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ESWET Activity Report 2012

Waste-to-Energy in Brief Waste-to-Energy… • is an essential part of a sustainable waste management strategy • is complementary to recycling • is a “recovery” operation when outperforming an efficiency criteria •h  as a low carbon footprint by: - avoiding Methane emissions from landfill - recovering the energy content of the carbon-neutral biomass - offsetting the use of fossil fuels for energy generation • isolates harmful substances contained in waste, ensuring their removal from the eco-cycle as well as their safe disposal •p  erforms “urban mining” by recovering the energy and materials contained in residual waste; an indigenous source of energy and resources for Europe • is a reliable and proven technology, developed in Europe and exported worldwide •m  eets the European legislation aiming at removing pollutants emissions; these environmental standards are the strictest of all industries •h  as developed methods to recover 90% of the energy contained in residual waste •c  an make this energy available for external use at high efficiency (e.g. district heating and cooling, process steam and electricity)

Contents 3 Profile 4

Foreword by MEP Zofija Mazej Kukovič




Word from the President

10 ESWET’s Workshop 12 29th of February Crêpes Party! 13 ESWET Presence at IFAT 14 Other ESWET Activities in 2012 15 Municipal Waste Statistics 16 Emission Requirements for Waste Combustion 18 Thermal Treatment Options 19 ESWET Organisational Structure 22 ESWET Members 24 Secretariat Staff

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Bottom ash coming from incombustible waste is a reusable material. It also contains valuable metals that are separated for recycling.

The control room of the Åmotfors Waste-to-Energy plant in Sweden. Waste-to-Energy plants are clean, thanks to modern technology and careful operation.


Activity Report 2012  |  ESWET



ESWET is an association grouping the European Suppliers of Waste-to-Energy Technology. Our main task is to foster the development and dissemination of Waste-to-Energy technologies. We seek to raise awareness of the positive implications of the technology both for the environment and the production of energy. To learn more, visit www.eswet.eu

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Foreword by MEP Zofija Mazej Kukovič

Recovering renewable energy from waste contributes to clean, sustainable and resource-efficient energy systems Europe and the world need energy; energy that is sustainable and will lower our dependence on conventional sources. Developing renewable energy is a necessary step towards a low-carbon future. However, renewable energy should never be developed separately, but as part of an overall energy system. All sources of renewable energy require smart investment to produce the kind of competitiveness that European energy systems need. Producing energy from biomass or waste is a part of this solution. It has the potential to increase the efficiency of using the resources that are available to us. The right strategy will allow us to develop both a healthy environment for people, a great environment for workplaces, and also sustainable sources of energy. In the European Parliament’s Environment Committee, where I was Rapporteur examining the challenges and opportunities for renewable energy, we decided to support all of the different sources of renewable energy that could bolster our resource efficiency while minimising effects on the environment.


Activity Report 2012  |  ESWET

One such source is waste. Good waste management has the potential to create new raw materials or productive sources of energy. Europe needs to limit its uncontrolled export of waste to be able to stabilize its own resources. Recycling efforts need to be our top priority, and only when there is no other use or efficient mechanism, then it can become a useful energy feedstock. Biomass has the potential to be a key part of the waste solution. Various waste management options exist. When it comes to recovering energy from biodegradable waste not qualifying for recycling, complementary technologies treating different waste streams provide the answer. Many biodegradable waste streams such as garden waste can yield biogas. After biogas production, clean bio-waste is usable as a fertiliser, thus contributing to both energy efficiency and raw materials challenges. Unrecyclable biomass can be used for energy production, though it needs to be done in a sustainable and environmentally friendly manner.

Foreword by MEP Zofija Mazej Kukovič

Innovative system-wide solutions, such as high-tech heating and cooling networks, have the potential to help urban areas achieve efficiency and lower emissions. Many countries in Europe see the potential not only of renewable energy but also of carbonneutral heat in integrated energy systems. Ultimately, Europe needs to achieve greater energy independence. The sources need to be integrated into overall systems that balance waste management, resource efficiency

and environmental protection. This will ensure that Europe remains innovative and a global leader in the field. It will enable job creation throughout the manufacturing and value chain. Europe’s reindustrialisation will need to be done with this in mind.

Zofija Mazej Kukovič Member of the European Parliament PHOTO © European Union

Good waste management has the potential to create new raw materials or productive sources of energy.’

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Grate and Combustion chamber.

Waste is combusted on the grate. Incombustible fraction remains as bottom ash.

Bottom ash is extracted at the end of the grate,

Flue gases pass through sophisticated

6 Activity Report 2012  |  ESWET cooled and conveyed for treatment.

cleaning systems before exiting the plant.



Waste-to-Energy Technology is integrated in a Sustainable Waste Management Chain, like the Waste Hierarchy of the EU’s Waste Framework Directive. ESWET believes that Waste-to-Energy (also called Energy-from-Waste) has an important role to play both on the energy recovery and on the environmental aspects of managing unrecyclable waste. Making a valuable contribution to the reduction of Greenhouse Gas emissions through better waste management, Waste-to-Energy is a solution to multiple challenges.

Why does ESWET work at the European Level? Most of the national environmental legislation in Europe is derived from EU Directives. Furthermore, there is continuous debate within the European Institutions with regards to Waste-to-Energy. While many policymakers recognise and support the important role Waste-to-Energy plays in the waste management sector and as an energy source, more has to be done to raise positive awareness about its benefits.

In 2012, ESWET’s president is Edmund Fleck and the Vice-President is Gert Riemenschneider. The daily activities of the Association are managed by the Secretariat, headquartered in Brussels. The Secretary General since 2008 is Patrick Clerens.

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Madeira, Portugal, plant generating the equivalent of 15% of the region’s domestic electricity consumption, offsetting diesel usage.

Meath, Ireland, diverting over 200,000 tonnes of waste per year away from landfills.


Activity Report 2012  |  ESWET

Word from the President

Getting a discount to improve waste management, but no cutting corners For many countries in Europe, good and sustainable waste management practices are not applied, even though they are well known and established. How else can it be explained that some countries in the EU have effectively eliminated landfilling for residual municipal waste, while others landfill almost everything? While many reasons can influence local priorities for waste management, one common obstacle is the cost for better waste management. This is because moving up in the Waste Hierarchy (by promoting waste reduction, reuse and recycling and reducing landfilling) is more expensive, at least on the short term. Landfills do not internalise all the costs that they do and will represent for society. In light of this, the solidarity between EU Member States is crucial. By pooling resources, waste management practices can be improved faster also in countries which lack the needed financial capabilities. EU Funds should not only be used to spread know-how on ‘best practices’ and inform citizens on how to reduce and reuse waste. But they should also help in installing the needed infrastructure in order to close the loop for waste that is generated, but could be recycled and/or recovered. Waste sorting infrastructure and energy recovery plants are needed for moving forward with better

waste management schemes. How much EU Funds should be allocated to which step of the Waste Hierarchy is a matter to be decided locally. But this ‘discount’ provided by the EU in order to improve waste management, should not be used to ‘cut corners’. Experience in Member States that have successfully eliminated landfilling shows that this is only possible through the installation of recycling AND Waste-to-Energy infrastructure, all based on the proximity principle. Using the funds allocated according to the Waste Hierarchy, including the needed step of energy recovery, will help to end landfilling, while lowering the long-term cost of waste management at the same time. We are convinced that this is the spirit – and the letter – of the Waste Framework Directive, that all citizens should wish to have applied to their waste. Less investment in the necessary and sustainable waste management infrastructure means more landfilling. Is this a good investment into our future?

Edmund Fleck, ESWET President

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ESWET’s Workshop

Public Money for Waste-to-Energy? A lively debate for / against Waste-to-Energy

Must Waste-to-Energy remain eligible for Structural Funding? Which treatment option should receive what funding? On the 15th of October, ESWET held its 5th Annual Workshop to discuss the use of EU Funds for Waste Management. Presentations were given by Jan Mikołaj Dzięciołowski, from the European Commission, Joan Marc Simon, from GAIA and Edmund Fleck, from ESWET. The presentations and debate were followed by a networking dinner. More pictures at www.eswet.eu


Activity Report 2012  |  ESWET

ESWET believes that Waste-to-Energy should be part of Structural Funding, as the role it plays handling waste not suitable for recycling provides Long-Term Revenues and Environmental Benefits.’

ESWET’s Workshop

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29th of February Crêpes Party!

29th of February Crêpes Party!

Since 2012 had an extra working day, ESWET tried to make it enjoyable with its 1st Crêpes Party. Visitors to the ESWET office could forget the winter blues with salty & sweet crêpes in an efficient networking evening.


Activity Report 2012  |  ESWET

ESWET Presence at IFAT

ESWET Presence at IFAT, 7-11 May

IFAT is one of the biggest environmental fairs in the world. Held every 2 years, it gathers suppliers of a wide range of water&waste treatment technologies. Many ESWET Members are present in the fair and the ESWET Secretariat also joins the exhibitors list. The showcase of the latest developments in Waste-to-Energy technology make it a must attend: the next edition is in May 2014.

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Other ESWET Activities in 2012

Other ESWET Activities in 2012

29.03, Sofia, Bulgaria The ESWET Secretariat and Member Companies gave an overview of various aspects of Waste-to-Energy technology at the Save the Planet Eco-Forum. 10.09, Berlin, Germany Patrick Clerens explained “How the EU Works” during the International Recycling and Recovery Conference, where many ESWET Members were also present. 04.10, Mataró, Spain Guillaume Perron-Piché presented the environmental contribution of Waste-toEnergy towards a circular economy at the RECUWATT congress.

All these presentations are available at www.eswet.eu

07.11, Belgrade, Serbia An ESWET Member Company gave a presentation on Waste-to-Energy’s contribution to Climate Protection at the Regional Workshop on Mitigating GHG Emissions through Improved Waste Management Systems in Western Balkans. 08.11, Rimini, Italy Participants to the ECOMONDO fair could attend a presentation from an ESWET Member Company showing how EU Legislation has helped shaping Waste-toEnergy into the clean and efficient European Export Technology it now is.


Activity Report 2012  |  ESWET

Municipal Waste Statistics

Are there Waste-to-Energy plants in my country? The statistics below show how municipal waste was treated in 2011, according to Eurostat data.

It also shows that in some countries recycling and thermal treatment are very scarce – or inexistent – and that landfilling is still the most common outcome for municipal waste.

It shows that countries which recycle much of their waste also rely on Waste-to-Energy for the remaining part. So recycling and Waste-to-Energy go hand in hand and cannot exclude each other.

You want to know more about how your country is doing, and what it is planning for the future? Visit the www.eswet.eu website for facts and developments in Waste-to-Energy.

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10%

to ni Po a lan Hu d ng a Cy ry pr Po us rtu g Cz G al ec ree c h Re e pu b La lic tv i Li th a ua ni a Sl ov ak Cr ia oa tia M alt Bu a lg a Ro ria m an ia

ly Ita





er m

an A y Ne ust th ria er lan Be ds lg iu Sw m e Lu xe den m bo De urg nm ar Ire k lan Un Slo d ite ve n d Ki ia ng do Fr m an c Fi e nl an d


Landfilled Waste-to-Energy Total Recycling (material recovery and composting) Source: Eurostat 2011

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Emission Requirements for Waste Combustion

What happens to my waste that is not suitable for recycling? In a Waste-to-Energy plant‌ Due to very efficient combustion and sophisticated flue gas cleaning systems, pollutants contained in the waste are either destroyed or captured. Emissions reliably meet the most stringent limit values of any industry. Remaining emissions from Waste-to-Energy plants are negligible compared to other sources.



Note that the filters are for indication purposes only. Some facts: - In a Waste-to-Energy plant, the pollutant destruction and capture efficiency is ~99%. - Various types of highly-efficient filters are used to control more substances than any other industry. - For pollutants also regulated in other industries (e.g. particulate matter), Waste-to-Energy plants reach emission levels up to 4 times lower than combustion plants.

*Requirements in the Industrial Emissions Directive, Waste Incineration Chapter, mandate very strict Emission Limit Values on over a dozen substances found in waste.


Activity Report 2012  |  ESWET

Emission Requirements for Waste Combustion

Can that waste cease to be waste? When combusted as non-waste… Residual waste can be pre-treated (mechanical or mechanical/biological). This typically raises the heating value, either by sorting out lower calorific material and/or by removing some of the water content. Materials like metals, glass, stones etc. can also be sorted out. But the pollutants (Cl, F, S, PCDD/F, heavy metals) are not affected by these pre-treatment steps and therefore remain in the waste. Thus the rationale for defining this as “residual waste”, mandating very tight regulations regarding treatment, did not change. Certain proposals are being discussed though, aiming at releasing this pre-treated waste from the waste regime. This would mean that it can be freely traded, also across country borders. And it could be treated in installations other than Waste-to-Energy plants, with considerably looser emission limits.


Combustion as non-waste Residual waste is and must remain treated as waste: pre-treatment does not remove pollutants. Combusting pre-treated waste in other installations than Waste-to-Energy plants will lead to higher emission of pollutants to the water and air! **Requirements in the Industrial Emissions Directive, Large Combustion Plants Chapter, mandate weaker Emission Limit Values on only 3 parameters, excluding substances typically present in waste such as Dioxins or Heavy Metals.

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Thermal Treatment Options

Thermal Treatment Options

For waste that is not suitable for material recycling, more than 90% of the Wasteto-Energy plants handling this residual waste are grate-based. Lately there are reports about ‘emerging technologies’, like gasification and pyrolysis, claiming their commercial and technical readiness. But what are the characteristics of a suitable technology? Continuous operation The process has to operate continuously (around 8,000 hours per year), as residual waste is arriving ‘continuously’ and intermediate storage capacity is rather limited. Flexibility Residual waste is quite heterogeneous by its very nature. Thus any process must be able to handle quite a changing type of material. Any pre-treatment or ‘cherry picking’ of waste will invariably lead to either higher treatment cost and/or continued landfilling of at least part of the waste.


Activity Report 2012  |  ESWET

Energy efficiency and climate change The process should have an overall high energy efficiency. For instance the process should be self-sustaining without the addition of coal, oil or gas in normal operation. Internal consumption should be low, thus being able to export as much energy as possible to external use. The more energy is recovered from waste, the better it is for the climate. Reliability Reliability is one of the key requirements in thermal waste treatment. Innovation or ‘first of a kind’ can yield some interesting breakthrough and perspectives. But residual waste has to be treated in a proven, reliable and environmentally-friendly manner. Cost Especially in times of tight public budgets, cost effectiveness is a must. Any process must meet this and be scalable to both smaller and larger quantities of waste to be treated.

Combustion Waste-to-Energy meets all criteria in an optimum manner. Can other thermal treatment technologies do the same?’

Organisational Structure

ESWET Organisational Structure




General Assembly The decision-making body within ESWET is the General Assembly, where top representatives of each member company meet to determine the policies and the working of the association.

ESWET representatives meeting in Lleida, Spain, location of Member company Ros Roca Envirotec.

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Organisational Structure

Public Relations Committee

The Public Relations Committee defines the way the Association communicates. It covers a broad range of tasks, from organising ESWET-branched events and workshops to ensuring the visibility of the Association by creating attractive campaigns and slogans. As ESWET engages with a wide range of people, the Committee identifies the appropriate level of communication ranging from industry and technical exchange to broad explanation of how Waste-to-Energy works. Chairman: Mr. Bram De Brauwer

Members of the ESWET Public Relations Committee meeting in Rueil-Malmaison, France, headquarters of Member company Inova.


Activity Report 2012  |  ESWET

Organisational Structure

Technical Committee

The Technical Committee reviews the policies and legislation set by the EU and determines ESWET’s position on them. It includes two Working Groups. Chairman: Mr. Hubert de Chefdebien

The Technical Committee meeting in Lleida, Spain, home to Member company Ros Roca Envirotec.

Working Group on BREFs The Working Group on BREFs was established for the purpose of preparing the review of the Waste Incineration BREF under the new rules of the Industrial Emissions Directive. The technological exchange among members aims at providing quality input for discussions at EU level.

Working Group on Residues The Working Group on Residues was established for the purpose of elaborating a technical document on quality criteria for the revision of the Waste Treatments Industries BREF. It covers bottom ash, Air Pollution Control residues, boiler and filter ash, as well as reagents.

Chairman: Dr. Edmund Fleck

Chairman: Dr. Ralf Koralewska

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Members (as of 01.05.2013)

ALSTOM POWER SWEDEN P.O. Box 1233 35112 Växjo – Sweden Tel.: +46 470 862 100 Fax: +46 470 762 001 www.power.alstom.com BABCOCK & WILCOX VOLUND Falkevej 2 6705 Esbjerg – Denmark Tel.: +45 76 14 34 00 Fax: +45 76 14 36 00 www.volund.dk CARMEUSE Bd de Lauzelle 65 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve – Belgium Tel.: +32 10 48 16 64 Fax: +32 10 48 16 66 www.thefluegassolutions.com CNIM 35 rue de Bassano 75008 Paris – France Tel.: +33 1 44 31 11 00 Fax: +33 1 44 31 11 30 www.cnim.com DOOSAN LENTJES Daniel-Goldbach-Strasse19 40880 Ratingen – Germany Tel.: + 49 2102 166 0 Fax: + 49 2102 166 2500 www.doosanlentjes.com FISIA BABCOCK ENVIRONMENT Fabrikstraße 1 51643 Gummersbach – Germany Tel.: +49 2261 850 Fax: +49 2261 853 309 www.fisia-babcock.com HITACHI ZOSEN INOVA Hardturmstrasse 127 8037 Zürich – Switzerland Tel.: +41 44 277 11 11 Fax: +41 44 277 13 13 www.hz-inova.com INOVA 1 rue Eugène et Armand Peugeot, CS 80002 92508 Rueil-Malmaison Cedex – France Tel.: +33 1 47 10 03 50 Fax: +33 1 47 32 04 54 www.inova-groupe.com KEPPEL SEGHERS Hoofd 1 2830 Willebroek – Belgium Tel.: +32 3 880 77 00 Fax: +32 3 880 77 49 www.keppelseghers.com


Activity Report 2012  |  ESWET


LAB Le Sunway 259, avenue Jean Jaurès 69007 Lyon – France Tel.: +33 4 26 23 37 37 Fax: +33 4 26 23 37 70 www.lab.fr LHOIST Rue de l’Industrie 31 1400 Nivelles – Belgium Tel.: +32 67 89 95 76 Fax: +32 67 84 25 32 www.sorbacal.com LÜHR FILTER Enzer Straße 26 31655 Stadthagen – Germany Tel.: +49 5721 708 0 Fax: +49 5721 708 214 www.luehr-filter.de MAGALDI POWER 219, Via Irno 84135 Salerno – Italy Tel.: +39 089 688 111 Fax: +39 089 481.766 www.magaldi.com MARTIN GmbH Leopoldstraße 248 80807 München – Germany Tel.: +49 89 356 170 Fax: +49 89 356 17299 www.martingmbh.de ROS ROCA ENVIROTEC Av. Cervera, s.n. 25300 Tàrrega (Lleida) – Spain Tel.: +34 973 508 100 Fax: +34 973 508 134 www.rosroca.com STANDARDKESSEL BAUMGARTE Senner Straße 115 33647 Bielefeld – Germany Tel.: +49 521 9406 0 Fax: +49 521 9406 132 www.baumgarte.com TM.E S.p.A. TERMOMECCANICA ECOLOGIA Via del Molo 3 19126 La Spezia – Italy Tel.: +39 0187 552 419 Fax: +39 0187 552 215 www.tme.termomeccanica.com VINCI ENVIRONNEMENT 89, boulevard Franklin Roosevelt 92506 Rueil-Malmaison Cedex – France Tel.: +33 1 71 04 20 00 Fax: +33 1 71 04 21 99 www.vinci-environnement.com Activity Report 2012 | ESWET  23

Secretariat Staff

Secretariat Staff

The ESWET Secretariat is in continuous communication with representatives in all Member companies. It provides support to the Members when they have special needs and also acts as the contact and follow-up point with the EU Institutions. The Secretariat is glad to handle questions from the public and promote Waste-to-Energy at a large number of events.

The ESWET Secretariat. Left to right: Deborah Martens, Policy Assistant; Patrick Clerens, Secretary General and Guillaume Perron-Piché, Policy Officer.


Activity Report 2012  |  ESWET

ESWET Events for 2013 See the “Events” section on the new ESWET website

ESWET Members’ News See a regular feed of industry news on projected plants, construction and start-up.


© 2012 ESWET Pictures copyrighted by ESWET Members p.5: ¬© European Union 2013 - EP Cover and back: Shutterstock

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