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Watercube The Book

Social responsibility matters at the Watercube construction Part of the Sustainability Chapter of the book

Ethel Baraona Pohl


social responsibility 278


Ethical standards and social equity The Watercube is an Olympic showpiece designed in two separate countries, approved by the people, built by the people and used by the people, for multiple client groups (Government, industry, developers & the Beijing 2008 Organising Committee). Transparent in all aspects of the design competition, tenders and bidding, it represents exemplary working conditions and management of labour within the Beijing context38. Full adaptability and flexibility of the design was essential to consider pre-Olympics mode, the Olympic Games and the legacy and program of the final building. After the Olympics, the National Swimming Center will be converted into a world-class, largescale multifunctional aquatic sports center. The situation in Chinese architecture has grown so fast with the construction boom since the mid1990s: mainstream Western architectural journals and galleries have been racing to expose new architecture in China; celebrity Western architects have been winning major commissions in China. The 2008 Beijing Olympic Games is one example: all the major buildings have been won by international architects. The swimming complex, the so-called Watercube, has been designed by Sydney-based architectural firm PTW Architects and the Arup Group (Sydney office) in collaboration with China State Construction Engineering Corporation. In fact, most of the recent major public buildings and infrastructures in China have been commissioned to famed international architects and engineers. For that, the Beijing Olympic Games Organising Committee (BOCOG) was asked to report on risk management during the construction of the Games sites – the first time a host nation was required to undertake such a study by the International Olympic Committee. 38. Holcim Awards 2005, Participant PDF -AP05_QSIOB-

Normas éticas y equidad social

El Watercube es un escaparate olímpico diseñado en dos países independientes, aprobado por el pueblo, construido por el pueblo y utilizado por el pueblo, para varios grupos de clientes (Gobierno, industria, grupos de desarrollo y el Comité Organizador de los Juegos Olímpicos 2008). Transparente en todos los aspectos de diseño y ofertas de licitación, el proyecto representa condiciones ejemplares de trabajo y de gestión de la mano de obra dentro del contexto de Pekín38. Plena capacidad de adaptación y flexibilidad en el diseño son esenciales para considerar la posibilidad de validar este modelo de Juegos Olímpicos. Después de los Juegos, el Centro Nacional de Natación se convertirá en un centro de deportes acuáticos multifuncional de clase mundial y a gran escala. La situación en la arquitectura china se ha desarrollado rápidamente con el boom de la construcción desde mediados de los ‘90: las principales revistas de arquitectura occidentales y galerías se han dedicado a dar a conocer China; célebres arquitectos occidentales tienen importantes comisiones en China. Los Juegos Olímpicos son un ejemplo: todos los grandes edificios son construidos por arquitectos internacionales. El Watercube ha sido diseñado por los australianos PTW Architects y Arup Sydney, en colaboración con China State Construction Engineering Corporation. De hecho, la mayoría de las últimas grandes infraestructuras de edificios públicos en China se han encargado a arquitectos e ingenieros de renombre internacional. Por todo ello, al Comite Organizador de los Juegos Olímpicos de Pekín (BOCOG) se le pidió que informe sobre la gestión de riesgos durante la construcción de las instalaciones olímpicas, siendo la primera vez que a una nación anfitriona se le requiere dicho estudio por el Comité Olímpico Internacional.

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social responsibility / responsabilidad social a review by Gemma Thorpe*

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China’s rise on the world stage has been well documented, overtaking the UK in 2006 to become the world’s fourth biggest economy behind the US, Japan and Germany. After a period of remarkable expansion, the country’s GDP multiplying 20 times in as many years, the economy has somewhat stabilized and an annual growth rate is predicted at 8% until 2008. This is still 2% higher than world averages. Physical and material changes are the instantly visual symbols of development and Beijing’s preparations for the Olympic Games are easily recognizable as a manifestation of the changes in China’s urban landscapes and society. More than 100,000 people will have contributed to the building of the Watercube and other centres at Olympic Park ready for the 2008 Games. The majority of labourers in China are migrant workers, and tend to move as groups from the same family or hometown around the country for work. Restrictions that previously prevented people from rural areas working in the cities were first lifted in 1984; it is believed that over 70% of employees in the construction industry are former farmers. Domestic migration for employment is a phenomenon now in its second generation since the opening of the economy over 20 years ago. China is witnessing a mass movement from rural to urban areas, a natural outcome as a result of recent and rapid industrialisation. Figures in 2004 showed there were 130 million migrant workers in Chinese cities, providing the majority of the industrial workforce. * Gemma Thorpe was born in the UK and is a freelance documentary and reportage photographer specialising in contemporary social issues. She has recently completed an MA in International Photojournalism and Documentary Photography, for which she was based in Dalian, North-East China. Her research at Olympic Park in Beijing forms part of an ongoing major photographic work based on migrant construction workers in China.

El ascenso de China en el escenario mundial se ha documentado, superando al Reino Unido en 2006 para convertirse en el cuarto mayor del mundo detrás de economía de los EE.UU., Japón y Alemania. Después de un periodo de notable expansión, el PIB del país ha aumentado 20 veces en relación con otros años, la economía se ha estabilizado hasta cierta medida y se prevé una tasa anual de crecimiento del 8% para el 2008. Esto representa un 2% más alto que la media mundial. Los cambios físicos y materiales son la imagen de desarrollo y los preparativos de Pekín para los Juegos Olímpicos son fácilmente reconocibles como una manifestación de los cambios en los paisajes urbanos y la sociedad chinos. Más de 100.000 personas han contribuido a la construcción del Watercube y otros centros en el Parque Olímpico para los Juegos del 2008. La mayoría de los trabajadores en China son inmigrantes y tienden a moverse como grupos de la misma familia por todo el país en busca de trabajo. Las restricciones que anteriormente impedían que personas de zonas rurales trabajaran en las ciudades fueron levantadas en 1984; se cree que más del 70% de los trabajadores de la industria de la construcción son antiguos agricultores. Migraciones domésticas con fines de empleo son ahora un fenómeno que que se encuentra en el estadío de una segunda generación, desde la apertura de la economía hace más de 20 años. China es actualmente testigo de un movimiento de masas de las zonas rurales a las zonas urbanas, un resultado natural de la reciente y rápida industrialización. Las cifras en el año 2004 mostraron la existencia de 130 millones de trabajadores inmigrantes en las ciudades chinas, proporcionando la fuerza de trabajo a la mayoría de las industrias.


Group of workers from Shandong Province sitting on their upturned hats during a break from working at Olympic Park. They were responsible for fixing communication cables in the Watercube. Grupo de los trabajadores de la provincia de Shandong sentados sobre sus cascos durante un descanso de trabajo en el Parque Ol铆mpico. Ellos fueron los responsables de la fijaci贸n de cables de comunicaci贸n en el Watercube.

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calling home inside a calling centre near to Olympic Park for construction workers to make reduced rate long-distance phone calls to their families. llamando a casa dentro del locutorio, cercano al Parque Olímpico, los trabajadores pueden realizar llamadas de larga distancia con tarifas reducidas a sus familias.

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construction workers library reading desks and bookshelves in the library for construction workers next to Olympic Park. biblioteca para los trabajadores mesas de lectura y estanterías de libros en la biblioteca para los trabajadores junto al Parque Olímpico.

outdoor cinema a film is shown every night on a big screen next to the workers’ dormitories. In the winter months warm coats are available to borrow during the film. cine al aire libre se muestra cada noche en la gran pantalla ubicada al lado de los dormitorios. En los meses de invierno cálidos abrigos están disponibles como préstamos durante la proyección de las películas.


However, migrants are somehow segregated from the areas they move to. Hukou, China’s traditional system of household registration, divides people into rural and urban categories: those from rural areas are automatically placed outside of the urban system and its services (although reform of this system is currently being considered by the government). Due to difficulties obtaining residency permits, most migrant workers don’t have social security and access to health and education systems is restricted. Conditions in Beijing are somewhat more improved than in other cities, for example a measure has recently been put in place to issue migrant construction workers with multi-functional ID cards, aimed at limiting discrepancies over wage payments and permitting access to insurance. The Olympic builders are well provided for, with a library, night classes, several calling centres and shops, and also an outdoor cinema screen for evening entertainment. These are positive steps by the government and construction companies to begin to recognise the needs of the liudong renkou, China’s ‘floating population’, of which construction workers are an estimated 20 million. * Gemma Thorpe nació en el reino Unido y es una fotoperiodista autónomaespecializada en temas sociales contemporáneos. Recientemente ha finalizado una Maestría en Fotoperiodismo Internacional y Fotografía Documental, para lo que se ha trasladado a Dalian, al Nordeste de China. Sus investigaciones en las Insatalaciones olímpicas de Pekín forman parte de un proyecto fotográfico más amplio basado en los trabajadores inmigrantes dentro del ámbito de la construcción en China.

Sin embargo, los inmigrantes son de alguna manera separados de las zonas a las que se desplazan. Hukou, el sistema tradicional de registro de hogares en China, divide los datos en dos catergorías, urbanas y rurales: los de las zonas rurales se colocan automáticamente fuera del sistema urbano y de sus servicios (actualmente la reforma de este sistema está siendo estudiada por el gobierno). Debido a las dificultades para obtener los permisos de residencia, la mayoría de los trabajadores inmigrantes no tienen seguridad social y el acceso a los sistemas de salud y educación es limitado. Las condiciones en Pekín han mejorado en comparación con otras ciudades; por ejemplo, una medida que recientemente se ha puesto en marcha para hacer frente a la situación de los trabajadores de la construcción es la multifuncional tarjeta de identificación, encaminada a limitar las discrepancias sobre el pago de salarios y permitir el acceso a los seguros sociales. Las condiciones de los trabajadores olímpicos están bien establecidas, con una biblioteca, clases por la noche, varias tiendas y locutorios, también tienen una pantalla de cine al aire libre para el entretenimiento vespertino. Estas son medidas positivas tomadas por el gobierno y empresas de la construcción para comenzar a reconocer las necesidades de la liudong renkou, la población flotante China, de los cuales se estima que 20 millones son trabajadores de la construcción.

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Ma and Cheng’s history

la historia de Ma y Cheng

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Despite being far away from home, a strong sense of community is present among the people living and working at Olympic Park in Beijing. Ma and Cheng are some 600 miles from their home in Jiangsu Province, and their stories are typical of the Olympic builders and of China’s migrant workers, coming to the cities for work in order to secure a better future for their families. Ma (right) has been working in construction for 11 years. He is saving money for when his wife returns next year from Mauritius, where she has been working in a factory for 3 years. Together they will build a house and start a family in their hometown with the money they have been saving. Cheng (left) has been working in construction for more than 30 years and is away from home for 300 days of the year, returning every Spring Festival (Chinese New Year) to visit his wife and daughter, who is currently studying at Suzhou University. Theirs are just two stories representative of an entire sector of people working to sustain China’s economy and provide for future generations in an ever-changing capital city. As all eyes are drawn East in anticipation and celebration of the 2008 Olympic Games, it is important to give a face to the people providing the physical labour behind such incredible structures as the Watercube, to begin to recognise the realities facing people in today’s China and enhance our understanding of this often misunderstood country.

A pesar de estar lejos de casa, un fuerte sentido de comunidad está presente entre las personas que viven y trabajan en el Parque Olímpico de Pekín. Ma y Cheng se encuentran a unas 600 millas de su hogar en la provincia de Jiangsu, y sus historias son similares a la de la mayoría de trabajadores inmigrantes Olímpicos de China, que llegan a las ciudades para trabajar con el fin de asegurar un mejor futuro para sus familias. Ma (a la derecha) ha trabajado en la construcción desde los 11 años. Está ahorrando dinero para cuando su esposa vuelva el próximo año de Mauricio, donde ha estado trabajando en una fábrica durante 3 años. Juntos construiran una casa y una familia en su ciudad de origen con el dinero que han ahorrado. Cheng (a la izquierda) ha estado trabajando en la construcción por más de 30 años y vive lejos de casa durante 300 días al año, cada primavera regresa por el Festival de Primavera (Año Nuevo chino) para visitar a su esposa e hija, que se encuentra actualmente estudiando en la Universidad de Suzhou. Las suyos son sólo dos historias que representan a todo un sector de la población que trabaja para sostener la economía China y proporcionar bienes a las futuras generaciones en una siempre cambiante ciudad. Como todos los ojos se fijan ahora en la celebración de los Juegos Olímpicos de 2008, es importante dar un rostro a las personas que realizan el trabajo físico detrás de tales estructuras, como el increíble Watercube, para comenzar a reconocer las realidades que enfrentan lan personas en la China actual y mejorar nuestra comprensión de este país, a menudo mal entendido.


Ma and Cheng relaxing in their dormitory at Olympic Park. They are from Chang Zhou in Jiangsu Province and have been working as construction workers at various sites across the country for several years. Ma y Cheng relajándose en su dormitorio en el Parque Olímpico. Ambos son de Chang Zhou, en la provincia de Jiangsu y han estado trabajando como obreros de la construcción en diversos sitios por todo el país durante varios años.

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American Institute of Architects, Beijing National Swimming Centre, China, 2004, Arup Project: Beijing Olympics, The Structural Engineer (pp. 23-26), Volume:82 Issue:13, IStructE. 6 July 2004 http://www.istructe.org/ Lu Xiaojing and Jeremy Goldkorn, What the future holds for Beijing’s architecture, China Daily, 5 August 2004. Michael Burlando, Paul Kangas-Miller, Jonathan Kowalkoski, Beijing National Swimming Center, University of Pennsylvania, School of DesignARCH 631: Case Studies in Emerging Technologies. Creating a “Water Cube”, BE Magazine, Volume 1, Issue 2, Published by Bentley Systems, 2004. Tristram Carfrae, Arup Principal, News Release, 30 July 2003, Arup publications.

bibliography bibliografía 316

Wang Jici and Tong Xin, Sustaining Urban Growth through Innovative Capacity: Beijing and Shanghai in Comparison, World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 3545, March 2005 Ethel Baraona Pohl, piel.skin, dpr editorial, Spain, 2008. http://skinarchitecture.com/ Qinxue Wang and Kuninori Otsubo, Urban Expansion in China During the Last Two Decades, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506, Japan. Thoraya Ahmed Obaid, state of world population 2007 - Unleashing the Potential of Urban Growth, United Nations Population Fund, UNFPA 2007, USA. Nilufer Senses, Foam Structures: A Comparative Structural Efficiency Analysis Based on the Building Case “Watercube”, A master’s thesis submitted for the degree of “Master of Science”, Department of Structural Design and Timber Engineering, Continuing Education Center, Austria, 2007. Buildings and Climate Change, Status, Challenges and Opportunities, Copyright © United Nations Environment Programme, 2007 Andrew M. Kraynik and Douglas A. Reinelt, Foam microrheology: from honeycombs to random foams, Department of Mathematics, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas, USA Caia Hagel, Bursting the Bubble, 2007.

PolOxygen Issue 21, Australia,

Tristram Carfrae, Box of Bubbles, INGENIA Issue 33 December 2007 U.K. www.ingenia.org.uk. Michael Weinstock, Self-Organisation and Material Constructions, Techniques and Technologies in Morphogenetic Design (Architectural Design), May 19, 2006 Denis Weaire and Stefan Hutzler, The Physics of Foams, Oxford University Press (Oxford), U.K., 2001.


Philip Ball, Beijing bubbles, NATURE Vol 448, 19 July 2007, Nature Publishing Group, USA. Ida Kristina Andersson and Poul Henning Kirkegaard, A discussion of the term digital tectonics, Department of Civil Engineering, Sohngaardsholmsvej, Denmark. Kirsten Orr, Thinking Beyond The Square: Innovation Theory and Technology Transfer as They Apply To The Beijing Watercube, Faculty of Design, Architecture and Building University of Technology, Sydney, Australia, 2007. John Bilmon and Chris Bosse, National Aquatic Centre China, Architectural Review 102, Australia, 2007. Elizabeth Woyke, Material for an Architectural Revolution: ETFE, Business Week 24 April 2007 On 31.08.07 at http://www.businessweek.com/print/innovate/content/apr2007/ id20070424_903199.htm Heidi Østbø Haugen, The construction of Beijing as an Olympic City, Centre for Development and the Environment, University of Oslo, Noruega, 2003. Ricky Burdett and Deyan Sudjic, The Endless City, Phaidon Press, U.K., 2008 Ethel Baraona Pohl, César Reyes Nájera and Claudio Pirillo, Architecture Sustainable, Editorial Pencil, Spain, 2007. Irene Hwang, Albert Ferré, Tomoko Sakamoto, Ramon Prat, Michael Kubo, Mario Ballesteros, Anna Tetas, Verb Natures, Actar, España, 2007. Neville Mars, The Chinese Dream –a society under construction, WeB 2.0- The interactive city seminar, OrangeLabs Beijing, Dynamic City Foundation, China, 2007. Denis Weaire and Robert Phelan , A counterexample to Kelvin’s conjecture on minimal surfaces, Phil. Mag. Lett. 69, 107-110, 1994. Xing Ruan with photography of Patrick Bingham-Hall, New China Architecture, Periplus Publishing, Singapore, 2006. Zhang Xiaogang, The secrets of the Watercube, Beijing this month, China, April 2008. http://www.btmbeijing.com/contents/en/btm/2008-04/coverstory/ watercube

Web links: -

http://www.ptw.com.au/ http://www.arup.com/ http://www.chrisbosse.de/ http://www.vector-foiltec.com/ http://www.worldmapper.org/ http://en.beijing2008.cn/ http://www.dynamiccity.org/ http://www.china.org.cn/english/index.htm http://www.unfpa.org/swp/index.html http://www.cree.com/index.asp http://www.gemmathorpe.com/

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photographers

credits créditos

Angus MacLeod Anthony Salvi Anton Hazewinkel Aurora Wang Yao Ben McMillan Bjarke Ingels Group Chris Bosse Daniel M. Shih Diller Scofidio + Renfro Dominique Bergeron Dynamic City Foundation Eric Sierins FHKE Gemma Thorpe Gertrud Kanu Giada Messetti Herry Lawford Jim Grisanzio Jimmy Fuentes Julie Jang Kev Purcell Lizatko Katka Mandy Kippax Manuela Martín Neville Mars One Planet Many People Patrick Burke Rafael Viñoly Architects Renato Silva Steve Cadman Sören Grünert Xiaming

PTW Architects+CSCEC+Arup (images, renders and models):

fotógrafos in alphabetical order en estrico orden alfabético

320

pp. 10, 11, 84, 122, 194 pp. 14, 15, 247 pp. 194 pp. 152, 155 pp. 32-3, 63, 162-3 pp. 304-5, 306 pp. 66, 67, 68-9, 70, 72, 73, 74-5, 87, 95, 100, 110,113, 122, 125, 144, 151, 231, 273, 287, 288, 289,306, 314-5, 318-9, 322-3 141, 194 pp. 158 pp. 104-5, 136-7, 196-7, 214, 221, 225, 228-9, 240, 298 pp. 25, 31, 254, 255, 257 pp. 96-7, 100-1, 102-3, 115, 118, 125 pp. guardas pp. 281, 282, 285 pp. 157 pp. 207 pp. 241 pp. 293 pp. 18-9, 255 pp. 152 pp. 157 pp. 14, 15 pp. 62 pp. 155 pp. 26, 27, 28 pp. 23 pp. 157 pp. 40, 42 pp. 206 pp. 35 pp. 88, 161, 207 pp. 85, 168, 189, 192, 194, 218, 226, 259, 269, 278

All Copyrights for the photos remain with the photographers. Some images are licensed under a Creative Commons license. Please contact the photographers if you want to use them.

Pages 36-7, 38, 40, 41, 43, 46-7, 48-9, 50-1, 52-3, 54-5, 56-7, 59, 61, 64-5, 76-7, 78, 80-1, 82-3, 85, 86, 89, 90-1, 92-3, 95, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102-3, 109, 113, 115, 118, 120-1, 125, 147, 151, 153, 167, 169, 170, 172-3, 174, 177, 180, 181, 182-3, 187, 188, 189, 191, 193, 198-9, 200, 207, 214, 215, 222, 223, 236-7, 246, 271, 303.

PTW Architects+CSCEC+Arup (CAD Drawings processed by César Reyes Nájera): Pages 106, 108, 111, 112, 114, 116, 119, 123, 124, 126-7, 128-9, 1301, 133, 134-5, 138-9, 140, 143, 145, 146, 148-9, 150, 210-11, 212-3, 224, 227, 230, 232-3, 234-5, 238-9, 242-3, 244-5, 246.

Arup (Images and sketches)

Pages 179, 184, 185, 248, 261, 262, 265.

Vector Foiltec (Images and graphics)

Pages 84, 164, 203, 204-5, 206, 209, 216, 272.

Worldmappers © Copyright 2006 SASI Group (University of Sheffield) and Mark Newman (University of Michigan) Pages 252-3, 267

César Reyes Nájera (Diagrams)

Pages 40-1, 274-5, 276-7, 294-5, 296-7


design team + contributors

acknowledgements

PTW Architects which currently employs over 150 people, maintains offices in Sydney, Australia as well as both Beijing and Shanghai in China. while the company is highly regarded for its major civic projects and large scale sports facilities, including the aquatic centre of the 2000 Sydney games, PTW’s strong and existing relationship with the chinese played a pivotal role in the development process.

I would like to thank PTW Architects, Arup Australasia and Angus Macleod & Sinead Galvin from Vector Foiltec for all the technical help and support, for generously supplied material and shared their knowledge. Thanks also to professor Denis Weaire and the American Philosophical Soceity for the text A philomorph looks at foam, to Poul Henning Kirkegaard and Ida Kristina Wraber for the text A discussion of digital tectonics, to Gemma Thorpe for the Social Responsibitity Review and the Ma and Cheng’s History and to Architect Matteo Cainer from the text Atmosphere 3. Thanks to Elena Arévalo fot the translation of the text A philomorph looks at foam and for always beeing there. I also want to thanks all the photographers that kindly let me use their images to illustrate this book.

agradecimientos

equipo + colaboradores

China State Construction Engineering Corporation (CSCEC) was established in 1982. As a state-owned important and back-boned enterprise under the administration of the Central Government, CSCEC has operated actively in both domestic and overseas markets with construction and real estate business. Arup is a professional services firm providing engineering, design, planning, project management and consulting services for all aspects of the built environment. Structural engineers from Arup conceived the structure and work also in the sustainable design of the building. Chris Bosse was an associate at PTW architects in Sydney, where he was fundamental in developing the Watercube in Beijing among several other international projects. This German architect has based his work on the computational study of organic structures and resulting spatial conceptions. Professor Denis Wearie is an Irish physicist, who is an emeritus professor of Trinity College Dublin. Educated at the Belfast Royal Academy and Clare College, Cambridge, he has since held positions at the universities of California, Chicago, Harvard and Yale, ultimately holding professorships at Heriot-Watt, and University College Dublin before becoming, in 1984, Erasmus Smith’s Professor of Natural Philosophy in Trinity. Together with Robert Phelan, Weaire came up with the Weaire-Phelan Theory –the basis of the structure design-. Architect Matteo Cainer was Assistant director at the Venice Biennale in 2004, where the Watercube won the Atmosphere Award. César Reyes Nájera is a architect from Guatemala. Currently working on his PHD thesis at the Polytechnic University of Catalonia in Spain. He runs the architecture and design study dpr-bcn dealing with bioclimatic architecture projects. Gemma Thorpe is a freelance documentary and reportage photographer specialising in contemporary social issues. She has recently completed an MA in International Photojournalism and Documentary Photography. The body of work Neville Mars has achieved in the last ten years is both diverse and highly characteristic. The projects he has initiated range from architecture, urban design, documentaries, art installations, urban research and creative writing. from the beginning at OMA until today as creative director of the Dynamic City Foundation (DCF) in Beijing (http://dynamiccity.org)

I also want to thank to all the persons that had been involved, more or less, in the development of this adventure. I want to thank César Reyes Nájera for his research assistance, his design support and for working tirelessly with the CAD drawings and specially for his illusion, commitment and enthusiasm. Special thanks to Chris Bosse, who supported this project since it was starting and provide wonderful material. Thanks to Fernando Calabró from Imaginación Impresa for his editorial coordination. In addition I want to offer my sincere and heartfelt thanks to all that had made this publication possible, who contributed in thought, spirit and time: Alex, Titi, Rachel, Camila, and Daniela for all their support and help to finish this project. Thanks.

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dpr editorial

dpr_editorial is a young and independent publishing company based in Barcelona, specialized in high quality architecture and design books. Focused on the work of emerging architects and designers and their innovative buildings and projects. With an international scope and founded by two architects, our catalogue will vary from monographs and documentation of buildings to historical studies, collections of essays and dissertations. All of dpr_editorial books are product of a creative exchange between publisher, author and designer and with the collaboration of some experts that make most complete the overview about each project. Most of our production is bilingual in order to reach beyond the borders of Spain.

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Watercube - social responsibility  

Part of the Sustainability chapter from WATERCUBE The Book talks about the social responsibility in the construction process. With a great r...

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