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iscourse is essentially communication regarding any given topic in the form of debate or the interchange of ideas. Through this process an organisation of knowledge, ideas and experience takes place. A discourse community can be defined as a group of people who share similar thoughts and ideas. This community can have opposing thoughts on the same idea which leads to critical discussion and the creation of a new discourse. New discourse can either be accepted by a community therefore becoming a part of that community or it can form its own discourse which is isolate from that of which it originates from. In the timeline of history discourse can be seen as the development and progression of ideas and is often seen most prominently on the front line of innovation.

COMPUTATION IN DESIGN Computer aided design has been used across a wide variety of design industries from graphic design to aromatic design. Its origins began in the aeroplane and automotive industry, as other disaplines realised the possibilities that may be able to become a reality, they adopted the technology. While computer aided design was highly talked about throughout the 20th century in other fields of design it has only been in the last 50 years that computer aided design and computation has stepped into architectural discourse. As the technology has become readily available to the public and technology advances creating more user friendly software and devices, computers place in design will change. Where there is change there is intense discourse as people decide if change is really what they want, forming opinions and biases that can split a discourse community.

COMPUTER COMMUNICATION There is a complex relationship between man and machine. There is a communication barrier unlike any other but this barrier is slowly deteriorating as computers begin to understand the human language. The major difficulty between human, computer communications is the ability of a computer device to understand human inputs. Programs are generally designed to understand inputs in a specific format, anything outside this format is beyond their comprehension. It is the computers inability to understand varied communications that limit the communication process. While this has been an ongoing problem change is in the air, computers are communicating with people like never before. I can ask my Iphone “what time do I start work tomorrow?� and it can reply in kind and I can dance with my xbox. As communication between man and machine get easier the full potential of this relationship can be unlocked.

AMPITHEATUREN This project involved the exploration of a dynamic structure using physical modeling. It explored textures and freeform design to create a public stage. This design could not be documented for construction without the use of 3D modeling technologies. It followes the currrent architectural discourse of digital technologies and construction using double curvature beams. This created a dynamic relationship between fluidity and texture that results in not only a structure but an atmosphere . The best part of this design is the different textures of the materials, it creates fantastic patterns as light passes through. I also found the design process of this model very useful, exploring primarily with materials without any predispositions about the design or outcome. This could be achieved through digital modeling, while the outcome is not tangable the same visual perspectives can be achieved. I believe a better understanding of the spaces created and the atmosphere of this spaces is achieved by creating model.

NORDKETTENBAHREN FUNICULAR BY ZAHA HADID ARCHITECTS IN AUSTRIA ‘The Nordkettenbahren Funicular openned in 2007 and explored the use of double curvature glass in construction and has become one of Hadid’s biggest contributions to the current global architectural discourse of digital design and technology. The use of new production technologies such as CNC milling and thermoforming guaranteed an exact translation of the computer generated design into a physical structure. It encorporated technologies developed for the automotive design industry to create a fluide design that aimed to mirror the snow covered landscape. The resulting construction included four new stations and a cable-stay suspension bridge that spanned over the river.’1I found the curvature and its creation through smaller panels to by of most significants. I love the way it appears like a warped grid of square panels, manipulated to create this undulating form.

‘The Nordkettenbahren Funicular openned in 2007 and explored the use of double

‘The Quadracci Pavillion is a stricking architectural landmark which opened on May 4th 2001., The design aims to be both fuctional and a cultural landmark taking influence from the lakefront and boating community. The main bridge connecting the pavillion to the city celebrates its structure and becomes part of the composition. Its most remarkable feature is a movable screen with a 217 foot wingspan that folds and opens twice daily. This wing creates more than just a building but a living organism that opens to the sun. ’2



Computer aided design tools have aided in the redesign of older concept, the creation of new concept and the physical creation of concept once thought impossible. It has aided in reducing design and manufacturing costs, prevented the need for physical testing and reduced time delays. What you see on the screen has become easier to materialise as communication between humans, computers and robotic manufacturing systems becomes more concise..

The DC-3 first flew on October 17 1935 from date collected from prototype DC-1 and production plane DC-2. The DC-3 design was created by Douglas engineering who claim

-Ivar Shogran Computers were used for testing at this stage but all the design thinking was done at the drawing board. Computers stepped onto the designing floor as means of testing design concepts, in some cases testing could begin before any structural work was done from as early as the 1930s but protyping would sill be paramount and manual testing still required. The design itself was established through manual drawing techniques. It would take almost 70 year but the first plane to be designed completely with CAD would be the Beoing 777 which was launched in 1990. Beoing put considerable funding into three-dimensional CAD/CAM (computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing) technology. “The pilot programs clearly demonstrated the benefits of modeling airplane parts as three-dimensional solids in the CATIA (computer-aided three-dimensional interactive application) system. CATIA - along with several Boeing-created applications - allowed Boeing engineers to simulate the geometry of an airplane design on the computer without the costly and time-consuming investment of using physical mock-ups.2� It was with this technology the the Beoing 777 became the first areoplane designed using purely CAD technology. Aeroplans require an adaptibility in order to respond to theit changing environment, which may include wind conditions, snow or heat.


Hadid brings a new and fresh approach using a cellular sreucture of crystaline forms. A network of three dimensional, six sided cells with manu juctions and bonds, its design is based on the concept of connection. The modular, adaptive building will be made up of a series of shaded outdoor spaces, courtyards, entrances, meeting areas, indoor gardens, corridors, underground tunnels and roof terraces. The building commenced construciton in December 2010 and it is expected to be completed bu August 31st 2012. The project is expected to cover an area of 43,9992 gross square meters and includes a unique canopy and tunnel system that connects the five major buildings . The canopy develops an outdoor environment with water features and filters light that is spectacular at night. The building is design to adapt to the harsh climate to create optimum human conditions despite the harsh weather outside. The design will temper the light and heat of the dessert environment, and utilise wind to cool facades and outdoor spaces. Energy efficent light sources such as LEDs,poweed outsie the grid using photovoltaic elements, will gvie the landmark a crystal-like night-time identity.

BIOMETRICS -Benyus, 1997

The concept of biomimicry in itself is nothing new. Human structures have borrowed from nature throughout history. Our first shelters, for example, were little more than upturned bird’s nests; formed of branches and insulated against the elements by whatever materials were readily available. In fact, it could be argued that biomimicry is not a new movement, but a return to our earliest inspirations. New technologies, however, have allowed us to investigate and replicate systems that our ancestors were unable to exploit on a grand scale.

This biomorphic design has been nicknamed the ‘Friendly Alien’ by the locals and synthesises well this the historical buildings that surrounds it. Tihs building really comes to life at night were is starts to appear almost like a spaceship with its row of lights that can be programmed to display anything from messages to the beat of a particular song. The dynamic use of lights in this situation makes this design stand out amongs its surroundings. A structure that incorporates lighting for the Wyndham City gateway could highlight the gateway for motorists at night. The headlights from vehicles could also reflect of the surface material could also highlight the gateway.

Speed Cathedral, is another stunning architecture materpiece which open people’s eyes to what architecture could be like. The structure of Speed Cathedral is extremely eye catching; no doubt people took a second look even tough there are 230 more different outstanding pavilions surrounding it. The pavilion makes British people proud of their architectural archievements, it demonstrates to the world what the UK can do, the pavilion is innovative, eye-catching and beautiful. The gateway of Wyndham City, it is to be seated beside a highspeed motor way, there is only a 30 second window where most of the visitor can see the design. How can we design something that is simple but unique enough to attract attention while ensuring that the viewer can understand and prreceive what the design has to deliver within the time limit created by the speed they travel at.

The pavilion is a great example of how a architecture can become a pride of a country. How can our project become a pride of Wyndham city? The designer has used a innovative design to show the relationship between nature and cities (Heatherwick was inspired by this idea). Example of another way of how innovative design can cooperate with nature. The relationship between the natural environment and the activity of human settlement, this is also what Wyndham city is highly aware of.

MAD Architects explore the hexagonal honeycomb structure in there design for their new skyscraper. THe stunning Si nosteel international Plaza by Beijing-based MAD architects nicknamed the Honeycomb Skyscraper. The building’s hexagonal curtian is based upon climate modeling and serves to regulate the structure’s temperature and daylight by varing the size of the cell’s windows. This structure is designed to use the lessons of nature to create a sustainable, efficent skyscraper design, that is futuristic and sleek.

The Eden Project used inspiration from natural forms to produce transformative solution. The Eden project showed us how seeking inspirations from the nature can also help to develop an outcome with the least impact to the surrounding environment. Bio mimicry isn’t just a taking inspiration from nature, it also invites us to look more closely and appreciate at the environment we live in or design for. Wyndham city is a city which value it’s natural environment and promotes its relationship between the human and nature, we believe by designing with bio mimicry, will allow not only us, visitors and residents of Wyndham city to have a deeper understanding of the strong bond between Wyndham city and its natural environment.

Bees always use hexagons to create their nestthe honeycomb. Honeycombs also found their way into architecture.

1. Structural property. Bees use hexagon because it is the most efficient shape to create the honeycomg. Hexagon is able to create the strongest while with the least use of material (same amount of surface). Reduce material useage. Even if create tunnel with hexagon structure over the road, because of its structural property, we will be able to create a tunnel withouth blcoking the natural lights. 2. Aesthetic property, The Hexagons can be used to create elegant interlocking patterns. Honeycomb Skyscraper by MAD is a great example of the use of hexagon pattern to create innovative and eye-catching design. And by using digital design, the architect was able to bring the hexagon pattern which could be found in honeycomb to the next level. 3. Can create curve surface, the most familiar example will be the soccer ball . We can also find example of using hexagon panels to create dome in the Eden Project at UK.

4. The hexagon grid has been used throughout history to produce tiles, or breakdown space efficently. This is be cause hexagons are one

Arbitary Point + streaming text file

Arbritrary Points + Data Driven Extrusion

Bollean Patterns Pattern and Overlay Image sampler

The cut project began as an exploration task, we were unsure of what grasshopper was capable of and saw this as an opportunity to experiment with different definitions. Through this we saw great potential in the image sampler to create colour, extrusions and to alter parameters to mimic a visual input. At this stage we sought to further explore this by creating a new matricies this time with a focus on the inputs we found most interesting.

We used the Matrices to experiment further with the grasshopper tools. A number of tools resulted in interesting outcomes however others were not as well defined. Some of our most interesting outcomes utilised the surface grid tool which was used to create undulating forms. They remined us of rolling hills and the sea.

In the above matrices we attempted to use hexagons to replace circles. The outcome was not as impressive nor effective as those we achieved with circles however unlike cirles hexagons are able to create a tesselated pattern and would be useful in creating interlocking patterns over surfaces

In the models above we can see how the surface grid can be used to break down a solid surface into smaller uniform elements, in this case we have broken down the surface into circles. We like the way the circles gather and seperate in certain points to follow the curve. This could be used to break down a surface into other shapes such as triangles or polygons. This could be interesting if the size of the shape would increase to ensure it is touching another shape.

The above model uses the image sampler and maths function to create a dynamic representation of the input image. We like the way that some circle are drawn closer together while others are seperated to give the illusion of depths. By utilising these tools with the surface grid it may be possible to breakdown a surface into a pattern that represents an image while ensuring that the edges of the smaller shapes are always touching.

R We selected this pavillion as the case study because we saw the link betwen its design and the wax honeycomb structures made by bees. Bees pick this hexagon grid to manufacture their homes because it is highly efficient. In order to produce wax a bee needs to consume a large amount of nectra hence the hexagon as the most efficent shape is used to produce teh honeycomb. WE also see from the Spanish Pavillion individual modules, each hexagon is a seperate unit which was been stacked to produce the facade. It creates strong connections between each module to produce a structurally soundgrid system. This demonstrated the structural properties of a hexagon grid.

This model replicated the Spanish Pavillion by using the hexigrid and image sampler tools in grasshopper. We have altered it slightly from the Spanish Pavillion by extruding the hexigrid to produce a waved surface. While this is interesting it does not push the limits hexagons as a structural shape nor does it create a model that will truely represent Wyndam City. This definition can only mimic the colour from an image input. We may be able to personnalise this more by further integrating the image sampler into our definition.

We returened back to the matrices to better develop our ideas using the image sampler. In doing this we realised that our most successfull outcomes incorporated the image sampler in exer aspect from the radius of the hexigons to the colour. This achieced a better imitation of the image input.

This was our final modular hexagon model. While we did achieve our goal we do not feel that this model fully represents Wyndam city. It still does not push the limtis of this technology and fails to demonstrate the connections bettwen Wyndam city, Melbourne and the transition between rural and urban landscapes. This is more a sculpture of the side of the road than an experience. We want the driver to experience our gateway.

Created by Amanda Levete to transform the entrance of the Victorian and Albert Museum This three dimensional lattice work structure creates a elaborate entrance to the Victorian and Albert Museum. This is a walk through experience, you enter the sculpture and progress through it. The lattice is a much more elaborate structure than the modular system previously explored. It mirrors the molecular systems of many organisms.

Luis Berrior-Negrom This artwork creates a lattice from ropes and metal links and is BerriorNegrom’s investrigation into the contemporary tension between nature and technology. This simulation of a carbon tetrahedral lattice fills the entire gallery. This model uses string and tension to create the lattice instead of rigid materials.

Rojkind Arquitectos This double-layered steel lattice transforms a former residence into a Japanese eatery’s new home in Mexico City. The new steel facade was digitally designed to mimic the vegetation that covers the project’s retaining wall. The facade’s self supporting layers are made with CNC-cut, thinguage steel plates that were welded in place on site and handfinished by a team of nearly 40 metal morkers. This design is the most interesting example I have seen so far. The bulges in the lattice give in the empression like the restraunt it trying to escape from the facade, almost like a fish trying to escape a net. The lighting really sets the mood and emphasises the offset lattice. We could puncture through our model and push out from the inside to create a similar effect and warp the original grid

After experimenting with creating a lattice we found that some diamonds are made up of a hexagon lattice structure which we could replicate as the base of our design. We first needed to find the base shape which we could repeat to create the lattice and after exploring a number of more complex shapes that the solution was actually a simple zig-zag pipe. One the base shape was found the design progressed quite rapidly to the hexagon lattice form which we now hope to manipulate using curve attractors to punch a pathway through out lattice to create our drice through experience. We are hoping to create the pathway in a form that replicates the transition through Wyndham from rural to urban spaces while celebrating the connection between Wyndham and Melbourne

Expression of Interest Group Members Stella Tanaja _376308 Emilie Sultana_389396 Duojia Zheng_392222 Ning Chien _355126

Contents a case for biomimicry.. why hexagons.. a case study.. the beehive.. matrices.. parametrics.. lattice..


a new science that studies nature’s models and then imitates or takes inspiration from these designs and processes to solve human problems.



Bio mimicry in design has aided in the development of more efficient, sustainable and unique design outcomes. By emulating patterns, forms and systems that have already evolved and survived the test of time in the natural world, and by embracing what nature has to teach us, we can achieve more advanced outcomes. Wyndham city has a stronge relationship with the nature world, having a number of natural beauties including the Werribee River K Road Cliffs, Point Cook Coastal Park, Heathdale Wetlands and the Victoria State Rose Garden. Many issues we face today have already been solved in the natural world, and by utilizing these solutions and replicating these systems, we can create a gateway for Wyndham City that demonstrates their commitment to seeking economical design solutions while paying tribute to Wyndham city’s natural beauty.

Biomimicry has been used across a vast field of disciplines to achieve innovative outcomes by engaging in this discourse we seek to archive the same in the design of the Wyndham City Gateway. Jaseph Paxton designed the crystal palace in 1851 based of the structure of water Lillie’s while George de Mestral created Velcro after observing how burdock seeds attached to his clothes. Nissan recently developed the BR23C micro robotic car which included a safety system modeled on the structure and inner workings of a bee’s eye. Nature has vinspired many creation including the Ark Hotel concept which was designed by Remistudio and is a shell inspired biosphere that is completely self sustainable and can be constructed from prefabricated elements within three to four months while withstanding tidal waves, earthquakes and other natural disasters. maining of the cutting edge of technology and design.

ICT/ITKE research pavillion 2010 This project explores the architectural transfer of biological principles of the sea urchin’s plate skeleton morphology by means of computer-based design and simulation methods. Computer-controlled manufacturing methods were used for the creation of 6.5mm panels that form the pavilions shell. The skeletal shell of the sand dollar is a modular system of polygonal plates, which are linked together at the edges by finger-like calcite protrusions. The particular geometric arrangement of the plates and their joining system allows for a high load bearing capacity. This project is successful because it utilises the biological system to create a efficient use of materials without compromising structural strength.

THE BIRDS NEST Beijing national stadium Beijing National Stadium was designed by Swiss architects Herzog & de Meuron and is a great use of biometrics. The stadium rises out of the landscape to replicate a giant upturned bird’s nest. The building itself has become icon in the community and has been hailed a marvel of design. For this simple reason this stadium can be viewed as a great success. We hope to achieve a design of a similar iconic standard for the Wyndam city gateway.

THE Water Cube Beijing national aquatic centre Taking the structure of soap bubbles as inspiration (and mimicking nature’s way of filling 3-d space most efficiently), PTW Architects and Arup gave the Cube an elegant, lightweight design: a rectangular box covered in iridescent bubble wrap. The 100,000 square meters of the Teflonlike translucent plastic ETFE that make up the building’s bubble cladding allow in more solar heat than glass, making it easier to heat the building, and resulting in a 30 percent reduction in energy costs. The futuristic LED-lit bubbles not only act as adjustable insulators, turning the building into a greenhouse, but also serve as storehouses for warm air that can be pumped into the Cube as needed.

Aesthetic property, hexagons can be used to create elegant interlocking patterns. Can create curve surface Structural property, the lattice system created by hexagons have strong bonds. In fact the hexagon lattice is the molecule structure of some diamonds The hexagon grid has been used throughout history to produce tiles, or breakdown space efficently. This is because hexagons are one of the most efficent tessalating shapes.

Spanish Pavilion 2005 http://www.stylepark. com/db-images/cms/ceramica_cumella/img/ p299004_488_336-4.jpg

Case study PreviewComp/SuperStock_1801-27734.jpg cumella/img/p299004_488_336-2.jpg

The Spanish Pavilion

| Foreign Office Architects | Japan | 2005 |

The Spanish Pavilion is selected the as the basis for our design because it in stantly reminded us of a beehive. We could see the inspiration of the beehive through the hexigrid system and we attempted to replicate this in our development models by using the CUT definitions. The faรงade is not only a beehive looking faรงade. The hexagon tiles are tinted in one of six colours to invoke the colour of the Spanish flag and many of Spanish cultural such as wine, roses, bullfights, sun and sand. In our proposal for the gateway, we are also intend to create a design completely unique and personally significant to Wyndham City.



Using grasshopper, we were able to control the hights and thickness. In image 1, we used random component to influence the extrudion levles, colour and radius of the internal hexagons. Our second mode (image2&3), black and white (with gradian) image of sailboat is being inputed into the definition to influence the extrusion levels, colour and radius of the internal hexagons to produce a pattern that mimics the image itself.

Sailboat model Black and white image of sailboat is being inputed into the definition. The ‘sailboat’ image is inputted to influence the extrusion levels, colour and radius of the internal hexagons to produce a pattern that mimics the image itself. We propose using the same technique with images from the Wyndam city community to produce the gateway.

Beehive Definition Our definition can be adapted to mimic any image we input into the image sampler allowing us to create a design completely unique and personally significant to Wyndahm city. In this definition the image sampler completely controls the results, depicitng the level of extrusion, radius of the internal hexagon and colour of the hexagon modules. As a result our models mimic the image input.

The matrices helped us to develop our design idea and parametric design aided us to produce more possible design slutions. We manipulate the model by changing the definitions ans data inputs. we were able to make the model more dutiable for changing the number sliders of the extrudion level and the radius of inner hexagons.

Testing image sampler, exploring the what is the best working image(different colours, filters, brightness/ how clear we can see the image in the model)

Decided to go with the sail boat image. Because it is simple but with adding the gradient to the image, we were able to get more variation in the extrusion level and thikness. Trying different arrangement to make a more interesting shape.

Through the use of parametric design we are able to create a definition that can change and adapt to constraints and become specific to Wyndham city. By adapting parametrics with biomimicry we can take the best elements of a natural system that we observe and alter the constraints on the system to make it relevent to our design and specific to the Wyndham city location.

A Case for Parametrics Digital Design

Changing design methods form hand drawing to digital design; digital designing has made various merits. The most fundamental benefit of shifting from papers to computers is that architects are able to work more efficiently, using less time to find more alternative possible design solutions and the most importantly, by using computers, architect are able to do things that couldn’t be done previously and enable architect to bring their design solutions to a whole new level. In the design brief of the Wyndham city gateway project, can understand that Wyndham city is seeking an innovative design solution. By using digital design as one of the design process, can help to generate innovative design solution. The ‘soap bubble-like’ structure ceiling of the Water Cube is designed with a parameter software specially written for the purpose .

|Beijing National Aquatics Center|

1. 1 place/wc10.jpg

Parametric Design

Parametric can aids designers in their design process. By using parametric design, even without an idea of what the design outcome may be look like, the designers were able to explore and experiment freely with all the possibilities within the constraints and find the best design solution for their client, and in our case, for Wyndham City. Using parametric design, we are able to achieve a innovative outcome that we could never be able to discover without parametric design. (We are not a confident grasshopper user, and this is my first time getting involved with parametric design. This is very different to what I used to know about design process. Even though I have a image in my mind of how my design outcome is going to be look like, but with parametric design, I feel that that is not nessecery in parametric design, what important is we set the constrains and input the elements we want to include in the design. And then we are able to test so many different possibilities within the data we input in a very short time, and play with and test many different possible solutions until we get the best outcome. But because I’m still not totally confident with grasshopper, many of things we wanted to try, but we weren’t able to get it work in grasshopper. Parametric design gave us opportunity to discover design solutions that we were not able to find on our own, but at the same time, limit our ability to put in many of our ideas to the design. Also, due to my limitations, I am not able to write script or use super complicated definitions, the design outcomes I generate might be lake of variations. But with parametric design, I still believe that we will be able to create a innovative design which jumps out my own imagination with parametric design. )

Yorkshrine Renaissance Pavilion ( The Yorkshire Diamond ) | Various Architects | UK | Competition Finalist |

The Yorkshrine Renaissance Pavilion is a 400m2 Inflatable mobile pavilion. The pavilion itself is an attraction with a striking exterior. The inflatable tubes are arranged in the atomic structure of diamonds. The Pavilion is designed for maximum flexibility. The modular constriction system allows for the several basic configurations of the structure. The project is modeled mostly in Rhino only without any parametric design. In our case, with the use of parametric design, we will be able to explore a large numbers of possible configurations that suit the constraints of the site. We will also be able to use program such as TopoStruct to exanimate the structure to find out all removable carbon atom units and remove them to generate more variations of configurations for the openings to the most suitable one for Wyndham City gateway. The hexagonal atomic structure is extremely stiff on it’s own. Even over the freeway, with the wind and the traffics, we are still confident that the hexagonal structure will no deflect.

using Rhino to refabricate



While our beehive definition does create a solid structure thorugh the modular hexagon grid we wanted to push this idea further and take it towards the lattice structures of diamonds. With this in mind our focus has moved towards representing Wyndam’s development into a more ubanised city scape. We propose a drive through gateway that frames the new unbanisation of Wydnam.

Our Concept for this deisign is to create a drive through gateway that frames the two different landscapes of Wyndam city, the rural and the urban. We are hoping to create a dynamic tunnel that represents the transformation from rural to urban. We have selected a hexygon lattice that represents a diamond molecule becaue as part of this transformation Wyndam has pushed for diamond interchanges on the Princess Hwy to deal with the increased traffic. The population growth has contributed to the rise in motor vehical heading to and from Melbourne on the road which is causing the council to push for this change. We are hoping that by creating a gateway in this fashion we can represent the connections between Wyndam city and Mebourne and Wyndam city’s rural and urban landscapes.

Studio Air Journal  
Studio Air Journal  

Architectural Journal on Biomimicry