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Infused Reading English Notes For Teachers

Caleb Gattegno

Educational Solutions Worldwide Inc.


Programmed for the Apple II family of microcomputers by A.C. Gattegno and M.J. Hollyfield First American edition published in 1986. Reprinted in 2009. Copyright Š 1986-2009 Educational Solutions Worldwide Inc. Author: Caleb Gattegno All rights reserved ISBN 0-00000-000-0 Educational Solutions Worldwide Inc. 2nd Floor 99 University Place, New York, N.Y. 10003-4555 www.EducationalSolutions.com


Infused Reading English

For languages which have a small number of vowels (from 4 to 9) it is possible to obtain literacy through a program which forms one tier only and requires around one hour to be gone through. For other languages (English and French for example), the number of vowels requires that they be presented in successive subsets, which we labeled LEVELS, although they do not constitute a true hierarchy of learning, in view of the fact that LEVEL 1 ensures literacy and the next ones expand the mastery achieved to include all other vowels and diphthongs. Consonants do not present an equal challenge but also need more than one level because of their numbers for practice leading to mastery of reading. All three levels are treated exactly like the single level programs: First: one fundamental program called INFUSED READING (proper) (followed by a numeral 100 or 200 or 300) whose function is to ensure that if the students do what they are told to do, they cannot escape learning to read texts concerned with these sets of vowels. Second: a TEST (followed by the numerals 101, 201, 301) represents the TEXT just used, but this time as a sequence of the phrases in it which are offered at random, this test ensures that students do not only transfer what they memorized of Texts (100, 200, 300) but can recognize each separate string per se. This unfolding of the sequence is done at three speeds: slow, less slow, and fast. The latter corresponding to what good readers do. Third: another TEST (followed by the numerals 102, 202, 302) — also offered with these same three speeds — differs from Text 1 in that it does not serve to teach but to demonstrate that students can now take on a succession of strings (many new)

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Infused Reading English

which go to form a continuous text where sentences and paragraphs are the units. Of course, Tests 1 and 2 can be gone over more than once if required. Fourth: two texts, called FURTHER READING (followed by the numerals 101 and 102; 201 and 202: 301 and 302) are presented at one speed only and refer to many topics. In this way, they serve as tests for an expansion of reading as well as a transition to coping with any future text presented in the print form, in books or magazines. All these programs are presented in either UPPER CASE or in the usual UPPER and lower mixed case. We recommend that both be used. The choice is the student’s.

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Infused Reading English

LEVEL 1 INFUSED READING 100 PAT IS UP, SAM IS NOT. PAM IS TEN AND SITS ON A STUMP IN A TENT. MOM SENT TIM IN. AT THE STAND DAD AND TOM SIP PEPSI. I’M NOT TEN YET I AM AS FIT AS THAT MAN. PAM IS MOM’S ASSISTANT AND PAT IS DAD’S. STOP THAT TESS. TESS STOPPED IT. THE FAT MEN SNIFFED, PUFFED AND STAMPED ON IT. THE PUPPET IS NOT INDEPENDENT. SAM MUST SIT IT UP ON A MAT AND THEN ATTEMPT IT. THE MESS ON THE TENNIS MUD STOPPED THEM. YES, I DID SEND TIM UP THAT NUTTY PATH. THE SUN FANNED THE DUST THAT SAT ON US. The same text can be put on the screen in lower case with some capital letters in it. Users are only asked to touch the spacebar every time the cursor appears, flashing. Facing the screen, they engage in some very simple activities: 1 for a number of minutes (less than 20) they’ll be trying to produce the English sounds of seven vowels offered to them: a as in at, is the first; u as in up, the second; i as in it, the third; e as in pet, the fourth; o as in pot, the fifth; the schwa and the personal pronoun I The sound for i. appears under two forms: i and e, demanded by the words selected. The schwa too, appears under two forms, a and e.

 

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Infused Reading English

Someone utters the sound of the first vowel for the students: a, will appear on the screen as many times as is required by the text (100) which is scanned line by line from left to right and from top to bottom. Students make that sound as many times as the computer offers the vowel, in its location on the text. It must be agreed with the students that they make the sounds of the vowels as many times as they appear (until such time when they are sure that they mastered the relationship sign/sound). There is plenty of opportunity to reach mastery. 2 the vowels are introduced one at a time, but as soon as one has been gone through, it will be presented with the previous ones so as to distinguish the sounds to be triggered by the various signs. When all the seven vowels have been gone over properly, the work with the consonants starts, making syllables for each so that no consonant is requested to be sounded by itself. 3 when there are ambiguities, it is recommended that the person in charge draw attention to the location of the signs whose sounds must be altered. If that cannot be achieved easily by some students, it may not matter too much if some sounds are not the required ones, since vowels are not normally words and words of one’s language may easily trigger the proper sounds when they are met. But one could try to note the coordinates (line and position in line) of the ambiguous signs, to utter the right sounds. 4 when all the vowels have been displayed on the screen as one set (the one which corresponds to the choice for Level 1) they will remain at their

 

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Infused Reading English

place to the end of this program. Consonants* appear one by one to take their places in the text to form the syllables which can now be uttered by the students after one example has been given by the person monitoring the outcome. This allows students to make transfers from the given and to take responsibility for the utterances so that instead of memorizing the material, it is created on the spot by the students and, when acceptable, it indicates that active reading is taking place. This enhances the morale and guarantees that students think of reading as something they do rather than echoing what others say. Thus, students meet first, vowels, then syllables, then sets of contiguous syllables ending up being words containing one or several vowels, i.e. long words, all sayable by this process, then a few contiguous words form phrases. It is recommended that time be taken from the unfolding of the previous exercises and students be asked to utter those strings. Such an exercise, of course, contributes to the making of a fluent reader. The strings can join or merge to produce sentences and paragraphs. Since the melody, the stresses and the sounds are those the illiterates can produce orally, reading for meaning or comprehension follows. By breaking down the text above into all its phrases (here 41 of them) and commanding the computer to present randomly any sequence of them, we offer students the possibility of showing                                                          * The 11 consonants of Level 1 are p as in pat; t as in tot; s as in is; s as in us; m  as in mom; n as in not; f as in if; d as in dad; th as in the; th as in thin; y as in yes. 

 

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Infused Reading English

that phrases, of from one to four words, are recognized when they are isolated. At the lowest speed selected there is time for a beginner to let words structured in the exercises above trigger the oral equivalents. No two presentations of the contents by the computer will-be identical, hence the exercise is indeed a test of reading or of a transfer of what has been learned in one sequence to another one. Two increases of speed of display will shift the student’s mind from decoding to speeding up the transformations of visual groups of verbal strings into fluent reading, often with total comprehension. Students have alternative choices, either staying with Test 101 and improving fluency, as suggested above, or shifting to Test 102. The latter is done by pressing the spacebar and selecting in the MENU the next program. Reading can be done in one of the presentations Upper case or lower case or in one and then the other, to feed back to the students how much progress is done at each stage. TEST 101 The following represents one of the many permutations the computer can select out of the 41 phrases of the text above. PAT IS UP SAM IS NOT PAM IS TEN AND SITS ON A STUMP IN A TENT MOM SENT TIM IN AT THE STAND DAD AND TOM

 

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Infused Reading English

SIP PEPSI I’M NOT TEN YET I’M AS FIT AS THAT MAN PAM IS MOM’S ASSISTANT AND PAT IS DAD’S STOP THAT TESS TESS STOPPED IT THE FAT MAN SNIFFED PUFFED AND STAMPED ON IT THE PUPPET IS NOT INDEPENDENT SAM MUST SIT IT UP ON A MAT AND THEN ATTEMPT IT THE MESS ON THE TENNIS MUD STOPPED THEM YES I DID SEND TIM UP THAT NUTTY PATH THE SUN FANNED THE DUST THAT SAT

 

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Infused Reading English

ON US The treatment of TEST 102 differs from that of TEST 101 in that the phrases which appear one after the other go to form new sentences and sometimes paragraphs concerned with one idea expressed in writing. Perhaps a new experience in a number of cases. It is no longer a test of recognition. Instead it is a test of development of the ability to read to permit attack on a new text. At the lowest speed there is time for a beginner to decode each word in a string and to insert the melody belonging to that phrasing. At the fast speed the feedback is that we are in the presence of a reader. TEST 102 SPOT IS A PUP / IT SNIFFS AT MATS / AND SITS ON A PUMP. / AN ANT / IN SAM’S SON’S PANTS. / IT’S TEN PAST TEN. / DADDY’S FUNNY TUMMY. / MOM IS FED UP, / TOM IS NASTY. / TEN MEN MENDED / THE STIFF PUMP. / THIS IS A MUST. / THAT ENDS IT. / MATH IS FUN. / DAD’S DAD IS FIFTY. / MOM’S MOM / IS NOT FIFTY YET. / SUM IT UP, PAM. / TIM’S FIST / DID NOT FIT IN IT. / IF IT IS MUMPS / PAM MUST STAND IT. / I MISS DAD / AND MOM. / THAT MAN IS SAD. / SAM PASSED IT UP. / THUS, / THIS AND THAT / MESSED IT UP. /

 

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Infused Reading English

Reading strings of words or phrases, restores the quality of speech to one’s utterances rarely limited to what one says at this moment. What the two Further Reading texts do is to expand the net tested by TEST 102. The texts are more sophisticated than the previous one, even if they are not longer. They are presented at only one speed: that of good readers. Upper case and lower case are available for each. FURTHER READING 101 AS TESS / TESTS SAM / AND PAT / TESTS PAM, / TIM AND TOM / SPELL PUPPET. / A PUPPET / IS NOT A PUP, / AS A PANT / IS NOT AN ANT. / MOM TEMPTS DAD / AND DAD / ATTEMPTS THAT. / SAM / SUMS UP THE ASSETS / AND SIPS POP / AT THE STOPS. / IF I’M FAT / PAT IS THIN. / AS THIN AS TIM. / I ENDED THE MESS / AND MOM / MOPPED THE TENT. / A PIN/ IN THAT MAN’S / PANTS, / A PEN / IN THE MUD, / A FIFTH / ON THE STAND / IN THE SAND, / STAMPS / ON A MAP / ON A MAT. / AND THAT’S THAT. / FURTHER READING 102 FIFTY MEN / ON THE MASTS. / A THIN MIST / IS UP / AND STOPS / AT THE PUMP. / THE STEPS / IN THE SUN, / THE DUST / ON THE STEPS, / THE SPOTS / IN THE SAND / STAND PAST / THE SET. / PAM IS A PEST. / PETS AND

 

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Infused Reading English

PUPPIES / SPOT THEM / AND THEN STOP THEM. / IT’S MOM / THAT’S FED UP / NOT DAD. / IT SENDS SAND, / AND DUST / ON THE TENNIS STANDS. / I SIT UP / ON A STUMP / IN THE TENT / AS TEN MEN SIT / ON TEN PUMPS / IN THAT TENT. / AS I AM TEN AND TEN / AND TEN AND TEN AND TEN, / I AM FIFTY. / Further Reading 101 and 102 serve as a bridge to any text which only uses the 7 vowels and the 11 consonants of Infused Reading 100.

 

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Infused Reading English

LEVEL 2 is built on top of LEVEL 1. Infused Reading 200 starts with a new text and, after pressing the spacebar, the set of the 7 vowels already met are brought in, one by one in their place as if all that was done on 100 is telescoped to permit the extension corresponding to 9 new vowels. This part of the program is a repeat of what happened then. In the same format, and giving plenty of practice with those new vowels added to the previous 7, leaving only 4 or 5 for Level 3. Since in the test of Infused Reading 200 there are many vowels already mastered at the previous level, and since in this new test there are only a small number of occurrences of them, it is advisable: 1 to call Infused Reading 200 on the screen; 2 and let the students look at the words in it (which we did not allow for 100) and say as many of them as they can decode; 3 ask them to note the place of these words on the screen and to try to remember the location of their vowels, in terms of line and position on it; 4 if this work is well done and seems easy, it could be of help to point at the new vowels so as to alert them to the need for a different sound for them; 5 then it is possible to avoid going through the sheets which treat the vowels in 200 as they were treated in 100, and to request that this new program start with the consonants - made possible by a choice given on the screen. INFUSED READING 200 I SAT ON THE WET SAND AT SUNSET IN THE WIND AND THEN I WENT TO SWIM WITH DAD. I GOT ILL LAST TIME I USED THAT

 

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Infused Reading English

TRUCK. HER RED SILK DRESS WAS LOVELY BUT NOT ON ME. MY NECK IS TOO THICK. MOTHER TELLS ME DON’T ASK FOR THE IMPOSSIBLE. TRY ONE LESS. IN HIS HAT THERE’S A LITTLE HOLE. WE ARE FIVE BROTHERS AND THREE SISTERS. MY WORDS WERE FIRST OF FURS AND GIRLS. I TOOK SOME FOOD ON A TRACK AT THE ZOO. HERE AT HOME WE TOO GO TO WORK IN TWOS. HE CAME BACK TIRED AND WITH A BLACK EYE. The 12 new vowel sounds of this level for the 5 signs already met are: a as in are, a as in all; o as in word; e as in he; u as in put; a as in mare; o as in for; a as in late; o as in go; u as,in use; o as in one. The 8 new consonant sounds are: l as in ill; w as in wet; r as in red; k as in kit; h as in hot; g as in get; v as in have and l as in field. TEST 201 I SAT ON THE WET SAND AT SUNSET IN THE WIND AND THEN I WENT TO SWIM WITH DAD. I GOT ILL LAST TIME I USED THAT TRUCK

 

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Infused Reading English

HER RED SILK DRESS WAS LOVELY BUT NOT ON ME MY NECK IS TOO THICK MOTHER TELLS ME DON’T ASK FOR THE IMPOSSIBLE TRY ONE LESS IN HIS HAT THERE’S A LITTLE HOLE WE ARE FIVE BROTHERS AND THREE SISTERS MY WORDS WERE FIRST OF FURS AND GIRLS I TOOK SOME FOOD ON THE TRACK AT THE ZOO HERE AT HOME WE TOO GO TO WORK IN TWOS HE CAME BACK WITH A BLACK EYE TIRED TEST 202

  

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Infused Reading English

THE HORSES / GOT THERE / NECK AND NECK. / HE WANTS / TO PULL BACK, / BUT HIS SON / WANTS TO GO ON. / HE WILL PUT / ALL HE HAS / ON THAT ONE. / BUT HE WILL BE SORRY / IF HE LOSES. / THE BATH / WAS TOO HOT / FOR HIM. / HE PUT HIS FOOT / IN IT / AND PULLED IT OUT / AT ONCE. / FOR HER / IT WAS NOT / TOO HOT. / HE CAN NOT UNDERSTAND / WHY. / PAT / KISSED HER DOLL / AND GAVE HER MILK / WITH A SPOON. / PAT IS SEVEN / AND LIKES TO BE / MOTHER / TO HER DOLLS. / SOME TIMES / HER BROTHER COMES / AND WANTS TO BE FATHER. / HE IS FIVE. FURTHER READING 201 TELL THEM / TO LET THE ANIMAL / ALONE. / A GOOD HORSE / IS SOMETIMES / STUBBORN. / WE MUST UNDERSTAND / THAT HE TOO / HAS HIS WANTS. / A GOOD DOG / TOO. / HORSES / CAN RUN FASTER / THAN DOGS. / BUT DOGS BARK / AND MAKE HORSES / NERVOUS. / I WOKE UP/ I WAS LATE. / I HAD A DATE, / AND MISSED IT. / I WAS VERY SORRY. / SO, / I CALLED / TO TELL THEM /

 

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THAT. / NEXT TIME / I’LL SET / MY ALARM UP / AS I GO / TO BED. / I CANNOT GO HOME / AT NOON / TO HAVE MY LUNCH. / I LIVE TOO FAR. / IT TAKES FIFTY MINUTES / BY BUS. / LESS BY TAXI / BUT IT COSTS / MORE. / SO, / I GO / TO A FAST- FOOD STORE / AND GET A SANDWICH, / WITH SOME SODA, / SOME SALAD/ AND FRENCH FRIES. / SOMETIMES I BUY / AN ICE-CREAM CONE TOO / FOR DESSERT. / BUT NOT OFTEN. FURTHER READING 202 MY SISTER / AND I / RESTED FOR SOME TIME. / WE HAD BEEN RUNNING / BACK AND FORTH / FROM THE END / OF THE DECK / TO THE CABIN / TILL WE GOT TIRED. / BUT IT WAS FUN. / HER BROTHER IS LITTLE / BUT LIKES / TO LIFT BRICKS / PILED / ONE ON TOP OF THE OTHER. / FIVE AT A TIME. /THAT’S MORE / THAN I CAN DO. / HE GOES ON HORSEBACK / TO THE MARKET. / THERE / HE SEES / LOTS OF THINGS / HE’D LIKE TO BUY / FOR HIS CUTE LITTLE GIRL. / HE HATES TO FIND / THAT MOST / ARE TOO EXPENSIVE. / I LOVE WORDS. / I CAN DO SO


Infused Reading English

MUCH / WITH THEM. / I CAN TAKE A BOOK / AND SEE WORLDS / OPEN UP / TO ME. / SOME OF THESE WORLDS / ARE WORDS. / LIKE STRIP. / IN IT / THERE IS TRIP / AND RIP. / I LIKE / TO DO THAT / ALL THE TIME. / GAMES / LIKE THESE / BECOME MY GAMES. /

 

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Infused Reading English

LEVEL 3 IS BUILT ON TOP OF LEVEL 2. INFUSED READING 300 AS THE HORSE CAME QUICKLY TO THE OPEN DOOR HE REFUSED TO GET IN. WASN’T HE THIRSTY? WASN’T HE HUNGRY? NO ONE COULD SAY. SHE LEFT HIM THERE, IN THE COLD, TILL THE NEXT MORNING. BY THEN HE DRANK THE WATER AND NOW SEEMED CURED. SOON HE ATE THE MEASURE OF GRAIN HE WAS GIVEN AND STARTED TO GO. YOUNG

CHILDREN

FIND

DIFFICULT

TO

SHARE WITH OTHER CHILDREN WHAT THEY LIKE. BUT AT SCHOOL THEY WILLINGLY SHARE THEIR JOB. A JUDGE TOLD A JURY: IF THIS PERSON IS A CRIMINAL HE MUST PAY AND GO TO JAIL. TEST 301 AS THE HORSE CAME QUICKLY TO THE OPEN DOOR HE REFUSED TO GET IN WASN’T HE THIRSTY HUNGRY NO ONE

 

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Infused Reading English

COULD SAY SHE WAS LEFT THERE IN THE COLD TILL THE NEXT MORNING BY THEN HE DRANK THE WATER AND NOW SEEMED CURED SOON HE ATE THE MEASURE OF GRAIN HE WAS GIVEN AND STARTED TO GO YOUNG CHILDREN FIND DIFFICULT TO SHARE WHAT THEY LIKE WITH OTHER CHILDREN BUT AT SCHOOL THEY WILLINGLY SHARE THEIR JOBS A JUDGE TOLD A JURY IF THIS PERSON IS A CRIMINAL HE MUST PAY AND GO TO JAIL. TEST 302

 

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Infused Reading English

IN THE CRASH / HIS LEFT LEG / WAS BROKEN. / HE WAS TAKEN / TO THE CLINIC / ON STRETCHERS. / THERE / HE WAS GIVEN CRUTCHES / SO THAT / AT HOME / HE CAN MOVE / BY HIMSELF. / QUIETLY / BUT QUICKLY / SHE RESPONDED. / SO LONG / AS THEY LIVE / IN THIS HOUSE / THEY MUST DO THEIR SHARE / AND ASK NO QUESTIONS. / BOTH / HAVE EQUAL RESPONSIBILITIES. / THAT’S

WHAT

TOGETHER.

IT

/

MEANS THANKS

/

TO

TO

LIVE THEIR

GENTLENESS / EVERYBODY IN THE VILLAGE / SPOKE WELL / OF THEM. / THEY WERE SIMPLE

PEOPLE

TRUSTWORTHY.

/ /

BUT

HONEST

THEY

KEPT

AND THEIR

PROMISES. / THEY PAID THEIR BILLS. / THEY MINDED THEIR BUSINESS. / SO, ALL WAS WELL / FOR THEM. / FURTHER READING 301 MICHIGAN / IS ONE / OF THE MIDWESTERN STATES.

/

THE

AUTO

INDUSTRY

/

IS

CONCENTRATED THERE. / MUCH OF THE ECONOMY / OF THAT STATE / IS BEING REPLACED

 

NOW

/

BY

20 19

MORE

MODERN


Infused Reading English

BUSINESSES. / HIGHER EDUCATION THERE / IS

SECOND

TO

NONE.

/

THE

YOUNG

GENERATION / WANTS IT THAT WAY. / THEY ASK FOR CONCERTS, / FOR PLAYS, / FOR RECREATION

/

AND

OTHER

CULTURAL

ADVANTAGES. / THE GOVERNMENT / IS READY TO GIVE / WHAT THE PEOPLE DEMAND / PROVIDED / ALL CAN BE PAID FOR / LOCALLY. / TODAY / EVERY SERVICE / IS EXPENSIVE. / THE PUBLIC FORGETS / THAT STATES / ARE NOT BUSINESSES / AND CANNOT MAKE / PROFITS. / THEY MUST RAISE / THE MONEY / BY TAXING / THE PEOPLE. FURTHER READING 302 HE TEACHES CHINESE / AT A PUBLIC SCHOOL. / TO READ THAT LANGUAGE / ONE MUST REMEMBER/ WHICH CHARACTER / REPRESENTS WHICH MEANING / AND HOW TO SOUND IT. / BESIDES SOUNDS / THERE ARE TONES TOO / AND THESE HAVE / TO BE PRODUCED / AT THE SAME TIME. / JUDGING THAT SOLDIER / AS A CRIMINAL / WAS PAINFUL. / BUT HE HAD COMMITTED A

 

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Infused Reading English

CRIME. / HE HAD STOLEN / THE FARMER’S CHICKEN, / HAD TAKEN / HUNDREDS OF EGGS / AND SOLD THEM / AT THE MARKET / AS IF THEY WERE HIS. / HE SHOCKED THE MEN, / THE WOMEN / AND THE CHILDREN, / WHO DID NOT THINK HIM / CAPABLE OF THAT. / YOUNG PEOPLE / ARE ACTIVE. / THEY HAVE / LOTS OF ENERGY / THEY NEED / TO SPEND IT. / SO, / THEY RUN, / JUMP, / DANCE, / MOVE ALL THE TIME / AND THINK NOTHING / OF NOT RESTING / FOR HOURS. /

 

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Infused Reading English

REMARKS 1 These programs are concerned with reading. The writing project forms a separate courseware. Still much of what was covered under the heading of reading can serve the students in their progress in writing. We leave to users the testing of this aspect of the language arts offered here. 2 Although this is a literacy courseware it has applications in the field of English-as-a-second or as-a-foreign language. In particular, it forces newcomers to English to acquire a pronunciation resembling a standard American one, impossible to reach in the few hours spent on these programs. And this is done without hearing natives say any words. 3 From our experience with similar coursewares for seven languages we can estimate that the time needed to become a fluent reader in English can be counted in hours. Some students would be able to do the work in as little as three hours (not necessarily continuous), others in more than that but not much more, perhaps in less than six hours. 4 Our success in these respects comes from the fact that we use the computer to force awareness and to give enough practice so that no one feels pushed. To avoid boredom the activities are varied and their timing controlled by the students, who can move on if they are doing well, or stay as long as they need to on a point challenging them. 5 As far as was possible these programs have been automated so that users have very little to do to make them work and progress. Essentially touching the spacebar. In some cases, touching the RETURN or ESC keys. 6 Because there is not, as yet, a voice system that can be integrated in these programs, we have recourse to an Englishspeaking person to insert vocal inputs in the proper places, i.e.

 

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Infused Reading English

in the case of vowels by making the corresponding sounds as the respective vowels appear for the first time and in the case of consonants, making the sounds for the first syllable in which each consonant appears for the first time. Students utter the other syllables by making the proper transformations or substitutions of vowels keeping the same consonant. 7 The problem of dialects does not affect these programs to any extent which would have make them useless in various parts of the United States or even the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. In fact, a very small adjustment is needed which each user will find easy and immediate.

 

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Infused Reading - English