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Writing English A Study Of Spelling A Courseware For The Apple II Family

Caleb Gattegno

Educational Solutions Worldwide Inc.


First published in 1986. Reprinted 2009. Copyright Š 1986-2009 Educational Solutions Worldwide Inc. Author: Caleb Gattegno All rights reserved ISBN 0-00000-000-0 Educational Solutions Worldwide Inc. 2nd Floor 99 University Place, New York, NY 10003-4555 www.EducationalSolutions.com


Table of Contents Notes for Teachers ........................................................................... 1  The First Ambiguity ................................................................... 1  The Second Ambiguity ...............................................................9  The Second Ambiguity - Consonants....................................... 25  General Remarks............................................................................43 


Writing English A Study Of Spelling

Notes for Teachers This courseware treats the challenge of the spelling of English by forcing awareness that there are two ambiguities and that every student can master English spelling in a matter of a few hours. The microcomputer makes this fact plain while in the past it was a matter of belief or of opinion. The amount of practice is left to the student’s own judgment. The First Ambiguity This is treated by a program having this title and is concerned with the challenge that in American* English the letter a u o e i

has been given " " " "

eleven sounds eleven sounds also twelve sounds seven sounds seven sounds as well

Five sentences have been constructed to make use of all the sounds associated with only one of these vowel signs. Here are these sentences in the order they appear on the disk :                                                          * British or Australian English vary slightly, usually one sound fewer.

1


Writing English A Study Of Spelling

for a: all was dark as many hares raced around the village war swamp. for u: truly put his business failures must be buried upon his use of lang uage bursts in pure anger. for i: mind! girls do not mix on ions and mer ingues, mach ines do, stenc ils don’t. for e: the pretty pet of hers is a he there is a sergeant in his suede. for o: the woman who, in a word, got more off some of the chair women was the one togo. Below we shall give the sentences for the three most ambiguous diphthongs (ea, ou, ough) and for the five most common ambiguous consonants (s, t, c, d, x). Here we want to describe our treatment. *** Each sentence is made to appear word by word as the student touches the spacebar. What he sees on the screen is e.g. ALL WAS DARK AS MANY HARES RACED AROUND THE VILLAGE WAR SWAMP

2


Writing English A Study Of Spelling

which he is supposed to be able to read, particularly if this program is the one to follow the INFUSED READINO for English which can be gone through in less than 3 hours’ time. Then in turn the A of each word is taken out of 1t and placed lower down the screen with a subscript indicating its position in the line and on which line. Thus the screen now looks like this -LL

W-S

-ROUND A1

A2 A8

D-RK -S THE

M-NY

VILL-GE

A3

H-RES W-R

A4 A9

SW-MP.

A5 A10

R-CED

A6

A7

A11

The cursor appears and if the student touches the spacebar the computer proposes “test-words.” An answer is requested which is formed of A followed by a numeral. If the student has found which sound of the given sentence matches the sound of A in the test-word he gets another word to try. If no such word is offered by the computer this means that he must look for another answer. Only a small number of test-words are offered in this program, teachers can add as many examples as they wish if they feel it necessary for an adequate practice. This does not need to be done on the computer and can be done on the chalkboard with any number of students of the class. Here are the test-words selected for this program.

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Writing English A Study Of Spelling

WASTE, WATER, PART, MARRY, ANY, LUGGAGE, WHAT, MADE, WANT,

TRIANGLE,

CARE,

THEATER,

ANYONE,

RUMMAGE, FARM, SMALL, CREATION. Similar treatments apply to the other sentences above with the following sets of test-words: for u: CURE, MUDDY, REFUSE, BUSY, CURSE, LINGUIST, DUTY, TRUTH for i: FIRST, FINESSE, CRIME, FIND, BULLION, BIRD, LITTLE, MANDARIN, BASIS for e: EGG. PUPPET, ME MERLIN, SERIOUS, FIANCE LEGGY, VERY, MERRY for o: COME, WORLDS, MOVE, GOTTEN, ONCE, BEFORE, HOME, WOMANLY, OFFER, FROM, BONE, TODAY When we consider the twelve diphthongs and the five consonants mentioned above we use a similar treatment: first present a sentence offering all the sounds associated with those signs number them and ask for a matching when a test-word is proposed by the computer. Here are the details, starting with diphthongs. 4


Writing English A Study Of Spelling

For the three diphthongs EA, OU, OUGH, the contents are like this For EA, sentence: PLEASE CREATE WHOLE-HEARTEDLY GREAT WORKS FOR THE THEATER. WE HEARD OF OCEAN-GOING SHIPS LOOKING FOR TREASURES. IN SEATTLE, WE READ OF WEAR AND TEAR. with seven sounds EA1 , EA2 , EA3 , EA4 , EA5

,

EA6 , EA7

The test-words are: BREAD, PEARLS, HEAR, BREAK, MEASURE, PEARS, CREATURES, HEARTILY, TREAD. for OU the sentences are: I HAVE SOUP F OUR TIMES A WEEK. IT WOULD TAKE COURAGE AND I’M COURAGEOUS. MY SHOULDER HURTS, I COUGH BADLY, I’M NO LONGER YOUNG TO GO OUT BY MYSELF? with nine sounds OU1 , OU2 , OU3 , OU4 , OU5 , OU6 , OU7 , OU8 , OU9 The test-words are: 5


Writing English A Study Of Spelling

OUR, COULD, COURSE, COURT, TOUGH, TROUPE, DETOUR, FOURTEEN, SENSUOUS, COUGHING, THROUGH, BOUT, STOUT, SHOULDERING, PROUD. for OUGH the sentence is: THOUGH HE COULD NOT SEE THROUGH ME, HETHOUGHT THAT I ENJOYED THR OUGHLY HANGING ON THE B OUGH with five sounds OUGH1 , OUGH2 , OUGH3 , OUGH4 , OUGH5 The test-words are: ALTHOUGH, SOUGHT, BROUGHT, THOROUGH, SLOUGH, PLOUGHED

BOUGHT,

Continuing with the consonants, for S, the sentence is S00N HE WAS SURE OF HER VISION with four sounds

S1 ,

S2 ,

S3 ,

S4

the test-words suggested are : SUGAR, SOMEONE, HIS, MEASURE, HERS, LEISURE, TREASURE, SURELY, LOTS, HORSES for T the sentence is: IN THAT EQUATION HE VENTURES HIS VACATION. 6


Writing English A Study Of Spelling

with four sounds

T1 ,

T2

,

T3

,

T4

The test-words offered are NATION, VULTURE, BITS, CENTURY, ADDITION, WON’T; ISN’T for C the sentence is : THE ANCILLARY CELLO CAME SPECIALLY TUNED with four sounds

C1 ,

C2 , C3 , C4

The test-words offered are CELLIST, CONSIDER, CIDER, APPRECIATE, SPACE, CANE, ANCIENT for D the sentence is : DAD LIKED THE SOLDIER with three sounds

D1 ,

D2

,

D3

The test-words are EDUCATION, DONE, HOPED, DOZEN for X the sentence is THE ANXIOUS XYLOPHONIST EXAMINED THE LUXURIOUS TAXI.

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Writing English A Study Of Spelling

with five sounds

X1 ,

X2 , X3 ,

X4 , X5

To match with the test-words : NEXT, OBNOXIOUS, EXIT, LUXURY, EXAGGERATION. Again teachers can add as many words as they feel the need for, do it on the chalkboard or on paper rather than on the computer since the first don’t require the skill of a programmer. Thus the first ambiguity has been treated extensively if not exhaustively. We left out ambiguities which will need the attention of students, like oa which has four sounds, oi which has two, oo which has four and so on. We believe that if the students are made aware of such ambiguities as we did in this program, they will be watching for others when looking at words in print.

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Writing English A Study Of Spelling

The Second Ambiguity This time we investigate the aggregate of signs which in written American English require that we utter one and the same sound, We do this in two programs, one devoted to the vowels of which there are 23 and the other to the consonants of which there are 35. The overall treatment is as follows: 1 One or more sentences have been concocted so that words which use one or other of these spellings will display them. The composition being difficult it is not reasonable to expect statements which meet all tastes. Since the purpose is to force awareness of this second ambiguity and to give a certain amount of practice, we are satisfied that the challenge has been taken into account. If users prefer to manufacture their own sentences they have the freedom to either substitute them within a backup copy of this courseware, or use the chalkboard in their classroom to show their own solution and extol its merits in contrast to ours. 2 The various signs which are to trigger the sound in question are made to flash, then to disappear from the words and reappear in one or two columns on the left to constitute the aggregate of the spellings in this case. The order in which they appear in the columns reproduces the one we published in the original “English Fidel� which is part of the classroom materials marketed under the Trademark of Words in Color, A copy of this Fidel has been made part of these notes.

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Writing English A Study Of Spelling

3 Once the column or columns are completed, the initial text disappears and a new text can be called word by word (as was the case in # 1) by touching the spacebar. But this time there are gaps in the words for which one of these spellings is required. When the text is completed, a cursor appears after the sign > and the student must type the correct spelling. If he can, then it is shifted to the blank in the corresponding word and the spelling for that sound in a following word is asked for as before. All this assumes that reading is available to the students in front of the computer and that the words of the text are rarely not understood. But the real challenge is indeed to select among the possible spellings for the sound in question the one used in the dictionary for the word offered by the computer. This second ambiguity is treated first by going through all the vowels of American English and later, in a second sub-program through all the consonants. We shall now proceed with the triple components above for each of the signs. The order is that of the original Fidel which of course is arbitrary but has proved its adequacy over a quarter of a century. VOWELS 1

Vowel a as in at.

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Writing English A Study Of Spelling

sentence with the four signs for that sound LAUGHING PAT ATE MERINGUES UNDER HER PLAID spellings in one column A, AI, AU, I Test sentence HER L-ST L--GHTER SHOOK HER PL--T OR PIGTAIL 2 Vowel u as in up. sentence with six signs for that sound WHAT! DOES HER YOUNG SON UP HIS OWN BLOOD PRESSURE? HE DOES. spellings in one column, U, O, A, OU, OO, OE Test sentence IN THE FL--D A T--GH TR-CK W-S -NDER A T-N OF R-BBLE 3 Vowel i as in it sentences with twenty signs for that sound

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Writing English A Study Of Spelling

BUSY WOMEN FORFEITED THE CHAMOIS SHOES. MONEYMEN BUILD CERTAIN CARRIAGES IN THE VILLAGE ON MONDAYS AND SIEVES FOR GUINEA PIGS ON TUESDAYS. CHASSIS HAVE BEEN EXHIBITED. THE CAESARIAN CUT TOUCHED THE FOREHEAD. spellings in two columns 1

I, O, A, U, E, IA, IE, EA, HI, IS:

2 Y, EY, AY, UI, EE, AI, EI, AE, HEA, OIS Test sentences A CARR--GE FOR MARR--GES US-S A HEAVCHASS--. THE EX--B-TION ON SATURD-- MADE CHAM--D-SIRABLE FOR W-M-N’S SHOES. B-S- MON-MEN FORF--T CERT--N RIGHTS. A G--N--AND MORE FOR A V-S-T TO THE V-LL-GE. MARKS ON FOR---DS DON’T COME FROM C--SARIANS. I’VE B--N THERE. 4 Vowel e as in pet. 12


Writing English A Study Of Spelling

sentence with ten signs for that sound I SAID: HE SAYS HE CAN BURY AESTHETICALLY ANY DEAD HEIFER OR FRIENDLY PET SUCH AS A LEOPARD. spellings in one column : E, EA, A, U, AI, AY, IE, EO, EI, AE Test sentences I R--D WHAT HE HAD S--D AT THE B-RIAL OF HIS FR--ND. L--PARDS CAN BE P-TS, HE S--S. -NY P--DAGOGIST KNOWS WHAT A H--FER IS. 5 Vowel o as in on. sentence with six signs for this sound JOHN HAD NO KNOWLEDGE THAT HONEST TOM SWAPPED BUREAUCRACY spellings in one column O, A, HO, OH, OW. EAU Test sentence

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Writing English A Study Of Spelling

--NESTLY,NO ONE HAD KN--LEDGE THAT BUR---CRACIES SW-MPED G-VERNMENTS, SAID J--N TH-MAS. 6 Vowel e as in the, (also called the schwa) sentence with twenty-four signs for this sound A FAMOUS DOCTOR THOROUGHLY QUESTIONED THE VEHEMENT FOREIGN SOLDIERS’ CAPTAIN. ON SATURDAY, RIGHTEOUS BUREAUCRATS SAID HALLELUJAH IN A RESTAURANT WHERE SPECIAL CUPBOARDS HOLD MARTYRED OCEAN TORTOISES AND PIGEONS ON NASTURTIUMS, OF WHICH ONE IS POSSIBLY CONSCIOUS spellings in two columns A, U, I, IU, IOU, IA, IE, AU, EA, AH, HE: E O, OU, OI, OA, EO. AI, EI, IU, EAU, OUGH, Y Test sentence? TH- DOCT-R EXAMINED THE -NCONSC---S SOLD--R THOR-------LY. A SPEC--L MART-R. FOR TH- PAG--NT TH- REST--R-NT SERVED

14


Writing English A Study Of Spelling

PIG--NS, NASTURT--M SALAD AND TORT--SE SOUP. RIGHT---S BUR---CRATS HAVE NUMER-S QUEST--NS. WAS IT POSS-BLE TH- YE--MNT CAPT--N WAS A FOR--GN-R? HALLELUJ--. 7 Vowel u as in fur sentence with seven signs for that sound THE COURTEOUS GIRL RECEIVED A FUR, PEARLS AND SOME MYRRH FOR HER WORK. spellings in the column : U, E, O, I, EA, OU, Y. Test sentences IN THE W-RLD THERE ALWAYS W-RE G-RLS WHO LIKED P--RLS AND FURS. NOT ALL HAD C--RAGE. SOME HAD M-RRH AND P-RRED. 8 Vowel o as in off. sentence with twelve signs for that sound HE THOUGHT HIS DAUGHTER SAW HIM, AND IN AWE EXHORTED HER TO BE GONE. PAUL, EXHAUSTED, NEAR THE DOOR, GRINNED BROADLY AND COUGHED ALL WAS WELL NOW.

 

15


Writing English A Study Of Spelling

spellings in two columns : O, A, AU, AW, AWE, OUGH, OA, AUGH. OO, OU, HAU, HO Test sentences D---TER, -FF YOU GO. THE L-- IS BR--D BUT EX--RTS: NO EX---STS. ALL P--L FOUND UNDER THE FL--R MADE HIM C--GH IN ---.HE BR-------T IT UP. 9 Vowel a as in arm sentence with five signs for that sound FAR IN THE BAZAAR THE SERGEANT SAID: AH! AND HAD A HEART-ATTACK. spellings in one column : A. EA, AH, AA, E. Test sentences SWEET H--RT GET INTO THE C-R AND GO TO THE BAZ--R WHERE YOU MET THE S-RGEANT. SHE SAID --! 10

Vowel o as in do

16


Writing English A Study Of Spelling

sentence with twelve signs for that sound TWO LIEUTENANT-GROUPS WITH PNEUMATIC HAMMERS WILL TRULY DO IT BY TUESDAY. I TOO WILL GO THROUGH THIS IN MY NEW SUIT AND SHOES. spellings in two columns: O, OO, EW, UI, U, OE, UE EU, OUGH. WO, IEU Test sentences IS IT TR--THAT HE’LL SAY AD--- ON THE N--S? THE TR--PES,T-- WILL GO THR-------EATING FR--T. T-- R-LES D- TELL THAT THOSE WITHOUT SH--S HAVE PN--MONIA. 11

Vowel e as in he sentence with twelve signs for that sound AT SEA, KEY PEOPLE, UNDER THE AEGIS OF A FIELD MARSHAL CONCEIVED OF AMOEBAS AS DEBRIS, BUT WE SEE ONLY SKIS ON THE QUAY

17


Writing English A Study Of Spelling

spellings in two columns: E, EE, EA, Y, IE, EI, I, EO, EY, AY, OE, AE, IS Test sentences P--PLE WHO L--D IN A F--LD ARE CALLED K-- P--PLE BUT QU--S ARE WHERE MACH-NES ARE LEFT BEFORE THEY ARE REC--VED ON BOARD SHIPS. THR-- SUBP--NAS WERE ABOUT THE DEBR-- HE LEFT BEHIND. 12

Vowel a as in mare Sentence with nine signs for that sound NEW YORK MAYORS CARE FOR THE AIR OF THE CITY. THEY TEAR DOWN AERIALS THERE BUT THEIR PRAYERS PRAY FOR THE HEIR. Spellings in one column A, AI, EA, E EI, HEI, AE, AYE, AYO Test sentences TH--R --RESS T--RS HER H--R. TH-RE WERE PR---RS SAID FOR THE DEAD M---R. CABLE 18


Writing English A Study Of Spelling

MADE --RIALS UNNECESS-RY. M-RES ARE FEMALE HORSES. 13

Vowel u as in put sentence with four signs for that sound WHO WOULD LOOK AT THAT WOMAN PUT THERE? spellings OO, OU, U, O Test sentence HE T--K WHAT ANY W-MAN W--LD P-T TO HIM.

14

diphthong eu as in europe sentence with three signs for that sounds EUROPE IS A CURE IN YOUR CASE spellings in one column U, YOU, EU

19


Writing English A Study Of Spelling

Test sentence ---R P-REST THOUGHTS ARE --ROPEAN. 15

Vowel o as in or Sentence with nine signs for that sound TOWARDS THE END OF THE WAR FOUR EXTRAORDINARY DINOSAUR FORMS WERE FOUND UNDER THE BOARDS OF THE FLOOR. HE EXHORTED THEM TO TRY FOR MORE spellings O, A, AU, OA, OO, OU, AO, HO, OWA Test sentences BEF-RE THE GREAT W-R DINOS--RS WERE EXTR--RDINARY NIMALS. F--R DECADES LATER THEY ARE ON THE D--RS OF EVERY NURSERY AND ON THE WALLS OF B--RDROOMS

16

diphthong vowel i as in mine sentences with eleven signs for that sound AT THE HEIGHT OF THE DEBATE I SAID AYE. MY EYE COULD NOT SEE BEYOND THE AISLE.

20


Writing English A Study Of Spelling

WILD RYE LIES LOW ON THE ISLAND. EINSTEIN SAYS VENUS IS HIGH IN THE SKY. spellings in two columns I i Y IE, YE, IGH, EYE, EIGH, IS, AIS, AYE Test sentences --- MEANS YES. ---LE IS DIFFERENT FROM-LE, AND ---FROM-. HE L--D ABOUT THE H----T OF THE W-LD R-- WHICH WAS NOT SO H---. THE SK- IS DARK. 17

diphthong vowel a as in date Sentence with thirteen signs for that sound FOR EIGHT STRAIGHT DAYS THE MALL WAS LATE. THE ISRAELI BALLET WAS GREAT AS GAUGED BY WHAT THEY WROTE ABOUT IT. HIS FIANCEE HAS A SUEDE COAT WITH BLUE VEINS ON IT. Spellings In two columns A, AI AY, EY, EI EIGH: 21


Writing English A Study Of Spelling

EA, AIGH, AU, AE, ET, E, EE Test sentences THE D-TE TO P-- FOR THE-------T SU-DE SHOES WAS TOD--. SO HE P--D STR-------T AW- AND FELT GR--T, FOR HE COULD G--GE THAT HESE BALL-- SHOES WOULD PLEASE HIS FIANC--. THE V--NS ON THE NECK OF THE ISR--LI AGENT GREW THICKER. 18

Diphthong vowel o as in go Sentences with fourteen signs for that sound OH! JOAN OWES A BROOCH TO THE YEOMAN ON THE PLATEAU. THOUGH SHE GOES TO THE MAUVE DEPOT TO SEW BONES ON THE LOW SOULS. Spellings in two columns O, OE, OW, OWE, OA, OU, OUGH; EAU, AU, EW, OH. EO, OT OO Test sentences

22


Writing English A Study Of Spelling

S--L FOOD ---S MUCH TO TRADITION. TH------IT G--S WITHOUT SAYING S--ING MACHINES ARE IN EVERY H-ME. L--NS AT L-- RATES ARE RARE ON THE PLAT---. Y--MEN DON’T GET THEM OUTSIDE THEIR DEP--. WHEN J--N GOT HER BR--CH SHE SAID --I M--VE IS A COLOR. 19

diphthong vowel u as in union Sentences with twelve signs for that sound ADIEU YOU BEAUTY. THEY EXHUMED A FEW FEUDAL QUEUES NOW IN PUBLIC VIEW NEAR THE YEW BUT NOT FOR USE BY EWES OF DIFFERENT HUES. Spellings in two columns U, YOU, EW, IEW, EAU, UE: IEU, EWE, YEW, HU, EU, EUE Test sentences F--QU- --S WERE THAT LONG. IN FULL V--- THE H--S WERE B---TIFUL. AS --- -SED THE ---S TO EX--ME SOME F--DAL REMAINS, SHE SAID AD---TO THE ---.

20

Diphthong vowel ou as in out 23


Writing English A Study Of Spelling

Sentence with four signs for that sound OUR HOUSE SOW STAYED AN HOUR ON THE BOUGH Spellings in one column OU, HOU, OW, OUGH Test sentence H-- NICE AT THIS ---R --T THERE HOLDING THE B-------. 21

Diphthong vowel oi as in oil Sentence

OIL ALL AROUND THE BUOY.

Spellings

OI, OY

Test sentence THE B-- FELT THE M--STURE 22 Diphthong vowel oi as in memoirs Sentence

MEMOIRS ON THE RESERVOIR

Spelling

OI

Test sentence THE RESERV--R IS EMPTY 23

Diphthong o as in one 24


Writing English A Study Of Spelling

Sentence

ONCE UPON A TIME

Spelling

O

Test

AT -NCE, -NE ON -NE

Clearly the last two do not present the challenge of spelling. They have been included only to account for the 23 vowels (and diphthong vowels) of American English. They can be taken out without any harm to the effectiveness of the program. The Second Ambiguity - Consonants 1 Consonant p as in pit Sentence with five signs for that sound PETER THE SHEPHERD SUBPOENA IN HIS PIPE

POPPED

HIS

Spellings in one column P, PP, PE, PH, BP Test sentences THE-U--ETEER’S -O- SMOKES A SHE--ERD’S-I -. NO ONE EVER SU--OENED HIM. 2 Consonant t as in to

25


Writing English A Study Of Spelling

Sentences with thirteen sings for that sound AS HE FINISHED HIS CIOARETTE TOM PLACED THE BUTT ON THE PLATE. HE GOT A RECEIPT, WHEN HE PAID HIS DEBT. THE PHTHISIC YACHTSMAN WAS INDICTED FOR RUNNING AGROUND ON THE THAMES. HE WON’T IN THE FUTURE. Spellings in two columns T TT, TE, ED, D, TTE, PT BT, CT, CHT, TH, PHTH, T Test sentences NO DOU-- HE STOPP---------OMAS ON RECEI-OF THE NEWS OF THE INDI--MENT. I- WAS LA-- THE YA--- HAD LEF-. I LIKE- BE--ER THAN THA-----------ISIC FELLOW WHO WON-DO. 3 Consonant s as in is Sentences with eleven signs for that sound SUSAN POSSESSES A HOSE. SHE SEIZED IT FROM PAM’S HANDS WITH ZEAL. ANXIETY 26


Writing English A Study Of Spelling

MADE HER DIZZY AND GAVE HER A BOUT OF ASTHMA. CLOTHES ARE HER BUSINESS. Spellings in two columns S, SS, SE, S, Z, ZZ: ZE, X, SI, THES, STH Test sentences IN HER AN-IETY SHE SAID “IT’S NONE OF YOUR BU--NESS. PAM-- DI--Y, SHE HA- A---MA AND FEEL- PO--ESSED. THE SI-- OF HER CLO------ I- MEDIUM. RO-- I- AT THE -OO. 4 Consonant s as in sit Sentences with fifteen signs for that sound WE LISTENED AS PAM PROMISED ON THE SWORD THAT SHE WILL PASS US PAT’S PSALM BOOK ONCE WE ACQUIESCE. SCIENCE IS FULL OF CONCEPTS. LIKE ISTHMUS AND SCHISM. THE WALTZ IS FULL OF FINESSES. Spellings in two columns S, SS, SE, ‘S, C, CE, SC, ST, SW; 27


Writing English A Study Of Spelling

PS, SSE, SCE, SCH, STH, Z Test sentences HE FA--ENED THE --ORD TO THE -IDE OF THE HOR-- -IN---------IENTI-T- TO-- COINS TO DEIDE WHAT TO DO, THEY ALSO DAN-- THE WALT- WITH FINE---. --YCHOLOGY PROMI--S TO GENERATE ---ISMS AMONG THOSE WHO ACQUIE--- AND THOSE WHO OPPOSE. -UEZ IS THE NAME OF EGYPT--I---MU-. 5 Consonant s as in vision Sentences with four signs for that sound THE VISION OF A TREASURE IN THE GARAGE LED HIM TO AN EQUATION IN COLORS, WHOSE MEASURE WAS THE BLUE AZURE. Spellings in one column S, Z, GE, T Test sentences A-URE IS BLUE, MEA-URE FOR MEA-URE , IS ALMOST AN EQUA-ION. BURY YOUR TREAURES IN YOUR GARA--. 28


Writing English A Study Of Spelling

51 Diphthong consonant ‘s as in Jones’s one sign for a double sound. examples James’s. Thomas’s, Judas’s 6 Consonant m as in me Sentences with eight signs for that sound I’M MY MOMMY’S LAMB. DIAPHRAGMS GIVE AIR FOR SINGING HYMNS. BEFORE WE GIVE ALMS JUST THE SAME. Spellings in one column M, MM, ME, MB, LM, GM, MM, M Test sentences LA--S ARE TA--. SO A- I. PHLE-- FRO------Y THROAT WENT INTO –Y TU--Y. LISTENING TO HY--S 61 Diphthong consonant m as in prism Examples: SCHISM, COMMUNISM, CATHOLICISM 7 Consonant n as in not

29


Writing English A Study Of Spelling

Sentences with thirteen signs for that sound LINCOLN WAS AN EXTRAORDINARY GRANDFATHER. ON WEDNESDAY HE SIGNED WITH A PNEUMATIC IRON THAT HE KNEW THE FUNNY MNEMONIC OF FINE CHAMPAGNE Spellings in two columns N, NN, NE, KN, GN, PN, MN ONE IN, ON, DNE, ND, LN Test sentences --EUMONIA WAS --OWN AS DEADLY. -OW O-CA- GET IT A-D -OT DIE. LINCO-- SI --ED THE PEACE TREATY O- A WE---SDAY. CHAMPA--WAS DRUNK -EAR THE IR-- GRA--FATHER’S CLOCK. WHAT AN EXTRAORD--ARY --EMO-IC. 71 Diphthong consonant n as in it isn’t. Example: DOESN’T 8 Consonant f as in for Sentences with eight signs for that sound

30


Writing English A Study Of Spelling

SAPPHIRES CAN BE DIFFERENT ONE FROM ANOTHER. ELEPHANTS LOOK ALIKE EVEN IF ONE IS HALF THE SIZE OF THE OTHER. A GOOD LIFE IS NOT OFTEN OFFERED TO US. WE MUST GIVE IT TO OURSELVES OR LIVE A ROUGH LIFE, Spellings in one column F, FF, FE, PH, LF, FT, FFE, PPH Test sentences O--EN WE SPEND HA-- OF OUR LI-- TRYING TO BE DI---RENT. IF WE COULD BE O--ERED ELE--ANTS OR SA---IRES WOULD WE TAKE THEM OR WOULD WE LAU--? 9 Consonant v as in vein sentence with six signs for that sound CALVES ARE OF VALUE TO STEPHEN FOR THEY HAVE NOT WHAT I’VE SAID Spellings in one column V, F VE, LVE, PH, ‘VE

31


Writing English A Study Of Spelling

Test sentences MY CA---S HURT AFTER I HA-- A CRAMP. I --SPOKEN O- HER TO STE--EN BUT IN -AIN. 10

Consonant d as in dad Sentences with eight signs for that sound INSTEAD OF “I WOULD”, WE WRITE “I’D”. WE UTTER THE WORDS “WATER” AND “BUTTER” AS IF IN THEM T WAS A D. HE RUBBED DADDY’S SHOULDER BLADE Spellings in one column D, DD, DE, ED, LD, D, T, TT Test sentences I PULL-------A- OUT OF THE WA-ER, COU-- HE HAVE -ROWN--? I BE --ER THINK OF IT. I-- FA- AWAY IF I FELL IN A MU--Y WELL.

11

Consonant th as in that Sentences with two signs for that sound

32


Writing English A Study Of Spelling

THEY BATHED IN THE RIVER Spellings TH, THE Test sentence SHOULD I BA--- IN --IS LAKE? 12

Consonant th as in thin Sentences with five signs for that sound PHTHALEIN DISSOLVES IN ABSINTHE. SOUTHAMPTON IS WORTH ONE EIGHTH OF BOSTON Spellings TH, THE, H, T, PHTH Test sentences IN A BA-- NOR-- OF SOU-HAMPTON, I BOUGHT ONE EIGHT- OF ABSIN---, THOUGH THERE ALSO WAS-------ALEIN.

13

Consonant y as in yes Sentence with four spellings YES, DON’T SAY HALLELUJAH IN A VACUUM , SAY IT WITH THE MILLIONS.

33


Writing English A Study Of Spelling

Spellings Y, I, J, U. Test sentence A BILL-ON -ENS ARE NEEDED TO COVER FAIL-RES IN SAN JOSE. 14

Consonant l as in ill Sentence with five spellings for that sound HE’LL LET THE POLE BY THE GAZELLE TELL HIM THE HOUR. Spellings L , LL, LE, LLE, ‘LL Test sentence MICHE--- FE-T A CHI--. SHE--- HIDE IN A HO--.

15

Diphthong consonant l as in wild. sentence with three spellings I’LL FILE IT IN THE FIELD Spellings L, LE, ‘LL Test sentences

34


Writing English A Study Of Spelling

A Wl-D Ml-- RACE, NOT FOR ME. I-----TELL HIM I’D RATHER WALK. 16

Consonant w as in wet Sentence with four spellings WHENEVER WE USE CHOIR LANGUAGE WE ARE ALL RIGHT Spellings W, WH, U, O Test sentence --AT DO -OMEN DO IN THIS CH-IR S-ITE?

161 Diphthong consonant wh as in where in some dialects (Boston, New Zealand) Examples WHY? WHEN? WHICH? 17

Consonant k as in kit Sentences with fifteen signs for that sound DOES ONE SWEETEN CHOCOLATE WITH SACCHARINE ? OR DRESS CHORUS GIRLS IN KHAKI? I LIKE TREKKING THE QUAY WITH

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Writing English A Study Of Spelling

MY CLIQUE. LACQUER GIVES ME HEAD ACHES. AS I WALK ON OCCASION BY THE ROCKS. Spellings in two columns K, KK, KE, CK, C, CC, CH, LK, QU, QUE, CHE, CQU, CCH, CO, KH Test sentences TA-- TO MI--AEL ABOUT BA---US. HE’S PART OF THE --OIR AND ON O--ASION LA--S WHAT IT TA--S TO BUY A --A-I -OAT FOR THE BOO-EEPER. I A--- WHEN I SEE SWISS CHO--LATE PLA---S. A-RATE OF LA---ER IS ON THE --AY. 18

Consonant r as in rat Sentences with twelve signs for that sound COLONEL AND KERNEL SOUND THE SAME. SO DO RIGHT, WRIGHT AND WRITE. RHYTHM DOES NOT RHYME WITH TIME, BUT CORPS DOES WITH MORE. CATARRH CAN BE HORRIBLE. THE CORPSMAN MORTGAGED THIS HOUSE WE’RE FINDING SO BIZARRE.

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Writing English A Study Of Spelling

Spellings in two columns R, RR, RE, WR, RH, RPS; RP, RT, RBE, RRH, LO, RE Test sentences TOBY--IGHT IS MY CO--NEL. HE HAD TO MO-GAGE HIS HOUSE. IN OUR A-MY CO--- HE’S STAFF OFFICE-, A BIZA-----BUT NOT TE--IBLE SITUATION. BEING CO--SMEN WE--- MO-SUSCEPTIBLE THAN OTHE-S TO CATA--- ING FROM THE --ODODEND-ONS. 181 Diphthong consonant r as in iron Sentence YOU’RE FIRED IRONSIDE Spellings: R, RE RE Test sentence MY TI--D FRIEND SAYS: YOU--- AS STRONG AS l-ON 19

Consonant b as in but

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Writing English A Study Of Spelling

Sentences with five signs for that sound I BUY RASPBERRIES BUT GET ROBBED IN THE TUBE. Spellings B, BB, BE, BU, PB Test sentence -O--Y IS A --YER OF RAS--ERRIES FOR THE CU- CORPORATION 20

Consonant h as in his Sentences with three signs for that sound WHO IS JOSE? HIS SON? Spellings H, WH, J Test sentence -OW IS -UANA --OM WE NEED?

21

Consonant g as in go Sentence with six signs for that sound THE BLACKGUARD GHOST GAGGED THE ROGUE GUARD

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Writing English A Study Of Spelling

Spellings G, GG, GU, GH, GUE, CKGU Test sentences THE MU--ER -OT CAUGHT OFF --ARD. A BLA------ARD IS NOT A --OST OF A BLACK --ARD. 22

Consonant sh as in ship Sentences with nine signs for that sound THE NATIONAL PENSION SCHEME SHOULD ISSUE CHECKS. SPECIAL MACHINES PRINT THEM. PEOPLE ARE CONSCIOUS THAT CACHED SCHISTS DON’T EXIST. Spellings SH, CH, T, S, SS, C, SCH, SC, CHE Test sentences SPE-IAL EDUCA-ION IS -URELY NEEDED IN RU--IA AS MUCH AS MI--IGAN. --E HAS A CA--OF COINS AND CA-- HIDDEN BY A PILE OF --IST.

23

Consonant ch as in chin Sentences with five signs for that sound

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Writing English A Study Of Spelling

SHE HAD AN ADVENTURE IN CHINA, SHE FOUND A NICHE THERE FOR HERSELF. MATCH THIS SOUND ON YOUR CELLO. Spellings CH, TCH, T, C, CHE Test sentences YUL-URES CA--- CARRION IN AFRICA AND --INA, EVEN IN NI-----S SMALLER THAN -ELLO CASES. 24

Consonant n as in ink Sentence with four signs for that sound SHAKING HIS HANDKERCHIEF WITH TONGUE IN CHEEK, HE LEFT’ANCHORAGE. Spellings NG, N, NGUE, ND Test sentence IN MY NATIVE TO-------SO--S ABOUT HA-KERCHIEFS ARE SI-GLED OUT.

25

Consonant j as in jack Sentences with eight signs for that sound

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Writing English A Study Of Spelling

IT TAKES COURAGE TO DO ALL THAT JIM DOES IN THE GYM. SOLDIERS DON’T LIKE TO BE JUDGED NOR TO HEAR THE EXAGGERATED ADJECTIVES OF JUDGING PEOPLE Spellings J, G, D, DGE, GE, GG, DG, DJ Test sentences --OR--’S -U--MENT ABOUT SOL-IERS DOES NOT BOTHER THEM. THEY -U--- HIS WORDS ONLY AS A--ECTIVES SAID OUT OF PREUDICE. 26

Diphthong consonant qu as in quick Sentence with two signs for one sound QUICKLY THE ACQUIRED ONES SHOWED UP Spellings QU, CQU Test sentence HE ACQUIRED AN AQUARIUM FOR HIS FISH

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Writing English A Study Of Spelling

27

Diphthong consonants already seen in the FIRST AMBIGUITY program x as in next with four signs for that sound Sentence ANAXE WAS NEEDED TO EXCISE THE TAXI AFTER THE ACCIDENT. Spellings X, XE, CC, XC Test sentence RELA-! YOU DON’T NEED AN A-- TO GET E-ELLENT A-- ESS.

271

x as in exit

sentence SHE PASSED THE EXAM

272

x as in anxious

sentence HE IS OBNOXIOUS. MAKES HER AN-IOUS.

273

x as in luxury

sentence WHAT A LUXURY! THE SOFA IS LU-URIOUS.

test words

TA-I, -ENOPHOBIA, LU-URIOUS

HE

E-OTHERMIC,

28 sentence MISTER JONES’S PRISM ISN’T WHERE IT SHOULD BE.

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Writing English A Study Of Spelling

General Remarks 1 This courseware only aims at that preparation of writers which takes care of the ways they put down the words of English in conformity with the dictionary spellings. It does not claim to help people become better writers, although, if they are not preoccupied with the shape of words, their mind can be freed for other activities. 2 As we said earlier, we use the computer to force awareness and in this courseware, it will mean that students will not conceive of the alphabet as having anything to do with reading except to give one of the possible sounds for each of the 5 vowels in it. Although we proved here that English uses 23 vowels and not 5, there are only five vowel-shapes used in writing, to which the names consecrated in the alphabet can still apply when we refer to each “object� letter. But the users of this courseware will know better. For reading and for writing without spelling mistakes, a lot more needs to be known and made second nature. Hence besides the various awarenesses a certain amount of practice is required. We chose not to burden students by multiplying the examples thinking that teachers getting this courseware will want to decide such matters in their classrooms by themselves. 3 Because the background of the approach used in this courseware includes the thirty years of work since WORDS IN COLOR (the language arts scheme we published in 1961) was 43


Writing English A Study Of Spelling

created, it is to be expected that, when blending this program and the older one, both might benefit. How we see this, we leave for a later publication. 4 With these notes for teachers goes a card in color, we call it a Mini-Fidel, representing a miniature of the classroom model. The content of the columns in the segments of this courseware concerned with the second ambiguity can be found on that card, sometimes slightly altered. There is no loss for either program in these modifications. 5 The study of spelling found in Chapter 6 of the work : “The Common Sense of Teaching Reading and Writing�, would add a great deal to the benefits students will gain from this courseware. We recommend to our readers that they should look into that. Some of the games in that chapter may one day be given the form needed to be played on a micro. 6 Users of this courseware can send their comments, criticisms and excitements about our programs. We intend to make good any shortcomings found with the programs and to replace the old version by an improved one, free of charge.

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Writing English A Study Of Spelling

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Writing English - A Study of Spelling Program Guide