic plans?

MBEC (Mississauga Business Enterprise Centre) Mississauga YMCA Employment and Community Service Government immigration services Newcomer Center of Peel Newcomer Services - Library of Mississauga

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PERSONALIZE YOUR UNDERSTANDING OF NEEDS

3 ESC NEEDS ANALYSIS TOOL HOW TO USE IT

Using data gathering such as interviews or focus groups with the relevant stakeholders, 1. Compile a list of the most important values, challenges and available technologies for your community. 2. Identify the pain points and desires from the lived experiences of the community. 3. Deduce the prioritized values, the relevant challenge and appropriate technologies that will allow you to explore your community’s needs.

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Objective: To identify prioritized values, the right challenge and appropriate technology

CHALLENGES

VALUES

GENERATIVE

TECHNOLOGY

What are the most pressing issues in your community?

What values are most important to your community?

What are the technologies that are available to you right now?

Newcomers are not eligible to apply for jobs that match their skills because of lack of Canadian work experience. Newcomers do not know how to build Canadian credentials.

Mississauga is a diverse community, so, making products and services that are inclusive and accessible is important. The city values collaboration and open participation.

Mississauga is already a Smart City, there is a lot of technological infrastructure in place like Wi-Fi, LED lighting grid and IoT that enable digital infrastructure and services.

How do these issues manifest in your daily life and long-term plans?

What are the pain points you encounter when trying to live by these values?

What technologies have caused harm or created challenges within your community?

It’s hard to get a job that fits their skills because of a lack of Canadian experience.

Not everyone who goes to Mississauga lives there so it adds to the diversity of interests that the city has to address. Diversity is both a challenge and an opportunity to build this sense of community even further.

Digital services provides a channel that cannot be accessed by all. Digital services need to be accessible for newcomers as digital platforms may not be available in their local language.

What are some barriers you want to get rid of?

What values do you want your community to focus on?

There are barriers that are intrinsic to the experiences of a newcomer such as culture and government structures.

The community would benefit from local economic opportunities and digital inclusion.

What other technology do you want to be implemented that can support your daily activities?

It’s a challenge going around the city if you don’t have a car.

The lack of or no opportunities that allow newcomers to have Canadian work experience.

Providing equal work opportunities for qualified newcomers.

Technological solutions that allow for equal access to digital services. Technological solutions that address newcomer needs on employment opportunities.

Based on the answers above, identify the relevant challenge, prioritized values, and appropriate technology.

RELEVANT CHALLENGE What is the right challenge to address at this time? More than unemployment for newcomers, there is also a need to address underemployment. Providing long-term employment opportunities for newcomers is more relevant to solve.

PRIORITIZED VALUES Which value is most important to uphold while solving this challenge?

APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY Which technologies will be best suited to help solve the challenge?

Having newcomers as the key takeholder, the prioritized values are inclusion, accessibility and equity.

A digital platform with offline functionalities or physical touchpoints that can be accessed by newcomers.

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PERSONALIZE YOUR CONSIDERATIONS

4 ESC SYSTEMS MAPPING TOOL HOW TO USE IT

1. Write down the relevant challenge identified for your community. 2. List the impacts of the policy, technological, environmental and infrastructural systems on this challenge, by answering the prompts listed under each section.

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Objective: Identify the systemic forces that positively and negatively impact the challenge

EVALUATIVE

What is the challenge you are trying to tackle? More than unemployment for newcomers, there is also a need to address underemployment. For newcomers who are able to find a job, it is not necessarily the job that fits the skills they have acquired in their home countries. Providing long-term employment opportunities for newcomers is more relevant to solve. This leads to an updated design challenge - how might we assist newcomers to get long-term employment that will be relevant for the future of work?

POLICY What economic and social policies affect the challenge? How do these policies impact or get impacted by the existing system? Who are the decision makers that can make or block changes to the existing policies?

TECHNOLOGY What technologies affect the challenge? How do these technologies impact or get impacted by the existing system? Who are the decision makers that can make or block changes to the existing technologies?

Policies on data privacy and data governance may impact the challenge. If digital services are part of the solution and sensitive information will likely be collected, then the solution has to consider the limitations set by the policy.

Technology trends impact the future of work in Mississauga’s existing industries like how automation can change the trucking industry. It impacts the relevance of skills needed by industry and what the workforce can offer. This impacts the employable skills of the future and the readiness of Mississauga’s workforce on these kinds of jobs.

Policies related to proper data governance provide guidance on how products and services should be designed. Decision makers are policy makers.

Technology solutions should also take into consideration the value of digital inclusion. Decision makers are government and industry leaders.

ENVIRONMENT What changes in the environment affect the challenge? How do these changes to the natural environment impact or get impacted by the existing system? Who are the decision makers that can make or block changes to the existing environment?

INFRASTRUCTURE What city infrastructures affect the challenge? How do these infrastructural changes impact or get impacted by the existing system? Who are the decision makers that can make or block changes to the existing infrastructure?

Policies that support mitigating the risks and effects of climate change.

Libraries are used by Mississauga as a hub for their city services. Newcomer specific services like MBEC (Mississauga Business Enterprise Centre) are housed in libraries throughout the city.

There are societal impacts of climate change such as mass migration and urbanization. But, technological innovation to address climate change also led to new industries and new economies like clean technology. Decision makers are government and industry leaders.

Mississauga is already a Smart City, so there is existing infrastructure that can enable digital services. Existing infrastructure, newcomer services and employment services can be leveraged in addressing this challenge. Decision makers are government leaders.

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STRATEGIZE WITH INTENT

5 ESC GOAL SETTING TOOL HOW TO USE IT

1. Identify the internal factors that impact community needs, such as the stakeholders themselves. 2. Analyze the current status of the situation and the desired outcome. 3. Map out partners and funding available to assess support structures for your goals. 4. Write down your ESC goals on the basis of this understanding.

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GENERATIVE

Objective: To set goals based on community needs

INTERNAL FACTORS RELEVANT STAKEHOLDERS Which communities are relevant to be included in this solution? Main stakeholders are new immigrants in Mississauga who haven’t been in the city for more than 2 years.

CURRENT STATUS What is the impact of the current condition? There are existing services in Mississauga and other regions that cater to newcomers. These services are related to immigration, employment and skill development from different sectors. But there are no services that link industry contributions to the rest of these services.

COMMUNITY NEEDS What are the needs of the community? The newcomer community needs an accessible service that facilitates newcomers achieving long-term employment that’s relevant for the future of work.

DESIRED CHANGE What changes would benefit the relevant stakeholders? Design a service that is able to connect industry to the existing employment and skill development services. Align goals for the project to Mississauga’s Smart City goals—Focus on People, Economy, Living, Mobility, Environment, Government.

EXTERNAL FACTORS PARTNERS Which partnerships can serve these goals?

FUNDING What kind of funding is available?

Industry leaders, government leaders.

Government funded program with a $50 million budget.

ETHICAL SMART CITY GOALS Access and support: expand the employment services to reach as many newcomers and increase program awareness. Train and employ: prepare potential employees for desired jobs through required skills training. Retain: sustain the jobs of newcomers for long-term and achieve retention through up-skilling the future generation.

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STRATEGIZE CONSIDERING POTENTIAL IMPACT

6 ESC FORESIGHT TOOL HOW TO USE IT

1. Identify the possible, probable and preferred scenarios for your Smart City goals. 2. Identify the internal and external factors that will influence the outcome of each of the scenarios. 3. Identify your municipality’s responses to each of the scenarios on the basis of the goals.

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Objective: To hypothesize the impact of future trends and risks on ESC goals

EVALUATIVE

Undertake trend research related to your city challenges and identify the possible, probable and preferred futures. Once done, make sure you revisit your ESC goals to prepare them for these future scenarios.

POSSIBLE FUTURE What could happen within the context of the social, economic and environmental systems? What internal/ external forces will influence the outcomes of the future scenario? How do we address the impact of these factors on ESC goals? In a possible future, what could happen include the assimilation of newcomers to the community, economic resilience for all industries and implementing projects that have no negative impact to the environment. Factors that can influence these include existing industries in Mississauga driving the skills needed for the future of work. Industry partners can help prevent or encourage the connection the service is trying to build. Available technology affect what can be done with the service. We can address this by focusing on the overall experience of a newcomer, which allows for the nuances to be understood. Thinking of the challenges of a newcomer as an end-to-end experience help identify the factors that lead to the problem.

PROBABLE FUTURE What is likely to happen within the context of social, economic and environmental systems? What internal/ external forces will influence the outcomes of the future scenario? How do we address the impact of these factors on ESC goals? What is likely to happen is the assimilation of newcomers will happen over a long period of time and that not all industries are agile enough to adjust and shift to the future of work mindset. How the project defines the scope of the service can affect the output. The scope of the services impact how industries and government can quickly adapt to these changes. Introducing different channels of the service means that these changes have to be managed internally and externally. Being specific in the scope can help in matching the right methods of delivering this service. We can address this through detailed scoping in the implementation plan, which allows for the final scope to be understood before being deployed as a full service. Testing will provide relevant information for future implementations.

PREFERRED FUTURE What do we want to happen within the context of social, economic and environmental systems? What internal/ external forces will influence the outcomes of the future scenario? How do we address the impact of these factors on ESC goals? What we want to happen is that newcomers are confident to navigate through the Canadian system and workforce. Newcomers feel connected to the community and people who live in Mississauga have local long-term job opportunities. Factors that can influence the outcomes are industry partners. They can help prevent or encourage a connection between the government and industry. Having policies that protect both the industry and the government can encourage the participation and contribution of both parties. We can address this through the design of the service. It must consider what is needed for newcomers to feel confident to navigate through the system. Considering how to make things approachable, friendly and not intimidating.

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DESIGN FOR YOUR CURRENT AND FUTURE STAKEHOLDERS

7 ESC SOLUTION TOOL HOW TO USE IT

1. List the most pressing challenge, important values and impactful technologies for your community. 2. In the space provided, write or sketch your solution that prioritizes your chosen ethical value using smart technology to address your community challenges. 3. Using the template, create a statement about your ESC solution that upholds prioritized values, the relevant challenges and appropriate technologies to share with your community.

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GENERATIVE

Objective: To generate ideas for ethical solutions

What is the most pressing challenge in your community? The most pressing challenge for newcomers in Mississauga is acquiring long-term employment that’s relevant for the future. Due to lack of Canadian work experience, there’s a tendency for newcomers to get jobs that don’t match their skills. This results in underemployment and unemployment. Providing long-term employment opportunities for newcomers is more relevant to solve.

What ethical value(s) is (are) most important to you and your community? E.g. privacy, safety, sustainability Having newcomers as the stakeholder, the prioritized values are inclusion, accessibility and economic sustainability. The solution should be approachable enough for newcomers and encourage their participation. Since newcomer experiences are different from one another, personalizing the experience as well as the results of that experience can go a long way in helping a newcomer feel welcome. Providing the skills and experience needed to gain access to local long-term work opportunities are crucial to keep talent within the city.

What smart technology(ies) can be most impactful in solving your community’s challenge? E.g. Artificial Intelligence (AI), Internet of Things (IoT), Blockchain The solution can benefit from having a digital platform that can connect and match the demands of the industry with skills of newcomers and employers in the city. The mobile studio, which is the mobile component of the solution, provides a human contact meeting newcomers where they are.

Write or sketch your solution that prioritizes your chosen ethical value using smart technology to address your community challenges. The solution is a mobile studio that goes around neighbourhoods in Mississauga to design skill plans and facilitate face to face connection with existing newcomer services and industry professionals in the community. Solution consists of the following: infrastructure, service, program and digital platform a mobile studio with consultation, training, mentorship and facilitation services as well as a program to encourage use of services. The digital platform supports these processes end-to-end. Mobile Services: 1) consultation related to immigration or employment > assessment of needs and readiness > identification of needs and readiness: (a) training plan or CV (b) training (c) internship/apprenticeship (d) employment 2) skill building workshop > identified skill gap that is either relevant for now or the future of work > schedule workshop > industry experts to lead workshops

FILL IN THE BLANKS We are creating an Ethical Smart City solution that is

inclusive and accessible

which addresses

the future of work for newcomers

using

person to person connection through soft skills training, guidance & lifelong learning

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DESIGN THE PERCEIVED VALUE, PROTOTYPE AND TEST

8 ESC TESTING TOOL HOW TO USE IT

1. Write down the proposed ESC solution for your city. 2. Evaluate the desirability, feasibility and viability of the proposed ESC solution by answering the questions in this tool.

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Objective: To test the desirability, viability, feasibility of Ethical Smart City solutions

EVALUATIVE

What is your Ethical Smart City solution? The solution is a mobile studio that goes around neighbourhoods in Mississauga to design skill plans and facilitate face to face connection with existing newcomer services and industry professionals in the community. It is a mobile studio that goes around the neighborhood meeting newcomers where they are. It offers consultation on immigration and employment services, assessment of needs and development of skill plans to assist newcomers in gaining long-term employment. The digital platform supports these transactions between newcomers and case workers, as well as connects newcomers to industry partners.

DESIRABILITY How does the solution uphold community values? What is the unique value proposition? Does it address the community’s needs? Do people want this product or service? The value proposition of the service is in facilitating newcomers in gaining long-term employment that is also relevant to the future of work. It works towards community empowerment and economic sustainability. The solution considers how the existing system excludes newcomers’ previous experiences. This service address that gap in the existing processes.

VIABILITY How will it be funded? What are the costs? Does this solution create new problems? Government has a budget of $50 million dollars. The pilot project is to deploy the service to one neighborhood with the highest unemployed newcomer percentage. This will also test how many clients one mobile studio can serve, which informs future decisions. A high level cost comparative analysis was done on similar services like food trucks or building similar infrastructure like tiny houses. This platform will be used to gather relevant data that can help inform decisions on the design of the service in the future.

FEASIBILITY How does the solution address the challenge? Is it functionally possible in the foreseeable future? The mobile studio will be supported by a digital platform that facilitates connection between industries, newcomers and government case workers. The platform becomes their means to match the needs of the newcomer to the service offering. This platform will be used to gather relevant data that can help customize the service in the future.

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ADAPT YOUR ETHICAL BASELINE

9 ESC PLANNING TOOL HOW TO USE IT

1. Write down the ESC solution for your city generated in the previous step of the framework. 2. Write down the community needs and project information by answering the questions in this tool. 3. Generate your ESC project plans using the community needs and project information as a foundation.

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Objective: To summarize the important features of the project plan

GENERATIVE

What is your Ethical Smart City solution? A mobile studio that goes around your neighborhood to design skill plans and facilitate face-to-face connection with existing newcomer services and industry professionals in the community.

COMMUNITY NEEDS

PROJECT INFORMATION

PRIORITIZED VALUES How are the community values reflected in the Smart City project?

GOALS How do the project objectives align with the goals of the city?

The prioritized values are inclusion, accessibility and equity. The solution considers specific challenges that are unique to newcomers. By focusing on longterm employment, it ensures success for a newcomer living in a new city.

Mississauga already has Smart City goals and it considers how solutions focus on People, Economy, Living, Mobility, Environment, Government.

RELEVANT CHALLENGE Who was consulted when identifying the problem to be solved? Were they included in the prototype or testing of the solution?

SUCCESS CRITERIA How does this align with your community’s Ethical Benchmark Criteria?

Insights on the community was derived from the site visit to Mississauga and interview with Mississauga’s SMRT CTY Project Lead. Opening these discussions to newcomer communities is the next step to identify the scope of the services offered.

The project considers challenges and opportunities that support city goals.

Ability to test and adjust the solution based on the experience of stakeholders. One of the measures of success is how flexible and accessible the service is, to be able to cater to different cultures and languages.

APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY How was the technology chosen? Who was consulted?

RISKS What are the risks around the limitations of your community’s context?

The technology was chosen based on existing infrastructure—ICT and physical spaces available throughout the city—as well as what can be used to inform the design throughout the implementation plan.

The program relies on industry expertise to be able to give direction on the future of work. There is apotential impact of policies on working with industries. There might be incentives or prohibitions that can influence how the service is designed or implemented.

COMMUNITY FEEDBACK What are the insights gathered from knowing the community? How are these insights applied to the project planning?

FUTURE SCENARIO What are the potential change drivers and disruptors that can influence this Smart City project plan? How does this impact economic, social and environmental sustainability?

There is an opportunity for industry to incorporate related training and education programs. A newcomer experiences challenges related to lack of Canadian experience and credentials which may lead to unemployment and underemployment.

Policies and relationship of industry leaders can impact how the business operations can be modeled.

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ADAPT TO CHANGES

10 ESC REPORT CARD TOOL HOW TO USE IT

1. Write down the following for each step of the Framework: Outputs Lessons learned Insights Questions 2. Check the boxes next to the outputs accomplished in each step.

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EVALUATIVE

Objective: To document the progress through the steps of the ESC Framework

ESC FRAMEWORK STEPS

OUTPUT CHECKLIST

KNOW What is your definition of an Ethical Smart City?

ESC Definition

An Ethical Smart City of the future with engagement possibilities for everybody that supports technological advancements, as well as change management and ensures economic resilience and inclusive services through collaboration and open participation.

Benchmark Criteria

Benchmark Solutions

Needs Analysis

List of Policies

PERSONALIZE What are the needs of your community? The most pressing challenge for newcomers in Mississauga is acquiring long-term employment that is relevant for the future. Since newcomer experiences are different from one another, personalizing the experience as well as the results of that experience can go a long way in helping a newcomer feel welcome. Providing the skills and experience needed to gain access to local long-term work opportunities are crucial to keep talent within the city.

STRATEGIZE What are your ESC goals?

Funding Opportunities

Smart City Goals

Risks/ Trends

Sustain the jobs of newcomers for long-term and achieve retention through up-skilling the future generation.

Future Scenarios Analysis

DESIGN What is (are) your ethical Smart City solution(s)?

Ethical Smart City Solutions

We are creating an ethical Smart City solution that is inclusive and accessible, which addresses the future of work for newcomers using person to person connection through soft skills training, guidance, lifelong learning and culture.

Prototype and Test Approach

Expand the employment services to reach as many newcomers. Prepare the potential employees for desired jobs through required skills training to further land a job.

Test Results

ADAPT What are the key features in the implementation plan/RFP? Implementation plan has 3 milestones: pilot, expansion, and final phase. The pilot will be deployed to 1 neighborhood and will test the capability of the mobile studio. It is in this phase that the data collected can inform how to improve the service for future releases. Expansion is deploying the service to new neighborhoods, exploring other funding opportunities and enabling custom services on the digital platform. Final phase extends the service to all neighborhoods, adds programs for the youth, and allows communities to customize the service to fit their needs.

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Implementation Plan Project Plan Lessons Learned

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Throughout this year, we were frequently reminded that cities that succeed in solving their challenges harness the potential of their communities. This insight allowed us to champion the community values as a starting point for identifying challenges and the solutions to these challenges. The five-step framework is, therefore, tied to a set of generative and evaluative outputs and tools that municipalities can use to address their community’s needs. By using this values-driven Framework, small, medium and large-sized communities in Canada and around the world can transform into Ethical Smart Cities in a holistic, sustainable and inclusive way. By using the principles of human-centred design, the Framework and its tools encourage public participation. The precedents in the Playbook are also a testament that it is possible to prioritize the values of communities in identifying and addressing challenges. This is how cities are transformed into Ethical Smart Cities—by listening to the needs of their communities. With ethics as their backbone, the implementation of ESC solutions will lead to economically, socially and environmentally safe and sustainable cities. The Ethical Smart City project does not end here. It, in fact, goes into phase two. What the future looks like has never been more uncertain, but it is evident that Ethical Smart Cities are what the world needs. In order to learn more about this project or to bring it to your cities, contact us at our website www.ethicalsmartcity.com. 164

THE ESC FRAMEWORK IN ACTION


Geoffrey West Physicist and Urban Scientist

Cities are just a physical manifestation of your interactions, our interactions, and the clustering and grouping of individuals. [Simply put], we are the city.5


ENDNOTES 1 Wylie, Bianca. “Think Hard Before Handing Tech Firms The Right To Our Cities’ Data” Huffington Post, 8 November, 2017. 2 Agriculture Timeline. Ancient History Encyclopedia. https://www.ancient.eu/timeline/Agriculture/ 3 Bloomberg, Michael. “City Century: Why Municipalities Are the Key to Fighting Climate Change.” Foreign Affairs, vol. 94, no. 5, 2015, pp. 116–124. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/ stable/24483743. 4 “Thriving amid turbulence: Imagining the cities of the future”. Mckinsey & Co: Public Sector. 11 October, 2018. https://www.mckinsey.com/industries/public-sector/ our-insights/thriving-amid-turbulence-imagining-thecities-of-the-future 5 West, Geoffrey. “The surprising math of cities and corporations.” TED, July 2011, https://www.ted.com/talks/ geoffrey_west_the_surprising_math_of_cities_and_ corporations/transcript?language=en#t-1034301 6 Kitchin, R. “Getting smarter about smart cities: Improving data privacy and data security”. Data Protection Unit, Department of the Taoiseach, Dublin, Ireland, 28 January 2016, http://mural.maynoothuniversity.ie/7242/1/Smart 7 “The ethics of smart cities”. RTE. 27 April 2019, https:// www.rte.ie/brainstorm/2019/0425/1045602-the-ethicsof-smart-cities/ 8 “Canadian Cities and Climate Change” Climate Atlas of Canada. https://climateatlas.ca/canadian-cities-and-climate-change 9 Walsh, Bryan. “Covid-19: The history of pandemics.” BBC, 25 March 2020, https://www.bbc.com/future/article/20200325-covid-19-the-history-of-pandemics 10 Cugurullo, Federico. “The origin of the Smart City imaginary: from the dawn of modernity to the eclipse of reason.” In Lindner C. and Meissner M. (eds) The Routledge Companion to Urban Imaginaries. London: Rout-

ledge. May 2018. 11 Sakar, A.N., “Smart Cities: A Futuristic Vision.” The Smart City Journal. https://www.thesmartcityjournal. com/en/articles/1333-smart-cities-futuristic-vision 12 El-Hadi, Nehal. “Ethical Smart Cities”, Guest Lecture at the Institute without Boundaries. March 11, 2020, Toronto, Canada. 13 “Canada’s plan to mobilize science to fight COVID-19”. Justin Trudeau, Prime Minister of Canada, 23 March 2020, https://pm.gc.ca/en/news/news-releases/2020/03/23/canadas-plan-mobilize-science-fight-covid-19 14 “U of T infectious disease expert’s AI firm now part of Canada’s COVID-19 arsenal” University of Toronto: U of T News, 27 March 2020, https://www.utoronto.ca/news/ut-infectious-disease-expert-s-ai-firm-now-part-canadas-covid-19-arsena 15 Lubell, Maayan. “Israel to use anti-terror tech to counter coronavirus ‘invisible enemy’.” Reuters: Technology News, 14 March 2020, https://www.reuters.com/ article/us-health-coronavirus-israel/israel-to-use-anti-terror-tech-to-counter-coronavirus-invisible-enemy-idUSKBN21113V 16 Toch, Eran., Feder, Eyal. “International Case Studies of Smart Cities: Tel Aviv, Israel”. Institutions for Development Sector Fiscal, Municipal Management Division. Inter-American Development Bank, Jun, 2016. https:// publications.iadb.org/publications/english/document/ International-Case-Studies-of-Smart-Cities-Tel-Aviv-Israel.pdf

17Steinmetz, Christine. “How Does a City Get to Be ‘Smart’? This Is How Tel Aviv Did It.” The Conversation, Academic Journalism Society, 29 Aug. 2019,http://theconversation.com/how-does-acity-get-to-be-smart-this-is-how-tel-avivdidit-94898. 18 Marshall, Aarian. “Alphabet’s Sidewalk Labs Scraps Its Ambitious Toronto Project”. Wired, 7 May 2020, https:// www.wired.com/story/alphabets-sidewalk-labs-scraps-ambitious-toronto-project/ 19 City of Mississauga. “Smart City Master Plan: A Smart City for Everybody”. [Mississauga, O.N.]: Mississauga, June 2019, https://www7.mississauga.ca/websites/ smartcity/SMRTCTY_Master_Plan_Final.pdf. 20 Foyer, Anthea. Personal interview. 3 April 2020. 21 “Women in Local Democracy: Promoting Equal Rights and Equal Opportunities in Armenia.” Akvo RSR, rsr.akvo. org/en/project/642/#report. 22 Tcholakian, Lara. “Why Is Women’s Representation in wArmenia’s Government More Relevant Today?” EVN Report, May 15 2018, www.evnreport.com/politics/ why-is-women-s-representation-in-armenia-s-government-more-relevant-today. 23 Harutyunyan, Natalya, and Zhanna Harutyunyan.

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“Bringing Diverse Stakeholder Groups Together to Find Solutions in Armenia.” Development Impact and You, UNDP ARMENIA, 23 April 2014, diytoolkit.org/casestudies/bringing-diverse-stakeholder-groups-together-to-find-solutions-in-yerevan-armenia/ 24 “Women in Local Democracy 2: Phase 2: UNDP in Armenia.” UNDP Armenia, www.am.undp.org/content/ armenia/en/home/projects/women-in-local-democracy-2--phase-2.html. 25 “Project”. Sinfonia: Low Carbon Cities for Better Living, www.sinfonia-smartcities.eu/en/project. 26 “Bolzano.” Sinfonia: Low Carbon Cities for Better Living, www.sinfonia-smartcities.eu/en/demo-city/bolzano.

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27 “Deliverable 2.1 SWOT analysis report of the refined concept/baseline”. Sinfonia, 2015, http://www.sinfonia-smartcities.eu/contents/deliverables/sinfonia_d21_ final_9988.pdf. 28 “SINFONIA Site Bolzano”. EU Smart Cities Information System, https://smartcities-infosystem.eu/scis-projects/demo-sites/sinfonia-site-bolzano. 29 “What Is a Smart City?” City of St. Albert: Cultivate Life, stalbert.ca/dev/smart/overview/. 30 “St. Albert’s Smart City Program.” Bldg Tmrw, SmartMyCity, September 2018, bldgtmrw.com/projects/st-alberts-smart-city-program-79ive. 31 “St. Albert Incubating Smart City Alliance.” StAlbertToday.ca, St. Albert Gazette, 27 December 2013, www. stalberttoday.ca/local-news/st-albert-incubating-smart-city-alliance-1284194. 32 Peter, Travis. “St. Albert Smart City Engagement Results Released.” Smart City Alliance: Alberta, Canada, 19 October 2015, smartcityalliance.ca/news/st-albert-smart-city-engagement-results-released/. 33 “Smart City Master Plan / City of St. Albert.” City of St. Albert: Cultivate Life, stalbert.ca/dev/smart/masterplan/.

linn.” Baltic Urban Lab, 16 October 2018, www.balticurbanlab.eu/goodpractices/ stakeholder-involvement-app-avalinn-utilised-tallinn. 44 “E-identity: id-card .” e-Estonia, 18 October 2019, e-estonia.com/solutions/e-identity/id-card/. 45 “Brand New App AvaLinn Invites People to Have Their Say on Designing the Public Urban Space.” Baltic Urban Lab, 29 Jan. 2018, www.balticurbanlab.eu/news/brandnew-app-avalinn-invites-people-have-their-say-designing-public-urban-space. 46 Matias, Luis. Smart Rural: Inspiring Innovation in the Rural World. Smart Rural Living Lab, 17 May 2018, https:// www.reseau-pwdr.be/sites/default/files/SmartRural-apresent18_ENG_wallon.compressed.pdf. 47 “FabLab Penela”. Penela Municipo, cm-penela.pt/ artigo-172-0. 48 “Zona Industrial De Penela”. Penela Municipo, cm-penela.pt/artigo-168-26. 49 Connect Robotics: Drone Delivery. Connect Robotics, www.connect-robotics.com/.

34 “St. Albert, Alberta.” Intelligent Community Forum, 2018 www.intelligentcommunity.org/st_albert_alberta.

50 ITU. “Implementing ITU-T International Standards to Shape Smart Sustainable Cities: The Case of Dubai”. ITU & Smart Dubai, 2016, https://www.itu.int/en/publications/Documents/tsb/2016-DubaiCase/mobile/index. html#p=1.

35 Gardner, Lauren. “Modeling 2019-NCoV.” Johns Hopkins Whiting School of Engineering: Center for Systems Science and Engineering, 26 January 2020, systems.jhu. edu/research/public-health/ncov-model/.

51 ITU. “Implementing ITU-T International Standards to Shape Smart Sustainable Cities: The Case of Dubai”. UNECE & ITU, 2020, https://standards4sdgs.unece.org/ sites/default/files/2020-01/SDG11_UAE_Dubai.pdf.

36 “CECC Reports No New Confirmed Cases; 334 Patients Released from Isolation”. Taiwan Centers for Disease Control, 5 May 2020, www.cdc.gov.tw/En/Bulletin/Detail/92k02ZGdO6Ph9_Qn_mETbw?typeid=158.

52 ITU. “Key performance indicators for smart sustainable cities to assess the achievement of sustainable development goals”. ITU, 2016, http://handle.itu. int/11.1002/1000/12884.

37 “Covid-19, Situation Report Update at 5 May 2020 18.00.” Ministero Della Salute, 5 May 2020, www.salute. gov.it/portale/news/p3_2_1_1_1.jsp?lingua=italiano&menu=notizie&p=dalministero&id=4687.

53 ITU. “Key performance indicators project for Smart Sustainable Cities”. ITU, 2020, https://standards4sdgs. unece.org/sites/default/files/2020-01/SDG11_UAE_ Dubai.pdf.

38 “Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Cases in the U.S.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 5 May 2020, www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/cases-updates/cases-in-us.html.

54 Hwang, Tammy. “Hamilton. Mayor’s Intelligent Community Task Force: Final Report”. Hamilton: Mayor’s Intelligent Community Task Force, September 2018. https://pub-hamilton.escribemeetings.com/filestream. ashx?DocumentId=168597.

39 Wang CJ, Ng and CY, Brook RH. “Response to COVID19 in Taiwan: Big Data Analytics, New Technology, and Proactive Testing”. JAMA. 2020;323(14):1341–1342. 40 Su, Yi-Feng, et al. “Public Health Emergency Response in Taiwan”. Health Security, 1 April 2017, 15(2), 137-143. 41 Steinbrook R. “Contact Tracing, Testing, and Control of COVID-19—Learning From Taiwan”. JAMA Intern Med. Published online, 1 May 2020. 42 Plantera, Federico. “Tallinn – the Smart Capital of a Digital Nation - e-Estonia.” e-Estonia, May 2018, e-estonia.com/tallinn-smart-capital-digital-nation/. 43 “Stakeholder Involvement App AvaLinn Utilised in Tal-

55 “Hamilton Named to Intelligent Community Forum’s Top 7.” Think Hamilton, 10 July 2018, thinkhamilton.blog/ hamilton-named-to-intelligent-community-forums-top-7/. 56 “Executive Summary: Mohawk Council of Akwesasne, Quebec.” Infrastructure Canada, https://www.infrastructure.gc.ca/cities-villes/exec-summaries-resumes/ exec-akwesasne-eng.html. . 57 “Smart City Application.” Simcoe.ca, https://www. simcoe.ca/TransportationEngineering/Documents/ Smart%20Cities%20Application%20-%20Final.pdf#search=smart%20cities%20application

ENDNOTES

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PARTNERS

CLIENT

Evergreen evergreen.ca Evergreen is dedicated to making cities flourish. Cities that are low carbon, inclusive to all and sustainable at their core. Since 1991, Evergreen has been working with city builders to convene, collaborate and catalyze ideas into action by testing solutions, developing prototypes and scaling projects. Through their award-winning suite of programs, they have actively engaged residents in creating and sustaining healthy urban environments in schools, public spaces, housing and transit systems and communities themselves.

Intelligent Community Forum Canada (ICF-Canada) www.icf-canada.com The Intelligent Community Forum Canada is Canada’s nonprofit affiliate of the global network of cities and regions called the Intelligent Community Forum (www.intelligencoimmunity.org). ICF is also a think tank and global influencer on a human-centric approach to city-building and community development. Its mission is to help communities in the digital age find a new path to economic development and community growth – one that creates inclusive prosperity, tackles social challenges, and enriches quality of life.

Future Cities Canada futurecitiescanada.ca Future Cities Canada is a collaborative platform that harnesses the momentum for change already in progress in cities. It brings together people, ideas, platforms and innovations from across sectors to address two of the most pressing issues of our time: inequality and climate change and their consequential challenges facing cities. Drawing on the expertise of its founding organizations and together with a diverse and growing network of partners, Future Cities Canada’s unique collaborative infrastructure accelerates innovation to build regenerative, inclusive cities of the future. The Community Solutions Network is designed to help communities build service area capacity and improve the lives of residents using data and connected technology approaches, for topics such as security, data, procurement, governance, and public engagement. The Network is a program of Future Cities Canada, led by Evergreen with Open North and a national community of partners. www. communitysolutionsnetwork.ca

For two decades, ICF has studied how communities respond to the disruptions of digital technology and use it to grow their economies, societies and cultures. From that evidence-based research, it developed the ICF Method, which teaches communities its principles through educational programs, analytics, reports, books and conferences. The data comes from a network of nearly 200 cities and regions – large and small, urban and rural – on five continents. Those communities have completed detailed questionnaires, which feed ICF’s research and make it possible for ICF to provide analytics reports on their investment readiness and progress as Smart21 Cities and Intelligent Communities. It also entitles them to compete in the global Intelligent Community Awards. From the data, ICF selects each year’s Smart21 Communities (semi-finalists), Top7 Communities (finalists) and Intelligent Community of the Year. Communities recognized at any of those levels gain global recognition and substantial free media coverage, but also act as models and inspiration for other communities to emulate. Having their goals and programs validated by ICF also leads to broader buy-in from citizens and stakeholders, gains them access to our global network of peer communities and helps in attracting investment, jobs and talent to these communities. ICF Canada focuses on over 40 Canadian cities that currently make up ICF’s global roster, helping these and many other aspiring towns, cities and regions to work toward achieving success as SMART21 Cities and Intelligent Communities. In addition, ICF Canada helps communities to become investment ready through its research, economic development initiatives and through marketing Canada’s ICF-recognized communities globally as a preferred location to create, attract and retain jobs, talent and investment.

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INSTITUTE WITHOUT BOUNDARIES The Institute without Boundaries (IwB) is a Toronto-based academic program and studio that offers unique educational experience and professional services. The IwB offers a post-graduate program in interdisciplinary design strategy at George Brown College, School of Design in Toronto. As a top design training and research centre, the IwB is committed to collaborative and interdisciplinary design practice with the objectives of social, ecological and economic innovation through design research and strategy. IwB STUDENTS 2019–20 Adunni Rufai Adunni is a certified design sprint facilitator as well as a Chartered Accountant. After working as a financial auditor for over 7 years she made the transition to design strategy and started a business, AADÙN, that up-cycles and re-purposes traditional African hand-woven fabric. As a Design Strategist, she brings alignment between design and experience, through research, creative problem solving, collaboration and paying attention to detail while thinking big picture. From her work on the Ethical Smart City project, Adunni believes that cities should be designed and built to serve the human experience through systems, products and services while maintaining the balance in the overall ecosystem. Amanda Nobile Amanda’s passions range from promoting sustainable eating to facilitating the integration of Syrian refugees into Canadian society. While completing her undergraduate degree in Global Studies, she created Hungry Hippie, a start-up that caters plant-based meals to students. As a Design Strategist, she brings problem-solving at the systems level with the ability to efficiently identify and articulate the opportunities for innovation. From her work on the Ethical Smart City project, Amanda believes that when cities understand and prioritize their community’s values resilient cities are built. Andrea Facenda Fraino Andrea is an artist who uses her platform to invite curiosity and thought. Trained as a graphic designer, interactive designer and Illustrator, she has worked on branding and identity design. As a Design Strategist, she brings design thinking, design research, systems thinking, critical thinking and graphic design to generate creative and resilient solutions. From her work on the Ethical Smart City project, Andrea believes that the future of cities and smart technologies can only succeed if their users are prioritized and empowered to be the agents that transform their own evolution.

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Céline Genest Céline is a spatial designer-turned-user experience (UX) researcher, who has worked on projects ranging from planning physical spaces to improving digital products and services. She has an undergraduate degree in Interior Design and attended courses on everything from Python and data visualization to sailing and woodworking. As a Design Strategist, she brings a growth mindset with a research-driven, creative problem-solving approach. From her work on the Ethical Smart City project, Céline believes resilient cities learn from their community and others. Eirene Keh Eirene has worked in healthcare as a Lead Medical Radiation Technologist after earning double bachelor’s degrees in health and radiation sciences. Curiosity and a drive for personal growth led her to discover the potential for design thinking to produce large-scale, positive, social change. As a Design Strategist, she brings systems thinking, research, empathy and a nuanced understanding of user journeys. From her work on the Ethical Smart City project, Eirene believes that all cities are smart. An Ethical Smart City is one that listens to and meets the needs and aspirations of its communities. Hardeep Kaur Hardeep has over 7 years of experience in change management, communication strategy and planning, process design and implementation, data governance policies and framework, digital transformation, instructional design and facilitation and value realization. With a bachelor’s degree in learning design and a master’s degree in Literature, information design is her forte. As a Design Strategist, she brings transformative frameworks to life with a human-centred design approach. From her work on the Ethical Smart City project, Hardeep believes that cities do not always have the same starting point, so no one solution can fit all. Cities need to begin by looking inward to understand the needs of their communities while learning from other cities that are successful to create their unique blueprint for smart. Jordan Yee Jordan is enthusiastic about urban patterns, efficiency and architecture and curiosity and is a socially conscious civic-minded contributor to the communities around him. With an undergraduate degree in Human Kinetics and additional courses in user experience design, social sciences, health, fitness and cultural geography, he brings diverse ideas and questions to the conversation. As a Design Strategist, he brings a combination of providing diagnostic and unseen perspectives through team provocation and pattern mapping. From his work on the Ethical Smart City project, Jordan believes that the application of ethical solutions is possible for all cities; regardless of technological maturity, even in its absence.

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Maddy Lawrence Maddy is a community development enthusiast and pursued a number of volunteer opportunities that inspired her academic journey. While she completed an Honors Bachelor of Arts in Psychology with a Minor in Social Sciences of Health, she was involved in a range of research activities. Her interests include the built environment’s impact on individual and collective wellbeing, the development of community services and the interplay between the two. As a Design Strategist, Maddy brings a balance between systems thinking and detail-oriented work, responsive designs, clear communication and plenty of empathy. From her work on the Ethical Smart City project she believes that to create truly resilient communities, a city must first understand what makes them unique and provide a platform to tap into their strengths. Max Thomson Max studied English and History and worked in fundraising, marketing and video production for a variety of organizations. He likes working on small flexible teams that are tackling interesting problems with alternative solutions. He is creative by nature and believes that playfulness is one of the keys to success. He enjoys collaborating with a diverse range of stakeholders, supporting their visions from design to delivery. As a Design Strategist, he brings a mix of clarity, ideation and optimism to solve the world’s most pressing problems.

Samira Matan Samira is a sociocultural anthropologist, empowered with the experience of ethnographic research in medical anthropology. Through her interests in social justice issues, Samira is dedicated to helping create a more inclusive world. As a Design Strategist, she brings a perspective that aims to address the root causes of complex problems using a blend of empathy, research, collaboration and design. From her work on the Ethical Smart City project, Samira believes that people matter. Their needs, experiences and values. People make up communities and communities make cities, therefore people cannot be erased from cities no matter how smart they are. Tanya Goyal Tanya Goyal is a design enthusiast. She has always been drawn to the arts and the process of creation. She enjoys exploring diverse ways of self-expression and finds great inspiration in the creations of others. As a Design Strategist, she brings an understanding of people, culture and relationships to craft innovative products and services. From her work on the Ethical Smart City project, Tanya believes that cities should be citizen-centric. It shouldn’t be driven by technocrats and have a bottom’s up approach in solving the problems of the city.

From his work on the Ethical Smart City project, Max believes communities have to truly understand their challenges before deciding on a technological solution. Nitesh Salwan Having graduated as an architect in 2015 and practicing for four years in India, working on projects of scales and natures ranging from residential interior design to mass-transit architecture, Nitesh has had a fair share of opportunities and challenges that have helped inform his interest in multi-disciplinary outlook towards design. Nitesh looks at the world with a lens of optimism and a filter of possibilities. As a Design Strategist, he brings a bird’s eye perspective to complex design problems along with a knack of finding solutions to the minutest level of detail. From his work on the Ethical Smart City project, Nitesh believes that being technologically advanced is not the only way to be smart. With a human-centred approach, even rudimentary can be smart too. Rosanne Sauz Rosanne started her career in Information Technology as an SAP consultant. After 5 years in the role, she moved to an agribusiness company as a business analyst supporting commercial processes in Asia. It is in this role that she was immersed in business operations. After which she moved to Accenture and joined the business development team as an SAP expert. As a Design Strategist, she brings a positive attitude to getting clarity on ambiguous situations, confidence in understanding the systems behind complex problems and hope of what design can do. From her work on the Ethical Smart City project, Rosanne believes that understanding the right problems lead to relevant solutions.

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IWB FACULTY

Special Projects Staff, Institute without Boundaries

Major Project Faculty Paddy Harrington Creative Director in Residence (CDiR) Founder, Frontier Nazanin Homayounfar Academic Coordinator, Interdisciplinary Design Strategy Program John Jung Expert in Residence (EiR) Chairman and Co-Founder, Intelligent Community Forum (ICF) Graeme Kondruss Major Project Advisor (MPA) Manager, Academic Space Planning and Design, George Brown College Manager, Special Projects, Institute without Boundaries Apostolo Zeno, Major Project Liaison (MPL) Major Project Communications Lauren Wickware Graphic Designer and Art Director, Lauren Wickware Design Integrated Design Process Monica Contreras OAA, Architect, Planner, Project Manager Professor, Institute without Boundaries, George Brown College Products, Systems, Services Module Heather Daam-Rossi Innovation Designer, The Moment Simon Mhanna Innovation Designer, The Moment Design Research Devika Narayani Prakash Design Researcher, Institute without Boundaries

Amanda Nastruzio Design Researcher Devika Narayani Prakash Design Researcher Workshop Leaders Xavier MassĂŠ Spencer Beacock Helen Kerr Ethical Smart Cities Guest Speakers Teija Vainio Katerina Cizek Chris Mackris Teresa Scassa Tracey P. Lauriault John Lorinc Rick Huijbregts Anthea Foyer Zahra Ebrahim Nasma Ahmed Anett Numa Bianca Wylie Claire Lyster Nehal El-Hadi Andy Potter Tom Symons Design Contributors Aby Abraham Nargiz Mukhamejanova Silvia Cordero Stephanie Woulfe Stephanie Ho Thomas Clarke Laura Casella Michele Paludetti Interviewees Fred Eisenberger, Mayor, City of Hamilton

Communications Module

Cyrus Tehrani, Chief Digital Officer, City of Hamilton

Kristina Ljubanovic Strategic Director, Whitman Emorson

Nasir Kenea, Chief Information Officer, City of Markham

Lauren Wickware Graphic Designer and Art Director, Lauren Wickware Design

Allan Thompson, Mayor, Town of Caledon

Environment Module Matt Hexemer Executive Creative Director, Huge Inc. Victor Bogatch Design Director/ Physical Design, Huge Inc.

Kristina Verner, Vice President, Innovation, Sustainability and Prosperity Waterfront Toronto Joani Gerber Chief Executive Officer, Stratford Economic Enterprise Development Corporation, City of Stratford

Exhibition Design

Anthea Foyer, Project Lead, Smart Cities, City of Mississauga

Christine Leu Partner, LeuWebb Projects

Andreas Boehm, Intelligent Cities Manager, City of Kelowna

Alan Webb Partner, LeuWebb Projects

Jean-Marc La Flamme, Smart Cities Designer, Smart Villages

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George Brown College

© 2020 the Institute without Boundaries

Anne Sado President, George Brown College

No part of this work may be produced or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system without written permission from the publisher except for a brief quotation (not exceeding 200 words) in a review or professional work.

Luigi Ferrara Dean, Centre for Arts, Design and Information Technology Ana Rita Morais Chair, School of Design Nazanin Homayounfar Academic Coordinator, Interdisciplinary Design Strategy Program Gary Hanrahan Operations Manager, School of Design, George Brown College Norah Smith Assistant to the Dean, Centre for Arts, Design and Information Technology Peter Nguyen Assistant to the Chair, School of Design Printed in Canada by Andora Graphics www.andoragraphics.com

Warranties The information in this document is for informational purposes only. While efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy and veracity of the information in this document and, although the Institute without Boundaries at George Brown College relies on reputable sources and believes the information posted in this document is correct, the Institute without Boundaries at George Brown College does not warrant the quality, accuracy or completeness of any information in this document. Such information is provided “as is” without warranty or condition of any kind, either express or implied (including, but not limited to implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose), the Institute without Boundaries is not responsible in any way for damages (including but not limited to direct, indirect, incidental, consequential, special, or exemplary damages) arising out of the use of this document nor are liable for any inaccurate, delayed or incomplete information, nor for any actions taken in reliance thereon. Institute without Boundaries, School of Design George Brown College 3 Lower Jarvis Street Toronto ON M5A 3Y5 416 415 5000 × 2029 www.institutewithoutboundaries.ca www.ethicalsmartycity.com

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Special thanks to: (The Ethical Smart City Project was produced for a College class project and is not an official representation of the institutions here.)

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Cities Change Cities Sustain

Cities Move Cities Reveal

Cities Reflect Cities Facilitate

Cities Endure Cities Divide

Cities Escape Cities Nurture

Cities Play Cities Renew

Cities Persist Cities Participate

Cities Rise Cities Transform

Cities Collaborate Cities Create

A poem tracing lessons from IwB’s fifteen year history of working with cities by Hardeep Kaur, IwB cohort 2019–20.

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Cities have been the backdrop for great technological advancements. These advances reflect how cities have transformed over time. In times of climate change, mass migration, and pandemics, technological innovation has offered equal parts disruption and relief to cities. From connected devices to Artificial Intelligence to Big Data, new technologies are equipping cities with new solutions every day—but will technology be enough to solve some of the biggest global challenges? Can all cities, regardless of scale and budget, deploy technology in ethical, inclusive, and sustainable ways that prioritize the values of their communities? It is time to question the Smart City approach for its ability to respond to systemic challenges faced by communities. Driven by the insight that cities that do not prioritize the values of their communities are neither smart nor successful, the Ethical Smart Cities Playbook is the result of a year-long research on the evolution of cities by an interdisciplinary group of students and faculty at the Institute without Boundaries, School of Design, George Brown College. The Playbook demonstrates the ways in which Smart City Champions in municipalities, small or large in scale, prioritize the values of their communities, identify their challenges, and uncover the appropriate technologies needed to solve these challenges. Through candid interviews with municipal leaders in Canada, and by analyzing initiatives from across the world, from Tel Aviv, to Tallinn, to Mississauga, and Hamilton, the Playbook showcases insights gathered from these city initiatives to inspire interested communities to begin their transformation into Ethical Smart Cities.

Profile for ethicalsmartcity

The Ethical Smart City Playbook  

The Ethical Smart City Playbook  

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