Universidad Latina Branch of ChiriquĂ Faculty: Sciences and human development Department of English Bachelor Degree in English with an emphasis on traduction WritingCommunication 2
Professor: MarĂa Espinosa Student: Gloria Almengor 4-792-2300
3 - 2019.
This magazine contains an investigation about all the topics imparted by the professor in the third quarter. Also, the workshops which we did in classes.
Index Introduction..........................................................................................................................2 Pre-writing techniques........................................................................................................4 Writing process.....................................................................................................................9 Topic Sentence................................................................................................................11 Controlling idea..............................................................................................................11 Paragraph body and organization...................................................................................20 Supporting sentences.....................................................................................................20 Paragraph format organization........................................................................................26 Concluding Sentence......................................................................................................26 Coherence, cohesion, completeness, unity & space order...........................................31 Punctuation rules...............................................................................................................33 Kinds of paragraph............................................................................................................44 Conclusion...........................................................................................................................48
Pre-writing techniques Objectives: •
To talk about the evaluation of them.
To review general aspects about writing a paragraph
To apply prewriting techniques to organize ideas before a writing
Pre-writing techniques use writing to generate and clarify ideas. While many writers have traditionally created outlines before beginning writing, there are several other effective prewriting activities. We often call these prewriting strategies “brainstorming techniques.” Five useful strategies are listing, clustering, freewriting, looping, and asking the six journalists' questions. These strategies help you with both your invention and organization of ideas, and can aid you in developing topics for your writing.
Brainstorming - Brainstorming is the process of coming up with as many ideas as possible about a topic without being worried about the feasibility or whether an idea is realistic or not. A list format is often the easiest to organize. This can be done individually and then shared with the class or done as a group. Access to this list during the writing process can help students make connections they may want to use later in their writing. Freewriting - The free write strategy is when your students write whatever comes into their mind about the topic at hand for a specific amount of time, like 10 or 15 minutes. In a free write, students should not worry about grammar, punctuation, or spelling. Instead, they should try and come up with as many ideas as they possibly can to help them when they get to the writing process. Mind Maps - Concept maps or mind-mapping are great strategies to use during the pre-writing stage. Both are visual ways to outline information. There are many varieties of mind maps that can be quite useful as students work in the prewriting stage. Webbing is a great tool that has students write a word in the middle of a sheet of paper. Related words or phrases are then connected by lines to this original word in the center. They build on the idea so that, in the end, the student has a wealth of ideas that are connected to this central idea. For example, if the topic for a paper were the role of the US President, the student would write this in the center of the paper. Then as they thought of each role that the president fulfills, they could write this down in a circle connected by a line to this original idea. From these terms, the student could
then add supporting details. In the end, they would have a nice roadmap for an essay on this topic.
Drawing/Doodling - Some students respond well to the idea of being able to combine words with drawings as they think about what they want to write in the prewriting stage. This can open up creative lines of thought. Asking Questions - Students often come up with more creative ideas through the use of questioning. For example, if the student has to write about Heathcliff's role in Wuthering Heights, they might begin by asking themselves some questions about him and the causes of his hatred. They might ask how a 'normal' person might react to better understand the depths of Heathcliff's malevolence. The point is that these questions can help the student uncover a deeper understanding of the topic before they begin writing the essay. Outlining - Students can employ traditional outlines to help them organize their thoughts in a logical manner. The student would start with the overall topic and then list out their ideas with supporting details. It is helpful to point out to students that the more detailed their outline is from the beginning, the easier it will be for them write their paper.
Ilustración 1 Mapping
Ilustraciรณn 2 Listing
Writing process Objectives: • To identify the writing process and the parts of a paragraph in English according to its format
To study its parts To identify and write a good topic sentence
The writing process is something that no two people do the same way. There is no "right way" or "wrong way" to write. It can be a very messy and fluid process, and the following is only a representation of commonly used steps. 1. Prewriting You’re ready to start writing. So why has that blank page been staring back at you for the past hour? Prewriting identifies everything you need to do before you sit down to start your rough draft.
Find Your Idea Ideas are all around you. You might draw inspiration from a routine, an everyday situation or a childhood memory. Alternatively, keep a notebook specifically devoted to catching your ideas as they come to you. Your own imagination is the only limit to finding your source of inspiration. Build On Your Idea Two of the most popular methods of fleshing out your idea are free writing and brainstorming. Free writing means writing every idea that comes into your head. Do not stop to edit your mistakes, just let the ideas flow. Or, try brainstorming. If you're on a computer, try a manual process first to help you visualize your narrative: write your idea in the center of the page and work outwards in all of the different directions you can take your story. Plan and Structure Piecing the puzzle together comes next. It's time to sort through your ideas and choose which ones you will use to form your story. Make sure you keep your notes even after your book is published – there may be the seeds for your next story as well. 9
2. Writing Now you have your plan and you’re ready to start writing. Remember, this is your first rough draft. Forget about word count and grammar. Don’t worry if you stray off topic in places; even the greatest writers produce multiple drafts before they produce their finished manuscript. Think of this stage as a free writing exercise, just with more direction. Identify the best time and location to write and eliminate potential distractions. Make writing a regular part of your day.
3. Revision Your story can change a great deal during this stage. When revising their work, many writers naturally adopt the A.R.R.R. approach:
Add: The average novel has between 60,000 and 100,000 words. Does your book have enough words to be considered a novel? Have you given your readers all the information they need to make sense of your story? If not, go back to your notebook that you kept for additional scenes and any additional details. Rearrange: Consider the flow, pacing and sequencing of your story. Would the plot be better served if some of the events occur in a different order? Remove: After making additions to your story, how is your word count now? Are your readers experiencing information overload? You may need to eliminate passages that don’t quite fit. Replace: The most effective way to revise your work is to ask for a second opinion. Do you need more vivid details to help clarify your work? Is one scene contradicting another? Ask friends or fellow writers to take a look and give you feedback, and if something isn’t working rewrite it and replace it. 4. Editing You have overhauled your story. It’s time to fine tune your manuscript line by line. Check for repetition, clarity, grammar, spelling and punctuation. Editing is an extremely detailed process and its best when performed by a professional. You can hire your own editor or utilized the editing services available through LifeRich Publishing. Nobody wants to read a book that is full of mistakes, and they certainly won’t buy a book that is riddled with them.
5. Publishing You now have a completed manuscript ready to publish. LifeRich Publishing's extensive portfolio of publishing services can help you beome a published author. Explore LifeRich Publishing's range of available publishing packages. To learn more about the benefits of publishing with LifeRich, read this article.
Defintion of Paragraph Paragraphs are the building blocks of papers. Many students define paragraphs in terms of length: a paragraph is a group of at least five sentences, a paragraph is half a page long, etc. In reality, though, the unity and coherence of ideas among sentences is what constitutes a paragraph. A paragraph is defined as “a group of sentences or a single sentence that forms a unit” (Lunsford and Connors 116). Length and appearance do not determine whether a section in a paper is a paragraph. For instance, in some styles of writing, particularly journalistic styles, a paragraph can be just one sentence long. Ultimately, a paragraph is a sentence or group of sentences that support one main idea. In this handout, we will refer to this as the “controlling idea,” because it controls what happens in the rest of the paragraph.
Topic Sentence Is a sentence that summarizes the main idea of a paragraph. It is usually the first sentence in a paragraph. Also known as a focus sentence, it encapsulates or organizes an entire paragraph. Although topic sentences may appear anywhere in a paragraph, in academic essays they often appear at the beginning. The topic sentence acts as a kind of summary, and offers the reader an insightful view of the writer’s main ideas for the following paragraph. Controlling idea The controlling idea contains your opinion about the topic. It shows what direction you are going to take in writing about the topic. It helps the reader understand your purpose for writing the paragraph or essay.
Ilustraciรณn 3 Writing process
Ilustraciรณn 4 Topic sentence and controlling idea
Worksheet 1: What is a topic sentence?
Exercise 1: What is a topic sentence? Read the paragraph. My favourite drink is tea and I drink a lot of it. I Look at the underlined always have tea in the morning for breakfast. I sentence. make a pot of tea and then I drink it all myself. This is the topic sentence. Sometimes I have another pot before lunch. At four o’clock, I make a cup of mint tea. Mint tea is good for waking up and studying.
Tick () information sentences.
the correct A topic sentence is: about topic at or near the start of the paragraph. at the end of the paragraph. the main idea of the paragraph. a small detail from the paragraph. one or two words. a complete sentence.
Exercise 2: Read the paragraphs. Underline the topic sentences. I would like to tell you about my uncle. His name is Juma and he is thirty-nine years old. He is my father’s youngest brother. I really like Uncle Juma because he is very kind and very funny. He also tells us interesting stories about the places he visits.
I love football! I loved football when I was a small boy, and I love it now. My favourite team is Manchester United. I go to see our local club team every weekend, and now I play for the college three times a week. 15
My brothers all have jobs. My oldest brother, Edward, is a doctor at the hospital in the centre of the city, and the second oldest, Daniel, is an accountant in an office near our home. My youngest brother is a policeman. I am the only brother who is still at school.
I like most types of books. However, the books I enjoy the most are travel books. I like reading about different countries and the famous places there. When I go on holiday, I always buy lots of books about the place I am visiting. Travel books help you to understand a place. Exercise 3: Read the paragraphs. Write the number of the topic sentence next to the correct paragraph. Write TS where the sentence goes in the paragraph. Topic sentences 1. I lived in a small town when I was a child. 2. When I have my own children, I want to move to a small town. 3. The town I live in is very small. 4. There are two main advantages of living in a small town.
Paragraph A: Topic sentence __4_ TS First, you know everyone and everyone knows you. This helps you to feel safe, and it is friendlier. Secondly, it is quiet and there are fewer cars. This means there is less pollution than in a big town or city.
Paragraph B: Topic sentence __1__ TS It was a very nice place to live then. Now it is much bigger than before. More people live there and some big businesses opened offices there. My parents still live there but they say it was better in the past. 16
Paragraph C: Topic sentence __2__ TS I don’t want my children to live in a big city because a big city is not as friendly or as safe as a village. I want to move to the village where my grandparents live. The children can play in the street there and everyone knows each other.
Paragraph D: Topic sentence __3__ TS There are only a few food shops and one school here. Most people go to the big city to go shopping for clothes and gifts. There is a doctor’s but there isn’t a hospital. Again, you need to go to the city if you need the hospital. However, our town is very nice and it has a beautiful park. TOPIC SENTENCES Worksheet 2: Choosing and using topic sentences Exercise 1: Read the paragraph and tick () the best topic sentence. Topic sentences:
Paragraph: __________________________________ It A: Japan is a very beautiful produces many cars, such as Toyotas and country. Nissans, which it sells all over the world. It B: Japan, for example, makes also produces electrical goods such as computers. televisions and DVDs. Tokyo, the capital of C: Japan is a very important Japan, is one of the biggest and most modern cities in the world. country. D: Japan makes cars. What is wrong with the other topic sentences? Match them to the problems. Problems:
It is an example. It is a smaller idea, not the main idea.
It is about something different from the other sentences.
Exercise 2: 17
Read the two topic sentences. Write the other sentences in order below the correct topic sentences. 1. Computers are very useful for 1. I need to buy a new computer. learning English. 2. Computers help us communicate with other people.
The Mac computers are very fast.
3. Computers have made easy life for 3. Computer is the principal tool man. used in college. We can use the computers to 4. It has become an important part of 4. search for information. life for the modern day people.
I am going to give my old computer to You can also use online dictionaries and my younger sister. play games in English. You can do your homework on them.
I need a faster one for my college work.
You can use them in different ways.
My computer is very slow.
Exercise 3: Read the topic sentence and write the rest of the paragraph. Mobile phone are very important to many people now. Also; we use them as a tool to communicate with our family or Friends. In addition, we use in our work. Besides; if we have an emergency we can use it to look for help and could possible save a life. However; it can be a distraction, because we spend so many time using them. As expressed; we can use them for 18
important things but, we need to be careful, because it can be addictive.
Topic sentences about: Diseases, Healthy Lifestyle, Technology. 1. There are a lot of hamrful diseases discovered by famous doctors. 2. Everyone can have a heathy lifestyle if they are disciplined. 3. Technology has become one of the most important thing in this century.
Paragraph body and organization Objectives:
To study the parts of a paragraph To identify and write good body or supporting sentence
Whether the drafting of a paragraph begins with a main idea or whether that idea surfaces in the revision process, once you have that main idea, you’ll want to make sure that the idea has enough support. The job of the paragraph body is to develop and support the topic. Here’s one way that you might think about it: • Topic sentence: what is the main claim of your paragraph; what is the most important idea that you want your readers to take away from this paragraph? • Support in the form of evidence: how can you prove that your claim or idea is true (or important, or noteworthy, or relevant)? • Support in the form of analysis or evaluation: what discussion can you provide that helps your readers see the connection between the evidence and your claim? Paragraphs should be constructed with some sense of internal order, so after the topic sentence, writers will need to deliver their first supporting detail. Supporting details should be facts, statistics, examples, quotes, transitions, and other sentences which support the topic sentence. To support the topic sentence, writers should: explain the first supporting detail, then give an example of this detail (see example transitions below), next writers should unpack this example in a sentence or two, and then repeat this three-step process about two more times.
Supporting sentences Support the main idea of the paragraph. These sentences follow a topic sentence in a paragraph. Supporting sentences contain details that help describe or explain the main idea of the paragraph. Supporting sentences should fit the context and flow of a paragraph. Writers should remember to transition between new supporting details within the paragraph. 21
For instance Specifically In particular Namely Another Other In addition To illustrate
Each body paragraph will have the same basic structure. 1. Start by writing down one of your main ideas, in sentence form. If your main idea is "reduces freeway congestion," you might say this: Public transportation reduces freeway congestion. 2. Next, write down each of your supporting points for that main idea, but leave four or five lines in between each point. 3. In the space under each point, write down some elaboration for that point. Elaboration can be further description or explanation or discussion. Supporting Point Commuters appreciate the cost savings of taking public transportation rather than driving. Elaboration Less driving time means less maintenance expense, such as oil changes. Of course, less driving time means savings on gasoline as well. In many cases, these savings amount to more than the cost of riding public transportation. 4. If you wish, include a summary sentence for each paragraph. This is not generally needed, however, and such sentences have a tendency to sound stilted, so be cautious about using them. Example [Topic Sentence] Perhaps the cheapest and most efficient security method is a so-called Safe Traveler Card or national ID card. [Support Info.]A Safe Traveler Card or national ID card would be about the size of a credit card, contain a computer chip, and cost little to produce. In some ways, these cards are like the EZ Pass devices that enable people to drive on highways, bridges, and tunnels without having to stop and pay tolls (Dershowitz 590). [Unpack Supporting Info] By scanning the card, airport security officials would be able to obtain background information from government databases for every passenger: flying history, residence, credit-card spending, travel habits, phone records, criminal background, and fingerprint and iris patterns (Safire 587). [Concluding Statement] It is easy to see how
such a card could expedite security checks at airports one could tell at a glance whether a person should be searched or let through.
Ilustraciรณn 5 Body and supporting sentence
Paragraph format organization Objectives:
To study the parts of a paragraph To identify and write good concluding sentences
Basic Paragraph Format A paragraph discusses one idea in detail and aids the development of an overall topic for the essay. Paragraph length will vary depending on the purpose of the paragraph. Parts of a Paragraph The basic paragraph consists of three parts: a topic sentence, supporting details, and a concluding sentence. This basic paragraph format will help you to write and organize one paragraph and transition to the next.
The main idea of each paragraph is stated in a topic sentence that shows how the idea relates to the thesis or overall focus of the paper. Generally, the topic sentence is the first sentence of a paragraph. All subsequent points made in the paragraphs should support the topic sentence.
Supporting details elaborate upon and prove the topic sentence. Supporting details should be drawn from a variety of sources including research and experiences, depending on the assignment, and include the writer’s own analysis. The following are common sources of supporting details: Concluding Sentence Each paragraph should end with a final statement that ties together the ideas brought up in the paragraph and emphasizes the main idea one last time. If the assignment is longer, it should transition to the ideas of the next paragraph.
Coherence, cohesion, completeness, unity & space order Objectives:
To write paragraph with coherence, cohesion, completeness and unity Organizing information by space
Coherence Means the connection of ideas at the idea level, and cohesion means the connection of ideas at the sentence level. Basically, coherence refers to the “rhetorical” aspects of your writing, which include developing and supporting your argument (e.g. thesis statement development), synthesizing and integrating readings, organizing and clarifying ideas. The cohesion of writing focuses on the “grammatical” aspects of writing. Cohesion Is also a very important aspect of academic writing, because it immediately affects the tone of your writing. Although some instructors may say that you will not lose points because of grammatical errors in your paper, you may lose points if the tone of your writing is sloppy or too casual (a diary-type of writing or choppy sentences will make the tone of your writing too casual for academic writing). But cohesive writing does not mean just “grammatically correct” sentences; cohesive writing refers to the connection of your ideas both at the sentence level, and at the paragraph level.
Completeness It should convey all facts required by the audience. The sender of the message must take into consideration the receiver’s mind set and convey the message accordingly. A complete communication has following features:
Complete communication develops and enhances reputation of an organization.
Moreover, they are cost saving as no crucial information is missing and no additional cost is incurred in conveying extra message if the communication is complete.
A complete communication always gives additional information wherever required. It leaves no questions in the mind of receiver.
Complete communication helps in better decision-making by the audience/readers/receivers of message as they get all desired and crucial information.
It persuades the audience.
Means that each paragraph has only one main idea (expressed in the topic sentences) and that all other sentences and details in that paragraph revolve around that main idea. If a sentence or detail does not adhere closely to the central idea expressed in the topic sentence, it does not belong in that paragraph. If a new main idea comes up, a new paragraph is needed.
Space order A space order is useful when the writer wishes to report what he sees. The movement of the paragraph thus follows the movement of his yes. That movement must have some continuity which a reader can recognize and follow. It need not start at the far left and move steadily to the far right, or vice versa, since in any view an observer's gaze is likely to be drawn quickly to the most conspicuous object. But there should be some logical or natural progression from one descriptive detail to the next.
Punctuation rules Objectives: ď‚ˇ
To learn about the punctuation rules writers must follow when writing academic English
Semicolon A punctuation mark (;) indicating a pause, typically between two main clauses, that is more pronounced than that indicated by a comma. Semicolons have other functions, too. But first, a caveat: avoid the common mistake of using a semicolon to replace a colon (see the "Colons" section). Incorrect: I
Correct: I have one goal: to find her. Rule 1a. A semicolon can replace a period if the writer wishes to narrow the gap between two closely linked sentences. Examples: Call
We have paid our dues; we expect all the privileges listed in the contract. Rule 1b. Avoid a semicolon when a dependent clause comes before an independent clause. Incorrect: Although
Correct: Although they tried, they failed. Rule 2. Use a semicolon before such words and terms as namely, however, therefore, that is, i.e., for example, e.g., for instance, etc., when they introduce a complete sentence. It is also preferable to use a comma after these words and terms.
Example: Bring any two items; however, sleeping bags and tents are in short supply.
Rule 3. Use a semicolon to separate units of a series when one or more of the units contain commas. Incorrect: The conference has people who have come from Moscow, Idaho, Springfield, California, Alamo, Tennessee, and other places as well. Note that with only commas, that sentence is hopeless. Correct: The conference has people who have come from Moscow, Idaho; Springfield, California; Alamo, Tennessee; and other places as well. (Note the final semicolon, rather than a comma, after Tennessee.) Rule 4. A semicolon may be used between independent clauses joined by a connector, such as and, but, or, nor, etc., when one or more commas appear in the first clause. Example: When I finish here, and I will soon, I'll be glad to help you; and that is a promise I will keep.
Rule 5. Do not capitalize ordinary words after a semicolon. Incorrect: I
Correct: I am here; you are over there.
Comma A punctuation mark (,) indicating a pause between parts of a sentence. It is also used to separate items in a list and to mark the place of thousands in a large numeral. 35
Commas and periods are the most frequently used punctuation marks. Commas customarily indicate a brief pause; they're not as final as periods. Rule 1. Use commas to separate words and word groups in a simple series of three or more items. Example: My estate goes to my husband, son, daughter-in-law, and nephew. Rule 2. Use a comma to separate two adjectives when the order of the adjectives is interchangeable. Example: He is a strong, healthy man. We could also say healthy, strong man. Another way to determine if a comma is needed is to mentally put and between the two adjectives. If the result still makes sense, add the comma. In the examples above, a strong and healthy man makes sense, but an expensive and summer resort does not. Rule 3a. Many inexperienced writers run two independent clauses together by using a comma instead of a period. This results in the dreaded run-on sentence or, more technically, a comma splice. Incorrect: He walked all the way home, he shut the door. There are several simple remedies: Correct: He walked all the way home. He shut the door. Correct: After he walked all the way home, he shut the door. Correct: He walked all the way home, and he shut the door. Rule 3b. In sentences where two independent clauses are joined by connectors such as and, or, but, etc., put a comma at the end of the first clause. Incorrect: He walked all the way home and he shut the door. Correct: He walked all the way home, and he shut the door. Some writers omit the comma if the clauses are both quite short: 36
Example: I paint and he writes. Rule 3c. If the subject does not appear in front of the second verb, a comma is generally unnecessary. Example: He thought quickly but still did not answer correctly. But sometimes a comma in this situation is necessary to avoid confusion. Confusing: I saw that she was busy and prepared to leave. Clearer with comma: I saw that she was busy, and prepared to leave. Without a comma, the reader is liable to think that "she" was the one who was prepared to leave. Rule 4a. When starting a sentence with a dependent clause, use a comma after it. Example: If you are not sure about this, let me know now. Follow the same policy with introductory phrases. Example: Having finally arrived in town, we went shopping. However, if the introductory phrase is clear and brief (three or four words), the comma is optional. Example: When in town we go shopping. But always add a comma if it would avoid confusion. Example: Last Sunday, evening classes were canceled. (The comma prevents a misreading.) When an introductory phrase begins with a preposition, a comma may not be necessary even if the phrase contains more than three or four words. Example: Into the sparkling crystal ball he gazed.
If such a phrase contains more than one preposition, a comma may be used unless a verb immediately follows the phrase. Examples: Between your house on Main Street and my house on Grand Avenue, the mayor's mansion stands proudly. Between your house on Main Street and my house on Grand Avenue is the mayor's mansion. Rule 4b. A comma is usually unnecessary when the sentence starts with an independent clause followed by a dependent clause. Example: Let me know now if you are not sure about this. Rule 5. Use commas to set off nonessential words, clauses, and phrases (see Who, That, Which, Rule 2b). Incorrect: Jill who is my sister shut the door. Correct: Jill, who is my sister, shut the door. In the preceding examples, note the comma after sister and late. Nonessential words, clauses, and phrases that occur midsentence must be enclosed by commas. The closing comma is called an appositive comma. Many writers forget to add this important comma. Following are two instances of the need for an appositive comma with one or more nouns. Incorrect: My best friend, Joe arrived. Correct: My best friend, Joe, arrived. Rule 6. If something or someone is sufficiently identified, the description that follows is considered nonessential and should be surrounded by commas. Examples: Freddy, who has a limp, was in an auto accident. If we already know which Freddy is meant, the description is not essential. The boy who has a limp was in an auto accident. We do not know which boy is meant without further description; therefore, no commas are used. 38
Rule 7a. Use a comma after certain words that introduce a sentence, such as well, yes, why, hello, hey, etc. Examples: Why, I can't believe this! No, you can't have a dollar. Rule 7b. Use commas to set off expressions that interrupt the sentence flow (nevertheless, after all, by the way, on the other hand, however, etc.). Example: I am, by the way, very nervous about this. Rule 8. Use commas to set off the name, nickname, term of endearment, or title of a person directly addressed. Examples: Will you, Aisha, do that assignment for me? Yes, old friend, I will. Good day, Captain. Rule 9. Use a comma to separate the day of the month from the year, andâ€”what most people forget!â€”always put one after the year, also. Example: It was in the Sun's June 5, 2003, edition. No comma is necessary for just the month and year. Example: It was in a June 2003 article. Rule 10. Use a comma to separate a city from its state, and remember to put one after the state, also. Example: I'm from the Akron, Ohio, area.
Rule 11. Traditionally, if a person's name is followed by Sr. or Jr., a comma follows the last name: Martin Luther King, Jr. This comma is no longer considered mandatory. However, if a comma does precede Sr. or Jr., another comma must follow the entire name when it appears midsentence. Correct: Al Mooney Sr. is here. Correct: Al Mooney, Sr., is here. Incorrect: Al Mooney, Sr. is here. Rule 12. Similarly, use commas to enclose degrees or titles used with names. Example: Al Mooney, M.D., is here. Rule 13a. Use commas to introduce or interrupt direct quotations. Examples: He said, "I don't care." "Why," I asked, "don't you care?" This rule is optional with one-word quotations. Example: He said "Stop." Rule 13b. If the quotation comes before he said, she wrote, they reported, Dana insisted, or a similar attribution, end the quoted material with a comma, even if it is only one word. Examples: "I don't care," he said. "Stop," he said. Rule 13c. If a quotation functions as a subject or object in a sentence, it might not need a comma. Examples: Is "I don't care" all you can say to me? Saying "Stop the car" was a mistake. 40
Rule 13d. If a quoted question ends in midsentence, the question mark replaces a comma. Example: "Will you still be my friend?" she asked. Rule 14. Use a comma to separate a statement from a question. Example: I can go, can't I? Rule 15. Use a comma to separate contrasting parts of a sentence. Example: That is my money, not yours. Rule 16a. Use a comma before and after certain introductory words or terms, such as namely, that is, i.e., e.g., and for instance, when they are followed by a series of items. Example: You may be required to bring many items, e.g., sleeping bags, pans, and warm clothing. Rule 16b. A comma should precede the term etc. Many authorities also recommend a comma after etc. when it is placed midsentence. Example: Sleeping bags, pans, warm clothing, etc., are in the tent.
Period It is a punctuation mark (.) at the end of a sentence. It shows that the sentence has finished. To be a sentence it must have at least one complete clause, with a verb and a subject. Rule 1. Use a period at the end of a complete sentence that is a statement. Example: I know him well. Rule 2. If the last item in the sentence is an abbreviation that ends in a period, do not follow it with another period. Incorrect: This is Alice Smith, M.D.. Correct: This is Alice Smith, M.D. Correct: Please shop, cook, etc. We will do the laundry. 41
Rule 3. Question marks and exclamation points replace and eliminate periods at the end of a sentence.
Capital letter A letter of the alphabet that usually differs from its corresponding lowercase letter in form and height, as A, B, Q, and R as distinguished from a, b, q, and r: used as the initial letter of a proper name, the first word of a sentence, etc. Rule 1: To Start a Sentence There are no exceptions to this rule. This means that, after a full stop, you always use a capital letter. Is it always necessary to use capitals to start a sentence? The answer is definitely yes. She told herself – was it acceptable to talk to oneself? – that the answer was obvious. The use of a capital after a colon (:) varies depending on whether you are writing in British or US English, just as the spelling of 'capitalisation' and 'capitalization' are different in British and US English. You should use a capital letter after a colon with US spelling but not with UK spelling. Rule 2: Titles In titles, capitalise only the important words, not minor words such as ‘and’ and ‘but’. ‘Title Case’, with all the important words capitalised, is rather out of fashion at the moment. Most academic journals and standard referencing systems, for instance, prefer what is known as ‘sentence case’, with a single initial capital.
However, it’s good to understand the rules, in case you are required to use title case at any point. Using the title of this article as an example: Sentence case: “When to use capital letters” Title case: “When to Use Capital Letters” In title case, in this example, ‘Use’, although small, is an important word in the title, and should therefore be capitalised. ‘To’, however, is not important and therefore not capitalised.
Rule 3: For Proper Nouns Proper nouns name something specific, for example, Jane, John, Oxford University, Denver, Qantas, Microsoft, Everest, Sahara. See our pages on Grammar for more information. Proper nouns (nearly) always start with a capital letter. There are exceptions to this rule and in marketing sometimes lower-case characters are purposefully used for some proper nouns. Examples include iPhone, eBay and oneworld Alliance. However, in most cases, proper nouns start with a capital letter. Incorrect capitalisation example. 'Historic University town' should read 'Historic university town'. The text 'Historic University town' in this example is incorrect. The word 'university' should not be capitalised as it is not specific. The sign should read: Historic university town It would also be correct to use: 43
LAMPETER Home of Lampeter University Rule 4: Acronyms Acronyms generally work like title case: you capitalise the important words, and not ‘and’, ‘of’, ‘for’ and so on. The easiest way to work this out is to write out the full title, and then you can see which words don’t need to be capitalised. To make this clear, here are some examples: British Broadcasting Corporation
Department for Education DfE Manchester United Football ClubMUFC United Arab Emirates
ď ś Investigation Punctuation rules for sentences, paragraphs, essays. Punctuation is an essential aspect of written communiction in all European languages. Most languages use the same signs and conventions; and while these are used in the same general manner in all languages, they are not used in exactly the same way in all languages. Without punctuation, most texts in written English would be impossible or very hard to understand. In English there is a certain flexibility over punctuation; and British and American conventions are not identical. Punctuation is mostly made up of signs , but is also marked by spaces, line-breaks and the capitalisation of some words. . The full stop (British English) or period (American English) : The colon ; The semi-colon , The comma ? The question mark ! The exclamation mark â€“ The dash - The hyphen " " Inverted commas, or quotation marks ( ) Brackets, or parentheses The full stop or period The full stop (GB) orperiod (USA) is used to separate sentences. In this case, it must be followed by a capital letter. It is also traditionally used at the end of shortened titles, such as Capt. , Prof. Lt. (Lieutenant) , Cllr. (Councillor) etc. ; but it is often omitted in British English with Mr (or Mr.) (never write Mister in full ) or Mrs (or Mrs.)., and never used after Miss. It is used at the end of common abbreviations, such as Mon. (for Monday) or etc. (for etcetera). It is not required, though occasionally used, for writing acronyms or initials, such as NATO, UNESCO, the UK, the FBI, 46
The colon Colons are used to separate (a) two main clauses, or (b) a main clause and a phrase, when the second clause or phrase provides an example or an illustration of what is said in the first clause. The semi-colon Semi-colons are used to separate two long main clauses, when they both have the same subject, and/or are both part of a single topic or idea; they are particularly used when the second clause starts with a conjunction. Semi-colons are also used as a kind of "super comma", in sentences which have a number of commas, and where one or two breaks need more emphasis than others.Examples: I had seen lions and rhinoceros in the zoo, most recently at Whipsnade zoo, which is near London; but I'd never before seen them in the wild in their natural environment. The comma Commas are principally used to separate clauses, to put words into relief in a sentence, or to separate elements in a list. Often the use of commas can be a matter of personal taste or style; however some commas are essential: Commas are required with non-defining relative clauses (but not with defining relative clauses). Commas (or semi-colons) are needed to separate contrasting parts of a sentence, including two short main clauses. Commas are recommended in all but very short lists; sometimes they are essential, as in example 3b below, which is incomprehensible without them. Commas are required at the end of quoted direct speech, when this is followed by words like he said, they told us or said the President. Capital letters Capital letters are required in a number of different situations: All proper nouns (names), and adjectives formed from proper nouns, must be capitalized, unless the semantic connection between the adjective and the noun has been lost (as in french fries, which are not usually French) Capitals must also be used for titles, whether we are talking about human titles (such as General, Prince, etc.), or the titles of books, films etc. 47
Capitals must be used when writing days of the week, months of the year, but not for the names of the seasons.. Capitals must be used throughout initials or acronyms And finally, of course, every new sentence must start with a capital letter Each new sentence must start with a capital. There are no exceptions to this rule. Other marks of punctuation •
• Quotation marks are required at the start and at the finish of all direct speech, even after a short interruption by a dialogue tag like he said. •
• Question marks are required at the end of all direct questions, but are not necessary, and often considered wrong, at the end of indirect questions. •
• Exclamation marks can replace full stops at the end of a sentence, to express surprise. Do not over-use them, as this is bad style. Other punctuation marks • Long dashes can be used, rather like brackets, to put part of a sentence into parentheses, specially if alternative forms of punctuation could lead to ambiguity. • Hyphens are used to form common compound nouns or adjectives, or else to clarify the relationship between words in a noun group. While some common compound words are always hyphenated, in many cases it will be a matter of personal choice. For more details see Using hyphens in English.
Kinds of paragraph Objectives:
To write a process paragraph To write a definition paragraph To write a contrast paragraph To write a cause and effect paragraph
Process paragraph A process paragraph is a series of steps that explain how something happens or how to make something. It can explain anything from the way to enrich vocabulary to overcoming insomnia to the procedure of operating a machine. It may also give tips for improving pronunciation or for answering a telephone call. Because such explanations must be clear, the process paragraph must be written in chronological order, and it must include a topic sentence that clearly states the paragraph’s purpose. It must also include transition words and phrases such as “first,” “next,” “finally,” that connect each of the steps.
Definition paragraph A definition paragraph explains what something is or what a term means. For example, I am writing this paragraph to explain what definition paragraphs are and what the term definition paragraph means. Definition paragraphs contain three types of sentences: a topic sentence, several supporting sentences and a concluding sentence. The topic sentence of a definition paragraph usually gives a general definition of the term. This will often be the idea that the reader remembers afterward. The supporting sentences give details which make the definition more clear. The details may include examples, description, comparison and contrast, classification, analysis or any other form of explanation that helps to clarify the term. The concluding sentence usually gives a contextual definition, for example, the type of situation in which an object or term would be used. Definition paragraphs are often used in academic papers to explain specific or special uses of familiar words so that everyone understands exactly what is meant in the particular context. They are also very useful for explaining words and phrases from other languages, especially when there is an important cultural connotation. Writing a definition paragraph is a bit like writing your own dictionary.
Contrast paragraph Contrast paragraph is required if you are asked to examine similarities and/or differences. Compare focuses on similarities. Contrast focuses on differences.
Cause and effect paragraph In composition, cause and effect is a method of paragraph or essay development in which a writer analyzes the reasons forâ€”and/or the consequences ofâ€”an action, event, or decisiĂłn. A cause-and-effect paragraph or essay can be organized in various ways. For instance, causes and/or effects can be arranged in either chronological order or reverse chronological order. Alternatively, points can be presented in terms of emphasis, from least important to most important, or vice versa.
I feell that my magazine contains all the important material, and also the workshops needed to finish my course of writing communication. The material was very helpful to develop my knowledge in this course.