PHOTOVOLTAICS FORMS LANDSCAPES
3. beauty and power of designed photovoltaics booklet
08.30 - 12.30 Paris Parc des Expositions Paris Nord Villepinte Auditorium 515 A/B
Photovoltaic technology and policies
Conception and programme
Organisation and promotion
PHOTOVOLTAICS | FORMS | LANDSCAPES INTRODUCTION AND CONCEPT Introduction Heinz Ossenbrink | Concept Alessandra Scognamiglio
PHOTOVOLTAICS | FORMS | LANDSCAPES 3 beauty and power of designed photovoltaics Programme Speakers and contributions Call for proposals: selected case studies
PREVIOUS EDITIONS PHOTOVOLTAICS | FORMS | LANDSCAPES 2 how to use photovoltaics for shaping net zero energy communities Concept & programme PHOTOVOLTAICS | FORMS | LANDSCAPES 1 how to use photovoltaics for shaping new performative landscapes Concept & programme
INTRODUCTION AND CONCEPT
Introduction Heinz Ossenbrink At the time of writing this introduction, 3% of Europe's annual electricity need is delivered by photovoltaic cells and in many European countries at costs which are lower than the citizen would pay for conventional electricity. The great dream since more than 30 years, of delivering inexhaustible, clean energy at low costs is close to becoming reality. And this dream becomes visible. This gives the PV community a new, more cultural duty: PV energy systems will surround us in a much different way from open pits for lignite mining or large oil platforms. PV will be in our own homes, intended to be passed on to our children and grandchildren, it will be in urban spaces, and also cover parts of our beautiful landscapes. Continuing the gift of the architects and designers of the past, whose works we can admire today, it is our duty to invest as much as possible into the design of PV systems as they will be around longer than the current generation of engineers, scientists and architects. We must leave the future generations a cultural experience of this new form of energy, or better yet, give new energy a form. PV modules and systems can deliver more than just electricity: they become functional elements of buildings, can provide shade and atmosphere in urban spaces, and can shape landscapes in an entirely new way, giving opportunity for plants to grow, catch water or prevent the soil from eroding. It is for this reason that this event is now organized for the third time: to display the approach to photovoltaics wherein good architectural tradition form is given to function and applied to make PV electricity part of our natural environment, bringing forward the concept of a performative building, urban space and landscape, much so as we are used to see in the great deeds of architecture, urban design, vineyards, or in the patches of agricultural land, and it is about combining beauty and power of photovoltaic electricity. I trust that this event on the occasion of the 28th Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and exhibition in Paris 2013 can, in its own and special way, contribute to make PV energy acceptable and profitable for each citizen and convey the message: Design PV electricity well and make it a gift for our children and grandchildren. Or, in short: Make dreams become reality, soon.
Concept Alessandra Scognamiglio Solar energy influences the form that a landscape takes, shaping a structured mosaic in which it is possible to recognize a certain number of heterogeneous patterns. From this perspective, landforms and plants are produced by solar energy in different times. Today our energy needs, and the way we feed them, have a huge and visible influence on our landscapes. Intensive monoculture agricultural fields, clusters of agricultural greenhouses, as well as large solar (photovoltaic) fields are the expression of an increasing energy need that cannot but generate highly recognizable patterns (studied so to maximize the solar energy collection and the energy generation, while minimizing the land use) that modify the original landscape patterns. In the past, the food (still energy) requirements of a community were probably the starting point for creating very valuable cultural landscapes: vineries and olive groves have made many regions famous all around the world. Is it imaginable that a similar cultural process might happen also to the way we generate energy through renewables? Experience tells that the number of photovoltaic installations that are giving our landscapes new forms has been ever increasing in the recent years. The consequence of such a rapid diffusion of large photovoltaic fields in the landscape is often a generally opposing attitude of the public, which perceives the presence of these technological elements as intrusive to general aesthetics of the landscape. However, tens of thousands of blue modules spread out in the landscape also tell us of the endeavor and the need we have today to generate the energy we require for our daily activities, by using renewable energy generation systems to preserve the planet and our future life. Therefore, it is a matter of culture. What is missing? While an agricultural field is perceived via a certain aesthetical code as a matter of culture (often adding value to the landscape), and its effectiveness relies on a balanced (“good”) relationship with the environment, this does not necessarily happen in the case of solar fields. These are still conceived as technical elements, just put on the ground, which “abuse” the land, without contributing to an equilibrium. The form is based on a simplified list of rules (orientation, slope, dimension, etc.), mainly based on economic factors, and generally without any other consideration. 7
To change this it is necessary that the topic of new energy is discussed as a cultural issue, and not only as a technical one. Photovoltaics | Forms | Landscapes is a series of annual events serving as a discussion framework to investigate the new phenomena associated with the rapid spread of large photovoltaic systems. It promotes reflection on the implications for our way of living and on what new issues of design could arise. This is done on all scales: from modules, to buildings, to cities, to landscapes. The vision proposed by Photovoltaics | Forms | Landscapes connects the regional scale with a â€œplanetaryâ€? scale: the growing and "sudden" expansion of photovoltaics into the (even farming) landscape needs to be perceived as an answer to the growing need of energy for increasingly populated human settlements, but should not contain their energy footprint. The future requires a new approach to an integrated design which acknowledges not only our footprint of living (the "physical" footprint), but also takes into account our ecological footprint, created by our energy and nutrition needs. If we are committed to sustaining human life on Earth, and to guaranteeing a positive outcome of future population expansion. Before actually advancing to such new design, reconsideration is needed to see the landscape and its constituting elements not only by traditional (such as natural / anthropogenic) categories, but also considering new dimensions stemming from energy use and energy generation. The design process which assumes a production / consumption role for the landscape needs to orient itself towards energy self-sufficiency of the communities living within the landscape by integrating the energy and nutrition footprint into the project domain. The proposition is in fact the requirement towards the vision of a "designed, performative" landscape, where photovoltaic systems appear as productive elements, capable of reconciling today's and the futureâ€™s human needs and of achieving a balance between production and consumption (net zero energy community). This approach requires a paradigm-shift even before the design phase: it is about knowing how to perceive our energy needs as a project variable which directly influences the forms of settlements.
PHOTOVOLTAICS | FORMS | LANDSCAPES 3
beauty and power of designed photovoltaics In this 3rd edition, the organizers of the event would like to extend the visions presented towards the opportunity of demonstrating the“beauty and power of designed photovoltaics ”. Internationally-renowned researchers, producers, architects and landscape designers will present their concepts for making photovoltaic systems a new cultural experience which enhances the relationship between the citizens and the energy environment. With the rising number of photovoltaic installations used on building roofs and as integrated systems in the urban environment or as large fields, the acceptance by the citizens becomes an increasing issue and in the case of larger installations, also an issue with authorities. The current top end of a design approach to photovoltaic systems in a more holistic approach will be addressed in this event. The agenda has therefore been divided into four sessions with invited presenters (presenting points of view coming from different perspectives) discussing the different scales through which photovoltaics, if conceived as an element of design, interacts with the citizen: modules; buildings; urban spaces; landscapes. Emphasis will also be given to designs which foster further cost reduction and which add value to the systems such as: double function of photovoltaic modules (such as isolation or heat recovery); building integration (such as modules as building material, integral part of the building construction) visibility and “vivibility” of urban spaces (shading, weather protection); upgrade of open spaces and landscape (higher agricultural yield, reduction of soil degradation, water collection, industrial or transport infrastructures). The event is also endorsed by the IEA SHC-EBC Tasks 40-Annex 52 (Towards Net Zero Energy Solar Buildings); IEA SHC-Task 41 (Solar Energy in Architecture), and the new IEA SHC Task 51 (Solar Energy in Urban Planning). The event is co-organized by the European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), ENEA, the Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development, WIP and ETA-Florence Renewable Energies.
The call for proposals On the occasion of the third edition of Photovoltaics | Forms | Landscapes, a call for proposals has been launched, with the aim of collecting case studies to be discussed and presented. Architects and project developers wishing to present already completed or ongoing projects, were asked to apply using an online form. The committee of the event selected the works to be delivered as oral/visual presentations. Among the works that have been submitted, the committee selected four visual presentations and one oral presentation. All the selected case studies from the call for proposals are shown as posters on the occasion of the event. Pierluigi Bonomo Energy Box (private dwelling), L’Aquila (IT), 2012 Astrid Schneider Solarspeicher / Energiespeicher (energy centre / multifunctional convention hall), Nechlin (DE), 2013 Apartment building with “Cafe zum Speicher” (apartment building / cafèrestaurant), Nechlin (DE), 2013 Alexander Turin Alive architecture (transformable building system), 2004 (patent) Agence Nicolas Michelin & Associates French Ministery of Defense (public building), Paris (FR), 2013 (oral) proposed and presented by: Laurent Quittre ISSOL | Dison | Liège | Belgium
Programme INTRODUCTION Heinz Ossenbrink European Commission, JRC Joint Research Center | Institute for Energy and Transport | Renewable Energy Unit | Ispra | Italy CONCEPT Alessandra Scognamiglio ENEA | Italian National Agency for New Technologies Energy and Sustainable Economic Development, Photovoltaic Technologies Lab | Portici | Italy WITH Patrick Heinstein EPFL | Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne | Institute of Microengineering | Photovoltaics Lab | Neuchâtel | Switzerland NEW APPROACHES FOR DEVELOPING LOW COST PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES FOR BUILDINGS Philippe Malbranche CEA-INES RDI | Commissariat à l’énergie atomique er aux énergies alternatives | Institut National de l’energie solaire | Recherche Developpement Innovation Industrielle | Le Bourget du Lac | France TECHNOLOGIES AND PRODUCTS FOR LANDSCAPE INTEGRATION Andreas Semmel Ertex Solar GmbH | Amstetten | Austria DESIGNING PHOTOVOLTAICS FOR LANDSCAPES Laurent Quittre ISSOL | Dison | Liège | Belgium THE FRENCH MINISTER OF DEFENCE: PHOTOVOLTAICS MEETS THE ZINC ROOFS OF PARIS Rolf Hagen Context AS | Oslo | Norway DESIGN, PHOTOVOLTAICS AND BUILDINGS: CONCEPT TO REALITY: THE ROLE OF COMMUNICATION
Salvator John Liotta CNRS-LAVUE | Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique | Laboratoire Architecture Ville Urbanisme Environment | Paris | France & University of Tokyo | Kengo Kuma Lab | Tokyo | Japan PATTERNS AND LAYERING: POWER OF NATURE, ENERGY IN ARCHITECTURE Walter Hood Hood Studio | Oakland | California | USA & UC Berkeley | College of Environmental Design | Berkeley | California | USA “OBJECTS IN THE LANDSCAPE”: THE SCULPTURAL FIELD AND PHOTOVOLTAICS Eric Scotto Akuo Energy | Paris | France NEW PERFORMATIVE LANDSCAPES: PHOTOVOLTAICS ON FARMLANDS Stefan Tischer ENSP | Ecole Nationale Supérieure du Paysage | Versailles-Marseille | France NON FOSSIL FUTURE LANDSCAPES: EXPERIENCES
SPEAKERS AND CONTRIBUTIONS
HEINZ OSSENBRINK European Commission, JRC Joint Research Center | Institute for Energy and Transport | Renewable Energy Unit | Ispra | Italy
Heinz Ossenbrink, born in 1951, has a PhD in Nuclear Physics from Hahn Meitner Institute, Berlin and joined the European Commission’s Joint Research Centre in 1982. He built up the JRC’s activity on Photovoltaics when Europe started its research and pilot program for Photovoltaic systems. In 1995 he became Head of the Unit for Renewable Energy, and expanded research and support activities to Energy Efficiency and Bio-Energy, notably Biofuels. His work is dedicated to the scientific support of EU legislation for Renewable Energies and Energy Efficiency. More recently, he is developing the unit’s portfolio to support Africa’s efforts for a renewable energy supply. Since 1982 he is contributing to the standards work of the IEC TC82, Solar Photovoltaic Systems, in particular regarding calibration of reference cells and lifetime testing of PV modules. His many publications cover measurement and testing methods for photovoltaic generators, economic assessment of renewable energy and global environmental impacts of extended bio-fuel use. From 1995 to 2010 he has been serving as program chair of the prestigious series of European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conferences and in 2005; in 2011 he was chairman and from 2012 to date serves as scientific director. He lives on the shores of Lake Maggiore in northern Italy where he practices sailing and skiing, and is deeply interested in global sustainability issues.
ALESSANDRA SCOGNAMIGLIO ENEA | Italian National Agency for New Technologies Energy and Sustainable Economic Development, Photovoltaic Technologies Lab | Portici | Italy
Architect, PhD in Technologies for Architecture and Environment. Since 2000 she works as researcher at ENEA (Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development), Photovoltaic Technologies Area. Her main interest is working on the hybrid border between scientific research and design, to create a domain of common understanding and possibilities for experimentations in the real living environment. Her main fields of activity are: Building Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV), Landscape Integrated Photovoltaics (LIPV), Net Zero Energy Buildings and Smart Cities. She writes papers and collaborates with the architectural magazine Domus, she patented innovative photovoltaic components for buildings and the urban environment, she has edited books, and she participates and organizes several scientific events and conferences. After having worked on the architectural scale, since 2007 she investigates the topic Energy-Landscapes, with a special focus on photovoltaics and agricultural greenhouses. She is a teacher at the Italian National Institute of Architecture for a post graduate master “Designer of sustainable architectures”. She is involved in European Project aiming at the development of special photovoltaic components for buildings. She is also involved in several IEA (International Energy Agency) research groups. In particular: 2008-2012 IEA SHC Task 41 “Solar Energy and Architecture”; 2008-2013 IEA SHC-EBC, Task 40-Annex 52 “Towards Net Zero Energy Solar Buildings”, 2013-2017 IEA SHC Task 51 “Solar Energy in Urban Planning”.
PATRICK HEINSTEIN EPFL | Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne | Institute of Microengineering | Photovoltaics Lab | Neuchâtel | Switzerland
Patrick Heinstein is the head of BIPV Design at the Institute of Microengineering (IMT, PV-Lab) in Neuchâtel (Switzerland) which belongs to the renowned Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL). He obtained a degree as an Industrial Designer at the University of Applied Sciences in Darmstadt and studied History of Arts, Philosophy and Archaeology at Heidelberg and Bochum Universities. In over 20 years he has gained expertise in the international design business and is the author of numerous publications on the history and culture of visual perception and aesthetics. His PhD Thesis at the Bauhaus University in Weimar is about aspects of the distribution of knowledge at the beginning of industrialization. His profound practical and theoretical background allows him to play an important role as a frequently consulted expert at the sensitive interface between R&D activities, architects and the building industry, where issues of how to successfully bring the latest PV developments ‘from lab to fab’ are crucial. A special focus of his work is laid on photovoltaics and urban heritage conservation.
PHILIPPE MALBRANCHE CEA-INES RDI | Commissariat à l’énergie atomique er aux énergies alternatives | Institut National de l’energie solaire | Recherche Developpement Innovation Industrielle | Le Bourget du Lac | France
Philippe Malbranche obtained an engineering degree at the École Centrale de Paris. He started working in 1980 in the South Pacific on rural electrification projects with renewable energies, during 8 years. He successively joined the French Department of Energy as advisor on renewable energy policy, Photowatt, the French PV cell and module manufacturer, and CEA-GENEC, a research laboratory with 25 people focused on PV systems and storage systems, which he managed until 2004. He then participated in the setting up of INES, the French Solar Energy Research Institute, which hosts 380 researchers involved in all the value chain of solar energy, and where his position is Research Programme Manager. His main fields of expertise are: PV materials, PV cells and modules, PV systems, storage technologies and systems, solar thermal systems, zeroenergy buildings, and smart grids.
ANDREAS SEMMEL Ertex Solar GmbH | Amstetten | Austria
Andreas Semmel is an industrial engineer, diploma on Thermal Solar Production Optimization 1996. MBA, diploma on Market Study Wind Turbine Producers 2003. After 6 and half years in the European software business as project manager, he went back to the university at the IAE in Aix en Provence to obtain a MBA. In 2004 he founded the company TerraSource in association with another MBA student and he runs this EPC-business in the renewable sector for nearly 8 years in the upcoming French market. To expand his commercial activities, in late 2008 he founded a second company working in the role of “Area Manager French speaking markets” for the Austrian group “Kioto Clear Energy” which includes the following entities: Kioto Photovoltaics – crystalline module manufacturer; KPV-Solar – project development and EPC – large scale PV plants (spin-off); ENcome Energy Performance – pan European operation & maintenance service provider (spinoff). Since autumn 2012 he also works as country sales manager for the Austrian special BIPV module manufacturer Ertex-Solar, member of Ertl-Glas-Group. This activity is focused on ambitious architectural building integrated PVSystems. The whole value chain of the European PV industry in the French-speaking markets ( France, BeNLux, Maghreb, SW-Africa) are his daily occupations.
LAURENT QUITTRE ISSOL | Dison | Liège | Belgium
Laurent Quittre graduated in Economics from the “Haute Etudes Commerciales” (H.E.C.) of Liège – Belgium. In 1994, he started working for EDS – Electronic Data Systems – as a business analyst for the banking sector and became expert in derivatives and risk management. In 2000, he discovered the photovoltaic industry from the financial perspective. He became passionate about the technology and started deep investigations looking for market development opportunities. In 2005, founded ISSOL with the firm intention to give an architectural relevance to the technology. He brings together architects and engineers to implement remarkable Building Integrated Photovoltaics projects in Belgium and France.
ROLF HAGEN Context AS | Oslo | Norway
Rolf Hagen is a chartered architect and one of two founding partners of Context AS, an environmental and architectural consultancy based in Norway. A specialist in sustainable design and masterplanning, he has considerable experience in coordinating complex projects and design processes focusing on environmental issues, as well as research and development work in this field. A key focus for his work is identifying ways in which natural processes and environmental technologies interface with a design proposal, and how these interactions can be reflected in the architectural language of the project. Â
Rolf Hagen DESIGN, PHOTOVOLTAIC AND BUILDINGS: CONCEPT TO REALITY, THE ROLE OF COMMUNICATION
Sørenga, Oslo, Norway
Xeliox Energy Lab, design Marco Acerbis, Medolago, Italy
evacuated tube collectors in front of listed building façade in Graz, Austria 29
Abstract Solar energy technologies are well established in todayâ€™s market, and are considered mature and reliable technologies with a comparatively low associated risk. These technologies have a number of inherent qualities such as reduced risk from increasing energy costs, increased independence and a positive long-term cost-benefit ratio. However, the successful design and realization of Solar Architecture relies upon the effective communication of these qualities in the development of a project. This Communication Guideline is intended to provide recommendations and arguments to assist design professionals in the communication of solar energy strategies, and to realize high-quality, well-designed solar architecture. The Communication Guideline was developed as deliverable T.41.C.1 of Task 41 : Solar Energy and Architecture, within the Solar Heating and Cooling program (SHC) of the International Energy Agency (IEA). In addition to the guideline, a collection of case studies was assembled as part of the same task. The purpose of the case studies was to provide high-quality examples to inspire, encourage, and assist in the communication of solar energy systems to clients and design teams. Introduction Future energy systems must be based upon renewable sources. Climate neutrality and energy security will be increasingly important considerations in the coming decades. Solar energy systems are ideally suited to address these requirements â€“ they are flexible, climate positive, energy independent, suitable for almost every project and based on a limitless energy source. Solar energy systems are also becoming more and more cost-efficient through continuing technological development. Given the arguments above we should be seeing solar energy systems automatically included in just about every project today. So why is this not the case? And how can we avoid solar energy systems being written off as a complex and unnecessary solution? The ability of design teams to effectively communicate the qualities of solar energy systems to skeptical clients is one key aspect of this issue. Solar Energy, Architecture and Communication What does it take to convince a client to use solar energy in architecture? Different values from client to client mean that facts and arguments concerning solar architecture need to be adapted to the specific state of mind of the recipient. Understanding the psychological aspects that motivate the particular client or investor is very important when first discussing the use of solar energy. Issues like immediate and long-term profits, timescale, profiling, consciousness, value and security must be addressed. Does your client have a 31
conservative or an idealistic focus, a global view or a local one, an individual or a collective mindset? Communication on solar energy in architecture must be based on a mutual understanding of primary goals and values. One of the main reasons for not considering solar energy in projects today is the lack of client confidence in the field. This is based on a lack of knowledge, experience and accessible information about benefits, risks and system characteristics, and is a major reason why many investors decide not to specify the use of solar energy as a goal in their projects. Clients will often find it easier to skip what they perceive as a complex issue, rather than investigate it along with all of the other major challenges that are encountered early in a project. Introducing solar energy strategies When developing a project it is always important to understand the wishes, priorities and decision-making process of the client, as different clients naturally have different priorities. There are a number of very different client types: the ”careful with the money” client, the idealistic client, the owner/ developer, the visionary client and the profit-oriented client, to name but a few. Each of these client types prioritises differently, but they all want satisfied users, well-running buildings and exclusive buildings. Often investments in solar solutions are seen as expensive additional costs, and many clients automatically have objections to solar solutions. Such objections may be clarified or overcome through step-by-step presentation of solar energy strategies, based on the energy requirements of the building in question. Passive solar, as the simplest and most diffused form of solar energy use is quite straightforward to present and naturally forms the starting point of any discussion on solar energy strategies. Windows are not questioned and explanations over common use for natural lighting and passive solar can be given. Seasonal strategies like solar protections for summer and maximal sun penetration in winter can be presented. The benefits of using solar thermal systems for hot water production, which are more and more often requested by national regulations and become compulsory, should be highlighted. The reliability and efficiency of solar thermal should be stressed – this is a proven and reliable technology. Finally the option to produce electricity with photovoltaics can be introduced, explaining the advantages of grid storage, and the possible financing schemes available. Use of electricity is becoming more and more dominant in new buildings, making the use of photovoltaics increasingly relevant. This step-by-step approach should focus on clarity and simplicity. Key issues for most clients will be: • Solar energy systems offer clean, independent energy production • Reliability and durability • Production efficiency and return on investment 32
The value of case studies Another reason is a perception of solar energy systems as an architectural addon, which will negatively affect the buildingâ€™s architectural quality. High-quality reference projects are a key tool to address such concerns, and focus the discussion on solar energy strategies as an inspiring and innovative architectural and technological opportunity for the project. The case studies collection of IEA SHC Task 41 Solar Energy and Architecture has been assembled to provide design professionals and consultants with a library of successful and inspiring examples of solar energy use. The case studies collection comprises over 50 buildings with examples from most building categories, selected by a multi-disciplinary and international team. The use of case studies can convince a skeptical client of the architectural possibilities of solar energy strategies. In addition, case studies have the added benefit of underlining the tried-and-tested nature of these strategies, reducing uncertainty and the perception of risk for the inexperienced developer. Advantages of using solar energy in Architecture A clientâ€™s decision to include solar energy strategies in a project will also be based on entirely different reasons than the purely technical and architectural advantages outlined above. The following points are becoming increasingly valuable in convincing a client to include solar energy systems in his or her project: 1. User demands define the market: Future tenants and real estate investors will be increasingly well informed about the advantages of sound environmental choices, and be aware of the related savings on operating (energy) costs. A focus on optimization and long-term quality when renting or buying a building is a natural consequence. Tomorrowâ€™s tenants will almost certainly require a clear environmental conscience without reducing their standards of living or working. This means access to clean renewable energy, like solar energy, in addition to a well-designed, energy efficient building. 2. Market economy and profit: Short-term savings by avoiding investment costs tied to optimal energy design, however economically appealing, will not appear to be good planning when the consequences of adding solar energy strategies at a later stage or to a retrofit building become evident. A lack of forward thinking investment that reduces flexibility in energy use will also quickly render the planned building less appealing to future buyers or tenants. This will in turn affect the asset value of the building. In a very few years a demand for optimized zero energy buildings will allow the visionary developer to command higher rental and resale values, providing a market advantage compared to real estate without the same foresight.
3. Reputation: Many developers, especially market leaders, find it important for their reputation to be viewed as pioneers and trendsetters – setting examples where others will follow. An ambitious solar energy strategy can be linked to the corporate social responsibility (CSR) policy of such clients. 4. Independence: It is a clear advantage for a building owner to be more independent from increasing energy costs and limited and “politically risky” energy resources. Solar energy is the largest, most stable and limitless natural energy source with non- restricted access for every client with a building facing the sun. It should make obvious sense to take advantage of this. 5. Architectural freedom: An important benefit of using solar energy is that the energy supplied by solar solutions in many cases will increase the maximum energy allowance of the building as defined by the national building codes. This can provide greater architectural freedom compared to buildings that are developed within the standard energy allowance. 6. Product development: As demand and product efficiency rapidly increase, product coordination will improve and the investment costs associated with solar energy systems will be reduced. The development of more appealing and flexible designs through increasing innovation and creative application becomes the next step. Appealing products are an easy choice for ambitious developers who see the long-term value in aesthetically pleasing designs. The importance of the design process Besides a strong commitment on the part of the client or investor, design developments including solar energy strategies require adapted design development processes relying on multi-disciplinary project teams, and advanced design development processes and collaboration models. The integration of solar energy strategies in buildings is often associated with higher cost, poorer design and limited design flexibility, or increased planning time and effort. Experiences with integrated design processes have shown that these arguments can be invalidated if there is a strong vision with precisely targeted goals, a multi-disciplinary planning team aiming at achieving the goals, and a clear plan of how to get there. The following four key aspects will help to anchor solar energy strategies in buildings or urban developments: • Setting up a strong vision and precisely targeted goals • Setting up an appropriate project team • Implementing a project management plan • Signing a target agreement Goals, priorities and key issues will also vary depending on project type (newbuild, refurbishment, planning) and the contractual organization of the project. For instance, a design-build contract will require a different approach to a
traditional tender procedure. The IEA SHC Task 41 â€œCommunication Guidelineâ€? contains descriptions of and recommendation for each of these issues. Conclusion Communication is fundamental to the successful integration of solar energy strategies in Architecture. In order to address this, the Communication Guideline was developed as deliverable T.41.C.1 of Task 41: Solar Energy and Architecture, within the Solar Heating and Cooling programme (SHC) of the International Energy Agency (IEA). In addition, the task developed a publicly available case studies collection to inspire, inform and assist design professionals and consultants in communicating the benefits of solar energy strategies in Architecture. The resources are available at the following website, along with the other deliverables of Task 41 (http://task41.iea-shc.org)
SALVATOR JOHN LIOTTA CNRS-LAVUE | Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique | Laboratoire Architecture Ville Urbanisme Environment | Paris | France University of Tokyo | Kengo Kuma Lab | Tokyo | Japan
Salvator-John A. Liotta is a licensed architect, researcher at CNRS-LAVUE UMR 7218 in Paris, researcher at Kengo Kuma Laboratory at the University of Tokyo, lecturer at the National Institute of Architecture of Rome, and a correspondent of Domus, Compasses and pressT/Letter in Japan. After graduating from the University of Palermo and earning a master’s degree from the National Institute of Architecture in Rome, in 2005 he moved to Japan where he earned a PhD with a study on the urban identity of Tokyo. In 2012 he published “Patterns and Layering: Japanese Spatial Culture, Nature, and Architecture” a book about the convergence between parametricism, digital fabrication, and Japanese traditional patterns. His architectural works have been exhibited at —among other places— MoMA in New York, Venice Architecture Biennale, MAXXI Rome, Berlin Art Biennale, and Warsaw Modern Art Museum.
Salvator John Liotta PATTERNS AND LAYERING: POWER OF NATURE, ENERGY IN ARCHITECTURE
parametric adaptation 39
Abstract This contribution reports the results of an investigation into applying the inventory of local cultural heritage as an inspiration for technological innovation. It presents some architectural, parametric design proposals. This research aims to establish the interrelation between patterns and layering within architecture. These two previously detached notions can now be integrated into one methodology mediated by structural concepts. Patterns and Layering introduces this new interrelationship, which embodies the Japanese understanding of space, nature, and architecture. The research explains how layering and patterns function as spatial tools with which one can create extraordinary structures that are able to coexist in harmony with nature, people, and culture. It explores historical contexts and developments, documents a new lightness and transparency in contemporary Japanese architecture, and also shows cutting-edge experiments. Introduction At some point in history, patterns were associated with ornamentation, and redundant decoration. But patterns are much more than something to be confused with just ornament. Equally at home, in philosophy and linguistics, and in biology and mathematics, patterns are above all border crossing structure. They can be seen as hidden structures, latent forms potentially ready to incarnate into tangible and intangible elements where there is no apparent structure, and also as connecting agents, able to structure and articulate space and to produce diversity, variety and beauty. Today thanks to the advent of new technologies and design tools such as generative and parametric design, patterns have become once again central in the architectural debate. As a result of one of the most significant innovations initiated by parametric modeling software, architects are ultimately able to extract, edit, and abstract aspects pertinent to their own culture and transform them into what contemporary design might be. Patterns and Layering The research describes an investigative approach into applying the inventory of Japanese traditional and cultural heritage as a source of inspiration for architecture. For this study, different types of patterns such as ‘kamon’,‘katagami’ and ‘kiwanjutsu’ –respectively Japanese family crests, paper stencil patterns, and a collection of spatial patterns with diagrams and constructive process secretly handed down within carpenters’ families– were chosen as sources of inspiration and interpretation. Patterns appear to be useful for rethinking some aspects of architecture, especially their potentiality as dynamic agents of synthesis and multiplicity is only rarely fulfilled. Thanks to the digital architecture paradigm shift, we foresee a new role for patterns. They 41
might be used by architects to make a synthesis of different requirements of a project, as patterns belong at the same time to a conceptual and material state. Patterns have served different purposes, and what interests us are their flexibility and high degree of adaptation. When used along parametric software, patterns are similar to seeds. Aristotle would call them dynameis: they are to be seen not just as form, but as a generator (and problem solver) of performances. While architecture during the 20th century focused on function and form, the current architectural debate is dealing more with relationships, boundaries and energies. In this regard, parametric patterns have the poetic and pertinent potential to precisely promote performance, or in short: patterns promote performance. According to Kengo Kuma “the Japanese space is built through overlapping several bi-dimensional planes. Whilst in Western architecture space is limited by thick heavy walls, in Japanese architecture the space for people is obtained by using ‘shoji’, mobile thin and light partitions formed by wood and paper frames.” This building system, in Kuma’s opinion, is not obsolete, but up-todate, even more in the 21st century, when the environmental issue has acquired a worldwide interest. It derives from the need for living in a limited territory – such as the Japanese one – which is poor in raw materials. This approach has improved over time, permitting thus to live comfortably also in limited energysaving spaces. It is thanks to this method that the Japanese average residential area is smaller compared with the Western one. The projects explore many paths in the pursuit of a dematerialization of the solidity of architecture and a replacement of it with the openness given by boundary techniques. The use of Japanese traditional patterns as an inspiration for creating diverse screens - such as soft partitions, porous façades, louvers and intermediate and layered spaces - proves to be a viable tool for establishing a new relationship between architecture and an appropriate environment for the future. The research points to the importance of implementing in contemporary design not only present technologies and materials, but also cultural uniqueness. Nature and Climate Patterns are more than just observation of nature: Patterns are a depiction of essence, where the dense and compact prevails over the extended, and all nonessentials must be removed. The philosopher Yanagi Soetsu –one of the few Japanese scholars who have ever tried to theorize Japanese pattern– writes that pattern is not a scientific rendering of the original. The pattern is a symbol of the plant, not the plant itself. It is an emblem of the bamboo, and yet the living bamboo is there in it. A pattern is a picture of the essence of an object, an object’s very life; its beauty is of that life.
Pattern is not a literal representation or mere imitation of nature. For Yanagi, what gives meaning to nature is the human viewpoint. Without the eyes the observed nature would remain raw, with no particular content, and especially without beauty. Even though universal principles create nature, in Japan, nature show those principles only after things has been arranged, moved, transformed. As in Ikebana: flowers look natural only after they are cut, and ordered to be so. Even in the most placid of the Japanese patterns there are movement and vitality. Pattern expresses a dynamic tension between nature and artifice, which are not to be seen as opposites. It does not resolve in a synthesis, but rather defines its proper subject by maintaining the tension between affirmation and negation as opposite poles or perspectives. Patterns can be defined as something not rational or redundant. Pattern is nonrealistic. In a sense, it is an amplification of reality, an exaggeration of nature. An offspring of the imagination, pattern is a vision of what is mirrored by intuition, perception and instinct, through feelings and not via analytic or logic speculation. The intellect can understand only a part of the whole, but intuition can grasp the whole. From the nature to the pattern there is a metamorphosis, a reincarnation of the spirit in a new shape. The significance lies in the metamorphosis itself. A pattern is the reflection of the essence of an object, a culture, a nation; its beauty is of that essence. The best patterns come of Zen emptiness, it is a product of mu (void), and are produced through Zen principles for design such as kanso, shizen, and yugen –bare essentials, absence of pretense, and suggestion rather than revelation. Similar to an exercise of containment, reduction, contraction, and abbreviation, patterning produces dense/intense forms that refer to a type of beauty in a delicate harmony. At its best patterns are imbued with the impermanent spirit of Ise, Japan’s holiest Shinto shrine: They are “visions” of what is reflected by the intuition. Creation of patterns eliminates the non-essential and brings the nature and forms to their minimal and primal truth. Through intuition an observer can easily shift from seeing objects to seeing patterns. This exquisite skill of the Japanese to reduce representational forms to ideographic motifs makes patterns intriguing and visually appealing. Pattern does not explain, it leaves things to the viewer; its beauty is determined by the freedom it gives to the viewer’s imagination. For Yanagi the pattern is what remains. There is no wordy explanation. There must be the “speech without words” of Zen. Good patterns are simple; if they are cluttered, they are not yet patterns. Pattern is transmitter of beauty. Through pattern we learn how to look at nature. Without pattern, man’s view of nature would be far more vague and equivocal than it is. Patterns contain the nature of nature. Rather than say that pattern depends on nature, thus, it would be better to say that nature depends on pattern. Pattern is nature seen in the best light.
While for Western philosophy, nature is the phenomena of the physical world collectively including flora, fauna, the landscape, and other features and products of the earth, as opposed to humans or human creations, philosopher Watsuji Tetsuro defined nature through the concept of Fudo or climate. By climate, Watsuji includes not just weather patterns of a nation but the natural geographic setting of a people plus the social environment of family, community, society, lifestyle, and even the technological apparatus that supports community survival and interaction. Fudo is the entire interconnected network of influences that together create an entire people's attitudes (or their ways of going about in the world) and that represents geographic and climatic influences on human society and human interaction with climatic necessities, together with the human transformation of geographic aspects of the environment. Generative Design With the advent of digital architecture paradigm shift and the ensuing set of theories and tools that has emerged—generative and parametric design, numerical control machinery and digital manufacturing—it is possible to look at a new cognitive horizon and a new role for patterns. Japanese architects were among the first to insist upon the necessity of looking to nature in its organic essence as a product of genetic algorithms that can unravel the secret of the growth of forms. In their early productions, architecture was inspired by the binary system and they systematically proposed forms developed through repetition and variation. There is also a clear departure from modernistic precepts in favor of architecture inspired by Japanese patterns and culture. They subsequently extended their interest to organic forms, reproducing them more or less sculpturally. In theirs recent production, they shift the meaning of theirs works once again, this time towards the production of architectural forms that arise from active processes rather than from formal interests. This passage is decisive because it provides for growth and expansion of small elements; an open rather than closed formal system of transformation and expression. Introducing IN-EI, a lamp resembling his master Isamu Noguchi’s Akari collection, Issey Miyake says that on the one hand, archaic forms are inspired by those of nature seen with the naked eye; on the other, forms are derived from the use of algorithmic design, hence from a reasoning about nature’s innermost geometric but cellular code. These are two types of ‘organic’, but different design. Today architects are free to experiment unseen patterning techniques. This is one of the reasons of the proliferation of complex geometries, sophisticated tessellation techniques, and articulation of space through screens, facades, and filters. Patrick Schumacher writes that the introduction of different surface effects, like different material textures, had already happened within the later phases of 44
Modernism, but artificial, quasi-graphic techniques of surface treatment and surface patterning were now being deployed. [â€Ś] Parametricism transforms this technique of parametric pattern design into a new and powerful register of articulation. The crucial move that inaugurates parametricist patterning is the move from adaptive compensation to the amplification of differences. The underlying surface variability is utilized as a data-set that can drive a much more radical pattern differentiation. The underlying surface differentiation is thus amplified and made much more conspicuous. A strong emphasis on conspicuous differentiation is one of the hallmarks of parametricism. One of the process possible of the use of patterns in generative design pivots around the concept of the organic as a dynamic relationship. The organic architecture we are seeking for investigates the generative phenomena of organic forms. It differs from the American organicism of Wright or the European one of Aalto, and even from Kurokawa's metabolist and symbiotic philosophy because their architecture can be taken as the formal outcome of bodies at rest. The changing shapes are a result of recognizing the potential for latent shapes where there is no apparent shape. On one hand is a twentieth century vision made of static bodies, on the other a contemporary organic resulting from forces in a state of becoming, connected through patterns. While architecture during the 20th century focused on function and form, the current architectural debate is dealing more with relationships, boundaries and energies. In this regard, spatial design patterns have the poetic and pertinent potential to precisely promote performances. Thanks to current changing paradigm, it is possible to rethink both the meaning and the role that patterns might play as diagrams of spatial organization and generative elements of a project. Today, there is a renovated interest in elaborating an architecture that can balance again economic and social forces and connect space through different spatial devices and continue to study their application and meaning in architecture. Case Studies This research points to the importance of implementing into contemporary design not only present technologies, but also cultural uniqueness. It must be noted, that this is not an attempt of bringing traditional icons without thought into the context of modern design, but to highlight the importance of cultural adaptation of technology. Careful consideration must be taken to not cheapen the value of traditions. The case studies are an attempt to make clear that such traditional values combined with new digital technologies is not incompatible, as demonstrated in the case studies presented here. On the contrary, the use of Japanese traditional patterns as an inspiration for projects â€“including BIPVâ€“ proves to be successful in the reinterpretation of the long established tradition and aesthetic of Japanese pattern design. Japanese sensibility retains its unique 45
character even when it is used along with new technologies. According to Kengo Kuma Japanese architecture is a treasure trove of boundary techniques. […] Diverse screens (such as louvers and curtains) and intermediate domains (such as verandas, corridors and eaves) are gaining attention once more as devices for connecting the environment to buildings. The design process of the projects presented here usually starts with the design of a “particle” including a set of characteristics with a range of performances and aesthetic beauty. In the projects, sensuous and functional qualities are evaluated at once, but there is no precedence: sometimes the beauty and forms prevail on function. The particles are intentionally left open to possibilities, vague in scale and program, allowing for adaptability in the chance of incorporation within a project. The projects are an attempt to explore many paths in the pursuit of a dematerialization of the solidity of architecture and a replacement of it with the openness given by boundary techniques. The use of Japanese traditional patterns as an inspiration for creating diverse screens— such as soft partitions, porous façades, louvers, and curtains—and intermediate spaces—such as corridors, verandas, and layered spaces—proves to be a viable tool for establishing a new relationship between architecture and a more appropriate environment for the future. The research points to the importance of implementing in contemporary design not only present technologies and materials, but also cultural uniqueness. It must be noted that this is not an attempt to bring traditional icons without thought into the context of contemporary design, but to highlight the importance of cultural adaptation of technology.
WALTER HOOD Hood Studio | Oakland | California | USA UC Berkeley | College of Environmental Design | Berkeley | California | USA
Walter Hood, Master of Fine Arts, The School of the Art Institute of Chicago, Illinois, 2010, M.L.A and M.Arch, University of California, Berkeley, B.L.A., University of California is an artist, designer and educator. He is professor of Landscape Architecture & Environmental Planning and Urban Design. In his teaching and practice he is committed to the development of environments which reflect their place and time specifically through how people inhabit various geographies. Hood DesignÂ is a cultural practice committed to creating environments in which people live work and play. The studio practice engages urban landscape where a collective density of inhabitants share physical, social, political and economic resources. This multidimensional context is the setting for the development of powerful sculpted expressions that explore site specific social and environmental processes. Landscapes and built elements emerge as improvised acts, familiar yet reshaped into something new.
ERIC SCOTTO Akuo Energy | Paris | France
Eric Scotto, CEO and cofounder of Akuo Energy. An entrepreneur and veteran of two previous successful start-up ventures, he -Ma Paris Sorbonne (Fr.), Ma Cornell University (USA)- has nearly 20 years of product development, sales, and general management experience and a proven record of accomplishment of leading companies through rapid growth. He gained a first foothold in the renewable energy market by founding Perfect Wind in 2004, which quickly became the 2nd largest developer of wind farms in France. He sold Perfect Wind France to the world renewable leader Iberdrola in 2006 and founded one year later Akuo Energy. Akuo Energy is a leading French independent renewable energy power producer that is present across the value chain, including project development, financing, construction, and operation. Akuo Energy currently operates a portfolio of solar, wind, biomass and hydro power plants totaling 193 MW in installed capacity, and 409 MW has already been financed and is in the construction pipeline. Akuo Energy established the concept of Agrinergie速 in 2008, an innovative programme that focuses on bringing together organic farming and solar energy, by reconciling energy and agricultural production. Akuo Energy systematically incorporates an agricultural section in its PV power plants in an attempt to find the most appropriate crops for each type of soil, be it between ground-mounted panels or in greenhouses.
Eric Scotto NEW PERFORMATIVE LANDSCAPES: PHOTOVOLTAICS ON FARMLANDS
Projet Les Cèdres
Chemin Canal 51
Bi-three-dimensional approach If possible according to the whole project context, landscaping will be done as follows: 1st scale : pedestrian Solar plants are covered up behind landscaping hedges, high enough and ideally made of endemic species or at least local species. Those mixed hedges are including at least two layers of trees and shrubs. 2nd scale : landscape pattern Solar plants are designed according to the surrounding lanscape pattern in order to fit within the landscape unit. For instance, operating paths and solar panel rows could be aligned on agricultural field patterns. 3rd scale: territory When feasible, solar plant landscaping considers the overall coherence of the landscape across the territory. It means to segment or make arrangements to imitate an existing pattern. For instance, a solar plant could be designed to reflect to lakes (from a sky view) if the territory does include some. Ex : Projet Les Cèdres Materials and design adaptation Relief adaptation : In order to restrict hydraulic impacts (soil sealing, flooding of the neighboring plot…), solar plants are built maximum respecting natural relief of the ground and avoiding massive earthwork. Ex : Pierrefonds Materials adaptation: Because of construction constraints, materials used to build solar plants are constantly adapted to location and type of ground of field’s project. Foundations and structural materials are precisely suitable to soil constraints. Thereby, topography is strictly respected taking part to the plant landscaping. Ex : Chemin canal Setting up visual pollution’s limiting structures Mainly in the case of 2nd generation solar plants, hill reservoirs are built, gathering rain water through an underground network. This would narrow the need of rain water flow’s bumps, channels, lift pump local and any visible pipes. Moreover, hill reservoirs play a central role in creating new ecosystems when surrounding farmland (attracts pollinating insects…).
STEFAN TISCHER ENSP | Ecole Nationale Supérieure du Paysage | Versailles-Marseille | France
Stefan Tischer, Dipl.-Ing. (TUM) landscape architect, is professor for landscape design and theory at ENSP Ecole nationale de Paysage, Versailles – Marseille and director of the International Master in Mediterranean Landscape Urbanism in Alghero (Sardinia, Univeristy of Sassari). Former director of the School of Landscape Architecture at Univeristy of Montreal in Canada and scientific member of the Chair UNESCO in Landscape and Environment CUPEUM. As landscape architect projects in urban design (ex. masterplan for Port of Spain in Trindad + Tobago), public space (ex. campus Univeristy Dresden and Wismar), memorial landscape (ex. Former Concentration Camp Ravensbrück), experimental gardens (Metis/Canada, Padula/Italy, Postdam/Germany, Chaumont sur Loire/France) and photovolatic landscape projects (Olbia/ Sardinia/Italy). Applied scientific work about energy landscapes (ex. summerschool Bauhaus Dessau 2011), landscape and urban development (ex. Urban Catalyst 2002) and interventions in landscapes of declay (LandWorks Sardinia 2011 – 2013).
CALL FOR PROPOSALS: SELECTED CASE STUDIES
PROJECT TITLE: PV ROOF FOR THE FRENCH MINISTRY OF DEFENSE FUNCTION public building COMPLETION YEAR 2013 (under construction) LOCATION Paris, France DESIGNER/DEVELOPER ISSOL sa/nv for Bouygues Construction
DESCRIPTION Design and construct of a BIPV roof for the French Ministry of Defence at Balard - southwest of Paris. Integration of photovoltaics technology in harmony with famous Paris zinc roofs. PATTERNS PV appearance forbidden by the architects - Homogeneous zinc rendering - Fire Class 0, highest fire-resistance rating - Anti glaring for safe airship landing: Candela less than 10 000 cd - 12 mm laminated safety glass - Accidental shock resistance SURFACE (GEOMETRY, DISTANCES, THICKNESS) Triangular shaped roofs of 7000 m2. Square and triangular active glasses with more that 1,500 different shapes to match the roof geometry. TYPOLOGY (DOUBLE FUNCTION? IF YES, WHICH ONE?) Zinc roof rendering. No photovoltaic or technology appearance. Glass-glass modules 12 mm thickness, anti glaring. COLORS (PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES, FRAMES, STRIPS, ETC) Zinc color photovoltaic glasses acting as active building material. Replacement of steel grating (caillebotis) FIXING SYSTEM/JOINTING (STANDARD OR SPECIALLY DESIGNED SOLUTIONS, PLACEMENT OF INVERTERS, ASSEMBLE BOXES, ETC) No visible mounting system. PV glasses are raised on steel framework and fixed on secondary aluminum structure. ENERGY PERFORMANCE OF THE SYSTEM, EVALUATED IN TERMS OF BUILDING’S ENERGY SUPPLY OR COMMUNITIES’ ENERGY SUPPLY The main building will be fitted with active glasses, and close to 80% of its energy needs will be fulfilled using self-generated renewable energy. Certification: NF Bâtiments Tertiaires – Démarche HQE® and BREEAM®. Label: BBC-effinergie® OWNER French Ministery of Defense ARCHITECT Nicolas Michelin & Associates and Atelier ENERGY CONSULTANT Bouygues Construction SOLAR MANUFACTURER ISSOL sa/nv - Belgium FOR FURTHER INFORMATION http://www.info-chantier-balard.fr/ email@example.com 60
PROJECT TITLE: ENERGY BOX FUNCTION private dwelling COMPLETION YEAR 2013 LOCATION L’Aquila, Italy DESIGNER/DEVELOPER Studio Pierluigi Bonomo
DESCRIPTION The project involves a relocation of a house heavily damaged by the earthquake of April 6, 2009 in L'Aquila. It tries to introduce a design reflection within the reconstruction context, where the architecture in suburbs has been excluded by common practices. Conservation of stone traces of the original building walls defines the boundary of the "new house", conceived as a volumetric insertion within this space. Emerging from the ground, the traces of the old walls gradually disappear along the perimeter, mediating the physical and creating a transition between the "heavy" memory of the past and the aspiration to a better future, symbolized by the aesthetical and technological lightness of the "new". The novel box is a solid and compact volume, able to increase thermal protection in winter, marked by larch planks cladding. Southwards the volume is open with wide cuts that allow natural lighting, solar gains in winter, natural ventilation and solar protection in summer thanks to sliding screens. The southeast elevation integrates a photovoltaic ventilated façade, based on the dialog between the natural aspect of the wood and the black solar modules. Thanks to a detailed design of the envelope (GOLD Klimahaus standard) and to efficient service systems, the Nearly Zero-Energy building is characterized by minimal energy demand that is satisfied by renewable energies. The integration between bioclimatic "passive" strategies and “active” systems (mechanical ventilation with heat recovery and geothermal pre-temperation, heat pump for domestic hot water, solar thermal, photovoltaic, water storage ...), reduces the need for heating to 7kWh/m2year. Reuse of some demolition materials (stones for gabions, steel and wooden purlins for outdoor furnishings), the use of natural and low-impact materials (X-Lam load-bearing structure, wood, gypsum, wood fiber ...) and the choice of pre-fabricated constructive systems, allow to minimize the "embodied energy" and the environmental load throughout the lifecycle. PATTERNS The PV system is a ventilated façade obtained with 30 thin film CIS modules (672x1595 mm) listed in two vertical groups onto the south-east elevation, with a peak power of 3,90 kW. The position has been established to achieve either a good sun exposure than an architectural characterization of building. On the roof there is simpler PV plant (4,68 kWp) for providing the required electrical energy. The solar façade tries to experiment a dialog, that is a possible integration, among the solar surface, the other materials of building (wood, stones, concrete), and the natural environment of the area. SURFACE (GEOMETRY, DISTANCES, THICKNESS) The PV system is geometrically and physically coordinated within the façade design, becoming an apparently normal building cladding, thanks to a the detailed study of architectural and constructive parameters of integration at component and building scale. The careful choice of module typology ensures the perceptual and aesthetical homogeneity of the solar surface, reducing the joint width between adjacent panels and hiding clamps and load-bearing 62
frames. The mounting clamps, in fact, fit perfectly into the shadow gap of the mounting lip removing them from sight and ensuring an attractive appearance for the entire system. The dimension and number of modules has been assessed in relation to the façade highness; the thickness of solar panels has been verified in comparison to the nearby larch boards. Despite the high integration required, standard framed modules and normal structures have been used avoiding any cost increase or any special constructive adaption. TYPOLOGY (DOUBLE FUNCTION? IF YES, WHICH ONE?) The PV system simply replaces, functionally and physically, a part of the wood cladding onto the façade. Thanks to the almost completely closed horizontal joints between modules, a ventilated façade behavior is introduced, improving the thermal performance of the envelope (the larch cladding is ventilated with open joints) and avoiding overheating of modules in summer. The solar surface is therefore a rain-screen cladding with that ensure rain, sun and wind protection: similarly to the rest of façade, the primary water/air-tightness is ensured by a back special sheet used in the whole envelope. COLORS (PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES, FRAMES, STRIPS, ETC) The component design has been an important part of the solar integration project. The architectural goal was to obtain a homogeneous black surface, constructively and aesthetically integrated, but well recognizable as a contemporary sign able to dialog with other traditional materials as wood or stone. The glossy of surface-glass allows interesting light effect during the day becoming a mirror of the sky or of the nearby scenarios, onto the all-black background, widening the spatial perception of the site. The CIS modules have been selected, choosing a particular “all-black” model equipped with a special border frame able to ensure the hidden fixings and an attractive appearance for the entire system. Also the back façade sheet has been used in black color , both in wood and solar cladding, for a better integration of the border areas between elements. FIXING SYSTEM/JOINTING (STANDARD OR SPECIALLY DESIGNED SOLUTIONS, PLACEMENT OF INVERTERS, ASSEMBLE BOXES, ETC) The assemblage system has been specifically designed using standard components with the double goal to ensure a high constructive/architectural integration as well as avoiding expensive solutions. The solar modules are fixed onto rear vertical metallic “C” frames bolted on parallel wood mullions (black printed and water-proofed) already predisposed for the wood cladding. These mullion are thus fixed onto rear wood frames (with a special water-proofing system) within 20 cm insulation layer which are finally fixed onto the X-Lam load-bearing walls. The PV fixing system has been calculated for wind and mechanical resistance besides to a proper water-resistance avoiding any perforation of water-tightness sheet. The special framed modules are extremely torsionally rigid and resistant and they are able to withstand loads of up to 550 kg/m2. The glass is mounted with a highly elastic polymer glue avoiding any 63
mechanical point loads and it is protected against moisture. Cables are hidden onto the back (within the air gap among modules) and they cross the façade through a predisposed passage (in a zone external to the air-tightness envelope surface) getting into a technical room (where inverters and other electrical components are placed) in the basement through a ceiling-hidden pipe. ENERGY PERFORMANCE OF THE SYSTEM, EVALUATED IN TERMS OF BUILDING’S ENERGY SUPPLY OR COMMUNITIES’ ENERGY SUPPLY The building has been studied as a nearly-zero energy house, accordingly to Klimahaus Gold Standard, with a very high-efficient passive envelope requiring a minimum energy demand (7 kWh/m2y for heating) completely supplied by renewable energy systems. In this perspective solar energy , and PV in particular, is the most important strategy for hot-water, heating and ventilation. Cooling, in this climatic area, is generally not required also thanks to the high thermal inertia of the building envelope and solar control devices. Mechanical ventilation with heat recovery and geothermal pre-temperation, heat pump for domestic hot water (solar thermal integrated) and some adding electrical heating surfaces in fact are electrically powered (besides to lighting and electric cooking). The estimated yearly electrical load is of 8,500 kWh and PV production is calculated in 8,800 kWh. Furthermore the broad spectral sensitivity of CIS, the very good performance in low light conditions, the low nominal operating cell temperature (NOCT) and the low temperature coefficient ensure a feasible higher energy yield (kWh/kWp) in the climatic context concerned. Thanks to the passive envelope design as well as to other renewable sources (earth, air, thermal solar) the PV production, so, could be able to ensure a zero-energy or plus-energy balance throughout the year. This energy balance, also depending on the occupant behavior, will have to be assessed and monitored during the real life cycle of the building in next years. OWNER private ARCHITECT Pierluigi Bonomo, Iole Densante ENERGY CONSULTANT Pierluigi Bonomo, Federico Pace SOLAR MANUFACTURER Avancis-Saint Gobain Solar FOR FURTHER INFORMATION firstname.lastname@example.org
PROJECT TITLE: SOLARSPEICHER / ENERGIESPEICHER FUNCTION energy center / multifunctional convention hall COMPLETION YEAR 2013 LOCATION Nechlin, Germany DESIGNER/DEVELOPER Astrid Schneider
DESCRIPTION The 'Energiespeicher' is a former granary, located in eastern Germany in a small village called 'Nechlin'. The building was in a bad condition when it was bought and renovated. The uninsulated former granary is now used as a network point and center for a local district heating system. In it's cellar there are combined heat and power stations. In the upper floor the DClines from the BIPV-installations of three neighboring houses are collected and the inverters are located, to be able to supply all the electricity via one point to the public grid. The electricity network, which is distributing the electricity from the CHPplants, can work autonomously if needed. So the PV-plants could help to supply and maintain a local electricity network. However the normal use is to feed the electricity into the public grid, to refinance the PV-plants via the German feed in tariff. The PV-systems have been installed until end 2008. PATTERNS The huge PV arrays at the facade were put together from smaller squareshaped units to achieve a lighter weight. SURFACE (GEOMETRY, DISTANCES, THICKNESS) The traditional roof has triangular shaped sides. So there was quite a big search to find which BIPV-system could fit to this shape. Finally it was decided to use the UniSolar system attached to a dark grey steel roof by Thyssen Krupp. The standard BIPV roofing product was assembled by Hoesch-Contecna. The metal roofing with the thin film modules on top allowed to effectively cut and adapt the metal sheeting to optimally fit to the slightly irregular shape and size of the historic roof. The match of the color of the metal with and without PV it so good, that it depends on the lighting to differentiate between PV and metal. The facade of the former storage building (granary) does not have many windows, but closed facade areas. This allowed to use a very unusual PV-system: in front of the wall huge PV-arrays have been installed as sun-trackable BIPV. The module arrays are moved by linear motors from the inside of the building. TYPOLOGY (DOUBLE FUNCTION? IF YES, WHICH ONE?) Metal roofing with PV as BIPV - Facade cladding: PV-System as Facade design element COLOURS (PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES, FRAMES, STRIPS, ETC) Facade: Dark blue mono-crystalline solar cells in glass-glass laminates, manufactured by Solarnova GmbH Roofing: dark blue / violet colored UniSolar thin film modules attached to dark grey metal roofing elements. FIXING SYSTEM/JOINTING (STANDARD OR SPECIALLY DESIGNED SOLUTIONS, PLACEMENT OF INVERTERS, ASSEMBLE BOXES, ETC) The metal roofing system is fixed on traditional wood battens. The facade PVmodules are custom made glass-glass modules, which are fixed to a special designed and engineered steel substructure. The steel elements with the PV 66
arrays are hanging at the facade and are moved from inside the building to track the sun. ENERGY PERFORMANCE OF THE SYSTEM, EVALUATED IN TERMS OF BUILDING’S ENERGY SUPPLY OR COMMUNITIES’ ENERGY SUPPLY The solar electricity production is monitored according to the planning. The 'Energie Speicher' itself consumes hardly any energy, as it is used only temporarily for festivities, conventions etc. OWNER Jörg & Ute Müller GbR / Wärme für Nechlin GmbH & Co KG ARCHITECT Astrid Schneider and Gerhard Krekow Planungsgesellschaft mbH ENERGY CONSULTANT Astrid Schneider and Gerhard Krekow Planungsgesellschaft mbH SOLAR MANUFACTURER Uni Solar - Thyssen Krupp / Solarnova GmbH, D-Wedel FOR FURTHER INFORMATION email@example.com
PROJECT TITLE: APARTMENT WITH “CAFE ZUM SPEICHER” FUNCTION apartment building / café-restaurant COMPLETION YEAR 2013 LOCATION Nechlin, Germany DESIGNER/DEVELOPER Astrid Schneider
DESCRIPTION The building, in an eastern German village called 'Nechlin', was a typical unrenovated eastern German building in the country side. The private owners decided to renovate it into an energy-efficient building instead of demolishing it. The whole building was insulated and the energy system is now based on 100% renewable energy with all roof areas being covered by solar systems. PATTERNS BIPV-Components used in the building: PV-Roofing system PV-shading elements above windows PV-Window Shutters SURFACE (GEOMETRY, DISTANCES, THICKNESS) The geometry is very interesting and yet typical for existing buildings: the building is with it's street facade oriented to the south-west. There is a pediment roof in a vertical direction to the street facade, which faced south east and north-west. All those roof sides are covered with the same thin film PVsystem from UniSolar. So we have 4 orientations for the BIPV: South-west roof and shading elements with different inclinations, south-east and north-west. TYPOLOGY (DOUBLE FUNCTION? IF YES, WHICH ONE?) Roof: the PV-modules are glued to metal roofing elements and form the roof surface Shading: Custom sized solar modules function as a shading system for the south oriented windows. COLOURS (PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES, FRAMES, STRIPS, ETC) Shading elements above the windows: Dark blue mono-crystalline solar cells in glass-glass laminates, manufactured by Solarnova GmbH. Roofing: dark blue / violet colored UniSolar thin film modules attached to metal roofing elements. FIXING SYSTEM/JOINTING (STANDARD OR SPECIALLY DESIGNED SOLUTIONS, PLACEMENT OF INVERTERS, ASSEMBLE BOXES, ETC) The metal structures to carry the shading systems are custom designed and made. A special problem was to fix the metal structures to hold the shading systems to the highly insulated wall. Special insulated fixings had to be integrated into the walls / ceilings during the renovation process. ENERGY PERFORMANCE OF THE SYSTEM, EVALUATED IN TERMS OF BUILDING’S ENERGY SUPPLY OR COMMUNITIES’ ENERGY SUPPLY The building is close to the neighboring 'Speicher'-Building. The buildings are interconnected in terms of their energy system: in the 'Speicher'-Building a district heating central has been built, based on renewable energy. Combined heat and power engines produce heat and electricity by biomass, especially by 70
wooden chips and natural oil. The inverters are placed into the 'Speicher'Building, as there was no space for them in the residential building and it was the wish of the owner to form an energy center at the 'Speicher'-Building, so that the renewable electricity from several buildings could be fed into the public grid at one central point. OWNER Jörg & Ute Müller GbR / Wärme für Nechlin GmbH & Co KG ARCHITECT Astrid Schneider and Gerhard Krekow Planungsgesellschaft mbH ENERGY CONSULTANT Astrid Schneider and Gerhard Krekow Planungsgesellschaft mbH SOLAR MANUFACTURER Uni Solar - Thyssen Krupp / Solarnova GmbH, D-Wedel FOR FURTHER INFORMATION firstname.lastname@example.org
PROJECT TITLE: ALIVE ARCHITECTURE FUNCTION universal transformable building system (patent) YEAR 2004 DESIGNER/DEVELOPER Alexander Turin
DESCRIPTION System based on using of vacuum for warm- and sound-insulation of little, ligth-weight, manually operable panels and glazing elements. Building may be transformed from inside according to change of need. PATTERNS System has two supporting elements only: panel (size 50x50x5cm) from glassceramic and rod of space frame, united by spherical joining elements with radial screw-seats. SURFACE (GEOMETRY, DISTANCES, THICKNESS) Thanks to invented geometry the panels make linear joins in all three mutually perpendicular flatnesses. Edges of panel are sloped to 45degrees. Vacuumed glazing elements of 5 new classes has different forms and thickness's TYPOLOGY (DOUBLE FUNCTION? IF YES, WHICH ONE?) Vacuumed warm- and sound insulating building elements: supporting panels and glazing elements of 5 new classes may be integrated with photovoltaic coatings or/and with warm-convertors. COLOURS (PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES, FRAMES, STRIPS, ETC) Base colour of panels, pressed from melted metallurgical glass, is depended from one mixture of mineral, loaded into furnace and from method of glass crystallizing. FIXING SYSTEM/JOINTING (STANDARD OR SPECIALLY DESIGNED SOLUTIONS, PLACEMENT OF INVERTERS, ASSEMBLE BOXES, ETC) Joints are easy accessed for assembling instrument. In moment of screw tightening the joint moves from body of rod or panel completely filling an assembly clearance between spherical elements. ENERGY PERFORMANCE OF THE SYSTEM, EVALUATED IN TERMS OF BUILDING’S ENERGY SUPPLY OR COMMUNITIES’ ENERGY SUPPLY System is exclusively variable and may be adopted to change of need according with a lot of programs. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION email@example.com
PHOTOVOLTAICS | FORMS | LANDSCAPES PREVIOUS EDITIONS (2012 & 2011) CONCEPTS AND PROGRAMS
PHOTOVOLTAICS | FORMS | LANDSCAPES 2 Frankfurt, 25th of September 2012 How to use photovoltaics for shaping net zero energy communities This special event, that highlights the interaction of PV systems with buildings and landscape, outlined the vision of a transition from PV architecture into urban and non-urban landscapes and how architects take up this challenge. In a future Zero Energy Building scenario it is considered that PV solar energy covers the energy needs of the living space (electricity services, heating and cooling). What would buildings look like when incorporating this energy source? How would out-of-city landscapes offer opportunities to satisfy the energyhunger? At the moment, the traditional domain of architecture design takes into account only the physical space we live in, that we can envision with our traditional tools, and in the end, ‘categorize’ and ‘touch’. For the net zero energy challenge the architectural design needs to foresee for each m² of a ‘designed’ space, about 2.5m² more ‘energy-surfaces’, which are generally neither envisioned nor designed. We need a shift of perspective and to learn how to combine the design for the space we live in and the space for generating the energy. We cannot leave the energy generation in a technological corner where design has no role, and where the forms of our cities and our landscapes would be affected in a way which the public does not accept, failing all positive aspects of the net zero energy community. The realization of the 2021-Nearly Zero Energy Buildings objective is a great challenge, but at the same instance also a unique opportunity for a new school of performative design. Energy has a new, more than symbolic and societal meaning that can be made visible by design beyond traditional architectural categories. It develops new visions appropriate for the needs of today.
Programme INTRODUCTION Heinz Ossenbrink European Commission JRC | ITALY CONCEPT Alessandra Scognamiglio Scientific Organizer of the event | ENEA | ITALY WITH Nikos Fintikakis Architect | UIA Council Member | Director of UIA-RES International Work Programme | Athens | GREECE GLOBAL SOLAR BUILDING LANDMARKS FROM THE UIA PERSPECTIVE Elizabeth Monoian & Robert Ferry Co-Principals | Land Art Generator Initiative (LAGI) | New York | USA THE BEAUTY OF ZERO ENERGY: THE AESTHETIC INTEGRATION OF RENEWABLE ENERGY INFRASTRUCTURE INTO THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT Julian Worrall Associate Professor – Architecture and Urban Studies | Waseda Institute for Advanced Study | Waseda University | Tokyo | JAPAN PHOTOVOLTAICS AS PUBLIC SPACE: SOLAR INFRASTRUCTURES IN THE POST FUKUSHIMA ERA Walter Hood Director | Hood Design, Oakland | Professor | College of Environmental Design | University of California | Berkeley | USA POWER SRANDS CONCLUDING REMARKS moderator Roberto Zancan Deputy editor | Domus | Milan | ITALY
PHOTOVOLTAICS | FORMS | LANDSCAPES 1 Hamburg, 6th of September 2011 Photovoltaics for shaping new performative landscapes The deployment of photovoltaics continues to increase rapidly, with the total power installed doubling every year. Today most of these installations are on roofs, and this will slow the rate of cost reduction since even if module prices decrease substantially, installation costs are almost constant. Achieving the needed large scale integration of photovoltaics into our energy system will therefore require large-scale deployment beyond the building scale. Large scale “open-field” installations, in the multi-MW size (at least one squared kilometre of photovoltaic modules), will become part of our landscapes. This represents a new kind of “productive” land-use, which is currently not encouraged and even discouraged in some cases. In fact, today, photovoltaic systems are just “added” on the landscape, using land suitable for other traditional societal uses (agriculture being the obvious example), and this way to use photovoltaics in the landscape is not accepted by the public. How to make in the future photovoltaic large open field installations acceptable or even desirable, also in comparison with other traditional land uses? What if these installations are seen as a new form of “integration”? What if we think of photovoltaic systems as elements of a new “performative landscape”? This approach leads to the challenge: «How to design a thousand square kilometers of photovoltaics?» If we want to avoid that such systems are just “put” on the ground and risk rejection by the public, we have to re-think how to do open-field deployment in the 50 to 100 MW scale. In fact, these installations will have to be designed as an integral part of a “performative landscape”, requiring a truly multidisciplinary approach. The event highlighted the interaction of photovoltaic systems with buildings and landscapes by showing how architects intend to take up this challenge.
Programme PRESENTATION Heinz A. Ossenbrink Chairman of the 26th European PV Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition | European Commission | JRC | The Netherlands & Italy INTRODUCTION Alessandra Scognamiglio Scientific organizer of the event | ENEA | Italy WITH Mason White Director | University of Toronto Daniels Faculty of Architecture, Landscape and Design | Partner | Lateral Office, Toronto | Canada NEW ENERGIES, NEW ARCHITECTURE. DESIGN AND THE ENERGY REVOLUTION David Nelson Senior Partner joint Head of Design | Foster+Partners, London | UK SOLAR ENERGY AND CITY MASTERPLANS Walter Hood Director | Hood Design, Oakland | Professor | College of Environmental Design, University of California, Berkeley | USA PHOTOVOLTAICS AND FORMS OF LANDSCAPE. STRANDS AND PATCHES: UB SOLAR ARRAY Simone Giostra President | Simone Giostra & Partners, New York | Associate Professor PRATT Institute, School of Architecture, New York | USA LANDSCAPE INTEGRATED PHOTOVOLTAICS ROUND TABLE moderator Joseph Grima Editor | Domus | Italy
Special session Photovoltaics | Forms | Landscapes on the occasion of the 28th European Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition http://www.pv-landscapes.com/
Special session Photovoltaics | Forms | Landscapes // 28th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition (28th EU PVSEC)...
Published on Dec 24, 2013
Special session Photovoltaics | Forms | Landscapes // 28th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition (28th EU PVSEC)...